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CHAPTER 1- SWARAJ HISTORY

The Indian Tractor Industries, as it is now, is a major segment of its engineering industry. However
till 1974, Indian firms assembling semi knocked down (SKD) kits in collaboration with foreign
manufactures met the tractor requirements of the country largely through imports & partly. Though
the first Tractor Company was set up in India in 1960, but the growth in real terms started from
1974, when the government banned the import of tractors. Today India is the largest tractor
producing and consuming country. In an effort to reduce imports & develop indigenous
technology, the government, permitted setting up of the major manufacturing companies.

1. Eicher Good Earth 1960

2. TAFE 1964

3. International Tractors 1965

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4. Escorts Tractors 1966

5. Ford Tractors 1971

6. HMT 1973

7. Punjab Tractors 1974

8. Kirloskar 1974

9. Harsha 1975

10. Auto Tractors 1981

11. Universal Tractor 1982

GEOGRAPHICALLY

TERRITORY %age of Domestic Sales

North (Punjab, Haryana & Uttar Pradesh) 32%

Central (Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan) 26%

East (Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa & Assam) 10%

West (Gujarat & Maharashtra) 12%

South (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka


& Kerala) 20%

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SEGMENTWISE

HP Range %age of Total Sale

Up to 30 HP 19%

31-40 HP 51%

Above 40 HP 30%

1.1 PTLS BIRTH


Keeping in mind Punjab agrarian economy it was decided by Punjab Govt. to encourage the
growth of industries which complements Punjabs agricultural growth. This task was entrusted to
P.S.I.D.C. that was played a major role in bringing Punjab to threshold of industrial revolution.
With the dual objective of industrial & agricultural growth, P.T.L. was established on 27th June
1974.

1.2 LOCATION
The factory is located at S.A.S. Nagar, the important industrial town of Punjab, 5 kms. from
Chandigarh. This factory was among the first to be set up in this industrial town. The company is
managed by board of Directors, while the day to day operations are managed by Vice Chairman &
M.D. of the company.

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1.3 GROWTH OF PTL

PUNJAB TRACTOR LIMITED started with an annual capacity of five thousand tractors & with a
capital of Rs. 3.7 crores. It went into commercial production in the year 1974; its first production
was 26.6 BHP tractors given the name SWARAJ-720. Ever since then P.T.L. has not looked back.
In the first twenty years of existence its capacity has been increased to 24,000 per annum, which is
a considerable achievement by any standards. Besides tractors, it has added a host of other
products to its range, which includes:
Harvesting Combine.
Fork Lifters.
Agriculture implements.

Punjab Tractors Ltd (PTL) is one of the leading manufacturers of tractors in India. PTL has been
known as the industry out performer since inception. Even when the industry grew at a CAGR of
6.1% during 1991-2000, PTL grew at the CAGR of 11.9%. In terms of market share, PTL is the
second largest player after M & M in FY2001 with a market share of 18.1%. PTL tractors are sold
under the Swaraj brand name. PTL has strong market share of around 20% in the northern region
with the highest share in Punjab and Haryana and 16% in the western regions and southern regions
of India. In the east the company accounts for 11% market share. The tractor sales accounted for
83.3% of PTL's turnover in FY2001 whereas the harvester-combines, forklifts and spare parts
accounted for the balance. Industry basics The Indian tractor market is dominated by low price,
rugged, versatile and low to medium powered tractors; the main reason being the inability of
farmers to invest in farm mechanization. Tractors are categorized on the basis of horse power (HP)
of the engine. In India, the popular range of tractors is 20-40 HP compared to 60 HP in Europe and
90 HP in the USA.

Though large tractors were economically unviable in India, there has been an increasing demand
for high-powered tractors due to soil conditions, particularly in states of MP, Gujarat and
Maharashtra. But more recently, higher-powered tractors are also being sold in states like Punjab
where it is considered as a status symbol. Tractors available in India are 1/4th of the prices of

