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Mr. Nitin S. Patil Electrical Engineering Department Sanjay Ghodawat Polytechnic, Atigre

Mr. Nitin S. Patil Electrical Engineering Department Sanjay Ghodawat Polytechnic, Atigre

Mr. Nitin S. Patil Electrical Engineering Department Sanjay Ghodawat Polytechnic, Atigre Thermal (Steam) Power Stations

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Topic No. 2

Electrical Engg. Dept.

Thermal Power Station

Marks: 24

INDEX

Hours: 10

Sr.No.

Particulars

Page No.

1

Definition

2

2

Basic Principal of Steam Power Plant

3

List of Thermal Power Plant in Maharashtra & India

3

4

Selection of Site for Thermal Power Plant

4-5

5

Schematic arrangement of Thermal Power Plant

6

6

Function of each Part used in Thermal Power Station

7-31

7

MSBTE Questions

32-38

8

Important Technical Words & its Meaning

39

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1. Definition:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

A generating station which converts heat energy of coal combustion into electrical energy is known as a steam power station.

into electrical energy is known as a steam power station. 2. Basic Principal of Steam Power

2. Basic Principal of Steam Power Plant:

HEKEMEEE Or CE HEKE ME EE

The heat produced for burning of coal & with the help of water steam is produced. This produced steam flow towards turbine i.e. kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy. The input steam drives the prime mover or turbine, simultaneously the generator also start to rotate. At that time mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.

the generator also start to rotate. At that time mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.
the generator also start to rotate. At that time mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

3. List of Thermal Power Plant in Maharashtra & India:

Sr.

   

Number of Units & its Rating

Total Installed Capacity

No.

State

Place

     

4

x 120

 

1

Koradi

1x 200

1100

MW

2

x 210

 

2

Nasik

2

x 140

910

MW

3

x 210

 

3

Bhusawal

1

x 62.5

482.5 MW

2

x 210

4

Parli

2

x 30

690

MW

Maharashtra

3

x 210

 

5

Khaper-Kheda

4

x 210

840

MW

6

Chandrapur

4

x 210

2340

MW

3

x 500

 
   

2

x 500

 

7

Trombay

1

x 150

1330

MW

1

x 120

 
 

1

x 60

8

Dahanu

2

x 250

500

MW

     

3

x 30

 

9

Madhya Pradesh

Korba

1

x 10

300

MW

4

x 50

 

10

Tamil Nadu

Ennore

2

x 60

450

MW

3

x 110

 

11

Orissa

Talcher

4

x 63.5

254

MW

12

Delhi

Badrapur

3

x 100

300

MW

13

 

Chandrapur

3

x 140

420

MW

14

West Bengal

Bandel

4

x 82.5

330

MW

15

Uttar Pradesh

Kanpur

2

x 32

64 MW

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

4. Selection of Site for Thermal Power Plant:

1. Supply of Fuel: (

)
)
The Steam power station should be located near the coal mine so that transportation cost
The Steam power station should be located near the coal mine so
that transportation cost of fuel is minimum. If the land is not available near
to coal mines then provide adequate facilities for transportation of fuel.
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2. Available of Water:

A huge amount of water is required in boiler & condenser, so that the plant should be located near the river, lake etc.

that the plant should be located near the river, lake etc. 3. Transportation Facility: For steam
that the plant should be located near the river, lake etc. 3. Transportation Facility: For steam

3. Transportation Facility:

For steam power station provide better transportation facility for the transportation of man, machinery etc.

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facility for the transportation of man, machinery etc. , 4. Cost & Type of Land: The

4. Cost & Type of Land:

The Steam Power Station should be located where the cost of land is chief & also future extension is possible.

