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Pupil Guidance and Discipline

In broad terms guidance implies advice. It is conscious attempt of

administrator to stimulate and direct the activities of the student/pupil toward
definite and worthy objectives. Guidance includes all those influences and
opportunities designed to assist the pupils in discovering how they may make his
educational, vocational, social, cultural and recreational choices and adjustment
most successfully and happily. One purpose of guidance is to make individual
discover the mode of life by which he can realized most fully his potentialities for
worthy and satisfactory service. To this end, school must have a symphatetic
understanding of the pupils interest, aptitudes and abilities and make a
conscious effort to help him develop them for the satisfaction of their needs,
discharge of duties and responsibilities and enjoyment of his opportunities.
Guidance tool is to aid pupils/students to make wise choice and decisions.

Kinds of Guidance

The most common type of guidance are:

1. Educational guidance assistance give to a person via use of facts

and standardized procedures that he may plan and pursue his
education in the light of his abilities, past achievements, difficulties and
2. Vocational guidance presentation of facts about job and occupational
fields, requirements of various occupations and employment
possibilities in order to help pupils or students select a vocation more
3. Personal guidance assisting an individual with respect to his
personal habits, attitude and intimate personal problems;
4. Social guidance assisting persons in their adjustments to social
customs and practices that they may develop satisfactory relationship
with their fellowmen;
5. Moral guidance assisting persons in their adjustments to social
customs and practices that they may develop satisfactory relationship
with other fellowmen;
6. Avocational guidance assistance given to person to enable him to
spend his leisure in worthwhile activities;
7. Health guidance assisting pupils/students to attain a greater measure
of physical and mental health;
8. Civic guidance assisting person to enable him to be an efficient
factor in the local provincial and national government.
Need for guidance in Schools and Colleges

The need for guidance in our school system becomes more urgent in view
1. rapid influx of students into our school in all levels;
2. diversity of educational and vocational opportunities;
3. varied courses offered in the school system;
4. complexities of modern life.

Items of Information Necessary in Guidance

Aspects/areas of students/pupils necessary in guidance are;

1. Scholastic ability;
2. Past achievements (student ability or aptitude in use);
3. Aptitudes and disabilities;
4. Interest and aspiration;
5. Personality adjustments;
6. Health; and
7. Family background
Type of test measuring the general ability, aptitudes and interest are:
1. General intelligence test;
2. Vocational aptitude test;
3. Philippine achievement test;
4. Interest analysis blank; and
5. Inventories of personality traits

Modern concept of School Discipline

The modern concept of discipline is both regulative and educative.

Regulative because without peace and order, effective teaching on one hand,
and profitable learning on the other, are not possible. The true functions of
classroom discipline is to create a desire to help establish and maintain good
working condition inside and outside the classroom setting.

Classroom setting is educative, in that, to help students acquire

knowledge, power, habits, interest and ideals which are useful for his well-being
and his fellowmen. It aims to bring about desirable behavior on the part of all
1. Ideals such as freedom, justice and equality for all;
2. Recognition of inherent dignity and rights of every human being;
3. Development of self-direction, self-discipline; and
4. Understanding of the goal
Causes of Disciplinary Problems

The fundamental causes of disciplinary problems

1. Teachers personality factors, that is lack of subject matter knowledge,

constant nagging and scolding, lack of symphaty, temper, poor
decision, hard treatment of pupils, poor method of and technique and
lack of knowledge of child psychology.
2. Physical factors in terms of health and psychological elements. Poor
health, irritability, restlessness and subtleness.
3. Individual factors such as egotism, immaturity of judgment, low
mentality and self-consciousness.
4. Social factors desires for social approval, desire for sensationalism
and well-known to everybody and resentment to control;
5. School factors, that are unattractive classrooms, unhygienic room
condition and lack of organization of classroom routine;
6. Lack of training;
7. Work factors, in that poor subject matter planning, bad teaching, too
much work or activities of pupils that remain unchallenged.

Corrective Measures Prescribed by Bureau of Public Schools DECS

1. Suspension or expulsion
2. Withdrawal of privileges
3. Prohibiting corporal punishment and hazing.

Principles Governing the Handling of Disciplinary Problems

The administrator in handling problems of students discipline should:

1. provide for a unifying philosophy of discipline;

2. secure cooperative pupil teacher planning;
3. not to handle extreme cases of problem alone;
4. apply punishment in a corrective manner;
5. encourage constructive teacher solution of disciplinary problems;
6. not to make correction within the hearing of other pupils;
7. not to undermine the teachers authority;
8. talk with pupils to make clear to him the need for corrections;
9. never use corporal punishment; and
10. establish referral procedure to be followed in his own school.

School and Community Relation

School and community relations constitute a vital function area in

educational administration. Close relationship between the school and the
community must be established and maintained to make the school more
serviceable and responsive to the needs of the community and to draw the
community to the school.

Models of School and Community Relation

The various models which administrator can make use in effecting school
relation with the community can conceptually illustrated as:

Traditional model. This model directs the administrator toward the

separation of the school and the community. It means that administrator, teacher
and all the support staff should decide all educational issues under the complete
atmosphere of academic freedom. Administrators are not obliged to justify school
program to the lay citizen and the community.