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similar powered tractors internationally or in developed countries. Availability of credit is the most
crucial factor impacting tractor demand, as in India 90% of the tractors are financed by bank credit
at concessional rates. Increased use of irrigation facilities, shift towards multi-cropping,
consolidation of lands holdings, promotion of co-operatives and higher investment in agriculture
also contributes to higher tractor demand. The tractor segment comprises players like Eicher,
Escorts, HMT, Punjab Tractors, M&M, TAFE, Sonalika, which control about 98% market share.
India is the worlds largest market in tractors since 1996. A few international players like Case
New Holland, John Deere and Steyr have also set up facilities in India. But these players have
entered the higher-powered category and, thus, pose little threat to the existing players who enjoy
advantages of established distribution/service network and strong brand equity. Punjab Tractors is
promoted mainly by Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation Limited and has acquired
the second highest market share in the tractor segment from 9.1% in 1975. In 1970, PTL had major
competition from other companies like Eicher, Tractors and Farm Equipment (TAFE), Mahindra &
Mahindra (M&M), Escorts and HMT. PTL is one of the leaders in its business and has put up a
heady performance in contrast to other private sector players. As against other players, which
report a ROCE of 15% on an average, PTL has consistently remained at about 50% in the last few
years though the industry is capital-intensive. Punjab Tractor is the only major tractor company,
which entered this business without any foreign collaboration. The company has beefed up its
R&D capabilities in the last two to three years. PTLs Swaraj-735 is in a class of its own and has
been benchmarked by its competitors to which 16 new features have been added.

PTL has single mindedly focused on increasing its market share in tractors. Current Scenario
During the first half of 2001-02 PTL increased its market share from 18.5% to 21.4%. With the
total industry volumes plummeting by 16.6% the sales of PTL fell only a trifle 3.1%. Under these
circumstances, though the revenue has fallen by a 0.38% the operating profitability has risen by
1.03%. PTL garnered the operating margins of 19.4% in the first half of FY2001-02, while the lead
players like M&M Escorts and Eicher have reported operating margins of 4.4%, 0.7% and 2.9%
respectively. The Net Profit has increased by 1.4% to Rs.564 million and the contribution of 40-
50HP tractors has increased by 30%, which indicates higher margins from bigger tractors due to a
strong foothold in Punjab and Haryana markets.

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1.4 SWARAJS YEARLY PROGRESS
1965: Govt. of India's research institute (CMERI) at Durgapur initiates design and development of
SWARAJ tractor based on indigenous know-how.

1970: Punjab Govt. through PSIDC acquires SWARAJ tractor's design from CMERI and
establishes Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL) for its commercialization.

1971-73: PTL sets up SWARAJ Project for 5,000 tractors per annum at a capital outlay of Rs. 37.0
million with an equity base of Rs 11.0 million.

1974: Swaraj 724 (26.5 HP) tractor commercially introduced.

1975: 2nd tractor model SWARAJ 735(39 HP) developed by own R&D, commercially introduced.

1978: 3rd Tractor model SWARAJ 720 (19.5 HP) developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced. Maiden equity divided declared.

1980: Guided by social concerns and responsibility, PTL takes over PSIDC's sick scooters unit -
Punjab Scooters Ltd. (subsequently renamed as SWARAJ Automotives Ltd.) India's first Self
propelled Harvester Combine - SWARAJ 8100 developed by own R&D, commercially introduced.
SWARAJ Foundry Division set up in backward area.

1983: 4th Tractor Model - SWARAJ 855 (55 HP) developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced. Expansion of annual capacity to 12,000 tractors per annum at Plant 1.

1984: SWARAJ MAZDA Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration with Mazda
Motor Corps. & Sumitomo Corpn. Japan for manufacture of Light Commercial Vehicles. PTL's
equity participation is Rs. 30.4 million (29%) and that of Mazda and Sumitomo's Rs. 27.0 million
(26%).

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1985: SWARAJ Industrial Forklift Trucks developed by own R&D, commercially introduced.

1986: SWARAJ ENGINES Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration with Kirloskar
Oil Engines Ltd.(KOEL) for manufacture of diesel engines. PTL's equity participation is Rs. 6.9
million (33%) and that of KOEL's Rs 3.6 million (17%).

1995: Setup of tractor Plant II at Village Chappercheri with annual capacity of 12,000 per annum.

1998: Commencement of expansion to 60,000 tractors (30,000 at each plant). Capital outlay of
Rs 1000 million, funded mainly through internal accruals.

1999: 5th and 6th tractor models - SWARAJ 733 (34 HP) & SWARAJ 744 (48 HP) developed by
own R&D, commercially introduced.

2000: Expansion of annual tractor capacity to 60,000 completed.

