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Green Tea as a Natural Antioxidant

Raquel Ananda Hasa

Dr. Didin Erma Indahyani, drg. M.Kes

raquelsarang@gmail.com

Opening

Many people claim that the health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including
different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial
effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content.
There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea
catechins and their biological actions. We live in an age when many of us are living under
metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors.

It goes without saying that green tea is one of the most important issue as a medicine to cure
metabolic syndrome. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat
diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further
research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the
pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.

In this day and age, the health benefits of consuming green tea, including the prevention of cancer
and cardiovascular diseases, the anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antiangiogenic,
antioxidative, antiviral, neuroprotective , and cholesterol-lowering effects of green tea and isolated
green tea constituents are under investigation. However, adding green tea to the diet may cause
other serious health concerns. But theres side effect from consuming green tea. We need the right
dose before consuming green tea. This article is talking about the using of green tea, side effect
and benefit from consuming green tea.

Introduction

Firstly, we have to know that green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves
that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong and black
tea. Secondly, Green tea originated in China, but its production has spread to many countries
in Asia. Several varieties of green tea exist, which differ substantially because of the variety of C.
sinensis used, growing conditions, horticultural methods, production processing, and time of
harvest.

What is more tea consumption has its legendary origins in China during the reign of
Emperor Shennong. A book written by Lu Yu in 600-900 AD (Tang Dynasty), "Tea Classic"

(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: chjng), is considered important in

green tea history. The Kissa Yojoki ( Book of Tea), written by Zen priest Eisai in
1191, describes how drinking green tea may affect five vital organs, the shapes of tea plants,
flowers and leaves, and how to grow and process tea leaves

Last but not least, green tea extracts have been used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine for
a variety of uses. Antioxidants and other substances in green tea might be so useful.

Theory

When it comes to green tea, we have to talking about the chemical composition from greentea.
Green tea contains polyphenols, which include flavanols, flavandiols, flavonoids, and phenolic
acids; these compounds may account for up to 30% of the dry weight. Most of the green tea
polyphenols (GTPs) are flavonols, commonly known as catechins. Products derived from green
tea are mainly extracts of green tea in liquid or powder form that vary in the proportion of
polyphenols (45-90%) and caffeine content (0.4-10%). The major flavonoids of green tea are
various catechins, which are found in greater amounts in green tea than in black or Oolong tea.
There are four kinds of catechins mainly find in green tea: epicatechin, epigallocatechin,
epicatechin-3-gallate, and EGCG.

This beneficial effect has been attributed to the presence of high amounts of polyphenols, which
are potent antioxidants. In particular, green tea may lower blood pressure and thus reduce the risk
of stroke and coronary heart disease. An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of
other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain
reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
terminate these chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different groups of
substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to prevent oxidation, and natural
chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects. To
balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping
antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase) produced
internally or the dietary antioxidants, vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

Research has found that, the presence of increased levels of exogenous antioxidants has been
shown to prevent the types of free radical damage that have been associated with cancer
development. Therefore, researchers have investigated whether taking dietary
antioxidant supplements can help lower the risk of developing or dying from cancer in humans.
Many observational studies, including casecontrol studies and cohort studies, have been
conducted to investigate whether the use of dietary antioxidant supplements is associated with
reduced risks of cancer in humans. Overall, these studies have yielded mixed results.
For example, Bladder cancer, cervical cancer, colon and rectal, Esophageal cance, lung cance,
liver cancer, stomach cancer, Pancreatic cancer, mouth cancer can be prevented by consuming
green tea.
However, Green tea is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth long-term or in high-doses. It
can cause side effects because of the caffeine. These side effects can range from mild to serious
and include headache, nervousness, sleep problems, vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, irregular
heartbeat, tremor, heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Green tea
seems to reduce the absorption of iron from food. Drinking very high doses of green tea
is LIKELY UNSAFE and can actually be fatal. The fatal dose of caffeine in green tea is
estimated to be 10-14 grams (150-200 mg per kilogram). Serious toxicity can occur at lower
doses.
Conclusion
In conclusion, Laboratory studies showed the health effects of green tea. As the human clinical
evidence is still limited, future research needs to define the actual magnitude of health benefits,
establishes the safe range of tea consumption associated with these benefits, and elucidates the
mechanisms of action. Even it benefitful for human, we have to consuming with the right dose.
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