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DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATION

Introduction:

Raft foundations (sometimes known as Mat Foundations) are a large concrete slab which
can support a number of columns and walls. The slab is spread out under the entire
building or at least a large part of it which lowers the contact pressure compared to the
traditionally used strip or trench footings. Because of the speed and volume of houses
required after the Second World War, the raft foundation was widely used. The raft
foundation was cheaper, easier to install and most importantly, did not require as much
excavation as the usual strip foundations. When the Building Regulations were introduced
in 1965 there were no generic rules for raft foundations as there were for strip foundations.
This meant that to use a raft foundation, it had to be designed and approved by Building
Control. This made the entire operation much more difficult and time consuming so raft
foundations became less widely used almost overnight.

When Are Raft Foundations Used?


Rafts are most often used these days when the strata is unstable or (because of this)
a normal strip foundation would cover more than 50% of the ground area beneath
the building.

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There are also situations (usually in areas where mining has occurred) where there
may be areas of movement in the strata.
They are much more commonly used in the construction of commercial building in
the UK that they are for domestic homes, but can be used very successful in both
situations. To understand when it is better to use raft foundations, you need to
understand how they work.

How Do Raft Foundations Work?

A raft foundation spreads the weight of the building over the whole ground floor area of
that building. The raft is laid on a hardcore, or scalping bed and usually thickened at the
edges, especially in very poor ground. Rafts are most suitable when the ground is of good
load bearing capacity and little work is required to get a solid foundation.

Raft Foundations are built is this following steps:

1. The soil removed down to correct depth

2. The foundation bed is then compacted by ramming

3. Lay reinforcement on spacers over the foundation bed

4. Pour the concrete over the reinforcement

The foundation may stiffened by ribs or beams built in during construction which will add
extra strength and rigidity.

When Raft Foundations Are Used:

A raft foundation is usually preferred under a number of circumstances:

it is used for large loads, which is why they are so common in commercial building

which tend to be much larger, and therefore heavier, than domestic homes

The soil has a low bearing capacity so the weight of the building needs to be spread

out over a large area to create a stable foundation

The ratio of individual footings to total floor space is high. Typically if the footings

would cover over half of the construction area then raft foundation would be used

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If the walls of the building are so close that it would cause the individual footings to

overlap, then raft foundations should be used

Advantages and Disadvantages of Raft Foundations:

Raft foundations tend to be cheaper and quicker to use than traditional footings. There are
a number of reasons why this is the case:

The foundation and floor slab is combined, which saves time and materials

Less excavation is required

Other reasons that make raft foundations preferable to footings are due to their
engineering benefits. They are ideal for poor ground condition where normal footings
would not cope well as they cannot spread the load as effectively.

Related to this is that raft foundations can reduce differential settlement, where settlement
occurs at different rates across the ground surface of the building, which reduces cracking
and other more serious problems.

The main disadvantage is that they can prone to edge erosion if they are not treated
properly. They are not effective is the load of the building is going to be focused on a
single point, although this is rare in domestic construction, so this isn't generally of
concern.

Classification of Rafts:

Different types of raft foundations are used to meet different geotechnical, structural
requirements and to mitigate uncertainties. It is classified based on
Support condition
Structural system
Depending on supporting method they are classified in three categories:
Raft on soil
Raft on piles
Buoyancy raft
Depending on structural system they are also classified in three categories:
a. Rafts having uniform thickness of slab, sometimes they may have pedestal
b. Raft with beams & slab system;
c. Framed raft or cellular raft having foundation slab, columns, walls rendering essential
rigidity to structure.

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1.1 Design a raft foundation supporting the columns of a building Fig shows the position
of the columns. The load of each column 400kN, Use M20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Safe bearing capacity of the soil is 120 kN/m2

Solution:

Total load on the columns = 12 x 400 = 4800 kN

Approximate weight of foundation

(10% of column loads) = 480 kN

Total load transmitted to the soil = 5280 kN

Safe bearing capacity of the soil = 120 kN/m2


5280
Area of the raft foundation = 120
= 44 m2

Total length of the raft slab =12 x 3 = 36 metre

44
Width required for the raft slab = = 1.22 metre
36

Provide a width of 1.25m for the raft slab

4800
Net upwards pressure intensity on the raft slab = = 106.67 kN/m2
36 1.25

Figure below shows proposed arrangement for the raft foundation

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Design of raft slab
Projection of the raft slab from the face of the raft beam

1.250.35
= = 0.45m
2

Consider a 1 metre wide strip of the raft slab cantilevering from the face of the beam.

