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from the Explanatory Memorandum on the children per married couple was not par-
Town Planning Ordinance for Municipali- ticularly high, 2.6, but only some 11 per
ties in Java (Batavia, 1938), written by cent of these went to school.
architect-planner, Thomas Karsten. Part Part III shows that Europeans were as
II presents in five chapters and a summary healthy in Bandung as in Amsterdam, in-
a Netherlands East Indies Central Bureau fant mortality being somewhat lower. The
of Statistics Report, An Investigation of Chinese were less healthy than the Euro-
the Living Conditions of Municipal Coolies peans, however, and Indonesians had still
in Batavia in 1957. Part III contains higher mortality rates than the Chinese.
three chapters by W. Brand, &dquo;Differential Part IV derives particular interest from
Mortality in the Town of Bandung,&dquo; and having been written by the last of the
Part IV comprises two chapters by H. J. Dutch Governors-General in Indonesia
van Mook comparing Kuta Gede before and providing clues to this high-ranking
and after the reorganization. officials attitudes. Through the screen of
These studies document the editors minutely detailed description, one can
statement that the painstakingly detailed sense the enthusiasm which van Mook felt
Dutch scholarship which we have come to for his job and his optimism regarding the
respect was applied to the urban as well potential for Indonesian evolution within
as to the rural scene in Indonesia. The a framework of Dutch guidance. It was
book would also lead to the conclusion this latter attitude which eventually made
that Dutch social scientists and officials enemies for him in both camps during the
came no closer to providing a satisfactory Indonesian Revolution.
theory of underdevelopment when they BENJAMIN HIGGINS
studied urban problems than they did in Department of Economics
describing village society. University of Texas
The first chapter of Part I presents some
interesting figures of urban growth from
1905 to 1930. These figures show that J. E. KIDDER, JR. Japan Before Bud-
considerable growth took place in this dhism. (Ancient Peoples and Places,
Vol. 10.) Pp. 282. New York: Fred-
period but that it was largely confined to erick A. Praeger, 1959. $5.50.
large and middle-sized cities. Chapter
Two provides evidence that urban condi- This detailed, well-referenced, attrac-
tions had become highly unsatisfactory by tively illustrated book is by far the best
the 1930s. Karsten is rather critical of survey of Japanese prehistory in a Western
the efforts made to deal with them. He language. To find a comparable work one
stresses, as causes of urban squalor and must look back half a century to N. G.
congestion, lack of knowledge; inadequate, Munros Prehistoric Japan ( 1911 ) . Mun-
inefficient, and western-oriented planning; ros excellence was in attempting to inter-
the welter of land laws; and the uninhib- pret the past coherently, not merely to
ited and ill-conceived acquisition of land survey the existing finds. Most of his
by westerners. In Chapter Three, he successors, failing to revise his concepts
shows that sociological dualism and plural- or ask really new questions, let Japanese
ism existed in cities as well as in the coun- prehistory appear to fall in the doldrums.
try, leading to social conflict. The final In welcome contrast, Kidders new survey
chapter calls for better planned urban de- draws on a vastly larger store of data,
velopment and improved technical training heeds current Japanese thinking, and in-
to that end. corporates fresh concepts to give insight
Part II provides a wealth of statistics into the past. He summarizes very briefly
on budgets of Batavia (Djakarta) coolies. (pp. 86-89) the few positive results from
One interesting fact is that the number race-preoccupied attempts to sort out pre-
of children increases with income, indicat- historic &dquo;Ainu&dquo; sites from &dquo;Japanese&dquo;
ing either the presence of family planning sites; race played a negligible role in the
or very high infant mortality rates among successive transformations of culture and
the very poor. The average number of society, and Kidder properly emphasizes

diffusion and social contact, instead, as ganized and complex details of Japanese
the forces that brought Japan abreast of archaeology.
continental Far Eastern civilization. RICHARD K. BEARDSLEY
The culture directly ancestral to historic Department of Anthropology
Japanese civilization cannot be traced University of Michigan
earlier than the Bronze-Iron Age, the third
of four main cultural divisions described ALTEMUR KILIÇ. Turkey and the World.
in the four central chapters of the book. Pp. 224. Washington, D. C.: Public
The earliest periods, Paleolithic and Meso- Affairs Press, 1959. $4.50.
lithic (pp. 27-33), first discovered barely This is an excellent review and exposi-
a decade ago, are known from stone im- tion of the foreign relations of the Repub-
plements that suggest a sparse population lic of Turkey, with sufficient background
of hunters and gatherers existing with on earlier years, and particular attention
minor changes .for several thousand years. to the present. The author, with due
The same sort of primitive life was led attention to the facts, admittedly sets forth
by people of the following period, the Neo- the Turkish viewpoint, including the rea-
lithic, even though they had new skills, sons why Turkey, although a small coun-
as evidenced by the myriad varieties of try, regards itself as both a Western power
pottery produced in the Jomon style dur- and a political, military, and cultural
ing their span of several millennia (pp. 60- bridge between West and East. The pe-
68). Following Japanese precedent, Kid- nultimate chapter, on Turkey in the Mid-
der reviews the abundant Neolithic mate- dle East, is of special value not only
rials in five subperiods. These had by no because it reveals Turkish opinion but also
means run their course when rice agricul- because Kiliq is one of the Turkish officials
ture began about 250 B.C. in Western who understands Americans quite well, and
Japan, but continued in the north. How- because the Foreign Office in Ankara often
ever, rice growing by newcomers, presum- has, or could have, anticipated American
ably from the continent, began a new era policy formation. The final chapter on
of population increase and cultural enrich- Turkey and the World, which is unlisted
ment in historic Japanese civilization. In in the Table of Contents, should be read
the first phase of this era, bronze and iron by all persons interested in Turkey even
were used by settled villagers making pot- if they do not have time to complete the
tery in the Yayoi style. Social stratifica- rest of the book.
tion became a feature of this Bronze-Iron The international relations philosophy of
Age and was intensified when great earth the author, and presumably of his govern-
tombs were built in the succeeding Proto- ment, is barely if at all distinguishable
historic period, from the fourth to eighth from that of the late John Foster Dulles.
century A.D. Kidder, reviewing the his- While Kiliqs partiality to the current re-
toric sequence of Yamato emperors (p. gime makes him more critical of its prede-
209), shows that the earliest must have cessor, his characterization of the former
lived near the first century B.C., that is, President Inonu as &dquo;cautious&dquo; would find
during the Bronze-Iron Age when Yayoi few dissenters.
culture prevailed. Unfortunately, the book is written by a
Kidders account, in the main, follows journalist for the type of reader who is
majority opinion among Japanese prehis- satisfied by newspaper coverage of events
torians. Points that call for criticism, in and problems. Although the author quotes
fact, often are not Kidders, but his too widely, the impedimenta of scholarship are
faithful reflection of the inconsistencies conspicuously absent. Counting memoires
and blind spots that persist in Japanese as primary, the Bibliography lists mainly
interpretation. While questions of inter- secondary sources. This is the more re-
pretation are by no means inconsequential, grettable as Mr. Kiliq has the intellectual
the very fact that they rise to mind shows capacity and the necessary access to o~-
the extent to which Kidder has given co- cial sources to have written a book equally
herence and order to the hitherto disor- interesting if designed also for reference