2001: PTL won National Championship trophy in competition organized by All India Management
Association (AIMA) for young managers. Economic times and Boston Consulting Group selects
PTL as one of the India's finest 10 companies out of Economic times top 500 Companies.

2002: Cumulative tractor sales crosses 5,00,000.

2003: PSIDC's disinvestment of its entire Equity holding (23.49%) in PTL in favour of CDC
Financial Services (Mauritius) Ltd. With this, total holding of CDC & its associates in PTL stands
at 28.48%.

2004: 7th & 8th tractor models - Swaraj 939 (41 HP) & Swarj 834 (34 HP) developed by own
R&D, commercially introduced.

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2005: PTL disinvested 15,73,000 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each of Swaraj Mazda Ltd. (constituting
approx. 15% of SML's paid up capital) in favour of Sumitomo Corporation, Japan, a joint venture
partner in Swaraj Mazda Ltd. at a total consideration of Rs. 629.2 million

2007: CDC/Actis Group and Burman Family's disinvestment of their Equity holding in PTL
(43.3%) in favour of Mahindra Group (M&M).

Swaraj Track Type Combine designed and developed by in-house R&D, commercially launched.

2008: Swaraj 3 Tonne Battery forklift, designed and developed by in-house R&D, commercially
launched

Punjab Tractors Ltd. (PTL) has commercially launched another model - Swaraj 939 FE at a
function in Indore.101 units of this new generation tractor were delivered to farmers from all over
Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, by Mr. R.Gopalan, Managing Director, State Bank of Indore in
the presence of PTL's Mr. Yash Mahajan (VC & MD) and Mr. A.M. Sawhney (SVP-Mktg).

Powered by a future ready, fuel - efficient 41 HP SAE, three-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine,
Swaraj 939 FE has a constant mesh gear box, diaphragm clutch and neutral safety switch.
Upgraded variants of this model can also be supplied as per customer needs/requirements.

1.5 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN SWARAJ GROUP


Research and development is an integral and sustaining department of any organization, which
want to sustain its place in the ever-developing industrial environment. The emphasis on research
and development in the Swaraj Group is proved by a long list of new products that have been
introduced and established in the years ever since the establishment of Swaraj Group. There is a
separate research and development unit of the group located at phase 7 of S.A.S. Nagar
(MOHALI). Research work is carried out in this unit and design work is accomplished presently,
the research and development is going on with various new products.

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1.6 VARIOUS DIVISIONS OF SWARAJ GROUP:-
Swaraj consists of SIX divisions:

1. Swaraj Tractors Division.

2. Swaraj combine Ltd.

3. Swaraj automotive Ltd.

4. Swaraj foundry division

5. Swaraj Engines Ltd.

1.7 Swaraj Products

Mahindra and Mahindra limited, manufactures a number of farm equipments under the Swaraj Brand.
Given below is the list of the farm equipment manufactured along with some of its specifications being
manufactured at Plant-1, phase IV, SAS Nagar (Mohali):

Swaraj 843 Osm

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Swaraj 843 Xm

Swaraj 724 Xm

Swaraj 735 Xm

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Swaraj 717

Swaraj 742 FE

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Swaraj 960 Fe

Swaraj 855 FE

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CHAPTER 2- VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS IN SWARAJ TRACTOR
DIVISION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The manufacturing of Tractor is performed in various steps. It is manufactured after passing

through various processes in various shops. Firstly, various operations on various parts are

performed in the L.M.S. (Light Machine Section) and H.M.S. (Heavy Machine Section). In H.M.S.

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generally there are four major heavy parts that are given proper machining operations. These

include Gear Box Casing, Differential Housing, Trumpet Housing and Rear Cover. Similarly, in

L.M.S. the light parts are given proper machining. These include various parts such as Gears,

Shafts, Cage Assembly casing etc.

In Heat Treatment Shop, the light parts such gears, shafts etc are given the heat treatment to

ensure their strength. Firstly the part after passing through various

operations in L.M.S. is taken to the Heat Treatment Shop. Here the part is kept in the furnace for

suitable time period up to certain high temperature. Then it is taken to the Quenching tank where it

is dipped in the oil tank. After that it is taken to washing tank for washing of dirt and oil etc. Then

it is taken to the Assembly line.

In Assembly line various parts are being assembled into a single unit termed Tractor. During

assembling the various parts are being fitted according to the stage. This would includes the

assembly of important parts such as Rear Cover, Gear Box, Differential Housing and trumpet

Housing. Firstly the Various sub-parts of the Rear Cover are being fitted. Then the various parts

such as gears, shafts, bearing, oil rings, clutch actuator and circlip etc are fitted into the Gear Box.