Opportunistic model. The expedient or opportunistic model will use any

method, accept any policy, make any decision that will work for the
administrators own advantage. His major concern is to maintain himself in the
position and have little integrity. He justifies his behavior as flexible and open-

Public relation model. In this model, administrators use principles

derived from masses of facts to build a school program the public must support.

Community-school model. This model requires the administrator to

commit one self to the concept of the school as an agency for social change and
community improvement and at the same time, education of the students can be
enhanced more dynamics and more meaningful.

The eclectic model. This model combines into a workable system what
he regards as good points of the various basic models.

Concern of the Community about the School

Foremost in these concerns of citizens about the school are the costs of
the school, the educational program and citizen involvement in decision-making.

Identifying Community Needs

To make the school properly identified with the community, it must have a
complete information on the population characteristics, values and other factors
related to youth and adult. It may be noted that culture, and values of the
community have systematic and continuing interaction with the expectation for
the school as an institution. All of these things the school should know by
conducting periodic community survey.
Communicating with the Community

It is a truism that successful implementation of programs can be done via:

Why communicate. It is essential to communicate with the community

because the schools are dependent on the community for financial and program

Who to communicate. Every person connected with the operation of the

school like the principal, teachers, students and school employee has his own
contribution to make the school public relation program a success.
What to communicate. Some of the things the school should
communicate with the community are those concerning school programs,
student-teacher ratio, number of books in the library, and physical plant

How to communicate. Communicating the school concerns to the

community can be done in a number of ways as in meeting, general assembly, in
report and perhaps combination of these methods.

Non-Formal Education

Non-formal education may be defined as any recognized educational

activity outside the established formal system, whether operating separately or
as an important feature of some broaden activity that is intended to serve
identifiable learning clientele and learning objectives.

Constitutional and Legal Basis of Non-Formal Education

Some of the sources of legality of non-formal education can:

1. Philippine Constitution of 1935, 1973 and 1987;
2. PD No. 6-A;
3. Education Act of 1982;
4. PD 1139 creating position of undersecretary of DECS for non-formal

Areas of Concerns of Non-formal Education

1. functional literacy
2. basic vocation/technical skills training
3. civic citizenship education
4. socio-cultural development
5. sports-physical fitness development
6. effective leadership
7. mass media education
Target Clientele

1. The employed or unemployed learners of elementary and high school

level who like to rejoin the mainstream of formal education;
2. The unemployed or underemployed who need training in certain
occupational skills to enable them to be gainful employed or improved
their earning capacity;
3. Those who attended schools for only a few years and those who never
attended school; and
4. Technical worker and even professionals who need constant upgrading
of skills or new knowledge to improve their qualification.

Examples of non-formal education that can be illustrated are:

1. agricultural extension and farmer training program;
2. adult literacy program;
3. occupational skills training;
4. youth club with educational purposes;
5. community program of instruction in health, nutrition, family planning
and cooperative.

In-Service Education of Teachers As Administrative and

Supervisory Functions

In service education of teachers and of other school personnel is a legal

requirement and an ethical mandate. Revised Service Manual of the BPS (1959)
states Division Superintendent of Schools, supervisors and principals are
expected to plan for the improvement of teachers in service. Article IV, Sec. 3 of
the Code of Professional Ethics for teachers and school officials states that all
school officials and teachers should strive to broaden their cultural and deepen
their professional interest. They should pursue such as will improve their
efficiency by study and other means which will keep them abreast in education
and the world in which they live. Teachers and other school personnel have to
grow in service by actively participating in an enterprise designed to keep them
up-to-date and abreast of new developments and ways of solving professional

The education of teachers in service is an administrative and supervisory

functions. Growth in-service to meet the needs of a changing society and to take
into account the ever developing educational insights, is essential and constitutes
a challenge to the teaching profession in this country. The new insights into
learning and teaching processes and the rapid changes in educational practices
make imperative a continuous growth in-service of the educational personnel.

Roles Played of a Administration and Supervision in Institution Building

The School Administrators

The school administrator, identified as the Division Superintendent,

principal or head teacher are the recognized leaders of the schools. Some
characteristics of the successful administrators can be cited as:
1. Initiators in terms of having a well organized plans and hardwork;
2. Improver via letting teachers to improve professionally and encourages
teacher to do a better work;
3. Recognizer in terms of ability to recognize initiatives, problems and
potentialities in individuals;
4. Helper by being ready to help others solve their problems and
solicitous concerning new teachers;
5. Communicator by being effective to communicate with others, to the
community in clear and lucid manner what the school are doing and
what they need;
6. Coordinator by making school personnel to actively participate in policy
formulation and cooperative planning; and
7. Social man by being courteous, friendly and consistent in his

The Role of Principal in Guidance

The DPS Bulletin No. 17 s. 1951 states that the function of the school
principal in guidance as:
1. Lead teachers to increase their understanding of child behavior;
2. Acquaint teachers with ways of helping children attain their best
3. Plan the administration of the testing program and the interpretation
and use of its result;
4. Acquaint himself with and make use of facilities within the school
system and community for giving help in cases where children are
experiencing adjustments difficulties; and
5. Lead in organizing the guidance committee.

