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1.

0 To design the super structure of one span for a T-beam bridge to be built on a rural
section of a State Highway. The bridge consists of five spans of 14.5 m. Assume
moderate exposure, and cement concrete wearing coat.

Preliminary Dimensions for T-Beam Deck

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Solution:
1. PRELIMINARY DESIGN

Clear roadways = 7.5 m


Assume three T-Beams spaced at 2.5 m intervals
Effective span of T-Beams = 14.5 m
Assume five cross beams at 3.625 m intervals.
The preliminary dimensions may be assumed (based on experience) as shown in figure.
These may be checked later and modified, if necessary. M 25 grade concrete and high yield
deformed bars of S 415 grade to IS: 1786 will be used. Clear cover to reinforcement is taken as
40 mm.
2. DECK SLAB
The slab is supported on four sides by beams.
Thickness of slab H = 215 mm
Thickness of wearing course D = 75 mm
Span in the transverse direction = 2.5 m
Effective span in transverse direction = 2.5 0.2 = 2.2 m
Span in the longitudinal direction = 3.625 m
Effective span in longitudinal direction = 3.625 0.25 = 3.375 m

(i) Maximum B.M due to dead load


Weight of deck slab = 0.215 24 = 5.16 kN/m2
Weight of wearing course = 0.075 22 = 1.65 kN/m2
Total weight = 6.81 kN/m2
Since the slab is supported on all four sides and is continuous, Pigeauds curves will be
used to get influence coefficients to compute moments.
Ratio K = Short span / long span = 2.2 / 3.375 = 0.652
1 / K = 1.53
From Pigeauds Curves, m1 = 0.047 and m2 = 0.0175
Total dead weight = 6.81 2.2 3.375 = 50.56 kN
Moment along short span = (0.047 + 0.15 0.0175) 50.56 = 2.51 kN-m
Moment along long span = (0.0175 + 0.15 0.047) 50.56 = 1.24 kN-m

(ii) Live load B.M due to IRC Class AA Tracked vehicle


Size of one panel of deck slab = 2.5 m 3.625 m
One track of the tracked vehicle is placed symmetrically on the panel as shown in Figure.
7.4 Track contact dimensions are taken from Figure 3.3

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Fig 7.4 Class AA Track Located for Maximum Moment on Deck Slab

Impact factor fraction = 25%


Width of load spread along short span u = (0.85 2 0.075) + 0.215 = 1.025
Similarly width of load spread along longitudinal direction
v = (3.6 2 0.075) + 0.215 = 3.757
K=0.652; u/B = 1.025/2.2 = 0.466; v/L = 3.375/3.375 =1.0
Using Pigeauds Curves
M1 = 7.75 10-2
M2 = 2.675 10-2
Total load per track including impact = 1.25350=437.5 KN
Effective load on the span = 437.53.375/3.756 = 393.1KN
Moment load along shorter Span = ( 7.75+0.15+2.675) 10-2 393.1
= 32.04KN-m
Moment along longer span = (2.675+.157.75) 10-2393.1=15.09KN-m

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Fig 7.5 Disposition of class AA wheeled vehicle for Maximum Moment

iii) Live load B.M.due to IRC Class AA wheeled vehicles


The Class AA wheeled vehicle should be placed on the deck slab panel as shown in figure for
producing the severest moments .The front axle is placed along the centre line with the 62.5KN
wheel at the centre of the panel. Only three wheels per axle, i.e., a total of six wheels, can be
accommodated within the panel. The maximum moments at the centre in the short span and long
span directions are computed for individual wheel loads taken in the order shown.