After that both the Rear Cover and the Gear Box are taken to the line where Gear Box if fitted

ahead of the Differential Housing whereas the Rear Cover on the Top. Then various things such as

Brakes, P.T.O. Shaft, Cage Assembly, Trumpet Housing etc are fitted to the Differential Housing.

Then this whole assembly is fitted with the engine against the Gear Box.

After whole assembly is fitted with the Engine, this assembly is taken to the Chassis Paint Area

where it is washed and dry followed by Paint on the chassis.

Then the tractor reaches to the Final stage where certain electrical and other accessories such as

Battery with Battery cover, Steering Wheel, radiator etc are fitted. Proper level of Engine oil is also

filled into the Differential and Gear Box. Greasing of various parts is also performed with Grease

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Gun. After that the Tractor is taken out of the line after taken it out from the hooks. This stage is

termed as Dismounting Stage.

Then the Testing of the Tractor is performed which include the checking for vibrations, noise,

brakes, oil level and other factors that effects the performance of tractor.

2.2 LIGHT MACHINE SHOP

2.2.1 Introduction

L M S is the largest section of the factory. All transmission components like shafts and gears used
in tractors are manufactured here. L.M.S comprises of 117 machines. Except the bevel gear
generator & gear shaver, which have been imported from W M W & Churchill of Germany
respectively, all other machines are from HMT Ltd. 160 highly experienced operators and
inspectors manned this shop.

2.2.2 Types of machines:


S.No. M/C Description Job Operations

Bull Gear Line


1. ECO-5 CNC Bull Gear Turning
2. Broaching machine Bull Gear Cutting Internal Spline
3. Gear hobbing machine Bull Gear Cutting Outer Spline
4. Deburring machine Bull gear For removing rough edges
5. Shaving machine Bull Gear Shaving or finishing

Bull Pinion Shaft Line


6. Center Facing BP shaft Facing, Centering
machine
7. Femco Turning BP shaft Rough, Finish turning (first 4
steps)

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8. Femco WNCL-30 BP shaft Rough, Finish turning (next 6
steps)
9. COOPER BP shaft Spline cutting
10. HMT H400 BP shaft Gear cutting
11. Shaving machine BP shaft Shaving

Cage Assembly
Right cage Drilling, Chamfering, Grooving,
12. VMC-40
Tapping, Facing
Cage assembly Boring (both sides)
13. Boring machine
Cylindrical Grinding Cage assembly Grinding
14.
machine
HMT HMC-320 Cage assembly Cross drilling
15.

Other Machines
Lichberr (HMT) Hobbing Gear cutting
16.
Cooper Gear idle cluster Cutting
17.
Parisuda AHG 80 Intermediate shaft Grinding
18.
CNC
HMT Radial drill drilling
19.
GCI 300 CNC Bevel Gear Grinding
20.
VMC-500 vertical Milling, Drilling
21.
milling machine
WIDMA drilling Drilling
22.
machine
SPILOTE Copy turning Lathe
23.
PS-180 Gear shaper(not Spline cutting
24.
bevel)

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2.2.3 DIFFERENT MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS IN LMS:

Facing: It is the operation of finishing the ends of the work to make the ends flat and
smooth and to make the piece of required length.
Under cutting: It is similar to grooving operation but is performed inside a hole.
Chamfering: It is operation of beveling the extreme end of the work pieces, chamfer is
provided for better look.
Rough turning: In this operation max Metal is removed and very little over size
dimensions are left for further machining.
Finish turning: Here minimum metal is removed and very fine finish is obtained on the
work surface.
Grooving: It is operation of turning the groove or neck in order to terminate a thread or to
provide adequate clearance enable nut to pass freely on threaded work piece to remove burs
and to protect the work piece from being damaged.
Knurling: It is the process of embossing a diamond shaped regular pattern on the surface
of the work piece using a special knurling tool.
Broaching: It is the method of metal removal by a tool that has successively higher cutting
edges in a fixed path. Each tooth removes a fixed amount of material.
Drilling: It is the process of making hole in an object by forcing a drill.
Boring: It is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled.
Grinding: It is generally used for sharpening the cutting tool, grinding threads and better
surface finish etc.
Shaping: The process of cutting gears on the shaper is known as Shaping. The tool used in
shaping for teeths cutting is a multi-point cutting tool.
Hobbing:
Hob: - Hob is a cutting tool used for cutting gears or similar form gears by the generating
principle.
A Hob resembles a worm in appearance its cutting teeth on the outside of a cylindrical body
following a helical path corresponding to the thread of a worm. It is useful to think of a hob
as a cylinder with a series of racks being parallel to the hob axis or nearly so and each one
slightly displaced axially with respect to the preceding racks. As the hob rotates in fixed
rotation with the blank each row of teeth successively cuts the next portion of the gear tooth
spaces.

