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- POLEFDN
- Case Study Housing
- Aranya Housing Case Study
- Building Over Muskeg
- Cantilever Retaining Wall_Rameswaram
- Pile Cushion
- Solar Mounting Structure Design for BTS Site
- Micropile Brochure
- Vikas Ct Report
- H23GGEE1-09
- Design of Pile and Pile Cap Final
- Pile Formula PSP
- Civil VI Sem
- ppt metro
- Borepile Form
- Guidance
- Ground Improvement Techniques
- Pile Foundation Design
- Pile Cap Design Document
- Case History of Osterberg Cell Testing of a _1500mm Bored Pile an(1)

Sei sulla pagina 1di 47

Introduction:

Raft foundations (sometimes known as Mat Foundations) are a large concrete slab which

can support a number of columns and walls. The slab is spread out under the entire

building or at least a large part of it which lowers the contact pressure compared to the

traditionally used strip or trench footings. Because of the speed and volume of houses

required after the Second World War, the raft foundation was widely used. The raft

foundation was cheaper, easier to install and most importantly, did not require as much

excavation as the usual strip foundations. When the Building Regulations were introduced

in 1965 there were no generic rules for raft foundations as there were for strip foundations.

This meant that to use a raft foundation, it had to be designed and approved by Building

Control. This made the entire operation much more difficult and time consuming so raft

foundations became less widely used almost overnight.

Rafts are most often used these days when the strata is unstable or (because of this)

a normal strip foundation would cover more than 50% of the ground area beneath

the building.

Page | 1

There are also situations (usually in areas where mining has occurred) where there

may be areas of movement in the strata.

They are much more commonly used in the construction of commercial building in

the UK that they are for domestic homes, but can be used very successful in both

situations. To understand when it is better to use raft foundations, you need to

understand how they work.

A raft foundation spreads the weight of the building over the whole ground floor area of

that building. The raft is laid on a hardcore, or scalping bed and usually thickened at the

edges, especially in very poor ground. Rafts are most suitable when the ground is of good

load bearing capacity and little work is required to get a solid foundation.

The foundation may stiffened by ribs or beams built in during construction which will add

extra strength and rigidity.

it is used for large loads, which is why they are so common in commercial building

which tend to be much larger, and therefore heavier, than domestic homes

The soil has a low bearing capacity so the weight of the building needs to be spread

The ratio of individual footings to total floor space is high. Typically if the footings

would cover over half of the construction area then raft foundation would be used

Page | 2

If the walls of the building are so close that it would cause the individual footings to

Raft foundations tend to be cheaper and quicker to use than traditional footings. There are

a number of reasons why this is the case:

The foundation and floor slab is combined, which saves time and materials

Other reasons that make raft foundations preferable to footings are due to their

engineering benefits. They are ideal for poor ground condition where normal footings

would not cope well as they cannot spread the load as effectively.

Related to this is that raft foundations can reduce differential settlement, where settlement

occurs at different rates across the ground surface of the building, which reduces cracking

and other more serious problems.

The main disadvantage is that they can prone to edge erosion if they are not treated

properly. They are not effective is the load of the building is going to be focused on a

single point, although this is rare in domestic construction, so this isn't generally of

concern.

Classification of Rafts:

Different types of raft foundations are used to meet different geotechnical, structural

requirements and to mitigate uncertainties. It is classified based on

Support condition

Structural system

Depending on supporting method they are classified in three categories:

Raft on soil

Raft on piles

Buoyancy raft

Depending on structural system they are also classified in three categories:

a. Rafts having uniform thickness of slab, sometimes they may have pedestal

b. Raft with beams & slab system;

c. Framed raft or cellular raft having foundation slab, columns, walls rendering essential

rigidity to structure.

Page | 3

1.1 Design a raft foundation supporting the columns of a building Fig shows the position

of the columns. The load of each column 400kN, Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Safe bearing capacity of the soil is 120 kN/m2

Solution:

5280

Area of the raft foundation = 120

= 44 m2

44

Width required for the raft slab = = 1.22 metre

36

4800

Net upwards pressure intensity on the raft slab = = 106.67 kN/m2

36 1.25

Page | 4

Design of raft slab

Projection of the raft slab from the face of the raft beam

1.250.35

= = 0.45m

2

Consider a 1 metre wide strip of the raft slab cantilevering from the face of the beam.