106.67 0.452
Maximum bending moment = = 10.80 kN m
2

Factored moment Mu= 1.5 x 10.80 = 16.2 kN m

Equating Mu,lim to Mu

0.138 fckbd2=0.138x20x1000d2 = 16.20 x 106

d = 77 mm

Overall depth = 77+50= 127mm

Provide an overall depth of 150mm

Actual effective depth d = 150-50 = 100mm

16.2 106
= = 1.62
2 100 1002
Percentage of steel required

4.6
1 1 1.62
20
= 50 = 0.50 %
415
[ 20 ]
0.50
= 1000 100 = 5002
100
Ast = 0.50 x 1000x 100 = 500 mm2

Spacing of 10mm bars @ 150mm c/c

Design of the continuous raft beam


Upward load transmitted to the beam per metre run = w = 106.67x 1.25 = 133.33 kN m

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2 32
Maximum bending moment = = 133.33 = 120
10 10

Factored moment Mu= 1.5 x 120 = 180 kN m

Equating Mu, lim to Mu

0.138 fckbd2= 0.138x20x350d2 = 180 x 106

d = 432 mm
10
Providing 16mm bars, overall depth = 432 + (50 + 2
+ 16
2
) = 432 + 63 = 495

A greater depth must be provided to limit the shear stresses

Provide an overall depth of 650mm

Actual effective depth d = 650-63= 587mm

180 106
= = 1.493
2 350 5872
Percentage of steel required

4.6
1 1 1.493
20
= 50 = 0.457 %
415
[ 20 ]
0.457
= 350 587 = 9392
100

Provide 5 bars of 16mm (1005mm2)

Design for shear


Maximum shear force = 0.6 wl = 0.6 x 133.3 x 3 = 240 kN

Factored shear = Vu = 1.5 x240 = 360 kN

360 103
Nominal shear stress = = 1.75 /2
350 587
1005
Percentage of steel provided = 100 = 0.49 %
350 587

For 0.49 % steel, = 0.47 /2

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Shear resistance of the concrete = = 0.47 350 587 = 96561
Net shear = = 360000 96561 = 263439
0.87 415 4 79 587
Spacing of 4 legged 10mm stirrups= = 254
263439

Provide 4 legged 10 mm stirrups @ 250mm c/c

The above spacing may be adopted for a distance of 1 metre from each support. For the
middle 1 metre length 2-legged 8mm diameter stirrups at 250mm c/c

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1.2.DESIGN:

A building rests on six columns 450 mm 450 mm arranged as shown in figure. Each
central column carries a load of 800 KN and the end columns carry 500 KN each.
Design a raft foundation for the column. The design shall also allow for a wind load
moment of 1200 KN about the base of the raft. Use M 20 Concrete and Fe 415 Steel.

Solution:

Total load on the column = 2 800 + 4 500 = 3000 KN

Approximate weight of foundation @ 10% column loads = 360 KN

Total = 3960 KN

Total moment about the base = 1200 KN

Eccentricity of the load = 1200/3960 = 0.303 m

Extreme pressure intensity at the base = [3960 / (12 7)] [ 1 (6 0.303) / 7 ] KN / m2

Therefore pmax= 59.4 KN / m2


Pmin = 34.9 KN / m2

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Pressure due to weight of foundation= 360/(12 7) = 4.3 KN/m2

Therefore Net Pressure,

pmax = 59.4 4.3 = 55.1 KN / m2

pmin = 34.9 4.3 = 30.6 KN / m2

Since the columns are 450 mm 450 mm, let the width of the
main beams be 500 mm.

Cantilevering projection = 1.00 0.25 = 0.75 m

Upward pressure at 0.75 m from the edge


= 55.1 [(55.1 30.6) / 7] 0.75 = 52.5 KN / m2

Consider a one meter wide strip of the cantilever slab.

Upward load on the cantilever = [(55.1 + 52.5) / 2] 0.75 KN = 40.4 KN

This acts at [(52.5 + 2 55.1) / (52.5 + 55.1)] (0.75 / 3) meter from the edge of beam

= 0.39 m from the edge of beam

Maximum Bending moment for the cantilever slab per meter width = 40.4 0.39 KNm

= 15.7 KNm

Factored moment = 1.5 15.7 = 23.55 KNm

Equating Mu,lim to Mu

0.138 fck b d2 = 0.138 20 1000 d2 = 23.55 106

Therefore d = 93 mm

Provide on overall depth of 180 mm

Providing 10 mm diameter bars at a clear cover of 60 mm,

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Effective depth d = 180 (60 + 5) = 115 mm

Mu / b d2 = (23.55 106) / (1000 1152) = 1.78

Percentage steel required

Pt = 50 [1 {1 (4.6 / 20) 1.78} ] / (415 / 20) = 0.56%

Ast= (0.56 / 100) 1000 115 = 644 mm2

Spacing of 10 mm dia bars = (79 1000) / 644 = 122 mm

Provide 10 mm dia bars @ 120 mm c/c

Distribution steel = (0.12 / 100) 1000 180 = 216 mm2

Spacing of 8 mm dia bars = (50 1000) / 216 =231 mm

Provide 8 mm bars @ 200 mm c/c

Continuous slab: It is proposed to provide secondary beams at 5 / 3 m at centers. The slab


should be designed for an upward pressure corresponding to a section at a distance half the
spacing of the secondary beams from the center of the main beams.

In our case, the pressure is calculated at a distance of 1 + (5/6) = 1.83 m from the edge
of the foundation.

