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CHAPTER 5- FUEL FOR PERFORMANCE

Nutrition is a health branch that stresses the importance of the food for growth and development.
Nutrients- are important food substances that help our body function properly. It provides energy and
facilitates growth and repair cells.
****Classification of Nutrients****
A.MACRONURIENTS- REQUIRED BY THE BODY IN LARGE AMOUNT
1. Proteins- used to repair body tissues
2. Carbohydrates- main source of energy and maintain glucose level
3. Fats- used to restore and use vitamins, also for immune system function
4. Water- needed for waste removal, regulates body temperature
B. MICRONUTRIENTS- NEEDED BY THE BODY IN SMALL/LITTLE AMOUNTS
1. Vitamins- help the body use carbohydrates, proteins and fats ( vit A,B.B6,B12,E,C)
2. Minerals- help in the chemical reaction process in the body (IRON,CALCUIM ,ZINC)
**Carb loading- strategy used by runners to maximize carbohydrates intake for muscle and energy
storage.
GLUCOSE- simple form of sugar that the body converts it to energy.
GLYCOGEN- sugar stored in liver and muscle cells which can be broken down to glucose for energy.
***Factors that can affect weight control***
1. Genetic factors and hormones-
2. Environmental factors
3. The concept of energy balance
***FAD DIETS- that promises quick results with little effort easily earns and loses popularity shortly after
consumers realize it as just false advertisement. Any diet claiming instant results without exercise or
reduction of calorie intake will not reduce body fat.
*** Dietary supplements are substances that contribute to health maintenance and overall diet, they
come in different forms, usually in tablets and capsules. These are not medicinal drugs intended to cue
particular diseases.

CHAPTER 6- STRESS
Stress- is a reaction of the body and mind to unkind or challenging life incidents such as tense feelings,
worry and discomfort.
Stressor- is an event or situation that causes stressful situations which are seen as risks to the well-being
of a person.
****Classification of Stress
1. Acute stress-the most common form, arises from recent, past and foreseen difficulties. It occurs
briefly and appears in bits of thrill.
2. Cumulative stress- is a series of stress that has built up.
3. Chronic stress- is a form of stress that is recurring. It is a prolonged stress that is dangerous and can
lead to severe health problems.

MANAGING STRESS
1 .Manage stressors- an important approach to minimize stress is to lessen stressors. Burden with too
much work could be prevented by prioritizing and time management. Refrain from unnecessary matters
and focus on the important ones.
2. Rest and sleep- a very helpful way of reducing stress and relieving tension is having a good amount of
rest and sleep. It helps taking a 15-30 min. daytime nap
3. Exercise- exercising naturally relieves the body from effects of stress.
4. Use relaxation method- there are types of relaxation method to counter the adverse effect of stress.
a. Progressive relaxation- uses bodys feed mechanism in reducing in reducing muscle tension
b. Deep breathing- tells the brain to calm down and relax relieving the stress.
c. Meditation- is a technique that temporarily tunes out the world, disregards outside disturbances and
provides inner peace.
d. Visualization- uses imagination to relax and reduce stress.
***Coping- is defined as the capacity to respond and recover from something stressful. It is the
conscious response to psychological stress in an attempt to balance mental and emotional condition.
CHAPTER 7- SAFETY PRACTICES IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE
Injuries- are damaged tissues or organs that occur when it encounters trauma or physical force that is
greater than what it can resist or absorb.
CLASSIFICATION OF INJURIES
1. ACUTE INJURIES- have signs and symptoms that manifest immediately after force application
Ex
a. SPRAINS- overstretched ligaments, when the joint is forced into a position that is beyond its normal
range it will overstretch the ligaments. Most common sprain is located at the lower limbs such as ankle
and knee.
b. STRAIN is a twist, pull, or tear of muscle or tendon. It is a result of overstretching or contraction.
c. FRACTURE- located at the upper limbs such as hand and forearm. Fractures are more common in
growing bones because it is less dense, breaks in the continuity of the bone.
d. DISLOCATION- commonly occurs in joints that allow greater range of motion. Most common
dislocations are on shoulders and elbow. Bones that are pushed out from joints
e. CONCUSSION- is life threatening injury because they disrupt the normal function of the brain. A
severe blow to the brain can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture.
2.OVERUSE/CHRONIC INJURIES- the signs and symptoms occur after a long period of exposure to the
force
Ex.
STAGE 1- complains after the activity
STAGE 2- complain of pain during and after the activity
STAGE 3-the athletes feels pain whether at play or at rest.