106.67 0.452

Maximum bending moment = = 10.80 kN m

2

Equating Mu,lim to Mu

d = 77 mm

16.2 106

= = 1.62

2 100 1002

Percentage of steel required

4.6

1 1 1.62

20

= 50 = 0.50 %

415

[ 20 ]

0.50

= 1000 100 = 5002

100

Ast = 0.50 x 1000x 100 = 500 mm2

Upward load transmitted to the beam per metre run = w = 106.67x 1.25 = 133.33 kN m

Page | 5

2 32

Maximum bending moment = = 133.33 = 120

10 10

d = 432 mm

10

Providing 16mm bars, overall depth = 432 + (50 + 2

+ 16

2

) = 432 + 63 = 495

180 106

= = 1.493

2 350 5872

Percentage of steel required

4.6

1 1 1.493

20

= 50 = 0.457 %

415

[ 20 ]

0.457

= 350 587 = 9392

100

Maximum shear force = 0.6 wl = 0.6 x 133.3 x 3 = 240 kN

360 103

Nominal shear stress = = 1.75 /2

350 587

1005

Percentage of steel provided = 100 = 0.49 %

350 587

Page | 6

Shear resistance of the concrete = = 0.47 350 587 = 96561

Net shear = = 360000 96561 = 263439

0.87 415 4 79 587

Spacing of 4 legged 10mm stirrups= = 254

263439

The above spacing may be adopted for a distance of 1 metre from each support. For the

middle 1 metre length 2-legged 8mm diameter stirrups at 250mm c/c

Page | 7

1.2.DESIGN:

A building rests on six columns 450 mm 450 mm arranged as shown in figure. Each

central column carries a load of 800 KN and the end columns carry 500 KN each.

Design a raft foundation for the column. The design shall also allow for a wind load

moment of 1200 KN about the base of the raft. Use M 20 Concrete and Fe 415 Steel.

Solution:

Total = 3960 KN

Pmin = 34.9 KN / m2

Page | 8

Pressure due to weight of foundation= 360/(12 7) = 4.3 KN/m2

Since the columns are 450 mm 450 mm, let the width of the

main beams be 500 mm.

= 55.1 [(55.1 30.6) / 7] 0.75 = 52.5 KN / m2

This acts at [(52.5 + 2 55.1) / (52.5 + 55.1)] (0.75 / 3) meter from the edge of beam

Maximum Bending moment for the cantilever slab per meter width = 40.4 0.39 KNm

= 15.7 KNm

Equating Mu,lim to Mu

Therefore d = 93 mm

Page | 9

Page | 10

Effective depth d = 180 (60 + 5) = 115 mm

should be designed for an upward pressure corresponding to a section at a distance half the

spacing of the secondary beams from the center of the main beams.

In our case, the pressure is calculated at a distance of 1 + (5/6) = 1.83 m from the edge

of the foundation.

Maximum bending moment per meter width = (48.7 / 12) (5 / 3) 2 =11.27 KNm

Page | 11

Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 11.27 = 16.905 KNm.

The loading on an intermediate secondary beam is less than that on the end secondary beam.

The loading on the end secondary beam varies

Page | 12

From 51.6 1 (5 / 6) = 94.6 KN / m

To 34.1 1 (5 / 6) = 62.5 KN / m

= 2.67 m from A

Vb 5 = 392.8 2.67

Vb = 209.7 KN

Maximum Bending Moment: This occurs at a section where the shear force is zero.

Equating the general expression for shear force to zero, we have

S = x2 + 19.47 x 57.05 = 0

Page | 13

= [(62.5 2.582) / 2] + [(3.21 2.582) / 3] (183.1 2.58) KNm

= 246.02 KNm

Breadth of flange

(ii) ( l / 6 ) + br + 6ds = (5000 / 6) + 350 + (6 180) = 2263 mm

Hence width of the flange B = 2263 mm. Assuming the neutral axis to lie within the flange

and equating the ultimate moment of resistance to the factored moment,

Page | 14

Shear Analysis

Nominal Shear Stress at the end B = (314.55 103) / (350 720) = 1.25 N/mm2

Nominal Shear Stress at the end a = (274.65 103) / (350 720) = 1.09 N/mm2

Percentage of steel provided = (Ast / bd) 100 = (1570 / (350 720)) 100 = 0.62%

Page | 15

Main Beams

(ii) Upward uniformly distributed load transferred by the slab cantilevering from the

main beams.

