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EECS 216 Winter 2010: Signals and Systems

Midterm Exam #2 Solutions March 23, 2010 Professors Winick and Grizzle

1. The Bode plots (magnitude and phase response) of an LTI system is given below:

Suppose that the input of this system is x (t ) = cos(15t + ! / 3) . The corresponding system output

y(t)

at time

t

= ! / 3

is

 (a) 20 dB (b) 20e j! / 3 (c) 3/2 (d) -10 (e) None of the above.

Solution:

" \$ = magnitude y (t 10 20 y ) (! =| cos(15t dB / H 3) #| ( = j15) (in 10 H + ( ! cos(5! dB) | j! cos(15t / 3 ) # | = = ! ) 20log10 10 / = + 3) #10 ! / 3 + | H "H ( j! ( j ) 15)) |

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2.

The signal x (t ) = (e ! t ! e !2 t ) u ( t ) is the input to a LTI system whose frequency transfer function

is given by

H ( j! ) = \$% &% 0, (! | ! 2 | + >

#

! o

4 )(1 + ! 2 ), | !

| " ! o

The value of ω o such that the energy of the output signal equals 1/2 the energy of x(t) is

Solution:

!| ! X x 2 ( E Y (t j! out ( ) j" = ) = = (e ) 2' |=| 1 1 ! t + X 1 *()) ( j" | Y ) ( H 2 j" + ( 1 j" ) | 2 ) d |= " ! & \$ % (1 2e 1, = 0, + | ! 1 | " " 3 j! t | + | # )(2 > 1 e " " !4 + 0 0 t ) j! )

=

j! "

j!

! e !2 t ) 2 = (e ! 2 t

'

" 0

! E x = \$"##

! E out = 1

%

x 2 (t ) dt 1

& 0 =

2

= E x 1 2 = " 24 1 2 3

+

1

4

=

1

12

' & o

= % / 24

3. A LTI system can be described by the following block diagram

x(t)

h (t ) = e ! t u (t )

 1 d H ( j! ) = 2 + j! dt

Which of the following differential equations describe this system

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

y

•• (t ) + + y 4 y y (t (t y (t ) ) (t ) + + ) + 2 + 2 2 y y 2 y (t (t y (t ) ) (t ) = = ) = x = x ( x t (t x ( ) t ) ( ) + t )

2 y

•• (t ) + 3

y

3 x ( t )

••

t

(t

•• (t ) ) +

y

none of the above

Solution:

2

y(t)

Y ( j! )

1

1

j!

•• + 3 y + 2 y

y

=

x

X ( j! ) = " 2 + j! " j! = c 1, c1

x (t ) =

1

=

( j! ) 2 + 3( j! ) + 2 # c n = 0

for n ! 3.

+ j! = 3, c 2

n

e j 2! "10

nt

4.

A real-valued periodic signal x(t) has the following Fourier series representation

\$

%

n = #\$

c 0

= 1 +

The average power in

with

2 j and

this signal is given

by

(a) 13

(b) 17

(c) 24

(d) 29

(e) none of the above

Solution:

!

Pav x (t ) = = c 0 2 +
d 0 +
"
2 | c n
| 2
= 1 +
2 # 9 +
2 # 5 =
29
n =1
%
\$
c
n e j 2! "10 nt
1 + 1 (1+
j !
for n " 1.
5.
A real-valued periodic signal x(t) has the following Fourier series representation
x (t ) 1 2 = / 20
n = #\$
\$
n 2
1 n)
#
d n cos(! n t + " n
with c 0 = 1 and c n =
If
n =1
) , where d n , ! n
and " n are all
real-valued, then d 2 is given by
(a)
5
5
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
none of the above
1 1 / / 2
2 | c 1 n
| =
n 2
2 + 1
1 +
Solution:
n 1 2
=
n
2
1
n 2
! d n d = 2
=
5
6. x (t ) = 3 cos(4 t + ! / 3) + 2 sin(6 t + !
/ + 4 1 ) + cos(10 t ) .
The
Fourier coefficient corresponding to

the Third (i.e., n=3) harmonic term in the complex exponential Fourier series representation of x (t ) is given by

