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35 visualizzazioni6 pagineHEAT & MASS TRANSFER

Aug 28, 2017

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HEAT & MASS TRANSFER

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HEAT & MASS TRANSFER

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1.1 THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

Energy can exist in many forms including: thermal, mechanical, kinetic, potential, electrical,

magnetic, chemical and nuclear, and the sum of these is the total energy (E) or (e) on a unit

mass basis.

The Internal Energy (U) can be viewed as the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the

molecules: U=KE+PE. Where the portion of internal energy of a system associated with the

kinetic energy of the molecules is called the sensible energy or sensible heat.

The average velocity and activity of molecules are proportional to the temperature- thus at

higher temperatures the molecules possess higher KE-> the system has higher U.

U is also assocated with the intermolecular forces between molecules of a system- if

sufficient energy is added to the molecules of a solid/ liquid they will overcome these

intermolecular fores and simply break away and the system turns into a gas.

This is a phase change- and because of this added energy- a system in the gas phase is at a

higher U than it is in the solid or liquid phase. This associated internal energy is called latent

energy or latent heat.

In analysis of systems we often encoutntered fluid flow: and the properties U and PV. This

combination U+PV will be defined as enthalpy- where the PV term represents the flow

energy/work- which is the energy required to push a fluid and to maintain flow.

To be continued

1.3

i) Review of the fundamentals of thermodynamics which form the framework for heat transfer.

Objectives:

- understand multi-dimensionality and time dependence of heat transfer,

- obtain differential equation of heat conduction, identify thermal conditions on surfaces and express as boundary and

initial conditions

- Solve 1D heat conduction problem and obtain temperature distributions within a medium and the heat flux.

- Solve problems in 1D heat conduction which involves heat generature

- Evaluate heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Unlike temperature, heat transfer has a direction as well as a magnitude -> Thus it is a vector

quantity.

We must specify both direction and magnitude in order to describe heat transfer

The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the temperature difference, the larger the

temperature difference the greater the rate of heat transfer.

In order to determine local heat transfer rate, thermal expansion and thermal stress- we need

to determine the temperature distribution or how the temperature varies throughout a

medium.

This can be done by specifying a point in the medium using a suitable coordinate system-

such as rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinates.

The location of a point is specified as:

Rectangular (x,y,z)

Cylindrical (r, ,z)

Spherical (r, ,)

T(x,y,z,t) implies that temperature varies with the space variables, x,y,z as well as time.

T(x) on the other hand, indicates that temperature only varies in the x-direction and there

is no variation with the other 2 space coordinates or time.

Steady state- implies no change with time at any point within the medium

Transient- implies variation with time or time dependence

Temperature or heat flux remains unchanged with time during steady state transfer- although

both quantities ma vary from one location to another.

Transient example: the cooling of an apple in a fridge. Since temperature at any fixed point

within the apple will change with time during cooling.

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In special cases (lumped systems)- heat transfer varies with time but not position-ie. the

temperature of the medium changes uniformly with time. Such a system is a thermocouple

junction or a thin copper wire.

Most heat transfer problems are transient in nature- eg. Heat transfer through walls and

ceiling of a house is never steady since the outdoor conditions- such as temperature, speed

and direction of wind, changes constantly. But in order to analyse the system we are

interested in the heat loss under the worst conditions for an extended period of time, ie.

During steady state operature under the worst conditions.

Temperature distributions can be expressed as T(x,y,z,t): Rectangular, T(r, , z,t):

Cylindrical or T(r, , ,t ): Spherical.

In some cases- the temperature in a medium varies mainly in 2 primary directions and

varation in third direction is deemed negligible. Eg. The steady temperature distribution in

a long rectangular bar- where the temperature variation in the z-direction (along the bar) is

negligible with time.

Heat transfer in a pipe can be considered 1D since it occurs mainly in the radial direction

from the hot water to the ambient. The heat transfer along the pipe (z) and along the

circumference of the cross section () is deemed negligible.

The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified direction, is proportional to the

temperature difference across the medium and area normal to the direction of heat transfer,

but inversely proportional to the distance in that direction.

This is expressed in the differential form by Fouriers Law of Heat conduction:

FOURIERS LAW (1D) :

= -kA units: W

dT/dx= Temperuatre gradient (which is the slope of the

temperature curve on a T-x diagram, see

below).

A= Area normal to direction of heat transfer.

temperature gradient is negative in positive x-direction.

The -ve sign ensures that heat transfer in the positive x-direction is a positive quantity.

Page 3

INSERT NOTES ON DERIVATION

In thermodynamics: heat- is a form of energy that can be transferred from one system to

another as a result of temperature difference. Heat transfer is the rate at which this energy

transfers.

Note that although we can determine the amount of heat transfer for any system using

thermodynamic analysis alone- the thermodynamics is concerned with the amount of heat

transfer from one equilibrium state to another- and does not tell us how long the process will

take. It simply tells us how much heat MUST be transfreered to realise a specific change of

state in order to satisfy the conservation of energy principle (Eout=Ein)

Thus thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states and changes from one equilibrium state

to another.

Heat transfer deals with systems that lack thermal equilibrium-> thus nonequilibrium

phenomenon.

1st Law of Thermodynamics requires the rate of energy transfer into a system to be equal to

the rate of increase of energy of that system

2nd Law states that the heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature.

The basic requirements for heat transfer is a temperature difference. There can be no heat

transfer between 2 bodies that are at the same temperature.

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The temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer, just as the voltage difference

is the driving force for an electrical current, and pressure difference is the driving force for fluid

flow.

The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the temperature gradient- which is

the tmeperautre difference per unit length in that direction.

Heat transfer problems in engineering processes can be considered as: rating and sizing

problems

Rating: is concerned with determination of heat transfer rate for an existing system at

a specified temperature difference

Sizing: determination of the size of a system in order to transfer heat at a specified rate

for a specified temperature difference.

deal with the actual physical system, desired quantity is determined by measurement

and accurate within the limits of experimental error. However this approach is often

time consuming and expensive or impractical.

results obtained are subject to accuracy of assumptions, approximation and

idealzations.

Best practice in engineering is often a compromise between the two- by reducing the

choices to just a few by analysis, and verifying the findings experimentally

ii) Relationship of heat to other forms of energy and review the energy balance

iii) Introduce the 3 basic mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.

iv)

Page 5

4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION

5 NUMERICAL METHODS IN HEAT CONDUCTION

6 FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVECTION

7 EXTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION

8 INTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION

9 NATURAL CONVECTION

10 BOILING AND CONDENSATION

11 HEAT EXCHANGERS

12 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL RADIATION

13 RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER

14 MASS TRANSFER

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