(iii) Downward column loads.

The load system acting on the main beam is shown in figure. Let the resultant point load at

each end be Q. Resolving forces on the main beam vertically, we have,

Q = 343.25 KN

Page | 16

S.F Calculations

Sa = -343.25 KN

B.M Calculations

Ma = 0

x = 2.86 m

Mmax = -343.25 2.86 + [(53.35 / 2) (2.86)2] + 190.6 (2.86 (5 / 3)) = -536.7 KNm

Page | 17

Percentage of steel required

Shear reinforcement

= 237 mm

Page | 18

Shear Resistance of concrete = c bd = 0.51 500 920 = 234600 N

= 298 mm

Page | 19

3. Design a raft foundation for the layout of columns shown in Figure

(a). All columns are of square shape of size 40X40 cm. ADSP=80 kN/m3. Use M 15

concrete and Fe 415 steel Assume 10% as the load of raft and soil above.

Solution:

A. Design of Raft Slab

+1000+800+1000+1200+600 = 14000kN

loads about grid 1-1

=

14000

= 9.1714

ex = 9.1714-(6+3) = 0.1714m

loads about the

grid C-C

5[ (800 + 1800 + 2000 + 1000) + 10 (600 + 1600 + 2000 + 600)]

=

14000

= 5.4285

Page | 20

19.411.43

ey = 5.4285-5 = 0.4285m Ix = = 2395.16 4

12

11.419.43

Iy = = 6936.31 4 A = 19.4 x 11.4 = 221.16 m2

12

14000

= = 63.302kN/m2

221.16

=

2400 6000

= 63.302

6936.31 2395.16

= 63.302 0.346 x 2.505 y

Bearing Bending Shear force Deflection

pressure moment(KN- (KN) (mm)

(KN/m2 ) m)

Conventional factor =18.08

Design load

design =416.22 =658.22 =688.13 =12.05

load

Design using 440.576 at 631.628 at

BEF 205.05 at X=6680mm X=6680mm

(with design X=0mm 5.86mm at

load only) -299.937 at -564.460 at X=0mm

X=2227mm X=724mm

Page | 21

At corner A-4

= 80.93kN/m2

At corner C-4

= 74.225 kN/m2

At corner A-1

At corner C-1

= 45.67 kN/m2

At corner B-4

=66.658 kN/m2

At corner B-1

= 59.943 kN/m2

Page | 22

In the X-direction the raft is divided in three strips that is three equivalent

beams

80+66.65

2) Beam B-B with 5.0m width and soil pressure of ( )=

2

73.325 /2

66.65+52.38

3) Beam C-C with 5.0m width and soil pressure of ( )=

2

59.52 /2

1

The bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient and L as the center to

10

center of column distance

2

M=

10

For strip AA

8062

Maximum moment = = 288 /

10

For strip BB

73.3262

Maximum moment = = 263.95 /

10

For Strip CC

59.5262

Maximum moment = = 214.272 /

10

2

For any strip in the Y- direction take M= Since there is only a two span

8

equivalent beam for strip 4-4.

8054

Maximum moment = = 250 /

8

The depth of the raft is governed by two way shear at one of exterior columns.

If the location of critical shear it is not obvious it may be necessary to check all

possible locations.

Page | 23

Shear strength of Concrete = 0.25

= 0.2515

= 0.97 /2

Perimeter b0 = 2 ( + 900)

2

= d+1800mm

=

1.5 800 1000

0.97 =

( + 1800)

d = 530.773mm

Perimeter b0= 2 ( + 900) + ( + 400)

2

= 2d +2200 mm

=

0

1.516001000

0.97 = (2+2200)

d = 690.811 mm

reinforcement in the longitudinal direction is given by

= 0.5 [1 ] 1000 750

415 15 1000 7502

At= 1109.51mm2

Page | 24

1109.51

Number of bars = = 3.531 4 bars

314.151

1000 202

4

Spacing of long bars = = 283.152mm

1109.51

Provide 4 bars 20mm bars for reinforcement @ 260mm C/C at top and bottom

in both directions.