The pressure at this section = 55.1 [((55.1 30.6) / 7) 1.83] = 48.7 KN / m2

Maximum bending moment per meter width = (48.7 / 12) (5 / 3) 2 =11.27 KNm

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Factored moment, Mu = 1.5 11.27 = 16.905 KNm.

Mu / b d2 = (16.905 106) / (1000 1152) = 1.278

Percentage of steel required

Pt = 50 [1 {1 (4.6 / 20) 1.278} ] / (415 / 50) = 0.385%

Ast= (0.385 / 100) 1000 115 = 443 mm2

Spacing of 10 mm dia bars = (79 1000) / 443 = 178 mm

Provide 10 mm dia bars @ 170 mm c/c

Secondary Beams: These are designed as T beams.

The loading on an intermediate secondary beam is less than that on the end secondary beam.
The loading on the end secondary beam varies

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From 51.6 1 (5 / 6) = 94.6 KN / m

To 34.1 1 (5 / 6) = 62.5 KN / m

Total load = [(62.5 + 94.6) / 2] 5 = 392.8 KN

This acts at = [(62.5 + (2 94.6)) / (62.5 94.6)] (5 / 3) m from A

= 2.67 m from A

Taking moments about A, we have

Vb 5 = 392.8 2.67

Vb = 209.7 KN

Vb = 392.8 209.7 = 183.1 KN

Shear force at any section X distance x m from A

S = 62.5 x + 0.5 x (32.1x / 5) 183.1 KN

S = 62.5 x + 3.21 x2 183.1 KN

B.M at section X = M = 62.5 (x2 / 2) + 3.21 (x3 / 3) 183.1 x KNm

[Expression for M is obtained easily by integrating the expression for S]

Maximum Bending Moment: This occurs at a section where the shear force is zero.
Equating the general expression for shear force to zero, we have

S = 62.5 x + 3.21 x2 183.1 = 0

S = x2 + 19.47 x 57.05 = 0

Solving, we get, x = 2.58 m

Therefore bending moment at x = 2.58 m

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= [(62.5 2.582) / 2] + [(3.21 2.582) / 3] (183.1 2.58) KNm

= 246.02 KNm

Factored Moment = -1.5 246.02 = -369.03 KNm

Overall Depth of beam = about (1 / 6) of span = (5000 / 6) mm say 800 mm

Breadth of rib = 350 mm

Let effective cover to reinforcement be 80 mm

Effective depth = d = 800 80 = 720 mm

Breadth of flange

This shall be taken as the lesser of the following

(i) 1 + (5 / 6) = 1.83 m =1830 mm


(ii) ( l / 6 ) + br + 6ds = (5000 / 6) + 350 + (6 180) = 2263 mm

Hence width of the flange B = 2263 mm. Assuming the neutral axis to lie within the flange
and equating the ultimate moment of resistance to the factored moment,

0.36 20 1830 xu (720 0.42 xu) = 369.03 106

xu (720 0.42 xu) = 28007.741

xu = 39.82 mm (Less than 180 mm)

Total compression = Total tension

0.36 20 1830 39.82 = 0.87 415 Ast

Ast = 1453.2 mm2

Provide 5 bars of 20 mm dia (1570 mm2)

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Shear Analysis

Factored shear at the end B = 1.5 209.7 = 314.55 KN

Factored Shear at the end A = 1.5 183.1 = 274.65 KN

Nominal Shear Stress at the end B = (314.55 103) / (350 720) = 1.25 N/mm2

Nominal Shear Stress at the end a = (274.65 103) / (350 720) = 1.09 N/mm2

Percentage of steel provided = (Ast / bd) 100 = (1570 / (350 720)) 100 = 0.62%

For 0.62% steel c = 0.52 N / mm2

Shear resistance of concrete Sc = 0.52 350 720 = 131040 N = 131.04 KN

Position of this section in the zone of negative shear

1.5 ( 62.5 x + 3.21 x2 183.1) = -131.04

x = 1.43 m from the end A.

Position of this section in the zone of positive shear

1.5 ( 62.5 x + 3.21 x2 183.1) = 131.04

x = 3.65 m from the end A.

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Main Beams

Each main beam is subjected to the following loads:

(i) Upward concentrated loads transmitted by secondary beams.


(ii) Upward uniformly distributed load transferred by the slab cantilevering from the
main beams.
(iii) Downward column loads.