Power Station should be located where the cost of land is chief & also future extension
Power Station should be located where the cost of land is chief & also future extension

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5. Near to Load Center:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

In order to reduce transmission & distribution losses the plant should be located near to load center.

losses the plant should be located near to load center. 6. Distance from Populated Area: As

6. Distance from Populated Area:

As the thermal power plant produces flue gases, these gases will effect to live human being, so that the plant should be located away from thickly populated area.

plant should be located away from thickly populated area. 7. Disposal Facility Provided: As the thermal

7. Disposal Facility Provided:

As the thermal power plant produces ash, while burning of coal. So that disposal of ash facility provided.

burning of coal. So that disposal of ash facility provided. 8. Earth-Quake: The area under the

8. Earth-Quake:

The area under the thermal power plant should be free from earth quake.

the thermal power plant should be free from earth quake. 9. Availability of labour: Skilled and

9. Availability of labour:

Skilled and unskilled labour should be available nearly. To the extent possible, the thermal station should be far away from an aerodrome.

be available nearly. To the extent possible, the thermal station should be far away from an

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

5. Schematic arrangement of Thermal Power Plant:

Engg. Dept. 5. Schematic arrangement of Thermal Power Plant: The above figure shows the schematic arrangement

The above figure shows the schematic arrangement of thermal power plant; the plant can be divided into following main parts namely:

1. Coal and ash handling arrangement.

2. Steam generating plant.

3. Steam turbine.

4. Alternator.

5. Feed water.

6. Cooling arrangement.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

6. Function of each Part used in Thermal Power Station:

1. Coal Storage & Coal Handling Plant:

Power Station: 1. Coal Storage & Coal Handling Plant: Fig: Coal Handling Plant The coal is

Fig: Coal Handling Plant

The coal is transported to the power station by road or rail and is stored in the coal storage plant. Storage of coal is primarily a matter of protection against coal strikes, failure of transportation system and general coal shortages. From the coal storage plant, coal is delivered to the coal handling plant where it is pulverised (i.e., crushed into small pieces) in order to increase its surface exposure, thus promoting rapid combustion without using large quantity of excess air. The pulverised coal is fed to the boiler by belt conveyors. The coal is burnt in the boiler and the ash produced after the complete combustion of coal is removed to the ash handling plant and then delivered to the ash storage plant for disposal.

of coal is removed to the ash handling plant and then delivered to the ash storage
of coal is removed to the ash handling plant and then delivered to the ash storage
of coal is removed to the ash handling plant and then delivered to the ash storage

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Purpose:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

A large quantity of coal is required as a fuel in furnace of boiler for combustion to produce heat energy for production of steam for this purpose coal handling unit is used.

Steps/Activities for coal handling:

1.

coal delivery

2.

coal unloading

3.

coal storage:- a) outdoor storage (dead storage) b) Indoor storage (live storage)

4.

In the plant coal is crushed into small pieces with the help of crusher and breaker. The coal is crushed to 2.5 cm. or less.

5.

Than it is cleaned by passing forced air to remove the dust contain.

6.

Than it is dewatered (remove of moisture) with the help of dryer. The moisture content must be less than 2% after drying operation.

7.

Then it is passed through magnetic separator to separate the iron particles mixed in it.

8.

Then coal is passed to pulverizing mill.

9.

Pulverized Coal weighing

10.

Pulverized coal is than transfer into the boiler furnace.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Coal & Ash Handling Unit , , , Mr.N.S.Patil 10
Fig: Coal & Ash Handling Unit , ,
Fig: Coal & Ash Handling Unit
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SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Coal & Ash Handling Unit , , , Mr.N.S.Patil 10
SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Coal & Ash Handling Unit , , , Mr.N.S.Patil 10
SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Coal & Ash Handling Unit , , , Mr.N.S.Patil 10

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

2. Ash handling Plant & Ash Storage:

Engg. Dept. 2. Ash handling Plant & Ash Storage: Fig: Ash Handling Unit The removal of

Fig: Ash Handling Unit

The removal of the ash from the boiler furnace is necessary for proper burning of coal. It is worthwhile to give a passing reference to the amount of coal burnt and ash produced in a modern thermal power station. A 100 MW station operating at 50% load factor may burn about 20,000 tons of coal per month and ash produced may be to the tune of 10% to 15% of coal

fired i.e , 60% of the total operating cost consists of fuel purchasing and its
fired i.e
,
60% of the total operating cost consists of fuel purchasing and its handling.
2,000 to 3,000 tons. In fact, in a thermal station, about 50% to
,
fuel purchasing and its handling. 2,000 to 3,000 tons. In fact, in a thermal station, about
fuel purchasing and its handling. 2,000 to 3,000 tons. In fact, in a thermal station, about

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

3. Asti (Ash) is disposed in a thermal power plant:

A large quantity of ash about 10 % produces in furnace, the removal of ash from boiler furnace is necessary for efficient combustion for this purpose ash handling unit is used.

