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# HEAT & MASS TRANSFER- CENGEL & GHAJAR

## 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

1.1 THERMODYNAMICS AND HEAT TRANSFER

## 1.2 HEAT AND OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY

Energy can exist in many forms including: thermal, mechanical, kinetic, potential, electrical,
magnetic, chemical and nuclear, and the sum of these is the total energy (E) or (e) on a unit
mass basis.
The Internal Energy (U) can be viewed as the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the
molecules: U=KE+PE. Where the portion of internal energy of a system associated with the
kinetic energy of the molecules is called the sensible energy or sensible heat.
The average velocity and activity of molecules are proportional to the temperature- thus at
higher temperatures the molecules possess higher KE-> the system has higher U.
U is also assocated with the intermolecular forces between molecules of a system- if
sufficient energy is added to the molecules of a solid/ liquid they will overcome these
intermolecular fores and simply break away and the system turns into a gas.
This is a phase change- and because of this added energy- a system in the gas phase is at a
higher U than it is in the solid or liquid phase. This associated internal energy is called latent
energy or latent heat.
In analysis of systems we often encoutntered fluid flow: and the properties U and PV. This
combination U+PV will be defined as enthalpy- where the PV term represents the flow
energy/work- which is the energy required to push a fluid and to maintain flow.

To be continued
1.3

## This chapter will be structured as follows:

i) Review of the fundamentals of thermodynamics which form the framework for heat transfer.

## 2 HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION

Objectives:
- understand multi-dimensionality and time dependence of heat transfer,
- obtain differential equation of heat conduction, identify thermal conditions on surfaces and express as boundary and
initial conditions
- Solve 1D heat conduction problem and obtain temperature distributions within a medium and the heat flux.
- Solve problems in 1D heat conduction which involves heat generature
- Evaluate heat conduction in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Unlike temperature, heat transfer has a direction as well as a magnitude -> Thus it is a vector
quantity.
We must specify both direction and magnitude in order to describe heat transfer
The driving force for any form of heat transfer is the temperature difference, the larger the
temperature difference the greater the rate of heat transfer.
In order to determine local heat transfer rate, thermal expansion and thermal stress- we need
to determine the temperature distribution or how the temperature varies throughout a
medium.
This can be done by specifying a point in the medium using a suitable coordinate system-
such as rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinates.
The location of a point is specified as:

Rectangular (x,y,z)
Cylindrical (r, ,z)
Spherical (r, ,)

## Therefore a temperature at a time t in reaturanl coordinates can be expressed as T(x,y,z,t)

T(x,y,z,t) implies that temperature varies with the space variables, x,y,z as well as time.
T(x) on the other hand, indicates that temperature only varies in the x-direction and there
is no variation with the other 2 space coordinates or time.

## 2.1.1 STEADY VS TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER

Steady state- implies no change with time at any point within the medium
Transient- implies variation with time or time dependence
Temperature or heat flux remains unchanged with time during steady state transfer- although
both quantities ma vary from one location to another.
Transient example: the cooling of an apple in a fridge. Since temperature at any fixed point
within the apple will change with time during cooling.

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In special cases (lumped systems)- heat transfer varies with time but not position-ie. the
temperature of the medium changes uniformly with time. Such a system is a thermocouple
junction or a thin copper wire.
Most heat transfer problems are transient in nature- eg. Heat transfer through walls and
ceiling of a house is never steady since the outdoor conditions- such as temperature, speed
and direction of wind, changes constantly. But in order to analyse the system we are
interested in the heat loss under the worst conditions for an extended period of time, ie.
During steady state operature under the worst conditions.

## 2.1.2 MULTIDIMENSIONAL HEAT TRANSFER

Temperature distributions can be expressed as T(x,y,z,t): Rectangular, T(r, , z,t):
Cylindrical or T(r, , ,t ): Spherical.
In some cases- the temperature in a medium varies mainly in 2 primary directions and
varation in third direction is deemed negligible. Eg. The steady temperature distribution in
a long rectangular bar- where the temperature variation in the z-direction (along the bar) is
negligible with time.
Heat transfer in a pipe can be considered 1D since it occurs mainly in the radial direction
from the hot water to the ambient. The heat transfer along the pipe (z) and along the
circumference of the cross section () is deemed negligible.

The rate of heat conduction through a medium in a specified direction, is proportional to the
temperature difference across the medium and area normal to the direction of heat transfer,
but inversely proportional to the distance in that direction.
This is expressed in the differential form by Fouriers Law of Heat conduction:
FOURIERS LAW (1D) :

= -kA units: W

## k= Thermal conductivity of material

dT/dx= Temperuatre gradient (which is the slope of the
temperature curve on a T-x diagram, see
below).
A= Area normal to direction of heat transfer.

## Heat is conducted in the direction of decreasing temperature, therefore the

temperature gradient is negative in positive x-direction.
The -ve sign ensures that heat transfer in the positive x-direction is a positive quantity.

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INSERT NOTES ON DERIVATION

## 2.1.3 HEAT GENERATION

In thermodynamics: heat- is a form of energy that can be transferred from one system to
another as a result of temperature difference. Heat transfer is the rate at which this energy
transfers.

Note that although we can determine the amount of heat transfer for any system using
thermodynamic analysis alone- the thermodynamics is concerned with the amount of heat
transfer from one equilibrium state to another- and does not tell us how long the process will
take. It simply tells us how much heat MUST be transfreered to realise a specific change of
state in order to satisfy the conservation of energy principle (Eout=Ein)

Thus thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states and changes from one equilibrium state
to another.

Heat transfer deals with systems that lack thermal equilibrium-> thus nonequilibrium
phenomenon.

1st Law of Thermodynamics requires the rate of energy transfer into a system to be equal to
the rate of increase of energy of that system

2nd Law states that the heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature.

The basic requirements for heat transfer is a temperature difference. There can be no heat
transfer between 2 bodies that are at the same temperature.

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The temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer, just as the voltage difference
is the driving force for an electrical current, and pressure difference is the driving force for fluid
flow.

The rate of heat transfer in a certain direction depends on the temperature gradient- which is
the tmeperautre difference per unit length in that direction.

## Engineering heat transfer

Heat transfer problems in engineering processes can be considered as: rating and sizing
problems

Rating: is concerned with determination of heat transfer rate for an existing system at
a specified temperature difference

Sizing: determination of the size of a system in order to transfer heat at a specified rate
for a specified temperature difference.

## Experimentally- involves testing and taking measurements: advantageous because we

deal with the actual physical system, desired quantity is determined by measurement
and accurate within the limits of experimental error. However this approach is often
time consuming and expensive or impractical.

## Analytically- by analysis or calculations: advantageous in that it is fast and inexpensive-

results obtained are subject to accuracy of assumptions, approximation and
idealzations.

Best practice in engineering is often a compromise between the two- by reducing the
choices to just a few by analysis, and verifying the findings experimentally

ii) Relationship of heat to other forms of energy and review the energy balance

iii) Introduce the 3 basic mechanisms of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.

iv)

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4 TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION
5 NUMERICAL METHODS IN HEAT CONDUCTION
6 FUNDAMENTALS OF CONVECTION
7 EXTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION
8 INTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION
9 NATURAL CONVECTION
10 BOILING AND CONDENSATION
11 HEAT EXCHANGERS