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Content

1.

Introduction

  • 2. Materials

  • 3. Process

  • 4. Result

  • 5. Merits & Demerits

  • 6. Applications

  • 7. Conclusion

  • 8. Reference

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Introduction…… ..

  • It is a new emerging technology which helps to convert non recycled plastics into an array of fuels, crude oils and industrial feed stocks.

  • This technology not only convert plastics to liquid fuel but also into gaseous fuels.

  • This technology is also known as Plastic to-Fuel” .

What is plastic ?

  • The term “plastics” includes materials composed of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulphur.

  • Plastics are macromolecules, formed by polymerization and having the ability to be shaped by the application of reasonable amount of heat and pressure or any other form of forces.

  • It is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem.

  • Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the manufacturing of plastics.

Why do we need to convert waste plastic into fuel ?

  • According to a recent study performed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approximately billion of tons of waste plastic are generated in the world every year.

  • Statistics show that approximately 10% of this plastic is recycled, 25% is incinerated and the remaining 65% is dumped in landfills.

  • The cost of waste plastic management is around $2800/ton of waste plastics.

  • Incineration is an alternative to landfill disposal of plastic wastes, but this practice could result in the formation of unacceptable emissions of gases such as nitrous oxide, sulfur oxides, dusts, dioxins and other toxins.

  • The option of secondary recycling or mechanical recycling, which is the reprocessing of plastic waste into new plastic products with a lower quality level, is not showing any signs of growth in the recycling industry

  • The method of converting the polymers present in the waste plastics into Fuel.

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Selection of plastic……

Selection of plastic…… Reference: Thermofuel – “ Pyrolysis of waste plastic to produce Liquid Hydroocarbons ”

Reference: Thermofuel – “ Pyrolysis of waste plastic to produce Liquid Hydroocarbons” Dr. P.V. Thorata*, Miss. Sandhya Warulkara ,Miss.Harshal Sathonea a*Head of Department , a Assistant Professor a Department of Polymer Technology, College of engineering and technology Akola, NH6, Murtizapur Road,

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Selection of plastic……

Selection of plastic…… 7

Methodology…….

1)

Process

Pyrolysis

  • Thermal

Pyrolysis

  • Catalytic

pyrolysis

2) Smuda Process 3) Hitachi Process

Block diagram of Pyrolysis process…… ..

Fuel Tank
Fuel
Tank

Conversion of plastic waste into liquid fuel…

1.Plastic Wastej 5.Fuel Tank
1.Plastic
Wastej
5.Fuel Tank

Result & discussion…

  • The curve shows that maximum mass loss related to volatilization of

hydrocarbons

occurred at 673K. Total

99.98 % mass changes occurred from 448.5K to 673K. The residue mass

was 0.2 % and was

found constant upto

1273K

Result & discussion…  The curve shows that maximum mass loss related to volatilization of hydrocarbons

TGA curve of waste LDPE

(low density polyethylene)

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  • It can be seen from the results that maximum conversion

into

liquid product 69.73

% was achieved with

calcium carbide

catalyst

at 623K

temperature.

 It can be seen from the results that maximum conversion into liquid product 69.73 %

Temperature optimization for catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastic

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Typical properties of oil derived from catalytic pyrolysis of oil

obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of waste LDPE

Typical properties of oil derived from catalytic pyrolysis of oil obtained from catalytic pyrolysis of waste

Standards parameter of gasoline, diesel and kerosene oil

Standards parameter of gasoline, diesel and kerosene oil 15

Comparison between oil derived

from pyrolysis & Standard Fuels

S.No

Parameters

Oil derived

Refluxed oil

Gasoline

Diesel

Kerosene

 

with CaC2

Catalyst

  • 1. Density(g/ml)

0.759

0.765

0.736

0.834

0.780-0.82

  • 2. Specific Gravity

0.767

0.766

0.70

0.85

0.78

  • 3. Viscosity

1.084

1.096

0.7750-0.8394

2.0-4.5

0.9-1.5

 

(Centipois)

  • 4. Kinematic Viscosity

1.429

1.432

5.0

3.77-5.0

2.2

 

(mm2/s)

  • 5. Flash Point (K)

359

317

310.8-311

328-333

323-328

  • 6. Freezing Point(K)

255

254

215

219

-------------

  • 7. Gross Calorific Value(MJ/Kg)

43.1

43.3

45.6

43.5-55.7

46.5

Performance characteristics

  • Break thermal efficiency

    • The experimental study on a single cylinder, four-stroke, air cooled DI diesel engine with waste plastic oil5, Results the thermal efficiency is 28.2% at rated power for diesel and for the waste plastic oil it is 27.4%.