Steps for Ash handling:

Before handling the Ash it is desirable to quench the ash.

Handling of Ash includes:Before handling the Ash it is desirable to quench the ash. 1. Removal of ash from

1. Removal of ash from furnace.

2. Loading of ash on conveyer’s belt.

3. And delivered to the space where it can be disposed off.

The various methods for the disposal of ash are as follows:3. And delivered to the space where it can be disposed off. a. Hydraulic system. b.

a. Hydraulic system.

b. Water Jetting.

c. Pneumatic system.

d. Mechanical ash handling system.

follows: a. Hydraulic system. b. Water Jetting. c. Pneumatic system. d. Mechanical ash handling system. Mr.N.S.Patil

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

4. Boiler: (Steam Generating Plant)

Electrical Engg. Dept. 4. Boiler: (Steam Generating Plant) A boiler is a closed vessel in which

A boiler is a closed vessel in which water is converted into steam by utilizing the heat of coal combustion. The heat of combustion of coal in the boiler is utilised to convert water into steam at high temperature and pressure. The flue gases from the boiler make their journey through super heater economiser, air pre-heater and are finally exhausted to atmosphere through the chimney.

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super heater economiser, air pre-heater and are finally exhausted to atmosphere through the chimney. , Mr.N.S.Patil
super heater economiser, air pre-heater and are finally exhausted to atmosphere through the chimney. , Mr.N.S.Patil

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a. Fire tube boiler:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre a. Fire tube boiler: Electrical Engg. Dept. Fire tube boiler : In fire tube boilers

Fire tube boiler: In fire tube boilers hot gases are passed through : In fire tube boilers hot gases are passed through

-------

the tubes and water surrounds these tubes.

through ------- the tubes and water surrounds these tubes. Maximum pressure: High pressures of steam are
through ------- the tubes and water surrounds these tubes. Maximum pressure: High pressures of steam are

Maximum pressure: High pressures of steam are not possible, High pressures of steam are not possible,

maximum pressure that can be attained is about17.5kg/sq-cm.

Capacity: A capacity of about 9,000 kg -15000 kg (9 ton-15 ton) of A capacity of about 9,000 kg -15000 kg (9 ton-15 ton) of

steam per hours.

Example: Where low pressure, low temperature, low capacity steam Where low pressure, low temperature, low capacity steam

is required.

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b. Water tube boiler:

Water tube boiler:b. Water tube boiler: In these boilers water is inside the tubes and hot gases are

In these boilers water is inside the tubes and hot gases are outside the tubes. They consist of drums and tubes.

( )
(
)

Maximum pressure: We can attain pressure as high as 125 kg/sq- We can attain pressure as high as 125 kg/sq-

cm.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Water-Tube Boiler Capacity: A capacity of about 10, 00,000kg (1000 ton)

Fig: Water-Tube Boiler

Capacity: A capacity of about 10, 00,000kg (1000 ton) per hour of steam per hours. A capacity of about 10, 00,000kg (1000 ton) per hour of steam per hours.

Example: Where high pressure, high temperature, high capacity steam is required (e.g. thermal power station). Where high pressure, high temperature, high capacity steam is required (e.g. thermal power station).

Where high pressure, high temperature, high capacity steam is required (e.g. thermal power station). Mr.N.S.Patil 15

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5. Super-Heater:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre 5. Super-Heater: Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Superheater arrangement in Thermal Power Plant. Mr.N.S.Patil 16

Fig: Superheater arrangement in Thermal Power Plant.