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Hobs can be broadly classified as
a. Single start
b. Double start
c. Triple start.
Hob material
High speed steel (HSS) - M2
HSS with 8% cobalt (M35)
Power metallurgy (ASP 30)
Carbide.
Tool steel.

Gear shaving: Gear shaving is a metal cutting operation for finishing the gear cutting
process.
Shaving is a low pressure, free cutting, finishing operation applied to a hobbed gear to
achieve the following:-
a. Correct eccentricity and errors in index, helix angle and tooth profile.
b. Improve tooth surface finishing.
c. Maintain tooth size.
d. Eliminate tooth-bearing conditions by producing a crowned tooth form.

2.3 HEAVY MACHINE SHOP (H. M. S.)


All heavy casting of tractors is machined in this shop with the help of variety of special machine
(SPM). These machines are tailors made by IIMT to suit component requirements. In addition,
facilities of this shop include general-purpose turning, drilling and milling machines. About 20
SPM and 30 GPM are installed in a covered area of 47,000 sq. Ft. At a cost of 20 million, 2600
tones of castings are machined every year on a two-shift basis. In addition to the machining of
casting for the tractor, some jobs are also performed for Swaraj Mazda Limited.

2.3.1 COMPONENTS MACHINED IN THE SHOP

Gearbox housing (Material R-33, Casting, 180-230 BHN, 76-Kg wt.).

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Differential housing.

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Rear cover.

Trumpet housing

2.3.2 DIFFERENT MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS IN HMS:

Milling- It is a process of smoothing a surface by a rotating tool called milling cutter.


Drilling- It is a process of making holes in workpiece by a tool called drill.
Boring- It is a process of enlarging a drilled hole.
Tapping- It is a process of putting thread on internal side of drilled hole. This is done by a
tool called tap. Different taps are available for different pitch angles.

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Chamfering- It is a process of making a seat on a drilled hole. Seat is made either to place
head of bolt or for tapping purposes.
Turning- It is a process of making cuts on a rotating workpiece in lathe machine.
Grooving- It is a process of making an internal cut in a hole.
Side Milling
Facing

2.3.3 CONCEPT OF DOWELLING


The main aim or purpose of doweling is to act as a guide to the work piece setting proposes prior
to machining. Use of this process helps in reducing the setting time considerably during machining
of heavy components. It is very difficult to set the work piece in required position prior to
machining, this process is very time consuming, hence when initially the cast piece is brought
dowel holes are drilled which act as the pivot around which the whole machining takes place.
Dowel hole act as the reference point for machining of all the other holes on the work piece all the
operation to be performed on the work piece are taken in reference to the dowel holes thus the hole
act as the reference to all the operations.

2.3.4 PROCESS OF SETTING PRIOR TO DOWEL


Before the dowelling the cast piece is clamped manually, there are three points to be touched. It
follows the phenomena of 3-2-1, which means that we have to restrict the motion in three
directions i.e. x, y, z direction, two to restrict horizontal and vertical motion and one act as
reference point, this process is known as butt and clamp. By dowelling it is all about locate and
clamp hence there is lot of saving of time.

2.3.5 REFERENCING
Dowel act as reference, all the dimension of the work piece i.e. all the machining operations are
from the reference of Dowel hole.

