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AVO analysis and Impedance Inversion

Okey Ileka

AVO Analysis

• Introduction

• AVO Pre-processing

• AVO modeling

• AVO parameters

• AVO crossplot analysis

• AVO attributes

• Some application of AVO

• Probabilistic AVO analysis

Impedance Inversion

• Post stack 1D Impedance Inversion

• Far-offset elastic Impedance

• Lambda-mu-rho estimation

• P to S elastic Inversion

• Anisotropic elastic Impedance

• Interpretation of Rock physics template

Introduction

• AVO is the amplitude variation with offset

Introduction

Introduction Castagna lecture notes 5

Castagna lecture notes

Introduction

Introduction Castagna lecture notes 6

Castagna lecture notes

6

Simplified Shuey (1985) Form of the Richards and Frazier (1976) Approximation

R(

θ

) A + B sin

2 θ

A = R

p

A

⎛ Δ V

1

Δ

ρ

p

+

2

V

p

ρ

B R

2R

 

p

s

V

2

Δ

ρ

 

1

Δ

V

p

V

2

Δ

V

s

+

4

s

s

2

V

p

 

2

V

p

 

V

p

2

7

V

s

 

ρ

B ≈− 2

Third Order Approximation

R(

θ

) A + B sin

A =

1 ⎛ Δ V

p

Δ

ρ

+

2

V

p

ρ

2

θ

+ C sin

C

1

2

Δ

V

p

V

V

p

Castagna lecture note

A C

1 Δρ

2

ρ

2

θ

tan

2

8

θ

Hiltermann Approximation

R (θ )

A

2

cos θ

+

G

64748

2.25

Δ

2

σ sin θ

G = A+ B

Castagna lecture note

9

AVO preprocessing

AVO preprocessing Castagna lecture notes 10

Castagna lecture notes

10

11

Castagna lecture note

Factors that amplitudes

• Earth effects

• Acquisition related effects

• Noise

Earth effects

• Spherical divergence

• Absorption

• Transmission losses

• Interbed multiples

• Converted phases

• Tunning effect

• Anisotropy

• structure

Acquisition-related effects and noise

• Acquisition-related effects

• Source reciever arrays • Reciever sensitivity

• Noise

• Source generated noise

• Coherent or random noise

AVO Pre-processing

• Spiking deconvolution and wavelet processing

• Spherical divergence correction

• Surface consistent amplitude balancing

• Multiple removal

• NMO correction

• DMO correction

• Pre-stack migration

AVO preprocesing

AVO preprocesing Castagna lecture notes 16

Castagna lecture notes

16

Castagna lecture notes 17

AVO modeling

Physical Interpretation

R(

θ

) A + B sin

Castagna lecture notes

2

θ

19

(Russel, 1999)

AVO parameters

astag na lecture n otes 21

astagna lecture notes

21

AVO crossplot

From Simm et al., 2000 Castagna lecture notes 23

From Simm et al., 2000

Castagna lecture notes

23

AVO attributes

AVO Indicators/Attributes

• Intercept

• Gradient

• Near and far stacks

• Curvature

• CDP stack

• Change in Poisson’s ratio

• Fluid Factor

Castagna lecture notes

• Intercept minus Gradient

• Intercept plus Gradient

• Intercept times Gradient

• Rp-Rs

• P and S wave velocity contrast

• Density Contrast

• Amoco Indicator F(F-N)

• Lamba-mu-rho

25

Calculated AVO Attributes

A

= intercept

B

= gradient

Shuey 2 Term

= correlation

RC (θ) = A + B (sin²θ)

A

× B

(A

+ B)/2 ~ Rp - Rs

(A

– B)/2 ~ Rs

A

B

C =

A × B

(A

(A

A – C

NI = normal intercept

PR = Poisson reflectivity

= correlation NI × PR

= intercept

= gradient

curvature

NI × PR = intercept = gradient c u r v a t u r e

Shuey 3 Term

RC (θ) = A + B (sin²θ) + C (sin²θ)(tan²θ)