SGP-Atigre 5. Super-Heater: Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Superheater arrangement in Thermal Power Plant. Mr.N.S.Patil 16

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

The steam produced in the boiler is wet and is passed through a super

, above that of boiling point of water) by the flue gases on their way to chimney. A Super heater consists of a group of tubes made of special alloy steels such as chromium-molybdenum. These tubes are heated by the heat of flue gases during their journey from the boiler furnace to the chimney. The steam produced in the boiler is led through the superheater where it is superheated by the heat of flue gases from boiler. Super heating provides two principal benefits. Firstly, the overall efficiency is increased. Secondly, too much condensation in the last stages of turbine (which would cause blade corrosion) is avoided. The superheated steam from the super heater is fed to steam turbine through the main valve.

heater where it is dried and superheated (i.e

steam temperature increased

The superheater mainly classified into TWO Types:

a. Radiant superheater: The Radiant superheater is placed in the boiler furnace between the water walls & receives heat from the fuel burning through radiation process.

b. Convection superheater: The convection superheater is placed in the boiler tube bank & receives
b. Convection superheater: The convection superheater is placed in
the boiler tube bank & receives heat from flue gases entirely through
convection process.
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in the boiler tube bank & receives heat from flue gases entirely through convection process. ,
in the boiler tube bank & receives heat from flue gases entirely through convection process. ,

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6. Economiser:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre 6. Economiser: Electrical Engg. Dept. An economiser is essentially a feed water heater and derives
SGP-Atigre 6. Economiser: Electrical Engg. Dept. An economiser is essentially a feed water heater and derives

An economiser is essentially a feed water heater and derives heat from the flue gases for this purpose. The feed water is fed to the economiser before supplying to the boiler. The economiser extracts a part of heat of flue gases to increase the feed water temperature. This results in increasing boiler efficiency, saving fuels.

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7. Feed water Arrangement:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

The condensate from the condenser is used as feed water to the boiler. Some water may be lost in the cycle which is suitably made up from external source. The feed water on its way to the boiler is heated by water heaters and economiser. This helps in raising the overall efficiency of the plant.

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: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , Mr.N.S.Patil 19

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8. Air Pre-heater:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre 8. Air Pre-heater: Electrical Engg. Dept. An air pre-heater increases the temperature of the air
SGP-Atigre 8. Air Pre-heater: Electrical Engg. Dept. An air pre-heater increases the temperature of the air

An air pre-heater increases the temperature of the air supplied for coal burning by deriving heat from flue gases. Air is drawn from the atmosphere by a forced draught fan and is passed through air pre-heater before supplying to the boiler furnace. The air pre-heater extracts heat from flue gases and increases the temperature of air used for coal combustion. The principal

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

benefits of preheating the air are: increased thermal efficiency and increased steam capacity per square meter of boiler surface.

Depending upon the method of heat transfer from flue gases in boiler to the air, the air-preheater can be divided into two main types:

a. Recuperative Type: The recuperative type air-preheater consists of group of steel tubes. The flue gases are passed through the tubes while the air flows externally to the tubes. Thus heat of flue gases is transferred to air.

b. Regenerative Type: The regenerative type air pre-heater consists of slowly moving drum made up of corrugated metal plates. The flue gases flow continuously on one side of the drum & air on the other side. This action permits the transference heat of flue gases to the air being supplied to the boiler furnace for coal combustion.

the transference heat of flue gases to the air being supplied to the boiler furnace for
the transference heat of flue gases to the air being supplied to the boiler furnace for
the transference heat of flue gases to the air being supplied to the boiler furnace for
the transference heat of flue gases to the air being supplied to the boiler furnace for

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9. Condenser:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre 9. Condenser: Electrical Engg. Dept. A condenser is a device which condenses the steam at

A condenser is a device which condenses the steam at the exhaust of the turbine. It serves two important functions. Firstly, it creates a very low pressure at the exhaust of the steam turbine, thus permitting expansion of the steam in the prime mover to a very low pressure. This helps in converting heat energy of steam into mechanical energy in the prime mover. Secondly, the condensed steam can be used as feed water to the boiler.

energy in the prime mover. Secondly, the condensed steam can be used as feed water to
energy in the prime mover. Secondly, the condensed steam can be used as feed water to
energy in the prime mover. Secondly, the condensed steam can be used as feed water to

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

Condensers are classified into two types:

a. Jet Condenser: In a jet condenser, cooling water & exhausted

steam are mixed together. Therefore, the temperature of cooling water & condensate is the same when leaving the condenser.