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2.3.6 Types of machines in HMS

Sr.No. M/C Description Operations


Gear
Box Housing
1.
HMC (multipurpose machine), HDC Milling, Drilling, Dowel
holes
2.
Duplex milling machine (cutter 500 Milling
mm, total length made 490 mm, 26
inserts 1 viper (inserts for rough cut,
viper for finish)
3.
HMC 500 Internal milling, drilling CD
hole (39 mm for outer, 24.2
for inner),
4.
Boring machine Rough Boring
5.
Boring machine Finish Boring
6.
Turning Lathe Turning
7.
Cross hole Drilling
8.
HMT HDC-S Drilling (4 holes for
connecting rod 2 inner 2
outside)
9.
HMT HMC 500 S Drilling, Spot facing
10.
Turning Finish turning
11.
Radial drilling machine Drilling, Reaming, Tapping,
Chamfering

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Trumpet
Assembly
12.
Two way boring machine Rough Boring
13.
RAYAUTO (7 tools work at a time) Rough turning, Facing
14.
Boring machine Finish Boring
15.
HMT SBCNC 35 Finishing (outer face)
16.
SPM Drilling, Tapping
17.
TICO multipurpose machine Milling, Drilling, Tapping
Rear
Cover Assembly

18.
Free Spindle SPM Milling(1 Vertical,2
horizontal)
19.
CNC milling machine Milling
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Horizontal HC 630 CNC Drilling, Boring, Milling
21.
VA 50 Drilling, Milling, Tapping
22.
XLO Boring (one way)

2.4 Heat Treatment shop

Heat treatment shop plays a very important role in every industry. In automobile industry all the
gear and shafts need to be heat treated to impart desired strength and increase life of the
component. The H.T. shop at PTL is equipped with several gas carbonizing furnaces, quenching
tanks, induction hardening machines and shot blasting furnaces.

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Heat Treatment is an operation or combination of operations involving heating and cooling of
metals and alloys in the solid state to produce certain desired properties. All the heat treatment
processes may be considered to consist of three main parts:

I. The heating of the metal to pre-determined temperature.

II. The soaking of the metal at that temperature until the structure becomes uniform
throughout the mass.

III. The cooling of the metal at some pre-determined rate to cause the formation of desirable
structures within the metal/alloy for the desired purposes.

2.4.1 PURPOSES OF THE HEAT TREATMENT

Changes in properties result from the micro-structural changes in the material produced by heat
treatment operation. However, these serve one or more of the following purposes:

I. Improve machinability.

II. Relieve internal stresses.

III. Improve mechanical properties such as ductility, strength, hardness, toughness etc.

IV. Change in grain size.

V. Increase resistance to heat and corrosion.

2.4.2 METHODS OF HEAT TREATMENT


Various methods depending upon the nature of job .i.e. it material, use etc are employed for giving
then Heat Treatment. These methods used are:

Annealing

Normalizing

Hardening

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Quenching

Tempering

Case Hardening

a)carburizing

b)Cyaniding

ANNEALING
Annealing means softening of the material by heating and cooling process. The cooling
stage may be performed by regulating the fall of the temperature in the furnace or by buried
the article in sand or lime, and quenching in oil or water, according to the material being
treated.

NORMALISING
In this process the material is heated steadily through out its mass to just beyond the critical
temperature, and then withdrawn from the furnace and allowed to cool in still air. With the
normalizing process there is not soaking period, for the work is held at the desired
temperature for a period only sufficient to give uniformity through out the mass.

HARDENING
The operation of hardening is applied to all the tools and some important machine parts
intended for especially heavy duty service, as well as to all machine parts made of alloy
steel. Hardening of steels is done to increase the strength and wear properties.
QUENCHING
Quenching is the act of rapidly cooling the hot steel to harden the steel. Oil is used when a
slower cooling rate is desired. Oil quenching results in fumes, spills, and sometimes a fire
hazard.

TEMPERING
It is an operation to reduce the internal stress and brittleness. With plain carbon steel,
tempering operation consist in slowly heating the hardened material from room temperature

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up to maximum of about 600oC and then quenching in water or oil, the temperature and
length of soaking period being dependent in service requirement. Thus if plain carbon steel
is to be hard without any appreciable ductility, a temperature of about 150 oC will be
required.

CASE HARDENING (CARBURISING)


It is method of producing hard surface on steel. The steel used for this purpose is usually a
low carbon steel of about 0.15% carbon, which does not respond appreciable to heat
treatment. In course of the process, the outer layer is converted into high carbon steel with a
carbon content ranging from 0.9% to 1.2% carbon.

2.5 ASSEMBLY SHOP

The Assembly at SWARAJ TRACTOR DIVISION deals with the assembly of tractor models
722, 724, 733, 735, 744, and 834. Assembly is the joining of various constituents to form a final
product. The assembly process is carried out on the main line, which has various sub assemblies
along its length. Assembly shop can be divided in two main areas: -
Before paint area
After paint area.