(a)

(b)

(c)

! 2 (1 j 2 ! j )

2e j! / 4

3

(d)

2+j

(e) none of the above

Solution:

Fundamental frequency is 2 rad/s and thus third harmonic term is

2sin(6 = 3 t term + ! /4) is = 1 j e j! / 4 e j 6 t " 1 j e j! / 4 e j 6 t " 2 )) )) e " j 2! + 1 1 6 6 X X 1 6 ( ( j j X (! (! ( j 3 + (! 2 ))e + 2 " j 2!

3 + 6 ))e + 6 " j 2!

1 j e j! / 4 e j 6 t

and so c 3 = 1 j e j! / 4 = e " j! / 4

# n

7.

Let x (t ) and X(j! ) be a Fourier transform pair,

transform of x (3t ! 6) cos 2 t is given by

(a)

(b)

1 6 1 X ( j ( ! 3 " 6

6 X ( j ( ! 3

" 6 )) ))

e e

" j 2!

+

" j 2(! " 6 ) + 1

3

1 6 1 X ( j ( ! 3 " 2

6 X ( j ( ! 3

(c)

e " j 2(! " 2 ) +

(d)

(e) None of the above.

6 X ( j (!

3

)) )) e e " " j j

2(!

2(!

+ 6 )

+ 2 )

=

1 2 (1 " j )

i.e., x (t )

F

.T

! . X ( j " ) . Then the Fourier

Solution:

y (t ) = x (3t ) ! Y ( j" ) = 1 3 X ( j

z (t 1 ) = y (t # 2) = x (3t # # 2 6) ) ! 1 Z 1 ( " 3 j" ) ) = e # # 2)) j 2" Y + + ( 1 j" ) =

p (t ) = z (t ) cos 2 t ! P ( j" ) = 2 Z ( j (" + 2))

=

1

3 e # j 2"

2

Z ( j ("

2

)

6

e # j 2(" # 2 ) X ( j "

3

+

6 e # j 2(" + 2 ) X ( j

"

3

X

( j " 3 )

8.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

x (t ) is an odd function that is purely imaginary. Then

X X X X * * * (! (! ( ( j j j" ! ! j " ) ) ) ) = = = = X X X X ( (" ( j ( j" ! j j " ! ) ) ) )

none of the above

Solution:

4

= X ( j j! \$"## ) x = (t ) sin x ! (t )e t dt " j! = t j dt \$"## = j \$"## (Im x (t x (t ) cos )) sin ! ! t dt t dt + = j \$"## " \$"## x (t (Im ) sin x (t ! )) t dt sin ! t dt

\$

#

"#

Thus X ( j! ) is real-valued.

9. Consider the following periodic signal x(t) with period T=4.

x(t)

 1 -5 -4 1 4 5

t

(a) Find the the Fourier series of x(t) in complex exponential form.

Solution:

x (t ) = c n e j 2!

#

\$

4 nt

n = "#

where

(b)

If

c

x

n

=

1

4

1 e ! j 2" 4 nt

0

#

%

1 4

dt = & ''

, n

= 0

' ' j 2"n 1 (1 ! e ! j " 2 n ), n \$ 0

(

 # (t ) = d 0 + \$ d n cos(! n t + " n ) , where d n , ! n n =1

d n , ! n and " n for n=1.

Solution:

2"

!

n = = = = \$c c 2 0 4 | c n n

d

d

#

0 n n

n

|

5

and " n are all real-valued, find

"

1 = #

2

!

+ c = 0 average + 2 2 (t | c power ) n dt |2 = 1 4 in signal (by Parseval's Thm)

= 4 1

1

j 2# (1 \$ e \$ j # 2 )

= 2
j
1
=
#
2

d1 = 2 | c1 | = 2

%1 = &c1 = &

2# (1 + j )

j 2# (1 \$ e \$ j # 2 ) = & j 2# (1 + j ) = # /4 \$ (# /2) = \$# /4

1

1

2

!