& condensate is the same when leaving the condenser. b. Surface Condenser: In surface condenser, there

b. Surface Condenser: In surface condenser, there is no direct

contact between cooling water & exhausted seam. It consists of bank of horizontal tubes; the cooling water flows through the tubes & exhausted steam over the surface of the tubes. The steam gives up its heat to water & is condensed itself.

surface of the tubes. The steam gives up its heat to water & is condensed itself.

Fig: Jet Condenser

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10. Cooling arrangement:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre 10. Cooling arrangement: Electrical Engg. Dept. Fig: Cooling Tower In order to improve the efficiency

Fig: Cooling Tower

In order to improve the efficiency of the plant, the steam exhausted from the turbine is condensed by means of a condenser. Water is drawn from a natural source of supply such as a river, canal or lake and is circulated through the condenser. The circulating water takes up the heat of the exhausted steam and it becomes hot. This hot water coming out from the condenser is discharged at a suitable location down the river. In case the availability of water from the source of supply is not assured throughout the year, cooling towers are used. During the scarcity of water in the river, hot water from the condenser is passed on to the cooling towers where it is cooled. The cold water from the cooling tower is reused in the condenser.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

11. Prime Mover:(Steam Turbine)

Electrical Engg. Dept. 11. Prime Mover:(Steam Turbine) The dry and superheated steam from the super heater

The dry and superheated steam from the super heater is fed to the

steam turbine through main valve. The heat energy of steam when passing

over the blades of turbine is converted into mechanical energy. After giving

heat energy to the turbine, the steam is exhausted to the condenser which

condenses the exhausted steam by means of cold water circulation.

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the exhausted steam by means of cold water circulation. , , The steam turbines are generally
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,

The steam turbines are generally classified into two types according to

the action of steam on moving blades:

a. Impulse Turbine:

b. Reaction Turbine:

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12. Water Treatment Plant:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

The boiler of the thermal plant required clean & soft water for longer life & better efficiency. However, the source of boiler feed water is generally a river or lake which may contain suspended & dissolved impurities, gases etc. therefore, it is very important that water is purified & softened by chemical

treatment & then delivered to boiler.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

13. Draught System used in Thermal Power Plant:

Induced Draught fan (IDF): It consists of Exhaust fan:

Its (IDF) function is to remove rapidly flue gases (smoke) from the furnace chamber produced during combustion.Induced Draught fan (IDF): It consists of Exhaust fan: OR The fans suck the flue gases

OR

The fans suck the flue gases from combustion chamber and discharge it rapidly to the air through chimney. .

and discharge it rapidly to the air through chimney . Forced Draught fan (FDF): It consists

Forced Draught fan (FDF): It consists of fan:

Its (FDF) function is to provide forced air (oxygen) for combustion process in furnace. (FDF) function is to provide forced air (oxygen) for combustion process in furnace.

OR

Its (FDF) (FDF)

function is to supply required amount of air

(oxygen) to the furnace chamber for efficient and fast combustion.

to the furnace chamber for efficient and fast combustion. Function of Natural, Mechanical, forced and
to the furnace chamber for efficient and fast combustion. Function of Natural, Mechanical, forced and

Function

of

Natural,

Mechanical,

forced

and

induced

draught systems.

 

Function of Natural draught

systems-

Is

to

reduce

temperature of water in cooling tower by the use of natural (atmosphere) air.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept.
SGP-Atigre Electrical Engg. Dept. Function of Mechanical draught systems- Is to reduce temperature of water in

Function of Mechanical draught systems- Is to reduce temperature of water in cooling tower by the use of fan.

temperature of water in cooling tower by the use of fan. Function of Forced draught systems-

Function of Forced draught systems- temperature of water in cooling tower by the draught fan.

Is

reduce

use of forced

to

Function of Induced draught systems- Is to reduce temperature of water in cooling tower by the use of induced (exhaust) draught fan.