2.5.1 BEFORE PAINT AREA

The area before painting can further be divided into sub assemblies/ loops namely
Differential loop.
Gearbox loop.
Rear cover loop.
Engine assembly loop.

2.5.2 DIFFERENTIAL LOOP


Differential casting mounted on trolley after washing.
Bull pinion Shaft left and right fitted.
Cage assembly fitted.

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It consists of:
Crown wheel.
Tail pinion assembly.
Roller bearing.
Bevel wheels.
PTO shaft fitted.
Rear axle/trumpet is fitted.
PTO shifter assembly fitted.
Gearbox assembly is lifted.
Rear cover assembly fitted.
Brakes are fitted.
Parking brake.
Suction pipe
PTO cover
Trailer hook is fitted.
Angle bracket is fitted.
Rocket link is fitted.
Footboard is fitted.

2.5.3 GEAR BOX LOOP


Gearbox housing mounted on trolley.
Drive shaft & input shaft assembly.
Output shaft assembly.
Lay shaft and connecting shaft assembly
Shifter rod assembly.
Steering assembly.

2.5.4 REAR COVER LOOP


Rear cover mounted on trolley.
Control valve and response valve assembly.
Ram assembly. (This consists of cylinder, piston and piston rods.)
Testing of hydraulic lift.

2.5.5 ENGINE ASSEMBLY LOOP


Engine mounted on trolley

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Dynamo is fitted.
Self-motor is fitted.
Oil pump is fitted.
Front axle beam and bracket is fitted.
Clutch plate is fitted.

After that the chassis is carried to the next level by the lift where the engine & the 3-point
assembly of the tractor along with the other components are fixed. The parts fitted here are:

3-point linkage which contains the following parts:


Bracket.
Lower link fitted at the left side.
Leveling rod fitted at the right side.
Stabilizer stainer.
Draw bar.
Top link.
Battery frame.
Front frame.
Tie rod attached with the drop arm of the steering system.
Accelerator link.
Delievery pipe.
Engine attachement.

The engine is attached with the chassis system in this level of assembly. The engine is also carried
to this level with the help of the lift crane, which lifts the engine assembly & delievers it to this
level. Shlug is applied at the corneror we can say at rhe circumference of the gearbox where engine
is attached with studs & bolts. Shlugs works as gaskets or seals & avoid the oil leakage & water
mixing in the engine. the engine, which is suplied to this level of assemble where the engine is
attached contain the following parts attached on it:

Front axle.
Extension in the front axle used for the setting of the wheels.
K.P.S.A. (King Pin Shaft Axle) with the wheel disc & nuts fitted in there for the
fitting of the wheels.
Drop arms.

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Tie rods.
Bucket.
Clutch plates
Alternator.
Self starter.
Fuel pump.

The above parts are already fitted with the engine when it comes to the engine chassis assembly.
The make of the engine is KIRLOSKOR or SWARAJ KIRLOSKOR depending upon the model
as 3-cylinder, 2-cylinder or 1-cylinder. The engine was imported from this company from Pune.
SWARAJ also has its own engine plant where the engines are assembled. After assembling the
chassis & engine arrangement, the fitments are checked by the workmen appointed there at this
level & if there is some part missing, it is attached here. Then the whole assembly is mounted over
the conveyor, which takes that piece to different chambers of washing, drying, primering, baking,
painting & again baking.

After painting the conveyor takes the assembled piece to the DISMOUNTING STAGE where
different parts & components are fitted on the tractor & the tractor was completed. After that the
testing of the tractor is done. A tractor has to pass through different tests to claim itselfs to be as
perfect & if there is some problem coming out in this stage, the tractor is send to the recovery
shop, where the problem of the tractor is recovered. After the recovery the tractor is again tested &
after passing the test the tractor finally send to the yard from where it is send to the R & D
Complex for further tests.

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Fig: Assembled Differentials

2.5.6 DISMOUNTING STAGE


After the processes of washing, drying, painting, baking, the assembled piece is finally arrived to
the DISMOUNTING STAGE through conveyor. This dismounting stage is further divided into
different small stages & in each stage, 2 persons works at a time, on an assembled piece of chassis
& engine. The work is divided between these 2 men at the different stages. The dismounting stage
is divided into 5 different stages in which the parts of the tractor are fitted on the assembled piece
of chassis & engine & in every 6 minutes, we got a complete tractor, which is removed from the
conveyor of the dismounting stage.