Performance characteristics  Break thermal efficiency  The experimental study on a single cylinder, four-stroke, air

Variation of brake thermal efficiency with brake power

  • Break Specific fuel consumption

Brake specific fuel consumption measures how efficiently an engine is using the fuel supplied to produce work. it is inversely proportional to thermal efficiency, The

brake specific fuel consumption for the waste plastic oil varies from 0.574 g/kWh at no load to 10.297

g/kWh at full load for standard injection timing, and it varies

from0.514 g/kWh at no load to 0.235 g/kWh at full load for retarded injection timing. At full load, WPPO blends show the specific fuel consumption higher than the diesel. The main reason for this could be that percent increase in fuel required to operate the

engine is less than the percent increase in brake power due to

relatively less portion of the heat losses at higher loads

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  • Exhaust gas temperature

    • This result in higher exhaust gas temperature in the case of waste plastic oil compared to diesel5. An experiment study on waste plastic oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine proved that the exhaust gas temperature increases with load because more fuel is burnt to meet the power requirement. It seen that in the case of WPO operation, the exhaust gas temperature ranges from 240oC at low load to 450oC at full load whereas in the case of DF operation it ranges from 221oC at low load to 417oC at full load. For WPO 10 and WPO 30, at full load the exhaust gas temperature marginally increases to 420oC and 424oC respectively

 Exhaust gas temperature  This result in higher exhaust gas temperature in the case of

Variation of exhaust gas temperature with load

Reference: Waste plastic Pyrolysis oil Alternative Fuel for CI Engine A Review Pawar Harshal R. and Lawankar Shailendra M. Department of Mechanical Engineering, GCOE, Amravati, MS, INDIA

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Feasibility… ..

Feasibility… ..  The production of the fuels from the waste plastic of various sorts has
  • The production of the fuels from the waste plastic of various sorts has been carried out a number of times to arrive at the unit cost of production. The break - up of the cost for per kg input of the plastic and the related output for the same is depicted in the Table

Process for 1 kg input and yield of the output

Feasibility… ..  The production of the fuels from the waste plastic of various sorts has

Merits…… ..

  • It uses Recyclable plastics as input .

  • Eco friendly .

  • Production cost is less as compared to other resources.

  • Maintenance and Initial investment is low .

Demerits…….

  • Low brake thermal efficiency compared to other fuels.

  • Exhaust gas temperature is more.

Applications in real world….

The

city-based

Sustainable

Technologies

&

Environmental

Projects

(STEPS) plans to set up a plant to convert plastic waste into light diesel, calorific value combustible gas and carbon pellets.

  • The company has succeeded in generating diesel from waste plastic, for which it won the Lockheed Martin Innovations Award three times.

  • Pune Municipal Corporation, India is planning on running a pilot project that will convert plastic into fuel for generators.

  • This technology is helpful in island nations where fuel prices are high.

Conclusion

  • Plastics present a major threat to today's society and environment. Over 14 million tons of plastics are dumped into the oceans annually, killing about 1,000,000 species of oceanic life. Though mankind has awoken to this threat and responded with developments in creating degradable bio plastics , there is still no conclusive effort done to repair the damage already caused.

  • In this regard, the catalytic pyrolysis studied here presents an efficient, clean and very effective means of removing the debris that we have left behind over the last several decades.

  • By converting plastics to fuel, we solve two issues, one of the large plastic seas, and the other of the fuel shortage. This dual benefit, though will exist only as long as the waste plastics last, but will surely provide a strong platform for us to build on a sustainable, clean and green future. By taking into account the financial benefits of

  • such a project, it would be a great boon to our economy.

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