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14. Cooling Tower:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

The cooling tower is used to reduce the temperature of water coming from condensers & reused the same.

It

is

used: In case of thermal, nuclear power station & for similar

application.

Working-

The water coming from condenser is dropped in the cooling tower from

a height of about 810 m. The cooling tower reduces the temperature of the

hot water by about 7°C10°C. This water at the reduced temperature is re-

circulated to the condenser and the cycle is repeated. In the cooling tower

temperature of water is reduced either by natural or by forced or by induced

draught method or by combine method.

The function of cooling tower is to reduce the temperature of water coming from condenser.

A cooling tower is a steel or concrete hyperbolic structure. There isis to reduce the temperature of water coming from condenser. reservoir at the bottom for storing

reservoir at the bottom for storing the cold water.

Water is circulated from the basin of the cooling tower to theThere is reservoir at the bottom for storing the cold water. condenser. It absorbs latent heat

condenser. It absorbs latent heat from the steam and get warm.

This warm water is return to the cooling tower to reduce theIt absorbs latent heat from the steam and get warm. temperature. Hot water from condenser outlet

temperature.

Hot water from condenser outlet is dropped from a height of about 8–

10 m. The cooling tower reduces the temperature of the hot water by

about 7°C10°C, as it falls down into the basin at the bottom of the

cooling tower.

This water at the reduced temperature is re-circulated through thedown into the basin at the bottom of the cooling tower. condenser and the cycle is

condenser and the cycle is repeated.

In cooling Tower temperature of water is reduced either by natural orthrough the condenser and the cycle is repeated. forced or induced draught method or combine. Mr.N.S.Patil

forced or induced draught method or combine.

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15. Function of Chimney:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

Flue gases (smoke) are produced during combustion process. These flue gases produce air pollution, SO to reduce air pollution it should be passed in air as high as possible with the help of Chimney.

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SO to reduce air pollution it should be passed in air as high as possible with

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16.

List

station

major

electrical

equipment in

Electrical Engg. Dept.

thermal

power

i) Alternator

The steam turbine is coupled to an alternator. The alternator converts mechanical energy of turbine into electrical energy. The electrical output from the alternator is delivered to the bus bars through transformer, circuit breakers and isolators.

ii) Exciter

iii) Transformer: A generating station has different types of transformers viz,

Main step-up transformer which step-up the generation voltage for transmission of power.generating station has different types of transformers viz, Station Transformer which is used for general services

Station Transformer which is used for general services (e.g. lighting) in the power station.step-up the generation voltage for transmission of power. Auxiliary transformer which supply to individual

Auxiliary transformer which supply to individual unit-auxiliaries.for general services (e.g. lighting) in the power station. iv) Switchgear: It is used to locate

iv) Switchgear:

It is used to locate the fault & isolate the faulty part from healthy section. It contains circuit breaker, relays, switches and other control devices.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

17. Special features of a turbo-alternator used in a thermal power station.

It is 3-ph alternator.of a turbo-alternator used in a thermal power station. It is robust in construction. A separate

It is robust in construction.used in a thermal power station. It is 3-ph alternator. A separate excitation is given to

A separate excitation is given to separate alternator pole by DC generator (Exciter) which is mounted on same shaft. It excites the field winding of alternator. Excitation voltage is 150-230V DC. Generally compound DC generator is used.It is 3-ph alternator. It is robust in construction. They are smaller in diameter and of

They are smaller in diameter and of long axial length (diameter maximum 1 meter for 2 pole alternator). In case of alternator coupled with impulse turbine are horizontal shaft In case of alternator couple with reaction turbine is vertical shaft.is 150-230V DC. Generally compound DC generator is used. Cooling system: for small rating alternators up

Cooling system: for small rating alternators up to 40 MW. Stator and rotor is air-cooled.alternator couple with reaction turbine is vertical shaft. For high rating alternator up to 150 MW,

For high rating alternator up to 150 MW, it is hydrogen cooled Above 150 MW hollow stator conductors are used through which coolant is circulated cooling purpose. Cooling is necessary to improve the performance of alternator.alternators up to 40 MW. Stator and rotor is air-cooled. Standard rating of turbo alternator are