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a) B.M. due to wheel 1
Consider the load marked in fig 7.5
Tyre contact dimensions are 300150 mm
u = (0.3 + 2 0.075) + 0.215 = 0.503
v = (0.15 + 2 0.075) + 0.215 =0.370m
u /B= 0. 503/2.2 = 0.227; v/L = 0.3703/3.375 = 0.110; K=0.652
Using Pigeauds curves,
m1 = 19.05 10-2
m2 =14.55 10-2
total load allowing for 25% impact = 62.51.25 = 78.1 kN
Moment along short span = (19.05+0.1514.55) 10-2 78.1 = 16.59 kN-m
Moment along long span = (14.05+0.1519.05) 10-2 78.1 = 13.60 kN-m
b) B.M. due to wheel 2
Here the wheel load is placed unsymmetrically with respect to the YY axis of the panel.But
Pigeaud's curves have been derived for loads symmetrical about the centre. Hence we use an
approximate device to overcome the difficulty. We imagine the load to occupy an area placed
symmetrically on the panel and embracing the actual area of loading, with intensity of loading
equal to that corresponding to the actual load (Fig 7.6). We determine the moments in the two
desired directions for this imaginary loading. Then we deduct the moment for a symmetrical
loaded area beyond the actual loaded area. Half of the resulting value is taken as the moment due
to the actual loading.

Intensity of loading = (62.51.25) / (0.503.0375) =41.42 kN/m2


Consider the loaded area of 2.2 0.375m (Fig. 7.6)
For this area, m1 = 8.2510-2 ; m2 = 8.010-2
Moment along short span = (8.25+0.158.0)10-22.20.37541.42 = 32.29kN-m
Moment along long span = 31.56kN-m
Next Consider the area between the real and dummy load, i.e., 1.496m0.375m.
For this area, m1 = 11.310-2 ; m2 = 10.3510-2
Moment along short span = (11.3+0.1510.35)10-21.4960.37541.42 = 27.89kN-m
Moment along long span = 26.14 kN-m
Net B.M. along short span = 0.5(32.29-27.89) = 2.20kN-m
Net B.M. along long span = 0.5(31.56-26.14) = 2.71 kN-m

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Fig 7.6 Details of Disposition of Wheel 2

( c ) B.M Due to wheel 3

By similar procedure as for Case ( B) we get

B.M along short span = 2.98 Kn-m

B.M along long span = 3.66 Kn-m

( d ) B.M due to wheel 4

Here the load is eccentric with respect to XX axis. By similar procedure as for case (b) but the
load area extended with respect to XX axis, we get

B.M along short span = 3.11 Kn-m

B.M along long span = 2.77 Kn-m

( e ) B.M due to wheel 5

In this case the loading is eccentric with respect to both XX and YY axis. A strict
Simulation of the symmetric loading conditions would lead to complicated and laborious

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Calculations. Hence as a reasonable approximation only the accentricity with respect to xx axis
is considered and the calculations are made as for case (d)

Net B.M. along short span =2.18kN-m

Net B.M. along long span =1.94kN-m

(f) Total B.M. due to wheel 6

By procedure similar to case (e),

Net B.M. along short span =1.87kN-m

Net B.M. along long span =1.66kN-m

(g) Total B. M. Due to all wheels on the span

The total effect is computed as summation of individual effects.

Total B.M. along short span = 16.59+2.20+2.98+3.11+2.18+1.87

=28.93 kN-m

Total B.M. along long span = 26.34 kN-m

(iv) Design B.M.

Class AA tracked vehicle causes heavier moment than wheeled vehicle along the short
span direction, Class AA wheeled vehicle gives the severer effect. The loads causing maximum
effects are adopted for design moments.

The above computations assumed a simply supported condition along the four edges, In
fact, the deck slab is continuous. To allow for continuity, the computed moments are multiplied
by a factor 0.8.

Design B.M. along short span =(2.51 + 32.04) 0.8

=27.64 kN-m

DesignB.M. along long span =(1.24 + 26.34) 0.8

=22.07 kN-m

(v) Reinforcement

cb= 8.3MPa; =200MPa ; j= 0.90 ; and R = 1.10

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Effective depth required = 27.6410001000
----------------------- = 159mm
1.101000

Effective depth provided

Assuming 12mm diameter main bars = 215 -40-6 =169mm

Hence the provision of total depth of 215 mm is safe.