Maximum Load transmitted by an end secondary beam = 209.7 KN

Therefore Maximum load transmitted by an intermediate secondary beam is

= [(5 / 3) / (1 + (5 / 6))] 209.7 KN = 190.6 KN

Uniformly distributed load on the main beam

=0.5 (55.1 + 51.6) 1 KN / m = 53.35 KN / m

The load system acting on the main beam is shown in figure. Let the resultant point load at
each end be Q. Resolving forces on the main beam vertically, we have,

2 Q + 609.4 = 190.6 (4 + 53.35) 10

Q = 343.25 KN

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S.F Calculations

Sa = -343.25 KN

Sba = -343.25 + 53.35 (5 / 3) = -254.3 KN

Sbc = 254.4 + 190.6 = -63.7 KN

Scb = -63.7 + 53.35 (5 / 3) = 25.2 KN

Scd = 25.2 + 190.6 = 215.8 KN

Sdc = 215.38 + 53.35 (5 / 3) = 304.7 KN

B.M Calculations

Ma = 0

Mb = -343.25 (5 / 3) + [(53.35 / 2) (5 / 2)2] = -498 KNm

Mc = -343.25 (10 / 3) + [(53.35 / 2) (10 / 3)2] + 190.6 (10 / 3) = -498 KNm

Md = --343.25 (5) + [(53.35 / 2) (5)2] + 190.6 (10 / 3) = -96.5 KNm

Point of zero shear between B and C

Let at a distance of x meters the shear force be zero

53.35 x + 190.6 = 343.25

x = 2.86 m

Bending moment at x = 2.86 m

Mmax = -343.25 2.86 + [(53.35 / 2) (2.86)2] + 190.6 (2.86 (5 / 3)) = -536.7 KNm

Factored Moment = Mu = -1.5 536.7 = -805.05 KNm

Provide an overall depth of 1000 mm and a width of 500 mm

Provide an effective cover to top steel = 80 mm

Effective depth d = 1000 80 = 920 mm

Mu / b d2 = (805.05 106) / (500 9202) = 1.902

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Percentage of steel required

Pt = 50 [1 {1 (4.6 / 20) 1.902} ] / (415 / 20) = 0.602%

Ast= (0.602 / 100) 1000 920 = 2769.2 mm2

Provide 9 bars of 20 mm diameter (2826 mm2)

Shear reinforcement

Nominal Shear stress due to factored shear force of 1.5 343.25 KN

= (1.5 343.25 103) / (500 920) = 1.12 N / mm2

Nominal Shear stress due to factored shear force of 1.5 254.3 KN

= (1.5 254.3 103) / (500 920) = 0.83 N / mm2

Nominal Shear stress due to factored shear force of 1.5 304.7 KN

= (1.5 304.7 103) / (500 920) = 0.99 N / mm2

Beam between A and b and F and G

Vu = 1.5 343.25 = 514.875 KN

Percentage of steel = [2826 /(500 920)] 100 = 0.614%

Corresponding to 0.614% Steel c = 0.51 N / mm2

Shear Resistance of concrete = c bd = 0.51 500 920 = 234600 N

Net shear Vu = 514875 -234600 = 280275 N

Spacing of 4 legged 8 mm diameter stirrups = (0.87 415 4 50 920) / 280275

= 237 mm

Provide 4 legged 8 mm diameter stirrups @ 230 mm c/c

Beam between C and D and D and E

Vu = 1.5 304.7 = 457.05 KN

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Shear Resistance of concrete = c bd = 0.51 500 920 = 234600 N

Net shear Vu = 457050 -234600 = 222450 N

Spacing of 4 legged 8 mm diameter stirrups = (0.87 415 4 50 920) / 222450

= 298 mm

Provide 4 legged 8 mm diameter stirrups @ 250 mm c/c

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3. Design a raft foundation for the layout of columns shown in Figure
(a). All columns are of square shape of size 40X40 cm. ADSP=80 kN/m3. Use M 15
concrete and Fe 415 steel Assume 10% as the load of raft and soil above.

Solution:
A. Design of Raft Slab

Total vertical column load = 600+1600+2000+600+800+1800+2000

+1000+800+1000+1200+600 = 14000kN

Eccentricity along the X-direction is obtained by taking moment of column


loads about grid 1-1

[6 (1600 + 1800 + 1000) + 12 (2000 + 2000 + 1200) + 18 (600 + 1000 + 600)]


=
14000

= 9.1714

ex = 9.1714-(6+3) = 0.1714m

Eccentricity along the Y-direction is obtained by taking moment of column


loads about the
grid C-C
5[ (800 + 1800 + 2000 + 1000) + 10 (600 + 1600 + 2000 + 600)]
=
14000

= 5.4285

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19.411.43
ey = 5.4285-5 = 0.4285m Ix = = 2395.16 4
12

11.419.43
Iy = = 6936.31 4 A = 19.4 x 11.4 = 221.16 m2
12

Mx = P*ey = 14000x0.4285 = 6000kN-m

My = P*ex = 14000x0.1714 = 2400kN-m


14000
= = 63.302kN/m2
221.16

Soil pressure at different points is as follows



=

2400 6000
= 63.302
6936.31 2395.16
= 63.302 0.346 x 2.505 y

Maximum Maximum Maximum Maximum


Bearing Bending Shear force Deflection
pressure moment(KN- (KN) (mm)
(KN/m2 ) m)

With 624.323 987.323 1032.2 624.323/28


Conventional factor =18.08
Design load

With 624.323/1.5 987.323/1.5 1032.2/1.5 18.08/1.5


design =416.22 =658.22 =688.13 =12.05
load
Design using 440.576 at 631.628 at
BEF 205.05 at X=6680mm X=6680mm
(with design X=0mm 5.86mm at
load only) -299.937 at -564.460 at X=0mm
X=2227mm X=724mm