Standard rating of turbo alternator are 125,200,250,300,500 MW maximum rating of turbo alternator is 500 MW.is necessary to improve the performance of alternator. Power factor is 0.8 lagging. Better in dynamic

Power factor is 0.8 lagging.MW maximum rating of turbo alternator is 500 MW. Better in dynamic balancing. Protection : Protection

Better in dynamic balancing.of turbo alternator is 500 MW. Power factor is 0.8 lagging. Protection : Protection against run

Protection : Protection against run away (high speed) speeds are provided, over voltage under voltage protection, : Protection against run away (high speed) speeds are provided, over voltage under voltage protection, over load protection & over & under frequency protection, Over temperature protection are main protections provided to alternator

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

7. Merits and demerits of a thermal power plant:

Advantages:

Cost of fuel: Fuel used in thermal power station (TPS) is cheaper than cost of fuel used in Fuel used in thermal power station (TPS) is cheaper than cost of fuel used in diesel & nuclear power station.

Capital cost: Capital cost of TPS is less than hydro & nuclear power station. Capital cost of TPS is less than hydro & nuclear power station.

Near load center: TPS can be located near load center. The coal can be transport from coal mines TPS can be located near load center. The coal can be transport from coal mines to power plant. As it is located load centre it reduces transmission cost and losses in it.

Space required: Less space required as compared to hydro power station. Less space required as compared to hydro power station.

Generating cost: TPS can be built/construct of high generating capacity. TPS can be built/construct of high generating capacity.

Generating capacity: TPP can be build/construct of high generating capacity, so used as a base load power TPP can be build/construct of high generating capacity, so used as a base load power plant.

Overload capacity: Steam engines and turbine can work under 25% overloads continuously. Steam engines and turbine can work under 25% overloads continuously.

Time required for completion of project: Time required for completion of TPP project is very less as compare to hydro power Time required for completion of TPP project is very less as compare to hydro power station.

Disadvantages:

Air pollution: It produces air pollution due to smoke and ash produced during combustion of fuel. It produces air pollution due to smoke and ash produced during combustion of fuel.

Starting Time: TPP cannot be put into service immediately like HPP. As thermal power plant required few TPP cannot be put into service immediately like HPP. As thermal power plant required few hours (6-7 hour) to generate steam at high pressure and high temperature.

Handling of fuel: Handling of coal and disposal of ash is quite difficult. Handling of coal and disposal of ash is quite difficult.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

Fuel transportation cost: When power plant are located away from coal mines i.e. near load centre at that When power plant are located away from coal mines i.e. near load centre at that time fuel transportation cost is more.

Preparation for fuel: There is more expenditure for preparation of coal (raw coal to pulverized coal). There is more expenditure for preparation of coal (raw coal to pulverized coal).

Space required: Large amount of space is required for storage of fuel and ash as compare to Large amount of space is required for storage of fuel and ash as compare to NPP.

Efficiency: It is less efficient power plant overall efficiency is maximum 30 %. It is less efficient power plant overall efficiency is maximum 30 %.

Stand by losses: Stand by losses is more as furnace is required to keep in operation even when Stand by losses is more as furnace is required to keep in operation even when there is no load.

Maintenance cost: High maintenance and operating cost because number of axillaries plant are required such as coal High maintenance and operating cost because number of axillaries plant are required such as coal and ash handling plant, pulverizing plant, condensing plant and water purification plant etc.

Availability of fuel: Less availability of high grade coal. Less availability of high grade coal.

Simplicity and cleanness: Layout of thermal power plant is complicated than HPP due to coal and ash. Layout of thermal power plant is complicated than HPP due to coal and ash.

Life: Life of TPP is less than HPP. Life of TPP is less than HPP.

Cost per unit (cost of generation)- High High

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8. MSBTE Questions:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

1. Overall efficiency of thermal power station is low. Suggest any four remedies improvement.

Overall efficiency of T.P.P depends upon efficiency of boiler, turbine and alternator. The heat produced due to combustion of coal is not fully utilized for generation of electrical energy because there are total losses in thermal power plant is 71%, so efficiency of thermal power plant is less about 29%.