0.12

= 800 1000

100

= 960mm2/m

Page | 25

DESIGN OF PILES AND PILE CAP

Introduction

Foundations provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of soil or rock that

have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics. There are a very wide

range of foundation types available, suitable for different applications, depending on

considerations such as:

Ground conditions.

The presence of water.

Durability of the materials.

Cost.

Accessibility.

Sensitivity to noise and vibration.

Proximity to other structures.

Shallow foundations are typically used where the loads imposed by a structure are low

relative to the bearing capacity of the surface soils. Deep foundations are necessary where the

bearing capacity of the surface soils is insufficient to support loads imposed and so they are

transferred to deeper layers with higher bearing capacity.

Pile foundations are deep foundations. They are formed by long, slender, columnar elements

typically made from steel or reinforced concrete, or sometimes timber. A foundation is

described as 'piled' when its depth is more than three times its breadth (Atkinson, 2007).

Pile foundations are principally used to transfer the loads from superstructures, through weak,

compressible strata or water onto stronger, more compact, less compressible and

stiffer soil or rock at depth, increasing the effective size of a foundation and resisting

horizontal loads. They are typically used for large structures, and in situations where soil is

not suitable to prevent excessive settlement.

Page | 26

Why Pile Foundation?

Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the

structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface.

Offshore structures

For structures near flowing water, (eg: bridge abutments) to avoid problems due to

erosion.

considerable depth below the base of the structure.

resistance.

Page | 27

Friction Pile

Carrying capacity is derived mainly from the adhesion or friction of the soil

in contact with the shaft of the pile.

Cohesive Pile

These piles transmit most of their load to the soil through skin friction.

This process of driving such piles close to each other in groups greatly

reduces the porosity and compressibility of the soil within and around

the groups.

Piles are also used to resist uplift loads. Piles used for this purpose are called tension piles,

uplift piles or anchor piles. Uplift forces are developed due to hydrostatic pressure or

overturning moments

Page | 28

Anchor Pile

Anchor piles are slender foundation elements that can be installed vertically.

They can transfer both compressive and tensile forces to the ground, which

makes them ideal as vertical anchors for basements and tunnels.

Timber Pile

Used from earliest record time and still used for permanent works

in regions where timber is plentiful.

Timber is most suitable for long cohesion piling and piling beneath

embankments.

Page | 29

Keeping the timber below the ground water level will protect the

timber against decay and putrefaction.

Concrete Pile

piles.

Usual length: 10 m 45 m

Usual Load: 7500 kN 8500 KN

Usual length: 5 m 15 m

Usual Load: 200 kN 500 kN

Advantage:

Relatively cheap

It can be easily combined with concrete Superstructure

Corrosion resistant

It can bear hard driving

Disadvantage:

Difficult to transport

Page | 30

Steel Pile

Steel pile/ Iron piles are suitable for handling and driving in long

lengths.

Their relatively small cross-sectional area combined with their high

strength makes penetration easier in firm soil.

Composite Pile:

Combination of different materials in same pile.

Page | 31

As indicated earlier, part of a timber pile which is installed above

ground water could be vulnerable to insect attack and decay.

To avoid this, concrete or steel pile is used above the ground water

level, whilst wood pile is installed under the ground water level

Driven Piles

Driven piles are considered to be displacement piles.

In the process of driving the pile into the ground, soil is moved radially as

the pile shaft enters the ground.

direction

column and is subjected to lateral forces.

casing into the ground and then filling it with concrete.

The casing may be left in position to form part of the pile, or withdrawn

for reuse.

Pile Caps

Page | 32

Definition

The Pile cap should normally be rigid so as to distribute the forces equally on

the piles of a group.

The Pile cap should normally be rigid so as to distribute the forces equally on

the piles of a group.

Pile caps are thick reinforced concrete mat which rest on top of the concrete or

timber piles (driven or bored and cast-in-situ) to provide stability to the

foundation.

The main objective of constructing the pile caps is to distribute the load of

column(s), which generally huge for large constructions, to the under lying

piles.

In general it is designed like a footing on soil but with the difference that

instead of uniform reaction from the soil, the reactions in this case are

concentrated either point loads or distributed.

The reaction from piles may also be taken to be distributed at 45 from the

edge of the pile, up to the mid depth of the pile cap

Pile cap is perfectly rigid.

Pile heads are hinged to the pile cap and hence no bending moment is

transmitted to piles from pile caps.

Since the piles are short and elastic columns, the deformations and stress

distribution are planer.