= correlation

+ B)/2 ~ Rp - Rs

– B)/2 ~ Rs

)(tan² θ ) = correlation + B)/2 ~ Rp - Rs – B)/2 ~ Rs Verm-Hilterman

Verm-Hilterman

RC (θ) = NI(cos²θ) + PR(sin²θ)

Castagna lecture notes

26

Roden, 2005

Some application of AVO

• Residual gas saturation (converted waves)

• Flat spot analysis

• Overpressure detection

• Density estimation

Probabilistic AVO analysis

• In probabilistic AVO analysis the AVO parameters and attributes are assigned probability density function (PDF) or cumulative density function (CDF)

Impedance Inversion

• The goal of geophysical inversion is to estimate model parameter from observed data

Impedance Inversion

• Post stack 1D Impedance Inversion

• Far-offset elastic Impedance

• Lambda-mu-rho estimation

• P to S elastic Inversion

• Anisotropic elastic Impedance

• Interpretation of Rock physics template

Poststack 1D impedance Inversion

• Inversion of near stack traces

Acoustic Impedance Inversion

NearNear AngleAngle StackStack tietie WaveletWavelet BandlimitedBandlimited InversionInversion
NearNear
AngleAngle StackStack
tietie
WaveletWavelet
BandlimitedBandlimited
InversionInversion
Sonic,DensitySonic,Density HorizonsHorizons LogsLogs tietie AIAI EarthEarth ModelModel
Sonic,DensitySonic,Density
HorizonsHorizons
LogsLogs
tietie
AIAI EarthEarth
ModelModel
LogsLogs tietie AIAI EarthEarth ModelModel TrendTrend ModelModel MergedMerged AIAI Castagna
TrendTrend

TrendTrend

ModelModel

ModelModel

TrendTrend ModelModel
TrendTrend ModelModel
MergedMerged AIAI
MergedMerged
AIAI

Castagna lecture note

32

Sena, 1997

Far offset elastic Impedance

• Inversion of far offset traces

The Elastic Impedance

α = 1/cos 2 θ

Castagna lecture notes

E = V p α V s β ρ γ

β = -8(V s /V p ) 2 sin 2 θ

γ = 1 + β/2

Sena, 1997

34

Elastic Impedance Inversion

FarFar AngleAngle StackStack tietie WaveletWavelet BandlimitedBandlimited InversionInversion
FarFar
AngleAngle StackStack
tietie
WaveletWavelet
BandlimitedBandlimited
InversionInversion
Sonic,ShearSonic,Shear SonicSonic andand DensityDensity LogsLogs HorizonsHorizons tietie EIEI EarthEarth ModelModel
Sonic,ShearSonic,Shear SonicSonic
andand DensityDensity LogsLogs
HorizonsHorizons
tietie
EIEI EarthEarth
ModelModel
HorizonsHorizons tietie EIEI EarthEarth ModelModel TrendTrend ModelModel MergedMerged EIEI Castagna
TrendTrend

TrendTrend

ModelModel

ModelModel

TrendTrend ModelModel
TrendTrend ModelModel
MergedMerged EIEI
MergedMerged
EIEI

Castagna lecture note

35

Sena, 1997

Lambda Rho estimation

Lambda Rho estimation Hilterman’s lecture note 36

Hilterman’s lecture note

36

P –to- S elastic Inversion

Reflection Coefficients: Angle vs. Offset

σ σ σ σ
σ
σ
σ
σ

Stewart and Gasier lecture note

38

P-S Reflection Coefficient

(Aki & Richards, 1980)

Rps

P-S Reflection Coefficient (Aki & Richards, 1980) Rps First Order Relative S - v e l

First Order Relative

S-velocity change

Stewart and Gasier lecture note

Relative S - v e l o c i t y c h a n g
Relative S - v e l o c i t y c h a n g

Relative density change

39

Anisotropic elastic Inversion

Anisotropy

Anisotropy Hilterman course notes 41

Anisotropic Inversion

Anisotropic Inversion Hilterman course notes 42

Interpretation of Rock Physics Template

• The rock physics template is based on a compiled catalog or atlas of RPT’s calculated by a rock physics expert.

• The seismic interpreter can interpret elastic inversion results without in-depth knowledge about rock physics theory

• Thank you