Area of main reinforcement 27.6410001000


= -------------------------- = 909mm2
2000.90169

Adopt 12mm dia. Bars at 110 mm centres, giving an area of 1028 mm2

Area of longitudinal reinforcement 22.0710001000


= ------------------------- = 781mm2
2000.90157
Adopt 12mm dia. Bars at 145 mm centres, giving an area of 781 mm2

(i) Moment due to dead load

The total maximum moment due to dead load per meter width of cantilever slab is computed
as in the following table, using details from fig

S.No Description Load Lever Moment

1 Handrails (approx) 1.74 1.4 2.44


2 Kerb 0.4750.2724 3.13 1.34 4.19
3 Wearing course 1.81 0.55 1
1.10.07522
4 Slab 1.5750.124 3.78 0.79 2.99
0.50.251.57524 4.72 0.52 2.45
Total 13.07

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Figure 7.7 Cantilever slab with class A wheel

(ii) Moment due to live load

Due to the specified minimum clearance. Class AA loading will not operate on the
cantilever slab. Class A loading is to be considered and the load will be as shown in fig

Effective width of dispersion be is computed by equation (A.2)

be = 1.2 x + bw

Here x = 0.70

bw = 0.25+2x0.075=0.40m

Hence be = 1.24 m

Live load per m width including impact = 57x1.5/1.24 = 68.95 kN

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Maximum moment due to live load = 68.95x 0.7=48.26 kN.m
(iii) Reinforcement
Total moment due to dead and live load = 13.07 + 48.26 = 61.33 KN.m
61.3310001000
Effective depth required = = 236 mm
1.101000
Effective depth provided = 350-40-8=302 mm
61.3310001000
Area of main reinforcement required = = 1128 mm2
2000.90302
Adopt 16 mm dia. bars at 220 mm centres plus 12 mm dia. Bars at 220 mm centres giving a total
area of 1428 mm2
B.M. for distributors = 0.2x13.07+0.3x48.26=17.09 KN-m
17.0910001000
Area of distributors = = 329 mm2
2000.90289
Provide 10 mm dia. Bars at 220 mm centres giving an area of 357 mm2
7.3.4 INTERMEDIATE LONGITUDINAL GIRDER
(i) Data
Effective span = 14.5 m
Slab thickness = 215 mm
Width of rib = 300 mm
Spacing of main beams = 2500 mm
Overall depth of beam = 1575 mm
(ii) B.M. due dead load
Dead load per m run is estimated as below:

S.No. Item Details Weight


kN

1. Wearing course 2.5x075x22 4.12


2. Deck slab 2.5x0.215x24 12.90
3. T-rib 0.3x1.1.35x24 9.72
4. Fillets 2x0.5x0.30x0.15x24 1.08
5. Cross beams (5x2.2 1.05x
(Total weight divided 0.25x240/15.1 32.41
by total length)

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Figure 7.8 Transverse Disposition of Two Trans of Class A Loading For Determination of
Reactions on Longitudinal Beams
32.4114.514.5
Maximum B.M. = = 852 kN-m
8
(iii) B.M. due to live load
Maximum live load B.M. would occur under Class A two lane loading.
4.5
Impact factor fraction = = 0.22
6+14.5

The loading is arranged in the transverse direction as shown in Fig. 7.8, allowing the minimum
clearance near the left kerb. All the four wheel loads are of equal magnitude.
Live load B.M. can be determined by using any of the following methods:
a) Courbons method
b) Hendry-Jaegar method
c) Morice-Little method
The use of the first two methods is detailed here. In any practical design, it is adequate to use any
of the above three methods.
(iv) Live load B.M. Courbons method
The conditions for the applicability of Courbons method are satisfied. Equation (B.1) is used
to determine the reaction factors.
Here, P = 4 W; n = 3; e = 0.7 m
It is assumed that the values of l for all the three girders are equal.
Reaction factor for girder A
4 3
= [1 + 2.5 0.7] = 1.89
3 2(2.52 )

Similarly
4
= (1 + 0) = 1.33
3

= 4 (1.89 + 1.33) = 0.78

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Fig 7.9 Arrangement of wheel loads in the Longitudinal direction for Maximum
Moment