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At corner A-4

= 63.302 + (0.346 9.7) + (2.505 5.7)

= 80.93kN/m2

At corner C-4

= 63.302 + (0.346 9.7) (2.505 5.7)

= 74.225 kN/m2

At corner A-1

= 63.302 (0.346 9.7) + (2.505 5.7) = 52.38 kN/m2

At corner C-1

= 63.302 (0.346 9.7) (2.505 5.7)

= 45.67 kN/m2

At corner B-4

= 63.302 + (0.346 9.7)

=66.658 kN/m2

At corner B-1

= 63.302 (0.346 9.7)

= 59.943 kN/m2

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In the X-direction the raft is divided in three strips that is three equivalent
beams

1) Beam A-A with 3.2m width and soil pressure of 80kN/m2


80+66.65
2) Beam B-B with 5.0m width and soil pressure of ( )=
2
73.325 /2
66.65+52.38
3) Beam C-C with 5.0m width and soil pressure of ( )=
2
59.52 /2
1
The bending moment is obtained by using a coefficient and L as the center to
10
center of column distance
2
M=
10

For strip AA
8062
Maximum moment = = 288 /
10

For strip BB
73.3262
Maximum moment = = 263.95 /
10

For Strip CC
59.5262
Maximum moment = = 214.272 /
10

2
For any strip in the Y- direction take M= Since there is only a two span
8
equivalent beam for strip 4-4.
8054
Maximum moment = = 250 /
8

The depth of the raft is governed by two way shear at one of exterior columns.
If the location of critical shear it is not obvious it may be necessary to check all
possible locations.

Page | 23
Shear strength of Concrete = 0.25

= 0.2515

= 0.97 /2

For corner column (Say C-1)



Perimeter b0 = 2 ( + 900)
2

= d+1800mm

=

1.5 800 1000
0.97 =
( + 1800)

d = 530.773mm

For a corner column (Say A-2)



Perimeter b0= 2 ( + 900) + ( + 400)
2

= 2d +2200 mm

=
0
1.516001000
0.97 = (2+2200)

d = 690.811 mm

However adopt an effective depth of 750mm and overall depth of 800mm


reinforcement in the longitudinal direction is given by

15 4.6 288 106


= 0.5 [1 ] 1000 750
415 15 1000 7502

At= 1109.51mm2

Use 20mm bars A= 314.151mm2

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1109.51
Number of bars = = 3.531 4 bars
314.151

1000 202
4
Spacing of long bars = = 283.152mm
1109.51

Provide 4 bars 20mm bars for reinforcement @ 260mm C/C at top and bottom
in both directions.

Minimum reinforcement in slabs= 0.12% of Ag


0.12
= 800 1000
100

= 960mm2/m

Minimum steel governs in the remaining raft critical sections in shear

Page | 25
DESIGN OF PILES AND PILE CAP

Introduction

What is Pile foundation?

Foundations provide support for structures, transferring their load to layers of soil or rock that
have sufficient bearing capacity and suitable settlement characteristics. There are a very wide
range of foundation types available, suitable for different applications, depending on
considerations such as:

The nature of the load requiring support.


Ground conditions.
The presence of water.
Durability of the materials.
Cost.
Accessibility.
Sensitivity to noise and vibration.
Proximity to other structures.

Very broadly, foundations can be categorized as shallow foundations or deep foundations.


Shallow foundations are typically used where the loads imposed by a structure are low
relative to the bearing capacity of the surface soils. Deep foundations are necessary where the
bearing capacity of the surface soils is insufficient to support loads imposed and so they are
transferred to deeper layers with higher bearing capacity.

Pile foundations are deep foundations. They are formed by long, slender, columnar elements
typically made from steel or reinforced concrete, or sometimes timber. A foundation is
described as 'piled' when its depth is more than three times its breadth (Atkinson, 2007).

Pile foundations are principally used to transfer the loads from superstructures, through weak,
compressible strata or water onto stronger, more compact, less compressible and
stiffer soil or rock at depth, increasing the effective size of a foundation and resisting
horizontal loads. They are typically used for large structures, and in situations where soil is
not suitable to prevent excessive settlement.

Page | 26
Why Pile Foundation?

Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the
structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface.

In presence of expansive and collapsible soils at the site.

Offshore structures

For structures near flowing water, (eg: bridge abutments) to avoid problems due to
erosion.

Classification of Pile Foundation

Based on the Function and Load Transmission

End bearing Pile

These piles transfer their load on to a firm stratum located at a


considerable depth below the base of the structure.

They derive most of their carrying capacity from the penetration


resistance.

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Friction Pile

Carrying capacity is derived mainly from the adhesion or friction of the soil
in contact with the shaft of the pile.

Cohesive Pile

These piles transmit most of their load to the soil through skin friction.

This process of driving such piles close to each other in groups greatly
reduces the porosity and compressibility of the soil within and around
the groups.