"

n =1

2 | c

n

| 2

.

(c) Find the value of c 0

Solution:

2

!

"

n

=1

4

#

0

x

(d) If x(t) is the input of an ideal low-pass filter with absolute bandwidth 2 rad/s and H(j0)=1, find the output of this filter. Solution:

=

2" # ! 1 = "

4

n

+ "c1 2 ) , =

! n

! 2

= " , j L 2! 1 (1 # e # j! / 2 )

Therefore only the D.C. term and the fundamental will pass through an ideal low

pass filter with absolute bandwidth 2 rad/s. Thus the output of the filter is

+

2 | c1 | cos( !

2

t

c

=

0

4
1
+
!
2

cos( ! 2 j 2! 1 (1 # e # j! / 2 ))

t

+ "

4
1
+ 2

cos( ! 2 t # ! 4 )

10. Consider the following block diagram of an LTI system

x(t)

h

(t ) = ! (t " 1)

H

( j ! ) = e " j 2!

H ( j! ) =

j!

y(t)

Find the output y(t) if the input x(t) is given by x (t ) = te ! t u (t ) .

Solution:

The first system is simply a delay of 1 second, the second system is a delay of 2 seconds and the third system is differentiation. Therefore

y (t ) =

dx (t ! 3)

dt

.

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11. Consider the system shown below

x(t)

r(t)

H 1 ( j ! 2 cos(3t ) = | H ) 1 ( j ! ) |

1
-4
-3
3
4

H 1 ( j ! )

s(t)

v(t)

H 2 ( j ! )

y(t)

!

2 cos(3t ) H 2 ( j ! ) |

|

1
-1
1

!

! H 2 ( j " )

1
-1

!

Assume that X ( j! ) = 0 for | ! | > 1. Give the simplest possible expression for y(t) in terms of x(t).

Solution:

The first two mixers and filters (assuming that the second filter has zero phase) simply recover x(t). The linear phase of the second filter introduces a 1 second time delay.

 y (t ) = x (t ! 1) . R ( j! ) X ( j! )
 1 -1 1

!

7

 1 -4 -3 -2 2 3 4

!

| Y ( j! ) |

 1 -1 1

!

Y ( j! ) = | Y ( j! ) | e " j!

= | X ( j! ) | e " j!

#

 S ( j! ) 1 -4 -3 3 4 V ( j! )

!

 1 -7 -6 -1 1 6 7

y (t ) =

x (t " 1)

8

!

12. The output of

a LTI system is y (t ) = e ! 2 t u ( t ) when the input is x (t ) = (e !4 t ! e ! 2 t ) u (t ) .

Find the output of this LTI system when the input is x (t ) = 2 cos(4 t + ! / 3) .

Solution:

(1)

(2) Compute

Find X ( j! ) and Y ( Y j! ( j! ) )

x (t ) = cos(! H t ( + j! " ) ) # =

X ( j! )

(3) Note for any LTI system a sinusoidal input yields a sinusoidal output, that is

y (t ) = | H " y ( (t j! 4 ) + ) = | | cos(! H ( j! t ) + | cos(! " + \$ t H + ( " j!

+ ) \$ H ( j! )

Though depending on the problem, other approaches may lead to the same final

answer, the method of choice for finding the output for a sinusoidal input is

always

x (t ) = cos(! t + " ) #

1

1 2 + " j!

=

j!

2

H ( j! ) = Y X ( ( j! j! ) ) =

1

4 + j! 2 + j!

2 and \$H ( j 4) = "% + % = " 3%

4

4

t

+ " / 3 + # H ( j 4 ))

! #| 4 y H (t ( ) 2 j = 4) cos(4 2 |= | H 2 t ( \$ j 4 12 5" ) | ) cos(4

=

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