In the longitudinal direction, the first six loads of a Class A train can be accommodated
on the span. The centre of gravity of this load system will be found to be located at a distance of
6.42m from the first wheel. The loads are arranged on the span as shown in figure 7.9 such that
the maximum moment will occur under the fourth load from left. The loads shown in the figure
are corresponding class A train loads multiplied by 1.33, the reaction factor at the intermediate
beam obtained as above and further multiplied by the impact factor of 1.22. for example, the first
load of 21.9kN is the product of the first train load of 13.5Kn and the factor 1.33 and 1.22

For the conditions shown in 7.9 the maximum bending moment occurring under the
fourth load from left is found to be 750.4kN/m
(v) Live Load B.M. Hendry-Jaegar method
To evaluate the parameter A by Equation (B.2), the moment of inertia of transversal and
longitudinal girders I should be computed. The sections of intermediate longitudinal girder and
intermediate cross beam can be taken from fig 7.2 and 7.3 assuming the top flange width to be
the spacing of respective beam.
Values of moments of inertia about the neutral axis (taken as axis through centre of
gravity of gross section) will be obtained as below:
M.I of Longitudinal girder l=0.4347m4
M.I of cross Beam lt=0.1229m4
From Equation (B.2),

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12 14.5 3 5 0.1229
Parameters A = ( ) 0.4347
4 2.5
= 34

For the purpose of the design, coefficients for F = x will be adopted. Using figure B.3 and
B.4 the distribution coefficients for A=34 will be obtained as in table 7.1

Table 7.1 Distribution Coefficients


Distribution Coefficients for
Unit load _____________________________________________________
on girder Girder A Girder B Girder C
A 0.40 0.32 0.28
B 0.32 0.36 0.32
C 0.28 0.32 0.40

Treating the deck slab as continuous in the transverse direction , the support moments
at the locations of the three longitudinal girders due to the loading shown in Fig .7.8. are
computed using the method of moment distribution. The moments at A, B, and C will be
found to be- 0.85W1 0.19W and 0,respectively.Reactoins RA, RB, and RC are determined
from the support moments.
RA = 1.884 W
RB = 1.352 W
RC = 0.764 W
These reactions are treated as loads on the interconnected girder system and multiplying
these by the respective distribution coefficients and adding the results under each girder , the
the final reaction at each girder is obtained as shown in Table 7.2
Maximum bending moment on the intermediate beam is obtained by proportion from
the value computed by Courbons method.
Maximum B.M. = 750.4/1.33 1.334 = 753 KN-m
Table 7.2 Determination of Reaction Factors
___________________________________________________________________________
Reaction
Load Girder A Girder B Girder C

1. 1.884 W 0.40 1.884 W 0.32 1.884 W 0.28 1.884 W


On girder A =0.754W = 0.603W =0.528W

2. 1.352 W 0.32 1.352W 0.36 1.352W 0.32 1.352W


On girder B =0.433W =0.487W =0.433W

3. 0.764 W 0.28 0.764W 0.32 0.764W 0.40 0.764W


On girder C =0.213W =0.244W =0.305W

Net reaction 1.400W 1.334W 1.266W


___________________________________________________________________________

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(vi) Design maximum B.M.
Live load B.M obtained from Hendry-jaegar method will be adopted. Design B.M=Moment due to
D.L. + Moment due to L.L.=852+753=1605 kN-m

(vii)Design of section
Effective flange width for the T-beam section will be determined as per clause 305.15.2
of IRC Bridge code
Effective flange width = thickness of the web + 0.2 0.7 effective span
= 0.3 + 0.14 14.5 = 2.33 m
Allowing a distance of 120 mm from the bottom of T-beam to the centre of gravity of
rods , and assuming the centre of compression to be 120 mm below the top, and allowing a stress of 180
MPa as permissible stress at the centre of gravity of the steel area, area of steel required

AS = 1605 106
180 ( 1575 120 120)

Provide 12 bars of 28 mm dia. in three rows of four bars each.