To distribute a single load coming from the column to the piles equally.

To laterally stabilize the pile thus increasing the overall efficiency of the pile

group

structure and/or the ground movement.

Page | 33

Typical shape and arrangement of Pile Caps

Arrangement of reinforcement.

Minimum grade of concrete that can be used in construction of piles and pile caps is

M25.

Complete cap can be casted monolithically in case of smaller pile like for 2-3 piles.

Reinforcement bars of columns are embedded into the pile caps up to their

development lengths.

After casting, pile caps are cured for 28 days and the shuttering is removed.

Page | 34

When number of piles in a group is too high, pile caps are constructed in the form of

raft instead of constructing small pile caps

pile caps.

o The upper portions of piles are then chipped off with ordinary hammer and jack-

hammer.

o As per design and detailing, the depth of the pile caps are assured and

reinforcement is provided.

passing them through the steel bars in definite intervals.

Page | 35

DESIGN OF PILES

2.1. The foundation of a structure is to consist of 16 piles to carry a total load of 25000

KN. The piles are 450 mm 450 mm and are 6.25 m long. They are spaced at 1.50 m

centers. Design one of the piles. The effective length of a pile may be taken 0.60 times

the actual length. Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Solution:

Since the minimum eccentricity has not exceeded 0.05 b, the ultimate load for the pile is

given by

In the body of the pile the ties shall have a volume equal to 0.20% of the volume of the pile.

Page | 36

Clear cover to main bars = 40 mm

p= 186 mm

= 450/2

= 225 mm

From each end of the pile, for a distance equal to three times the least width, the spacing of

the lateral ties shall be such that the volume of the ties will be 0.6% of the volume of the pile.

In our case, three times the least width = 3 450 = 1350 mm. Hence for 1350 mm

length from each end of the pile the volume of the lateral ties will be atleast0.6% of the

volume of the pile.

p = 62.2 mm say 60 mm

In addition to these lateral ties, the longitudinal bars shall be held apart at intervals of 1.5 m

by spreaders of 12 mm diameter to prevent inward buckling. Besides this 6 mm diameter

links should also be provided as ties to prevent displacement.

The pile is also provided with a hole at 0.293 l = 0.293 6250 = 1831 mm say 1830 mm

from the upper end for hoisting and also at 0.207 l = 0.207 6250 = 1294 mm say 1290 mm

for stalking.

(It is also a practice to provide helical reinforcement in the 3b length of pile in place of

separate lateral ties)

Page | 37

Page | 38

2.2. Design a pile under a column transmitting an axial load of 800kn. The pile is to be

driven to a hard stratum available at a depth of 8m.Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

Solution:

Main Reinforcement:

8.6

= 0.4 = 21.5 Since this is greater than 12.The pile behaves as long as column. Hence

lcr 8.6

Cr= 1.25 48 = 1.25 480.4 = 0.8

P= ccAc + scAsc

= (400400)-Asc

= (16104)-Asc

Asc=1087mm2

Since the length of the pile is less than 30 times the width, minimum reinforcement @ 1.25%

of gross c/s area is calculated as

1.25

(400 400) = 2000mm2

100

i.e. 4490=1960mm2. Provide a nominal cover of 50mm. cover to the center of main

reinforcement using 8mm ties is

50+8+(25/2)=70.5mm

Page | 39

Lateral reinforcement in the body of the pile:

0.2

(400 400 1) = 320mm3

100

400-2(50)-8=292mm

Area = 4 82 = 50.32

Pitch =58750/320=183mm

1

Max pitch permissible = 2 400 = 200

Hence provide 8mm ties @ 180mm c/c throughout the length of the pile.

Near pile head, special spiral reinforcement is to be provided for a length of 3400=1200mm.

Volume of spiral, @ 0.6% of gross volume, per mm length is

0.6

(400 400 1) = 9602

100

Using 8 mm spiral, having A =50.3mm2, pitch is given by

=

960

29250.3

= = 48

960

Provide the spiral at 45mm pitch. Provide 6 additional bars of 16mm vertically with in the

spiral will be in addition to the normal ties.