Therefore piles of this category are sometimes called compaction piles

Piles are also used to resist uplift loads. Piles used for this purpose are called tension piles,
uplift piles or anchor piles. Uplift forces are developed due to hydrostatic pressure or
overturning moments

Page | 28
Anchor Pile

Anchor piles are slender foundation elements that can be installed vertically.
They can transfer both compressive and tensile forces to the ground, which
makes them ideal as vertical anchors for basements and tunnels.

Based on the Material & Composition.

Timber Pile

Used from earliest record time and still used for permanent works
in regions where timber is plentiful.

Timber is most suitable for long cohesion piling and piling beneath
embankments.

Page | 29
Keeping the timber below the ground water level will protect the
timber against decay and putrefaction.

Pressure creosoting is the usual method of protecting timber piles.

Concrete Pile

These are classified into two types depending on the installation of


piles.

Pre-cast concrete piles

Usual length: 10 m 45 m
Usual Load: 7500 kN 8500 KN

Cast in place concrete piles

Usual length: 5 m 15 m
Usual Load: 200 kN 500 kN

Advantage:

Relatively cheap
It can be easily combined with concrete Superstructure
Corrosion resistant
It can bear hard driving

Disadvantage:

Difficult to transport

Difficult to achieve desired cutoff

Page | 30
Steel Pile

Steel pile/ Iron piles are suitable for handling and driving in long
lengths.
Their relatively small cross-sectional area combined with their high
strength makes penetration easier in firm soil.

Composite Pile:
Combination of different materials in same pile.

Page | 31
As indicated earlier, part of a timber pile which is installed above
ground water could be vulnerable to insect attack and decay.

To avoid this, concrete or steel pile is used above the ground water
level, whilst wood pile is installed under the ground water level

Based on the Method of Installation

Driven Piles
Driven piles are considered to be displacement piles.

In the process of driving the pile into the ground, soil is moved radially as
the pile shaft enters the ground.

There may also be a component of movement of the soil in the vertical


direction

Cast in-situ Piles

Piles which are cast in position inside the ground.

Reinforcements are necessary to be provided, when the pile acts as a


column and is subjected to lateral forces.

Driven and Cast in-situ Piles

Piles are constructed by driving a closed-ended hollow steel or concrete


casing into the ground and then filling it with concrete.
The casing may be left in position to form part of the pile, or withdrawn
for reuse.

Pile Caps

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Definition
The Pile cap should normally be rigid so as to distribute the forces equally on
the piles of a group.
The Pile cap should normally be rigid so as to distribute the forces equally on
the piles of a group.

Pile caps are thick reinforced concrete mat which rest on top of the concrete or
timber piles (driven or bored and cast-in-situ) to provide stability to the
foundation.
The main objective of constructing the pile caps is to distribute the load of
column(s), which generally huge for large constructions, to the under lying
piles.

Design of Pile Caps


In general it is designed like a footing on soil but with the difference that
instead of uniform reaction from the soil, the reactions in this case are
concentrated either point loads or distributed.
The reaction from piles may also be taken to be distributed at 45 from the
edge of the pile, up to the mid depth of the pile cap

Assumption Involves in design


Pile cap is perfectly rigid.

Pile heads are hinged to the pile cap and hence no bending moment is
transmitted to piles from pile caps.

Since the piles are short and elastic columns, the deformations and stress
distribution are planer.

Functions of Pile Caps

To distribute a single load coming from the column to the piles equally.

To laterally stabilize the pile thus increasing the overall efficiency of the pile
group

To provide the necessary combined resistance stresses set up by the super


structure and/or the ground movement.

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Typical shape and arrangement of Pile Caps

Design Parameters of Pile Caps:

Shape of pile cap.

Depth of pile cap.

Amount of steel to be provided.

Arrangement of reinforcement.

Main features of Pile Caps

Minimum grade of concrete that can be used in construction of piles and pile caps is
M25.

Complete cap can be casted monolithically in case of smaller pile like for 2-3 piles.

Reinforcement bars of columns are embedded into the pile caps up to their
development lengths.

After casting, pile caps are cured for 28 days and the shuttering is removed.

Compacted and leveled using compactor.

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When number of piles in a group is too high, pile caps are constructed in the form of
raft instead of constructing small pile caps

Pile Cap construction

o The surveyor determines the level up to which soil is to be excavated to construct


pile caps.

o The upper portions of piles are then chipped off with ordinary hammer and jack-
hammer.

o As per design and detailing, the depth of the pile caps are assured and
reinforcement is provided.

o Sufficient clear cover is provided using concrete cubes of required dimension,


passing them through the steel bars in definite intervals.

o The form work is then completed and concreting is done.