AS provided = 7389 mm 2
For, the arrangement of bars adopted, the actual stresses in the extreme steel fibre and the
extreme concrete fibre should be computed and checked to be within permissible values.
In this case, the neutral axis is located at 122 mm below the top. The c.g. of reinforcement is at
120 mm above the bottom of rib.
Effective depth = 1455 mm
The actual stresses will be found to be within limits.
Assuming the stress at bottom row of steel to be 200 MPa, stresses at other rows are found by
proportion of the distance from neutral axis.
Stresses at middle row = 191 MPa
Stresses at top row = 182 MPa
Resisting moment of each 28 mm diameter bar at the bottom row

= 615 200 ( 1455 122/3 ) = 173.6 kN-m


R.M. of each 28 mm bar at middle row = 165.8 kN-m
R.M. of each 28 mm bar at top row = 158.0 kN- m
R.M. at centre of span = 4 (173.6 + 165.8 + 158.0) = 1990 kN- m

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The beam is divided into 6 equal parts and the values of B.M. and shear are calculated at each
section using influence lines. The values are tabulated in Table 7.3
Table 7.3 Moments and shears at different sections

Section Distance Maximum moment KN m Max. shear kN Required


No. From D.L L.L Total D.L. L.L Total spacing of
Support 4 10
m Stirr ups mm
________________________________________________________________________________

1 0 0 0 0 223 235 458 120


2 2.4 446 341 787 149 180 329 120
3 4.8 815 392 1207 75 128 203 135
4 7.25 987 439 1426 70 77 77 200
_____________________________________________________________________
Tensile reinforcement bars may be curtailed as the moment reduces. An extension of atleast 12
diameters or 300 mm whichever is greater should be provided beyond the points of theoretical cut off
.The curtailed bars should be bent up and anchored in the compression zone. The bar curtailment diagram
is shown in fig 7.10.

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Web reinforcement should be provided to cater for shear, in accordance with the rules for shear
reinforcement. In this case, 10mm dia 4-legged stirrups are provided and the required spacings
are shown in table 7.3.

longitudinal girder.

B.M. due to D.L.=852kN-m

Reaction factor for end beam according to Hendry-Jaegar method = 1.40

Hence max. B.M. due to L.L. =(750.4/1.33)1.40 = 790 kN-m

For the purpose of design, the maximum moment due to L.L. is increased by 10%.

Design L.L. B.M=1.10790=869kN-m

Total design B.M.=852+869=1721kN-m

Provide 14 bars of 28 mm dia. given an area of 8620 mm2.

The other computations are as for intermediate longitudinal girder.

7.3.6 INTERMEDIATE CROSS BEAM

(i) Data

As indicated in section 7.2.8, an approximate design is usually adequate. However, for


the purpose of illustration, a more rigorous design is given here.

Spacing of cross beam =3.625mm

Effective span =2.5-0.3=2.2m

Impact factor fraction for 2.2m span for

Class AA-tracked vehicle =0.25

Class AA-wheeled vehicle =0.25

Class A loading =0.55

(ii)Bending moment due to dead load

The weight of slab and wearing coat will be apportioned between the cross beams and the
longitudinal girders in accordance with the trapezoidal distribution of the loads on the panel, as
shown in Fig.7.11

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Weight of the deck slab and wearing course per m2

=0.21524+0.07522=6.8kN/m2

Total load on cross beam due to slab by trapezoidal distribution

=20.52.2(2.2/2)6.8 = 16.5kN

Self-weight of cross beam and weight of wearing coat over the cross beam

=20.251.2524+2.20.250.07522 = 17.4kN

Total dead load on cross beam is one span= 33.9kN

The cross beam is continuous over two spans. The exterior girders restrain the cross beam
at the ends, and at the middle girder, the beam approaches a fixed condition. The exact degree of
restraint at the girder locations is difficult to determine, and is somewhere intermediate between
the free and fixed condition. Moment coefficients are listed in standard exts7 for free and fixed
ends and for uniform and concentrated loads, for multiple spans.