STAGE 1:

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Alternator connection
Horn
Brake rod
Brake switch connection
Fan belt
STAGE 2:
Speedometer wire
Rear frame
Fuel tank
Overflow pipes
Felt pads

STAGE 3:

Fan
Radiator
Hose pipes
Dash board (it mainly has instrumental panel which contains engine oil meter, fuel
gauge, ampere meter, temperature gauge, speedometer)
Dash board cover
Number plate

STAGE 4:

Battery

Steering wheel

Head lights

Clutch connection

Hooks and side panel

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Knobs and covers

Sealings

STAGE 5:

Seat
Sheet metal covers (side panel covers, side shield, bonnet, front grill)
Fenders
Tyres fixing
Batter cover
Torque checking
Engine oil pouring and greasing
Charts and stickers

After completing all the above stages the tractor reaches the point where it is removed from the
conveyor, which is known as the DISMOUNTING STAGE of the tractor. A platform is there &
when the tractor reaches the platform the conveyor is removed & the tractor is free. After that the
tractor slides down the platform & reaches the stage, which is the final stage after the dismounting
of the tractor. This stage comes before the testing of the tractor. In this following functions &
equipments are fitted on the tractor:

Air cleaner
Exhaust
Front tyres distance check and adjust

2.6 PAINT SHOP

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Paint Shop is the place where the different sheet metal components are painted. They are made to
pass through various chemicals before they are actually painted. The painting method opted is that
of Spray Painting.

2.6.1 NEED FOR PAINTING


Long life
Rust resistance
Better look (more appealing)

The various operations performed in paint shop are:

Surface Preparation (Pre Treatment Cell) - carried out for sheets and rims.

Painting JOST 1(dash board, rear frame, front shield, top bonnet), JOST 2(fenders,
side panel), CHASIS BOOTH (washing, primer, washing zones), FINAL TOUCH UP.

Inspection

Rejection (Reprocessing)-for sheets and rims.

2.6.2 PAINTING
The process (sheet and rim painting) includes

Full Primer + one coat of paint (30-40 microns)

Flash off (This is the distance given so as to allow paint to dry)

Baking (120-130 degree centigrade)

Rubbing

Cleaning with tag rag

Final painting

Flash off

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Baking

2.6.3 CHASIS PAINTING


Washing

Drying

Primer painting

Flash off

Final painting

Flash off

Baking

After painting inspection is carried out inspection is carried out and the product is passed or
rejected.

Various parameters checked are:

Depth of penetration of paint

Thickness of paint coating

Smoothness

2.7 ENGINE TESTING


After assembly engine is brought to engine testing section. In this section practical checking of
engine is done on the engine and water supply is connected to it then the engine is started with
external battery power supply. There the proper operating of valves is done, the engine is kept
running for two hours. During running the load is also varied and various properties like
lubricating oil pressure, load capacity, fuel consumption etc is checked.

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The lubricating oil pressure in the engine should be 3.8to 4.2kg/cm 2 for proper working load
capacity of engine is checked by applying load on the shaft of the engine through water. Brake
dynamometer in which water is applied on the roller when is turn the pressure of shaft water.
Pressure is controlled by lever. The load is applied in such a way that max, rpm of engine cover by
200.

Supplying a measured quantity of fuel usually also checks the fuel consumption of the engine
100cc of diesel or fuel is supplied to the engine. The time taken by the engine to consume the fuel
is noted. During the testing, the engine is kept on load.

FOR TESTING ENGINE IS KEPT RUNNING FOR 1 HOUR AND 55 MINUTES.

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CHAPTER 3- CONCLUSION
My training was the most versatile experience. I had the pleasure to do the work with one of the
most reputed factory in their field- PUNJAB TRACTORS LTD. I received the blend of
experience in Private as well as in Govt. sector. It was a good learning time during my training as
we were fortunate to be placed in the department related to manufacturing. I feel training has
give me exposure to undergo projects in the Manufacturing field as well help me a lot to
understand the company work culture, working with teams and much more. In the end I will like
to thank all persons who helped me throughout my training to enhance my experience. I also pay
my regards to my Lecturers for their guidance during my training and my Academics helped me
to do a lot during my training.S

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