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DESIGN OF PILES

2.1. The foundation of a structure is to consist of 16 piles to carry a total load of 25000
KN. The piles are 450 mm 450 mm and are 6.25 m long. They are spaced at 1.50 m
centers. Design one of the piles. The effective length of a pile may be taken 0.60 times
the actual length. Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

Solution:

Effective length of a pile = 0.66.25 = 3.75 m

Minimum eccentricity = Greater of ( i) 20 mm

Le/500 + b/30 = 3750/550 + 450/30 = 22.5 mm

Therefore Minimum eccentricity = 22.5 mm

0.05b = 0.05 450 = 22.5 mm

Since the minimum eccentricity has not exceeded 0.05 b, the ultimate load for the pile is
given by

Pu = 0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fyAsc

In our case, safe load per pile = 25000/16 = 1562.5 KN

Ultimate load for one pile = Pu = 1.5 1562.5 = 2343.75 KN

Pu = 0.4 20 Ac +0.67 fyAsc = 2343.75 10

0.4 20 (4502 Asc) + 0.67 415 Asc = 2343.75 103

1620 103 8 Asc + 278.05 Asc = 2343.75 103

270.05 Asc = 723.75 103

Asc= 2680 mm2

Provide 8 bars of 22 mm diameter (3040 mm2)

Lateral ties ( let 8 mm diameter ties be provided )

In the body of the pile the ties shall have a volume equal to 0.20% of the volume of the pile.

Let p = pitch of tie ( mm )

Volume of the pile per pitch length = 202500 p mm3

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Clear cover to main bars = 40 mm

Cover to the center of tie = 40 4 = 36

Volume of one tie = 50 (4 378) = 75600 mm3

0.20/100 202500 p = 75600

p= 186 mm

Maximum permissible pitch = half the least width

= 450/2

= 225 mm

Provide 8 mm diameter ties at 180 mm c/c

From each end of the pile, for a distance equal to three times the least width, the spacing of
the lateral ties shall be such that the volume of the ties will be 0.6% of the volume of the pile.

In our case, three times the least width = 3 450 = 1350 mm. Hence for 1350 mm
length from each end of the pile the volume of the lateral ties will be atleast0.6% of the
volume of the pile.

Therefore, 50 (4 378) = 0.6/100 202500 p

p = 62.2 mm say 60 mm

In addition to these lateral ties, the longitudinal bars shall be held apart at intervals of 1.5 m
by spreaders of 12 mm diameter to prevent inward buckling. Besides this 6 mm diameter
links should also be provided as ties to prevent displacement.

The pile is also provided with a hole at 0.293 l = 0.293 6250 = 1831 mm say 1830 mm
from the upper end for hoisting and also at 0.207 l = 0.207 6250 = 1294 mm say 1290 mm
for stalking.

(It is also a practice to provide helical reinforcement in the 3b length of pile in place of
separate lateral ties)

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Page | 38
2.2. Design a pile under a column transmitting an axial load of 800kn. The pile is to be
driven to a hard stratum available at a depth of 8m.Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel.

Solution:

For M20 concrete, cc = 5 N/mm2

Fe415 steel, sc = 190 N/mm2, m=13.33 for M20 concrete

Main Reinforcement:

Let the length of the pile above ground, including

Pile cap etc. = 0.6m

Therefore total length of pile= 8.6m

Size of pile 400mm400mm


8.6
= 0.4 = 21.5 Since this is greater than 12.The pile behaves as long as column. Hence

reduction coefficient Cr is calculated as


lcr 8.6
Cr= 1.25 48 = 1.25 480.4 = 0.8

Therefore Design load for a short column is given by

P= ccAc + scAsc

Ac= area of concrete

= (400400)-Asc

= (16104)-Asc

Therefore 1000103 = 5(16104-Asc) +190Asc

Asc=1087mm2

Since the length of the pile is less than 30 times the width, minimum reinforcement @ 1.25%
of gross c/s area is calculated as
1.25
(400 400) = 2000mm2
100

However, provide 4 bars of 25mm giving total area of steel

i.e. 4490=1960mm2. Provide a nominal cover of 50mm. cover to the center of main
reinforcement using 8mm ties is

50+8+(25/2)=70.5mm

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Lateral reinforcement in the body of the pile:

Lateral reinforcement in the body of pile is provided @ 0.2% of gross volume.

Therefore volume needed per mm length


0.2
(400 400 1) = 320mm3
100

Nominal cover =50mm

Using 8mm ties, length of each side of tie

400-2(50)-8=292mm

Area = 4 82 = 50.32

Therefore volume of each tie= 4 292 50.3 = 587503

Pitch =58750/320=183mm
1
Max pitch permissible = 2 400 = 200

Hence provide 8mm ties @ 180mm c/c throughout the length of the pile.

Lateral reinforcement near pile head:

Near pile head, special spiral reinforcement is to be provided for a length of 3400=1200mm.
Volume of spiral, @ 0.6% of gross volume, per mm length is

0.6
(400 400 1) = 9602
100
Using 8 mm spiral, having A =50.3mm2, pitch is given by


=
960
29250.3
= = 48
960

Provide the spiral at 45mm pitch. Provide 6 additional bars of 16mm vertically with in the
spiral will be in addition to the normal ties.