In addition, as an executive of an educational institution an administrator is

tasked to represent his school to the environment; provides condition conducive
to teaching learning in terms of quality instruction, teachers, students, school
facilities, instructional materials, sufficient budget, community relation and other
areas of school operation. He likewise assumes roles in collaboration with his
faculty, as decision-maker, organizer, planner, budget-maker, and manager of the
school and a change-agent.

Furthermore, an administrator is duty bound to improve the teaching

competencies of all teachers under his charge. His role in this particular aspect of
institution building is to come up a program for faculty improvement. This can do
by allowing/sending the members of the faculty to actively participate in in-
service education designed to keep them abreast with rapid advancement and
innovations in the field of education.

Finally, it is an administrators role to make teachers welfare and benefits

available to his teacher. This he can do by making them well informed of these
welfare and benefits and assisting them how these are available of. A good
example is a one year study leave with pay as per mandate of the Magna Carta
for public school teachers.

Problems and Issues Regarding School Administration as a Factor of

Institution Building

Tell me the kind of administrator you have and I will tell the kind of school
you belong. This statement can be substantiated by an administrative styles,
leadership behavior and approaches adopted by an school administrator.

By style of leadership simply means that most school principals are

autocratic in the way they handle the management of the school program. He
practiced a one man-rule, telling teachers what to do and expect compliance. He
acts as somebody who is indispensable.

This style of leadership is manifested by his behavior of I, me and myself

syndrome; and adopting a highly personalized and paternistics approach in
running the school.

A weak principalship position and function in elementary school level. By

the nature of the level of hierarchy, in the elementary school the principal position
is very much weakened. It is observed that elementary level education is
organized as a school district, headed by district supervisor. The complete
elementary schools existing in the different barangays including a central school
are headed by principals. The principal performs all the administrative tools as
regard the operation of school and as line officer, they are expected to undertake
decision-making, organizing, planning, communicating and other related
management functions. However the presence of district supervisor in the
hierarchy, a position, which by the name or title itself could just mean, to help the
administrator to improve the teaching learning process and the condition
affecting them, is actually intervening in the just functions and roles of principal
with respect to administrative tasks and the management functions.

One can just imagine the weak position of the elementary school principal,
who can not even recruit his own teacher nor make decision without permission
of the office of district supervisor. What is happening that while the principal are
given the full responsibility in running the school and produce satisfatory results,
they are not given required authority to deal with problems directly affecting their
respective schools. A case in point for settling problems connected to school and
community relation. District supervisor is not and will not interfere to settle this
problem. Practically, the responsibility is left to the school principal. What is ironic
is that if the problem is not solved, the principal gets the blame. However, if an
appropriate solution is prescribed, the credit goes up to the district supervisor


The main concern of this module is to put to focus other competencies

that an educational instruction need in order to dispense quality services and be
regarded as quality institution. These competencies are identified as extension
program, productivity and school administration and supervision. The module
provided an insight how these competencies are put to practice and maintained
and the roles they played in institution building.
Extension service as implemented by an educational institution is a
manifestation to bring to the end-users level product of its researchers for
adoption. It is a means of helping people so that they can help themselves in
some major concerns for improved rural family living in terms of improving health
and nutrition, relieving poverty, increasing productivity, population and improving
the well-being of people.
The roles played by an extension program can be stated in terms of link it
has with the sources of technology and the end users. It provides technical
assistance whenever necessary and a dissemination of replicable technologies.
Productivity. Productivity as an added competency is the ability to invest
institution resources, be it in terms of man, machine technology, capital and land
wisely in business enterprises which returns can be used as inputs to enrich
instruction, research, extension and fiscal concern of an educational institution.
Operated as an interface with instruction research and extension, they are
utilized as laboratory for hands on experiences of students and faculty; a
source of stable and low cost form products for students and faculty; and a
manifestation of the school capability to demonstrate the replicability of the
technology it generated to improved fiscal autonomy.
School administration and supervision. Administration can be regarded as
the plan of an organizations which perform functions in terms of decision-making,
planning, organizing, staffing, communicating, coordinating, controlling and
evaluating. Its areas of operation include ,management of personnel, school
plant, finance and budget, pupils guidance and discipline, curriculum organization
and development, school and community relation and non-formal education.
The roles of administration in institution building are multi-dimensional in
terms of representing the whole school organization, and providing the condition
conducive to teaching and learning process and serve as the main actor in the
management functions in any school organization.
Supervision. Supervision, in any educational institution basically refers to
the improvement of teaching learning process and the condition affecting them.
Its major functions are inspection, research, training, guidance and evaluation. Its
roles can be cited in terms of survey of the school system, improvement of
classroom, in-service education of teachers, instructional materials, research,
sustaining the desirable physical condition of the school plant; and doing semi-
administration duties.


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