Fig.7.11 Deck Panel Showing Trapezoidal Distribution of Dead Load


Weighted coefficient are chosen as the sum of one-third of the value corresponding to the case of
two-span continuous beam with free ends and two-thirds of the value corresponding to a single
fixed ended span.
Coefficient for maximum positive bending moment
= (1/3) x 0.07 + (2/3) x 0.042 = 0.051
Coefficient for maximum negative bending moment

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= (1/3) x 0.125 + (2/3) x 0.083 =0.097
Positive B.M. =0.051x3.39x2.2x1=3.8 KN-m
Negative B.M. =0.097x3.39x2.2x1=7.2 KN-m
(iii) Bending moment due to live load
Class AA tracked vehicle produces severer effect that the other loadings Fig 7.12 shows
the disposition of one track on a cross beam.
1.675 2.662 0.25
Load on cross beam =2(350 3.625 )+350 263 KN
3.6 3.6

Coefficient of maximum positive B.M due to concentrated load


= (1/3) x 0.203 + (2/3) x 0.125 = 1.151
Coefficient of maximum negative B.M due to concentrated load
= (1/3) x 0.188 x (2/3) 0.125 = 0.146
Positive B.M. including impact = 0.151x 263 x 2.2 x 1.25 = 109 KN-m
Negative B.M. including impact = 0.146 x 263 x 2.2 x 1.25 = 109 KN-m
(iv) Design of section
Design positive B.M. = 3.8+109 =112.8 kN-m
Effective depth = 1275-73= 1202 mm

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Area of steel required =(112.8106)/(2000.901202)= 521mm2
Add 0.3% of area of the beam to give additional stiffness to the beam
Additional area of steel =(0.3/100)2501219 = 901 mm2
Total area of the steel required = 521+901 = 1422mm2
Provide 6 bars of 22giving an area of 2281mm2
Design negative B.M.=7.2+106=113.2kN-m
Area of steel required = (113.2106)/(2000.901202) = 523mm2
Provide 3 bars of 22 giving an area of 1140mm2
(v)Provision for shear
Arrange Class AA tracked vehicle as shown in Fig.7.13.
Total load on cross beam due to track as found in (iii) = 263kN
Shear near girder C =263(2.0/2.2)+((2630.375)/0.85)(0.375/(22.2))=249kN
Shear including impact of 25% =311kN
Shear due to dead load =17kN
(computation not shown here)
Total shear = 328kN
Shear stress = (3281000)/(2500.901202) = 1.2 Mpa

Fig 7.13 Disposition of Class AA Tracked Vehicle for Maximum Shear on Cross Beam

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4-legged stirrups of 10 mm diameter rods at spacing of 150mm will be adequate. Two bars of
22mm are provided as cranked bars as additional provision to cater to diagonal tension.

(vi) By nominal provisions

For comparison, the nominal provisions are tried.

0.5
Area of steel required at bottom = 250 1275 = 1594 2
100

0.25
Area of steel required at top = 250 1275 = 7972
100

Use 6-22mm at bottom and 3-22mm at top.

Nominal shear reinforcement 4-legged stirrups 10mm @ 150mm c/c

End Cross Beam

The design of the end cross beam can be done on the same lines as for the intermediate
cross beam. The depth of the end cross beam is adopted the same as for the longitudinal girder
for 1000mm at the supports and as for intermediate cross beam for the remaining portion.

The bottom reinforcement at mid span of the cross beam between two longitudinal
girders may be taken as half of that for the intermediate cross beam, i.e. three bars of 22mm, in
addition to the two cranked bars of 22mm diameter. The top reinforcement may be taken as three
bars of 22mm diameter, plus two cranked bars of 22 mm diameter.

The locations of four jacks for lifting provision are indicated on the end cross beams. At
each of these locations, two layers of 6mm mesh reinforcement of suitable size are provided.One
layer at 20mm and the other at 100mm from the concrete surfaces. Similar mesh reinforcement
of suitable size in two layers are provided at the supports above the bearings

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