Page | 40
Page | 41
2.3. Design: A column 300 mm300 mm in section stands on a pile cap supported on
three piles. The column is situated at the centroid of the pile group. The total load
transferred to the column is 600kN. The piles are 1.20 meters centre to centre. Design
the pile cap. Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.
Solution:

Fig shows the plan of the column and the piles and the imaginary beams AB and CD having a
width of 300 mm i.e., the same as the corresponding lateral dimension of the pile.

Overall depth of pile cap

a) Punching shear consideration. Let the permissible punching shear stress be 1 N/mm2.
Let the overall depth of the footing be D mm. Equating punching resistance to the
punching load, We have,

4300 D1 = 6001000

D = 500mm

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b) B.M. Consideration. Consider the beam DC. Maximum live load bending moment for
this beam
= 4000.23 kNm
= 138.56kNm

B.M. at G due to self-weight of pile cap

The dead load consists of the weight of the beam plus the weight of the part of the
slab. For design purposes the self-weight may be calculated as the weight of the slab whose
width equals three times the width of the beam. The depth of the pile cap from bending
moment consideration is generally found to be more than 750 mm. Let us therefore assume
the pile cap to be 800 mm deep for estimating the self-weight of the pile cap.

Dead load of the beam = 30.30.825000 N/metre

= 18000 N/metre

= 18 kN/metre

180.63 18
B.M. at G due to self-weight of the pile cap = 0.23 (0.23)2 kNm
2 2

= 2.16 kNm

Total B.M. = 138.56 + 2.16

= 140.72 kNm

Now consider the beam AB

Live load moment = 200 0.6 = 120 kNm


1.21.2
Dead load moment = 18 = 3.24 kNm
8

Dead load moment due to dead load transferred by the beam DC to the beam AB

0.63 1.2
= 18 ( )
4 2

= 2.80 kNm

Total bending moment = 120 + 3.24 + 2.8 = 126.04 kNm

Ultimate moment for beam DC = 1.5 140.72 = 211.08 kNm

Ultimate moment for beam AB = 1.5 126.04 = 189.06 kNm

Equating ultimate M.R. to Mu,max,

0.138 fck bd2 = 0.138 20 300 d2

d = 505 mm

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Overall depth provided = 800 mm

Effective depth for beam DC = 750 mm

Since the beam DC has been taken as supported at one end on a pile and at the other
end over the beam AB, the reinforcement for the beam DC must be above the level of the
reinforcement for the beam AB.

Effective depth for beam AB = 750 + 16 = 766 mm


211.08 106
For the beam DC, = = 1.251
2 300 7502

Percentage of steel required

4.6
1 1
2
Pt = 50 [ ]

4.6 1.251
1 1
20
Pt = 50 [ 415 ]
20

= 0.376%
0.376
Ast = 300 750 = 846 mm2
100

Provide 4 bars of 18 mm ( 1016 mm2)

Effective depth for beam AB = 750 + 16 = 766 mm2

189.06 106
= = 1.074
2 300 7662

Percentage of steel required

4.6
1 1
2
Pt = 50 [ ]

4.6 1.074
1 1
20
Pt = 50 [ 415 ]
20

= 0.319%
0.319
Ast = 300 766 = 733 mm2
100

Provide 4 bars of 18 mm ( 1016 mm2)

Page | 44
Secondary Reinforcement. This reinforcement shall be at least 20% of the maximum steel
required for a beam

= 0.2 846 = 169.2 mm2

Provide 4 bars of 8 mm diameter ( 200 mm2 )

Page | 45
2.4. Design: A column carrying a load of 2500 kN has to be supported by four piles each
of size 300mm 300mm. The piles are spaced at 1 meter centres as shown in fig. The
column size is 600mm 600mm. Design the pile cap, Use concrete and Fe 415 steel

Solution:

Load on the column = 2500 kN


5
Approximate weight of the pile cap = 5% of column load = 2500 = 125kN
100

Total load on the piles = W = 2625 kN


2625
Load per pile = = = 656.25
4 4

The pile cap may b taken to provide two beams like AB and CD, together supporting the total
load W. For purpose of design the maximum bending moment per beam may be taken equal
to


=
4 2 8

In our case L = 12 = 1.414 m


26251.414
Max. B.M. = = = 463.97 kNm
8 8

The width of the beam will be assumed to be equal to the corresponding width of the column
i.e., equal to 600mm.

Ultimate moment = 1.5 463.97 = 695.955 kNm

Equating Ultimate M.R. to

0.138 . 2 = 0.138 20 600 2 = 695.955 106

d = 649mm

For economic design increase the effective depth by about 40%

Effective depth = 1.4 649 = 908.6mm

Providing an effective depth d = 900mm

Providing 18 mm bars at a clear cover of 60 mm.

(Note there are two layers of bars)

Overall depth required = 900 + 9 + 18 + 60 = 987mm

695.955106
= =1.432
2 6009002

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Percentage of steel required
4.61.432
1 1
20
= 50 [ 415 ] = 0.436%
20

0.436
= 600 900 = 23552
100

Provide 12 bars of 16 mm diameter (3216

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