Page | 40

Page | 41

2.3. Design: A column 300 mm300 mm in section stands on a pile cap supported on

three piles. The column is situated at the centroid of the pile group. The total load

transferred to the column is 600kN. The piles are 1.20 meters centre to centre. Design

the pile cap. Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Solution:

Fig shows the plan of the column and the piles and the imaginary beams AB and CD having a

width of 300 mm i.e., the same as the corresponding lateral dimension of the pile.

a) Punching shear consideration. Let the permissible punching shear stress be 1 N/mm2.

Let the overall depth of the footing be D mm. Equating punching resistance to the

punching load, We have,

4300 D1 = 6001000

D = 500mm

Page | 42

b) B.M. Consideration. Consider the beam DC. Maximum live load bending moment for

this beam

= 4000.23 kNm

= 138.56kNm

The dead load consists of the weight of the beam plus the weight of the part of the

slab. For design purposes the self-weight may be calculated as the weight of the slab whose

width equals three times the width of the beam. The depth of the pile cap from bending

moment consideration is generally found to be more than 750 mm. Let us therefore assume

the pile cap to be 800 mm deep for estimating the self-weight of the pile cap.

= 18000 N/metre

= 18 kN/metre

180.63 18

B.M. at G due to self-weight of the pile cap = 0.23 (0.23)2 kNm

2 2

= 2.16 kNm

= 140.72 kNm

1.21.2

Dead load moment = 18 = 3.24 kNm

8

Dead load moment due to dead load transferred by the beam DC to the beam AB

0.63 1.2

= 18 ( )

4 2

= 2.80 kNm

d = 505 mm

Page | 43

Overall depth provided = 800 mm

Since the beam DC has been taken as supported at one end on a pile and at the other

end over the beam AB, the reinforcement for the beam DC must be above the level of the

reinforcement for the beam AB.

211.08 106

For the beam DC, = = 1.251

2 300 7502

4.6

1 1

2

Pt = 50 [ ]

4.6 1.251

1 1

20

Pt = 50 [ 415 ]

20

= 0.376%

0.376

Ast = 300 750 = 846 mm2

100

189.06 106

= = 1.074

2 300 7662

4.6

1 1

2

Pt = 50 [ ]

4.6 1.074

1 1

20

Pt = 50 [ 415 ]

20

= 0.319%

0.319

Ast = 300 766 = 733 mm2

100

Page | 44

Secondary Reinforcement. This reinforcement shall be at least 20% of the maximum steel

required for a beam

Page | 45

2.4. Design: A column carrying a load of 2500 kN has to be supported by four piles each

of size 300mm 300mm. The piles are spaced at 1 meter centres as shown in fig. The

column size is 600mm 600mm. Design the pile cap, Use concrete and Fe 415 steel

Solution:

5

Approximate weight of the pile cap = 5% of column load = 2500 = 125kN

100

2625

Load per pile = = = 656.25

4 4

The pile cap may b taken to provide two beams like AB and CD, together supporting the total

load W. For purpose of design the maximum bending moment per beam may be taken equal

to

=

4 2 8

26251.414

Max. B.M. = = = 463.97 kNm

8 8

The width of the beam will be assumed to be equal to the corresponding width of the column

i.e., equal to 600mm.

d = 649mm

695.955106

= =1.432

2 6009002

Page | 46

Percentage of steel required

4.61.432

1 1

20

= 50 [ 415 ] = 0.436%

20

0.436

= 600 900 = 23552

100

Page | 47

- POLEFDNCaricato daamitkukna
- Case Study HousingCaricato daYamini Bhargava
- Aranya Housing Case StudyCaricato daVikas Mittal
- Building Over MuskegCaricato daMayyou
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- Pile CushionCaricato daKrish Doodnauth
- Solar Mounting Structure Design for BTS SiteCaricato daAsadIdrees
- Micropile BrochureCaricato daAmanjot Singh
- Vikas Ct ReportCaricato davikas
- H23GGEE1-09Caricato daFatmah El Wardagy
- Design of Pile and Pile Cap FinalCaricato daMahendra Suryavanshi
- Pile Formula PSPCaricato dakaykaysoft
- Civil VI SemCaricato daanon-845813
- ppt metroCaricato daVipul Rathi
- Borepile FormCaricato dammanueq
- GuidanceCaricato daIwanTiaraMotor
- Ground Improvement TechniquesCaricato daSano Sanoj
- Pile Foundation DesignCaricato dagilbert1028
- Pile Cap Design DocumentCaricato daAnkesh Mundra
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