Or

Boiler House losses: i) Flue gases -5 % ii) Moisture in gases-5% iii) To ash-1% iv) Radiation and leakage losse-2.5 % v) Unknown losses-2.5% Therefore total losses in boiler-16%

Turbine losses: heat rejected to condenser i.e turbine losses is 54 %.

Electrical losses- 1 %

Therefore total losses in thermal power plant is 71%, So efficiency of thermal power plant is less about 29%

improvement of overall efficiency of thermal power station

Following equipments are used to improve efficiency by recovering heat.

1) Economisor

2) Air-preheater

3) Super heater

4) L.P and H.P water heater

In addition to above efficiency of thermal power plant is increased by

5) Condensing plant

6) Pulvarising of coal

7) By use of FDF and IDF draught system

8) Feed water treatment plant

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

9) Reheater (Reheating also decreases the moisture content at the turbine exit.)

Also the average steam temperature should be as high as possible during heat addition and as low as possible during heat rejection.

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Electrical Engg. Dept.

2. 'Running and maintenance costs of thermal power station are more than hydro power stations. Justify the statement.

Reason for Statement: In thermal Power plant in addition to turbine & alternator following auxiliaries’ are required which are not required in hydro electric power station. Hence ‘Running and maintenance costs of thermal power station are more than hydro power stations.

Coal conveyor. Pulverizer. Stoker. Boiler Furnace Economizer Air-preheater Super heater Re-heater H.P and L.P. feed water heater. Condenser .Cooling tower Chimney or stack Precipitator (dust collector) (Electro-static precipitator) Ejector Deaerator Water treatment plant

Forced Draught fan (FDF) & Induced Draught fan (IDF)

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3. “Use of economizer, super heater and air preheater increase thermal efficiency of thermal power station” Justify the statement?

The heat produce due to combustion of coal is not fully utilized for generation of electrical energy. Because of various heat losses. These heat losses are recovered in following equipments due to recovery of heat from exhaust flue gases it increases thermal efficiency of power station.

1. Economizer: - In economizer heat of flue gases is recovered (absorb) and used to increase the temperature of feed water, so it increases efficiency of boiler by reducing steaming time.

2. Super heater: In super heater heat of flue gases is recovered (absorb) and used to increase the temperature of steam to become dry (super heated), so it increases efficiency of turbine because temperature of super heated steam is more.

3. Air preheater: In air preheater the temperature of flue gases is recovered (absorb) and used to increase the temperature of air passed in combustion chamber of boiler, so it increases efficiency of boiler.

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4. Rankine Cycle:

Electrical Engg. Dept.

A steam power station basically works on the Rankine cycle. Steam is

produced in the boiler by utilising the heat of coal combustion. The steam is

, a condenser to be fed into the boiler again. The steam turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical

energy. This type of power station is suitable where coal and water are available in abundance and a large amount of electric power is to be generated.

then expanded in the prime mover (i.e

steam turbine) and is condensed in

power is to be generated. then expanded in the prime mover (i.e steam turbine) and is

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9. Important Technical Words & its Meaning:

Heat Energy:

Heat Energy:

Weighing:

Weighing:
 

Coal:

Coal:

Vessel:

Coal: Vessel:

Coal Mine:

Coal Mine:

Flue Gas:

Coal Mine: Flue Gas:  
 

Coal Transport:

Coal Delivery:

Coal Transport: Coal Delivery:

Chimney:

Capacity:

Capacity:

Combustion:

Combustion:

wet steam:

wet steam:
 

Electrical Energy:

Electrical Energy: heater:

heater:

Electrical Energy: heater:

Burning:

Burning:

cooling:

Burning: cooling:

Steam:

Steam:

turbine:

,
,
,
,
Steam: turbine: , ,

Transportation:

Condenser:

Transportation: Condenser:
Circulation:
Circulation:

Boiler:

Boiler:

Coal Unloading:

Pulverize:

Coal Unloading: Pulverize:

Populate:

Disposal:

Populate: Disposal: