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absolute filter

absolute humidity
absolute pressure

absolute temperature

absolute vacuum
absolute viscosity

absolute zero temperature


absorber area

absorber spray pumps

absorber surface



absorption chiller

absorption coefficient

absorption hygrometer
(chemical hygrometer)

absorption refrigerating



acceptable indoor air


acceptable performance

acceptable thermal

acceptable vulnerability

acceptance angle

access door

access panel




acoustic anemometer

acoustic environment

acoustical Doppler effect

acoustical thermometer


activated carbon


acute toxicity

adaptive model


adiabatic compression

adiabatic expansion
adiabatic process

adiabatic saturation

adiabatic saturation

drive (AFD)

adjusted net total capacity

adopting authority



aerodynamic excitation


age of air

air atomizing burner

air bound

air change rate

air changes

air circulation
air cleaner

air cleaning

air conditioner

air conditioning

air contaminant

air curtain

air density

air device

air diffuser

air diffusion

air discharge coefficient

air dispersion systems

air distribution

air distribution

air drop

air dumping

air economizer

air eliminator

air exchange

air films

air infiltration

air leakage factor

air leakage rate

air lock

air main

air mass

air motor

air outlet

air pollutant

air pollution

air power

air recirculating kitchen

air separation (air
air separation unit
air shutter
air speed

air splitter
air spread
air system balancing
air temperature
air terminal

air terminal device

air terminal unit

air throw

air transport factor

air treatment

air valve
air velocity

air vent

air washer

air, exhaust
air, makeup
air, outdoor
air, recirculated
air, standard
air, supply
air, transfer
air, ventilation

air/cloth ratio

air/gas ratio

air/mass ratio

air/media ratio

air-blast cooling
airborne particles
airborne sound

air-conditioner capacity

air-conditioning system

air-cooled air conditioner

air-cooled condenser

air-cycle refrigeration

air-delivery rate

air-diffusing ceiling

air-diffusion performance
index (ADPI)

air-distribution envelope


airflow resistance

airflow retarder


air-handling unit (AHU)

air-side economizer
airtight construction


air-to-air energy recovery


air-to-air energy recovery

system efficiency

air-to-air heat exchanger

AK factor


alarm point






allocation device


alternating current

alternative energy sources

ambient air

ambient air conditions

ambient noise

ambient pressure

ammonia refrigerant


analog data

analog display

analog input

analog output

analog to digital converter

analog transmission

analytical solution


anechoic termination

aneroid barometer

aneroid capsule

anesthetic effect
angle of discharge
angle of incidence
angle valve



annual fuel-utilization
efficiency (AFUE)

annual heating load

annual incident unshaded

total solar radiation

annual mean zone air


annual sensible-cooling

annual transmitted solar


annular flow


antisiphon valve

aperture area

aperture plane


apparatus dew point


apparent load

apparent power

apparent solar time

apparent temperature
apparent volumetric
application part-load
value (APLV)

application rating

controller (ASC)




arc welding

Archimedes principle


architect engineer

temperature difference

aromatic content

aromatic hydrocarbon

as-built records

aseptic environment
ASHRAE arrestance
ASHRAE synthetic-
arrestance dust

aspect ratio

aspirated psychrometer



atmospheric burner

atmospheric condenser

atmospheric dust

atmospheric freeze drying

atmospheric pressure
atmospheric tower



attic fan

attic ventilation


authority having


automatic changeover

automatic control device


auxiliary air

auxiliary devices
auxiliary energy
auxiliary fuel

auxiliary thermal source

available energy
average age of air
average air outlet speed

average arrestance

average ASHRAE
average ASHRAE dust-spot

Avogadros law

axial fan

axial flow compressor

axonometric drawing


azeotropic blend
azeotropic point

azeotropic refrigerant

azeotropic temperature

alpha-value (-value)

Babos law

back pressure

back pressure valve

back siphonage

backdraft damper


backflow preventer

backflow prevention

background irradiance

background noise

back-siphonage preventer

backward-curved impeller



balance point

balanced draft

balanced flow

balanced heat recovery

balanced relief valve


balancing damper

balancing station

balancing valve

ball valve


ballast factor

ballast losses


barometric condenser

barometric damper

barometric effect
barometric pressure
base temperature

base use

baseboard radiator

baseline building design

baseline building

baseline data

baseline model

baseline period

basis of design (BOD)

beam irradiance

Beers law


bellows seal

bellows valve

bifurcated fan

billing data

billing demand

bimetallic thermometer


bin method


binary vapor cycle


biological deposits


blackbody equivalent

blade pitch

blade twist

blanket thermal insulation

blast coil

blast freezer

blast gate
blast gate damper

blast heater

bleed valve



blind flange

block thermal insulation


blower door

blowoff valve

blowthrough unit

blue energy



boiler burner unit

boiler capacity

boiler crown sheet

boiler feed pump

boiler feedwater

boiler feedwater heater

boiler foaming

boiler generator

boiler heating surface

boiler horsepower

boiler priming

boiler water leg

boiler waterline

boiling point

boil-off gas





boundary conditions

boundary layer

Bourdon gage

Boyles law
brackish water
brake horsepower
brake power


branch circuit

branch line


brazed tube

break-even temperature


breakthrough time

breathing zone


Brewsters law


brine expansion tank

brine return tank

brine tank

brine-spray refrigerating
briquette ice

Btu meter

bubble-point temperature

budget building design


buffer tank
buffer zone


building automation
system (BAS)

building envelop leakage

building envelope

building envelope opaque


building envelope void

building exit

building height

building information
model (BIM)

Building Information
Modeling (BIM)

building management

building official

building power line carrier

building project

building services

building space

building thermal envelope


bulk modulus of elasticity

buoyancy inertial
burner ignition

burner low fire setting

burner register

burner throat

burner window box

butt joint

butt weld

butt weld pipe

butterfly damper

butterfly valve


bypass air

bypass factor

bypass leakage

bypass terminal

air diffusion component



calculated variable






camber depth

canopy hood

cantilever valve




capacity factor

capacity, latent cooling

capacity, sensible cooling

capacity, total cooling


capillary air washer

capillary tube

carbon steel pipe



Carnot-cycle efficiency

carrier frequency

carrier frequency

cascade control

cascade refrigerating


casing radiated sound

power level
cast-iron sectional boiler


cathode ray tube (CRT)

cathodic protection



CBR (chemical, biological,

and/or radiological)

ceiling diffuser
ceiling outlet

cellular elastomeric
thermal insulation

cellular filter

cellular polystyrene
thermal insulation board

cellular polyurethane
thermal insulation

Celsius temperature

centaxial fan

centigrade temperature

central control

centrifugal compressor

centrifugal exhauster

centrifugal fan
centrifugal freeze drying

centrifugal pump


certificate of readiness

certified standard

change of state


changeover temperature

charge capacity

charge neutralizer

charge test time

charging connection

charging valve

check valve


chemically active or toxic


chill factor

chilled water



chimney effect



circuit breaker

circulating fan

clean space


clear ice

clear zone





clo unit
close nipple
closed crankcase
closed cycle

closed process

closed system

closed-loop control


cloud point

Coanda effect

coaxial cable (coax)

coaxial condenser

cock valve

code official

coefficient of
(compressibility factor)

coefficient of discharge

coefficient of expansion

coefficient of friction

coefficient of performance

coefficient of
performance, heat pump

coefficient of restitution

coefficient of variation

cognizant authority


coil deck

coil depth

coil face area

coil height

coil length

coil recovery loop

coil width

coil, indoor

coil, outdoor

coincident demand

cold box

cold chain

cold injury (low-

temperature injury)

cold room (cold chamber)

cold shrink fitting

cold storage

cold store

cold technology

cold trap

cold-air distribution

cold-room door dike

cold-room flexible door

cold-room sliding door

cold-room swinging door

cold-room, flush-fitting
cold-storage cooler
cold-storage disease
(storage disorder)
cold-storage locker

cold-storage room

cold-store facility

cold-water distribution


collecting electrodes

collector cover glazing

collector time constant

collector-loop heater

collimation angle


color rendition
color temperature

combination control

combination space-
heating and water-heating

combined appliance

combined cycle gas

combined heat and power
system (CHP)

combined panel

combined performance
factor cooling season

combined radiative and

convective surface
combined section of an
air-handling unit

combined space-heating
and water-heating mode

combined surface


combining-weights law

combustible gas or vapor



combustion air

combustion chamber

combustion control

combustion detector

combustion gas tests

combustion products
combustion volume

comfort air conditioning

comfort chart

comfort condition

comfort cooling

comfort index

comfort zone

commercial refrigerator

commercial system

commissioning authority

commissioning process

commissioning process
progress report

commissioning team

community energy system

companion flange

compartment water

component direct
evaporative cooler

component of ventilation
or air conditioning

component substances

compound compression

compound compressor

compound gage


compressibility factor
compressing cycle


compression economizer

compression efficiency

compression joint

compression ratio

compression stage

compression stroke

compression tank

compression volume ratio

refrigerating system


compressor calorimeter

compressor capacity

compressor clearance
compressor discharge
compressor discharge

compressor displacement

compressor economizing

compressor oil return

compressor piston

compressor refrigerating
compressor starting - no
load start

compressor surge

compressor theoretical

compressor unit

compressor unloader

compressor volume ratio

compressor work

computer memory

computer simulation

computer software

computer storage

computer-aided drafting

manufacturing (CAM)

computer-based system

concealed fixing

concentrating collector



condensate return pump

condensate subcooling
heat exchangers


condensation point

condenser cooling liquid

condenser liquid flow rate

condenser load

condenser receiver

condenser subcooling

condenser tube

condensing furnace

condensing pressure

condensing pressure valve

condensing temperature

condensing unit

condensing unit

condensing unit
refrigerating effect

condition line

conditioned air

confidence level

confidence limits

connection in parallel

connection in series


consensus process
consensus standard

conservation of
momentum law

console air conditioner

constant cut-in

constant pressure
expansion valve

constant-level valve

construction checklist

consumers water system

contact cooling

contact freezing

contact icing

continuous insulation (ci)

contract documents


contra-rotating fan

control action

control detecting element

control device

control element

control logic

control mode
control panel

control power element

control sequence

control temperature
controlled medium

controlled variable

controller error signal

controller gain
controller proportional

convective film coefficient


convector radiator

conversion burner

cooking effluent


cool down

cool storage



cooler refrigerating effect


cooling air

cooling and heating heat


cooling capacity

cooling coil

cooling degree days (CDD)

cooling design

cooling design wet-bulb


cooling effectiveness

cooling efficiency ratio

cooling energy

cooling liquid flow rate

cooling load

cooling load factor (CLF)

cooling medium

cooling system

cooling system energy

coefficient of performance

cooling tower

cooling unit

cooling-tower cell

cooling-tower fill

cooling-tower fogging

cooling-tower packing

cooling-tower plume

cooling-tower ton

coordination drawings

COP degradation factor

core area

core area of a sand trap

core area of an air
terminal device

Coriolis acceleration

Coriolis effect
Coriolis force

corrected effective
correcting variable

corrective maintenance

corresponding state


corrosion inhibitor


Coulombs law

counterflow heat

counterflow heat transfer

counterflow tower


creep action

critical discharge point

critical nucleate boiling

heat flux

critical point
critical process

critical refrigerant charge

critical speed
critical state

critical velocity

cross connection

cross pipe

cross ventilation

cross-connection control
backflow prevention

crossflow heat exchanger

crossflow tower



cryocooling (cryogenic
cryogenic liquid


cryogrinding process




(cryogenic temperature)


cup anemometer

Curie point

Curies law

Curie-Weiss law
current facility
requirements (CFR)

cut-in point



cycle defrosting system

cycle thermal efficiency


cycling life
cyclone filter

cylinder head

daily range

Daltons law

damp building


damper actuator


darcy unit


data bank
data base
data display module

data logging

data reduction

data table
dead air pocket

dead band

dead-end trap


decay rate

decision maker

declination of sun

dedicated outdoor air

deep ground temperature

deep vacuum

definite composition law

deflecting vane

defrost control

defrosting cycle

defrosting heat ratio

defrosting system


degrees of freedom (DOF)


dehumidifying effect
dehydration (drying)

delivery effectiveness

demand charge

demand defrost

demand factor

demand interval

demand limit tripping

demand limiter

demand load

demand period

demand savings

demand-limited storage

demonstrated accuracy

dense-air system

derivative control

derivative control mode



desiccation ratio

design air temperature

design airflow

design capacity

design conditions

design energy cost

design intent

design intent document

design load

design pressure

design professional

design temperature

design voltage

design working pressure



desuperheating coil

desuperheating heat




dew point

Dewar flask

dew-point depression

dew-point hygrometer

dew-point rise

dew-point temperature

dial thermometer


diaphragm compressor
diaphragm valve

diaphragm valve
(membrane valve)


dielectric constant

dielectric strength

dielectric thawing

diesel cycle

diesel engine


differential controller

differential pressure
differential pressure

differential temperature


diffuse reflectance

diffuse sky irradiance

diffuse solar radiation


diffuser radius of diffusion

diffuser terminal


diffusion absorption
diffusion area
diffusion coefficient

digital to analog converter

dilution flue

dimensionless number

dip tank

direct acting

direct current (DC)

direct digital control (DDC)

direct drive
direct expansion (DX)

direct ice contact

direct normal irradiance

direct sound

direct vent system

direct-expansion (DX)
refrigeration systems

direct-fired heating

direct-injection humidifier

directional thermal

direct-load management

direct-return piping

discharge capacity

discharge coefficient

discharge line

discharge line valve

discharge or intake
velocity (Vk)

discharge pressure

discharge sound power


discharge temperature

discharge test time

discharge valve

discharge-loss coefficient



displacement flow

displacement ventilation

disposable filters

distributed energy costs

distributed isolation
material (DIM)

distribution law

distribution system


district cooling

district energy system

district heating

district-cooling system
cooling density
district-heating system
heating density

diversion pipe fitting

diverting element

diverting valve


domestic hot water

domestic water coil

dominant peak

Doppler effect

double break

double island canopy


double-acting compressor

double-bundle condenser

double-check valve
backflow preventer

double-contact freezer

double-detector check
(DDC) backflow preventer

double-pipe condenser
(tube-in-tube condenser)

double-pipe heat

double-pole switch

double-riser suction line

double-seated valve

double-suction riser
double-throw switch

double-wall heat

down-discharge makeup

down-feed system

down-flow-type central


draft hood

draft rate

draft regulator

draft relief

draft-hood relief opening

draft-rating index

drag coefficient

drain back

drain cock

drain down

drain pan

drain plug (drain cock)

drain valve


drier (dehydrator)

drier coil


drift eliminator

drinking-water cooler


drip tray (defrost pan)


drop-in refrigerant

droplet condensation

drum cooler
dry air
dry compression

dry expansion

dry expansion evaporator

dry ice
dry ice bunker
dry layer filter

dry piston compressor

dry saturated steam

dry saturated vapor

dry ton
dry-air cooler

dry-bulb temperature

dry-bulb temperature

dry-return heating system

dry-type air cooler

dry-type equipment

dry-type evaporator

dry-type transformer

dual compression

dual thermostat

dual-duct air-conditioning

dual-duct terminal

dual-effect compressor

dual-effect control
dual-fuel burner

dual-heating system

dual-pressure control

dual-pressure regulator

dual-pressure relief device



duct board

duct breakout noise

duct connection
duct distribution
duct fitting
duct flow area

duct liner

duct sealing

duct sizing

duct support
duct system
duct transformation

duct transition section

ductless hood

duct-support spacing

Dulong-Petit law

dump water
dump-trap liquid-return
heating system

duplex circuit

duplex transmission


dust eliminator

dust extracting plant

dust increment

dust spot opacity

dust spot opacity index

dust-holding capacity

dust-holding capacity per


duty cycling


dynamic characteristics of
a fan

dynamic head loss

dynamic ice

dynamic pressure
dynamic suction head

dynamic suction lift

dynamic viscosity




eddy current

eddy current test

eddy flow

effective air change rate

effective compressor work

effective efficiency

effective emittance of an
air space

effective freezing

effective length of a duct

effective length of a fitting

effective power input

effective temperature
effective temperature
effectiveness ratio of a
heat exchanger


efficiency ratio



elbow (ell)

electric contact
electric current

electric generating

electric noise

electric power

electric power factor (PF)

electric power load factor

electric power load

electric power on-site
electric resistance

electric space heating

electrical bus

electrical conductance

electrical demand

electrical enclosure

electrical energy

electrical fault
electrical hygrometer
electrical induction

electrical insulation

electrical resistance ()

electrical resistor

electrical volume

electric-power baseload

cogeneration generation

electrolytic brine

electromagnetic radiation

electromotive force (emf)

electronic ballast
electronic switch

electropneumatic device

electrostatic filter

electrostatic precipitator

elevation drawing

embossed plate

emergency relief valve

emissive power





enclosed liquid cooler

enclosed space

endothermic reaction


energy audit

energy availability

energy cascading

energy concept

energy conservation

energy conservation
measure (ECM)
energy cost

energy cost allocation

systems (ECA systems)

energy cost budget

energy efficiency ratio


energy factor

energy level
energy management

energy management
system (EMS)

energy recovery system

energy savings

energy service company

energy sources

energy storage system

energy value target

energy-cost allocation

engine bleed air


enhancement factor

entering dry-bulb (EDB)


entering wet-bulb (EWB)


entrainment flow

entropy ratio
entry loss


envelope component

envelope floor


environmental chamber

environmental conditions

environmental systems


equal friction method

duct sizing


equalizer tank

equalizing damper
equation of state

equation of time


equilibrium-point dryness

equipment capacity

equivalent diameter
equivalent direct radiation

equivalent evaporation

equivalent length

erasable programmable
read-only memory


ethylene glycol



eutectic ice

eutectic plate

eutectic point

eutectic solution

evacuated thermal

evaporating temperature

evaporation loss
evaporation rate

evaporative condenser

evaporative cooler

evaporative cooling

evaporative equilibrium


evaporator holdover
evaporator pressure
evaporator unit
excess air




exhaust air

exhaust opening

exhaust system

exit air


exothermic reaction

expander cycle


expansion bend

expansion coefficient

expansion joint

expansion stroke

expansion tank

expansion valve

expansion-valve capacity

superheat change

expendable refrigerant


expert system
extended surface

exterior building envelope

exterior lighting power


exterior-imaging survey

external defrosting

external equalizer

external heat

external interrupt

external interrupt switch

external resistance
external static pressure
extract air

eyebrow hood

fabric filter

facade area

face area

face velocity

facility management
system (FMS)

factor of safety

Fahrenheit temperature


failure response

fan air density

fan airflow rate

fan blast area

fan boundary

fan coil unit

fan curve
fan discharge area

fan inlet or outlet area

fan input power boundary

fan laws

fan motor power

fan nodal line

fan performance curve

fan power input

fan power output

fan pressurization test

fan shroud

fan sound power

fan speed

fan static efficiency

fan static pressure

fan system power

fan total efficiency

fan total pressure

fan types

fan velocity pressure

fan wheel

fan wheel cone

fanning friction factor

far field

Faradays laws of

feed forward



feedwater economizer


fenestration elements

Fermats principle

Ficks law

field in engineering

field of view (FOV)

field-installed device (FID)

figure of merit (FOM)


fillet weld
film boiling

film coefficient

film-cooling tower

film-forming condensation


filter cell

filter drier (filter

filter efficiency (Ef )
filter efficiency rating

filter media

filter mixing box

filter separation efficiency

filter-media velocity



fin efficiency

fin pitch
fin spacing

final filter

final resistance

finned length

finned surface area

finned tube

finned-tube baseboard

finned-tube boiler

finned-tube radiator

fire damper

fire point
fire tube boiler


firefighter's smoke control


firing valve

first air

fit-out project

fitting inlet flow area

fitting outlet flow area

fixed error
fixed-setting control

flame impingement

flame safeguard control

flammable refrigerant


flanged joint

flanking sound
flare nut

flared joint

flaring tool

flash chamber

flash gas

flash intercooler

flash point

flash tank

flash vaporization

flat plate collector

flat weighting

flexible duct

flexible-shaft centrifugal

float switch

float valve

steam trap

trap (F&T)

floating action

floating floor

floc point

flooded evaporator

floor area



flow area

flow coefficient

flow control

flow equalizer

flow nozzle
flow pattern
flow rate



flue collar

flue damper

flue gas

flue gas collector

flue gas vent

flue losses

flue outlet


fluid mechanics

fluid transport


fluidized-bed freezer




flywheel effect

foamed-in-place thermal


footstep bearing

forced draft
forced lubrication

forced-air circulation
forced-air distribution

forced-air or gravity-type

forced-draft burner

forced-draft cooling tower


forward-curved impeller

fossil fuel

four pipe air-conditioning


four wire transmission

Fourier number



free area

free delivery

free float

free-field sound field

freeze concentration

freeze desalination

freeze dryer

freeze drying
freeze out
freeze stat

freeze up

freeze/thaw resistance

freeze-drying additive

freezer burn
freeze-up control


freezing mixture

freezing plateau (thermal


freezing point

freezing rate

freezing room

freezing-point depression


frequency range of

frequency response

frequency spectrum
fresh air makeup

friction factor

friction head
friction loss

friction ring (rubbing ring)

frictional resistance
frost deposit
frost formation
frost heave
frost point


Froude number

frozen earth storage

frozen-food cabinet

frozen-food locker
frozen-food weight factor

fuel input rate

full-load amperes


fume hood

fume-hood face

fume-hood system


functional performance
testing (FPT)


fusible plug


gage (gauge)

gage glass
gage pressure (gauge

galvanic corrosion

garment insulation (Iclu)


gas constant

gas constant coefficient

gas enrichment
gas metal arc welding

gas tungsten arc welding


gas turbine

gas welding

gas/air mixture

gaseous state

general lighting

generally accepted
engineering standard
geothermal energy


global irradiance

global warming potential


Graetz number

Grahams law

grain of moisture

GRAS (generally
recognized as safe)

Grashof number

gravity circulating
gravity circulating system

gravity current

grease duct

grease-laden exhaust

grease-removal device


green energy


grooved joint piping

gross building envelope

floor area
gross capacity
gross conditioned floor

gross floor area

gross lighted floor area

gross refrigerating
gross roof area
gross semiheated floor

gross sensible capacity

gross solar collector area

gross total capacity

gross wall area

ground coupling

ground fault
ground-loop heat pump


guide-vane assembly

guillotine damper

habitable space

halide torch



hand valve
harmonic order

Hartford loop



head pressure control




heat anticipation

heat balance

heat bridge

heat capacity

heat equivalent of work

heat exchange

heat flow

heat flux
heat gain (heat uptake)

heat index

heat lag (thermal lag)

heat loss

heat loss coefficient

heat loss rate

heat meter

heat of combustion (HOC)

heat of fusion (fusion


heat of reaction

heat of subcooling

heat operated

heat pump

heat pump balance point

heat pump balance point


heat pump compressor

heating effect

heat rate

heat recovery

heat rejection
heat reservoir
heat sink (cold source)

heat source
heat storage

heat trace

heat transfer

heat transfer fluid

heat transfer radiation
heat transfer surface

heat trap

heat treatment

heat value

heated slab


heat-exchanger face area

heat-exchanger tube plate


heating capacity

heating coil

heating cycle
heating degree day

heating degree day (HDD)

heating design
heating load

heating load factor (HLF)

heating seasonal
performance factor (HSPF)

heating stack loss

heating system
heating value

hemispherical thermal

Henrys law

HEPA filter

hermetic compressor

herringbone evaporator
high discharge
temperature cut-out
high event control
high/low control

high-frequency thawing

high-polluting events

high-pressure boiler

high-pressure control

high-pressure float valve

high-pressure refrigerant
high-pressure safety

high-pressure side

high-stage condensers

high-temperature brazed

high-temperature hot-
water system
high-vacuum thermal

hipot test


hit-and-miss damper
holding charge

holdover coil

home run wiring


hood face

Hookes law

hoop stress

horizontal axis of
hot- and cold-type water
hot deck
hot gas

hot/humid climate

hot-gas bypass regulator

hot-gas defrost valve

hot-gas defrosting

hot-gas line

hot-water heating system

hot-water storage tank

hot-water supply boiler

hourly heating load

hourly incident unshaded

solar radiation

humid heat

humidifying effect

humidity percentage

humidity saturation ratio

hunting in a control
HVAC duct

HVAC system

HVAC system end-to-end


HVAC zone

hydraulic diameter

hydraulic lift

hydraulic shock


hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)



hydronic distribution

hydronic system balancing


hydrostatic lockup

hydrostatic pressure



hyperbolic tower


Ranque-Hilsch effect

Ranque-Hilsch tube
ice builder
ice harvester
ice maker
ice point

ice slurry (liquid ice)

ice storage

ice surfacing
ice tray
ice water

ice-bank control

ice-bank cooler
ice-bank evaporator
ice-bank tank (ice-buildup

ice-cooled equipment

ice-core sucking and filling


ice-making capacity

ice-making temperature

ice-making water

ice-melting equivalent

ice-on-coil thermal
IDLH (immediately
dangerous to life or

ignition temperature
(ignition point; kindling


imaging line scanner

impact filter



impeller backplate

impeller reaction
impeller tonal noise

incidence angle

incident angle

incomplete combustion

indicated compressor

indicated horsepower

indicated work

indicating thermometer

indicator diagram

indicator diagram
reexpansion line

indirect cooling system

indirect evaporative

indirect evaporative
cooler with integrated
heat exchanger

indirect fired

indirect heat exchanger

indirect ice contact

indirect load management

indirect refrigerating

indirect system

indirect-fired generator

indirect-fired heater

indirect-heating system

indoor air quality (IAQ)

indoor air volume

indoor coil

indoor environment
quality (IEQ)

indoor side

induced air temperature

induced draft
induced-draft water-
cooling tower
induction ratio

induction terminal

induction unit

inductive load

Industry Foundation


infiltration degree days

infiltration factor

infiltration parameter

informative appendix
infrared detector

infrared emittance

infrared imaging system

infrared noise

infrared radiation (IR)

infrared resolution
infrared sensing device

inherent motor protection

inherent regulation


initial resistance

inlet area

inlet Reynolds number

input rating

input/output device

insert system

insertion loss

insertion thermostat

inside dimension

inspection authorities

instantaneous efficiency

instantaneous heater

instantaneous irradiance

instantaneous thermal

instantaneous water

integral control mode

integral draft diverter

integral fin
integrated heater

integrated part-load value


integrated system


intercooler (interstage

interior imaging survey

interior lighting power

interior zone

intermediate atmospheric
vent backflow preventer

intermediate pressure
(interstage pressure)

intermittent burner

intermittent ignition
internal discharge makeup

internal energy

internal equalizer

internal gross volume

internal heat

internal process heat

internal static pressure


internal vibration isolation

interpretation of a

interrupt device

interrupted burner
interruptible load

interruptible rate

interstitial space

intrinsic electric barrier

inverted bucket steam


inverted bucket trap (IBT)

I-P units (inch-pound
IRIS damper


isenthalpic expansion

isentropic process


isokinetic sampling

isolated combustion

isolated system

isolation devices


isometric drawing


issues log

iterative procedure


jet cooling

jet freezing

jet pump
jind filter

Josephson effect

kata thermometer


Kelvin temperature

Keplers laws

k-factor (thermal

kilovolt ampere (kVA)

kinematic viscosity

kinetic energy

king valve (master valve)

Kirchoffs law

Kohlrauschs law

Kundts law



laboratory fume hood

labyrinth seal

Lamberts law

laminar flow

lap weld

latent cooling capacity

latent cooling effect

latent heat

latent heat load

latent heat of

latent heat of fusion

latent heat of vaporization

latent storage

lazy airflow


leak detection


leakage class

least squares

LeChateliers principle

Lenz law

Lewis number

licensed contractor

life-cycle assessment

life-cycle cost

lift-check valve

light transmission

lighting fixture

lighting power density

lighting system

limit control

limit stat

limit stop

limit switch

line voltage thermostat

linear regression

linear swell

line-break motor

liner system (LS)


liquefied petroleum gas



liquid cooler

liquid feed

liquid line

liquid- or suction-heat

liquid overfeed system

liquid overfeed system


liquid pocket

liquid receiver

liquid state

liquid transmission
liquid trap
liquid, mechanical vacuum
liquid/vapor mixture

liquid-charged thermostat

liquid-cooled unit

liquid-expansion steam


liquid-injection valve

liquid-line filter

liquid-line filter drier

liquid-refrigerant injection



lithium bromide


load diversity ratio

load factor

load leveling

load management

load profile

loading dust

local mean air velocity

locked rotor current


logical decision
logical flowchart

logical instruction


loss of charge protector


low temperature

low-limit controller

low-pressure boiler

low-pressure control

low-pressure float valve

low-pressure receiver

low-pressure refrigerant
low-pressure safety cut-

low-pressure side

low-pressure stage
low-temperature brazed
low-temperature district
low-temperature hot-
water system
low-velocity air terminal

lubricant circulation rate

lubricated plug valve



Mach number
machinery room
magnetic ballast
magnetic cooling
magnetic flux
magnetic flux density

magnetic thermometer


main meter

maintenance program

makeup air

makeup air unit

makeup water
management information




manual changeover

manual damper

manual expansion valve

manual reset valve

manual switch

manual valve
manually adjusted air
terminal device

manway (manhole)

Margoulis number

mass diffusivity ratio

mass flow rate

mass transfer

mass velocity

mass-action law

master controller

master meter
materials inherently of
low hazard

maximum allowable
charging period

maximum allowable

maximum deviation

maximum opening

maximum outdoor air


maximum temperature

maximum usable cooling

supply temperature

maximum usable
discharge temperature

maximum working


mean monthly outdoor air


mean radiant temperature

mean tank temperature

mean temperature

mean velocity

means of egress

measurement station

measurement system

mechanical anemometer

mechanical atomizing
mechanical chiller

mechanical cooling

mechanical efficiency

mechanical energy

mechanical heating

mechanical joint

mechanical properties

mechanical refrigerating

mechanical seal

mechanical shaft work

mechanical ventilation

mechanical, draft-water
cooling tower

medium pressure
refrigerant system

medium temperature
refrigerated storage

Meissner state


melting point
membrane manometer
(diaphragm manometer)

memory stop


mercury switch

mercury thermometer

MERV rating

metabolic heat

metabolic rate

metered data
metered demand

methanol (methyl alcohol)


mineral-fiber thermal

minimum efficiency
reporting values (MERV)

minimum motor efficiency

minimum operating
minimum outdoor air


mixed air
mixed flow fan
mixing air diffusion
mixing box (blending box;
mixing unit)
mixing section

mixing system

mixing valve

mode of vibration

mode shape


modular air-conditioning
modular boiler


modulating control

modulating-control valve


moisture carryover

moisture content

moisture proofing

moisture ratio

moisture removal capacity

moisture removal rate

mol fraction water vapor


molecular flow

molecular sieve

Mollier diagram (Mollier

monitoring and
verification (M&V) plan

Moseleys law

motor overload protection

motor power, motor


motorized valve (motor

operated valve)



multiblade damper

multicellular metal-foil
thermal insulation

multichannel heat
multilayer thermal
multiple-leaf damper
multishell condenser

multistage compression

multistage compressor

multistage expansion
multistage refrigerating
multivane rotary


mushroom valve



nameplate rating
naphthenic oil

nationally recognized

natural air circulation

natural convection

natural convection cooling

natural draft

natural gas

natural ventilation

natural-draft burner

natural-draft water-
cooling tower

naturally stratified storage

near azeotropic

near field

near resonance
needle bearing

needle valve

negative air pressure

negative-rated operating

net capacity

net cooler refrigerating


net effective filtering area

net exhaust flow rate

net latent cooling effect

net occupiable area

net positive suction head


net refrigerating effect

net refrigeration capacity

net total capacity

net total cooling capacity

net total cooling effect

net usable volume

neural network

neutral pressure level

Newtons law of cooling

Newtons laws of motion

night cover

night setback thermostat

nitrogen capacity

nitrogen purge

nodal line
no-frost refrigerating


noise criteria curve (NC


noise reduction (NR)

nominal capacity

nominal freezing

nominal motor efficiency

nominal size of an air

nominal size of duct and

nominal storage capacity

nominal time constant

noncondensable gas
separation and storage

noncyclic ice maker

nondepletable energy

nondepletable energy

nondestructive test (NDT)

nonessential lighting

nonimaging survey

nonisothermal jet
nonlaminar flow
nonlinear impedance

nonpositive displacement

nonrenewable energy
nonreturn damper
nonreturn valve

non-self-renewable air

nonstandard part-load
value (NPLV)
nonuniform flow

nonvolatile refrigerant

normal operating


normalized leakage

normally closed device

normally open device

normative appendix

north oriented

nozzle outlet


nucleate boiling

numerical control

Nusselt number

O&M designer

object plane resolution

occupant sensor

naturally conditioned

occupiable space


odor dispersion time

odor reduction time

off-cycle defrosting

office building

off-peak period

off-peak system

Ohms law

oil charge

oil cooler

oil cooling
oil drain valve (oil purge
oil fired

oil pressure cut-out

oil pressure delivery

oil pressure gage

oil receiver

oil rectifier
oil removal

oil return

oil separator

oil still

oil temperature cut-out

oil trap
oil-burner nozzle
oil-charge valve
oil-charging pump

oil-circulation rate

oil-free compressor


on-demand heat

one-pipe hydronic system

one-pipe steam system

ongoing commissioning
process (OCx)

on-peak period


opacity index

open shell-and-tube

open system

open-brine refrigerating

open-cell foamed plastic

thermal insulation

open-loop control

open-loop control system

open-spray recovery loop


open-type compressor

operating differential
operating efficiency

operating life

operating opening

operating pressure

operational cleanroom

operative temperature


operator station

optical Doppler effect

optimum operative
optimum refrigerant

optimum start

orifice meter

orifice plate


Orsat apparatus

orthographic drawing

osmotic pressure

Otto cycle

outdoor air

outdoor air change rate

outdoor air fraction

outdoor coil

outdoor dry-bulb
temperature (ODB)

outdoor side

outlet area
outlet spacing
outlet valve
outlet velocity


outside air
overall heat transfer

overall system efficiency

overall thermal transfer

value (OTTV)


overcurrent motor

overhead system



Owners Project

owner's program

owner's representative


ozone depletion potential



packaged air conditioner

packaged boiler

packaged direct-
evaporative cooler

packaged indirect
evaporative cooler

packaged systems

packaged terminal air

conditioner (PTAC)

packaged terminal heat

pump (PTHP)


packing plant

packless valve

palladium cells

panel cooler

paraffinic oil

parallel fan-powered VAV

parallel-flow heat

parallel-flow heat transfer

partial pressure

partition fan

part-load ratio

part-load value

parts per million (ppm)

party wall

Pascals law

passive chilled beam

passive system

peak demand
peak discharge rate

peak draw capacity

peak-to-peak (p-p)
vibration value

Peclet number

Peltier effect


penetration data
acceptance criteria
percent outdoor air

perfect combustion

perfect mixing

perforated ceiling

perforated plate

performance additives

performance contracts

performance factor

performance rating of a
fume hood

perimeter zone

periodic law

perlite thermal insulation

permanent bleed rate



permissible exposure level


permissible range



phase-change material


photovoltaic cell

pickup load
piggyback refrigerating
pilot duty

pilot duty rating

pilot operated relief valve

pilot valve

pilot-operated solenoid

pilot-operated valve

pipe fittings

Pitot tube


Pittsburgh lock joint

plan (drawing)

plane radiant temperature

planned maintenance

plate evaporator

plate fin

plate freezer

plate heat exchanger

plate liquid cooler

plate-type condenser

plenum fan

plug flow

plug valve

plumbing fixture


(electronic) transducer

pneumatic/electric control

pneumatic/electric switch

point of operation




polytropic compression

polytropic expansion

polytropic process


poppet valve

positional control level

positional sash movement


post purge

post-retrofit period
potential energy

pour point

power adjustment factor

power burner

power factor (PF)

power input

power roof ventilator

power ventilator


Prandtl number




predicted mean vote

predicted percentage
dissatisfied (PPD)

predictive maintenance

preheat coil


preliminary operating
preliminary run

prepurge operation

prerotary vane assembly

prescriptive design


pressure control

pressure dependent (PD)

pressure difference
pressure differential cut-

pressure differential valve

pressure drop

pressure equalizing

pressure factor

pressure head

pressure imposing

pressure independent

pressure limit of

pressure loss

pressure loss coefficient

pressure powered pump

pressure reducing valve

pressure regulator

pressure relief device

pressure relief valve

pressure switch

pressure temperature
relief device

pressure vessel

pressure volume
temperature (PVT)
control system

pressure-limiting device

pressure-sustaining valve

pressure-type air cooler

pressurized stair shafts

prevention of vacuum

preventive maintenance

primary air

primary air temperature

primary alternate test

primary refrigerant

primary surface

primary test

primary test method

primary transfer fluid

prime contractor
prime mover
prime professional
prime surface


process control

process energy

process load

product-integrated control

programmable read-only
memory (PROM)

programming control

projected baseline

projection factor

propeller fan

proportional control mode

proposed building

propylene glycol

PSC motor


psychrometer wet-bulb

psychrometric chart



published ratings

pull-down load

pull-down test

pulsating flow

pump bowl assembly

pump down

pump laws

pump system power

pump-down charge

pumping water level


purchased-energy rates

pure ice
pure tone


purge recovery system

purge system

purge valve

purging device






qualification test


quality-based sampling

radar doppler effect

radial-bladed impeller
(paddle-bladed impeller)

radial-energy distribution


radiant asymmetry

radiant barrier

radiant energy

radiant flux
radiant flux density
radiant heat

radiant panel

radiant reflectance
(luminous reflectance)

radiant transmittance
(luminous transmittance)

radiant-cooling system

radiant-heating system


radiation angle factor

radiation pasteurization

radiation shield
radiation sterilization

radiative forcing

radiator valve


rain louver

random error

random-access memory


Rankine cycle

Rankine temperature

Raoults law

rated airflow

rated final resistance

rated operating pressure


raw water

reactive power

readily accessible

read-only memory (ROM)

real power


reciprocating compressor
recirculated air

recirculating system

recirculating unit

recirculation of discharge


reclaimed refrigerants



record drawings

recording thermometer
(temperature recorder;


recoverable heat

recovered energy

recovered or reclaimed

recovered refrigerants



recycled refrigerants

reduced input rate with

manually adjustable
modulating control
reduced pressure detector
check (RPDC)

reduced pressure zone

backflow preventer

exterior coating

reduced-heat input rate

reed valve

reference filters

reference temperature


reflective thermal



refrigerant blend

refrigerant charge

refrigerant distributor

refrigerant heat rejection

refrigerant hydrolysis

refrigerant mass flow rate

refrigerant metering
refrigerant pressure-
imposing device

refrigerant pump

refrigerant pump-out
refrigerant receiver

refrigerant recovery unit

refrigerant subcooler

refrigerant subcooling

refrigerated plate freezing

refrigerated truck end


refrigerating cycle

refrigerating effect

refrigerating engineering

refrigerating heating

refrigerating load

refrigerating service load

refrigerating system

refrigerating system

refrigerating system

refrigerating unit

refrigerating-system high
refrigerating-system low


performance factor


refrigeration circuit

refrigeration oil

refrigerator baffle
refrigerator cabinet
breaker strip

refuse-derived fuel (RDF)

regain of moisture

regeneration air

regeneration heater
regeneration specific heat
regenerative air-cycle

regenerative cooling

regenerative cycle gas

regenerative heating
regenerative scrubber
registered engineer

regulating valve


regulatory bodies


reheat coil
reheat terminal
reheat VAV box


relative humidity (rh, RH)

relative light transmission


releasable water


release rate

relief air

remote-bulb thermostat

renewable energy




replacement air

replacement cost



reset control
residence time


resident engineer


residential air

residential application

residual moisture
residual pressure

resistance coefficient

resistance heating
resistance temperature
device (RTD)

resistance welding

resistive load



resonance frequency

refrigerating system

resource energy impact

resource impact factor


resource utilization factor


respirable particles





retrofit isolation


return air

return flow nozzle

return fluid temperature

return-flow compressor


reverberation time

reverse acting

reverse cycle

reverse cycle defrosting

reverse flow

reverse pressure

reverse return piping


reversible cycle

reversible work

reversing relay

Reynolds number

rh, RH

Richardson number

rigid duct

rigid duct flow area

rime ice
rise of an air jet in mixing
air diffusion

rise time

rock bed regenerative

cooling system


roll bond evaporator

roll filter

roller bearing

rolling piston compressor


roof assembly

roof spray cooling

rooftop air conditioner

room air conditioner

room calorimeter

room cavity ratio (RCD)

room criterion curve (RC


root mean square (RMS)

rotary atomizing burner

rotary compressor

rotating blackouts

rotating vane
roughness factor

runaround heat exchanger

runaround system

running cycle


rupture disc


safe pressure

safety device

safety head

safety interlock

sampling tube

sand-trap louver

sash movement effect

sash movement
performance rating


saturated air

saturated liquid
saturated water-vapor


saturation deficiency

saturation effectiveness

saturation pressure

saturation temperature
savings determination



scale inhibitor

scale setting

scale trap

scan interval

scan rate


schematic design drawing

Schmidt number

Scotch boiler

scraped heat exchanger

scraped-surface freezer

scraper ring

screw compressor

scroll compressor

scrubber (air washer)


sealed compressor motor

sealed-unit compressor

seamless drawn tube

secondary air

secondary condenser
secondary coolant
(secondary fluid)
secondary fluid

secondary refrigerant

secondary surface
secondary transfer fluid

seebeck effect

self-contained system

mechanically refrigerated
drinking-water cooler

self-powered control (self-

operated control; system-
powered control)

self-renewable air cleaner


semiautomatic defrosting

semihermetic compressor

semipackaged primary
indirect evaporative
cooler (semipackaged
primary IEC)

semipackaged secondary
indirect evaporative
cooler (semipackaged
secondary IEC)

semisynthetic oil

sensible capacity

sensible cooling capacity

sensible cooling effect

sensible cooling panel

sensible heat
sensible heat ratio

sensible heat ratio (SHR)

sensible heating capacity

sensible heating panel

sensitivity ratio


separator filter

sequence of operation

series fan-powered
series perimeter loop-
heating system

service agency

service water heating


servo control

servo system

set pressure



shading coefficient

shading coefficient (SC)

shaft pressurization

shaft ventilation


shape factor

sharp freezer

shell-and-coil condenser

shell-and-coil evaporator

shell-and-tube condenser

shell-and-tube evaporator

shell-and-tube heat
Sherwood number


shop drawing

short cycling
short term exposure limit

short-circuiting flow



SI units (Le Systme

International dUnits)

sick building

sick building syndrome

sight glass

signal converter

silica gel desiccant

simulation model

simulation program
single phasing

single-acting compressor

single-duct air-handling

single-duct unit

single-family house

single-island canopy hood

single-leaf damper

single-line diagram

single-stage compression

single-stage control
single-vane rotary
single-zone system

site solar energy

site-recovered energy

skylight well
slab insulation

slab thermal insulation

sliding vane compressor

(rotating vane

sling psychrometer


slip joint
slot diffuser

slow freezing



slush ice

small hermetically sealed



smoke barrier

smoke control mode

smoke control system

smoke control zone

smoke exhaust system

smoke management
smoke zone


snap action

snap-in fastener

snaplock joint

Snell's laws of refraction

snubber (pulsation

soft copper tube

soft soldering

soft water (softened

softening point
solar absorptance

solar collector

solar collector absorber

solar collector aperture

solar collector cover

solar collector drain back

solar collector drain down

solar collector gross area

solar collector
instantaneous efficiency

solar collector loop heater

solar collector tilt angle

solar collector transfer


solar compensator

solar distribution fraction

solar energy

solar energy source

solar fraction
solar heat gain

solar heat gain coefficient


solar irradiance

solar loss through window

solar noon
solar radiation
solar simulator
solar time

solar-optical properties

soldered joint


soldering flux

solenoid valve

solid expansion

solid state

solidification point

solid-state motor



sonic thermometer

sonic velocity





sound attenuation (noise
reduction, sound
damping, sound

sound attenuator

sound decay rate

sound insulation

sound level

sound power

sound power level

space-cooling-only mode

sparge pipe

spatial resolution
specific capacity
specific enthalpy
specific entropy

specific heat (CP)

specific humidity

specific infiltration ratio

specific refrigerant flow


specific superheat

specific volume (SV)


spectral thermal
speech interference level

spinning-disc humidifier

spiral fin (helical fin; strip

splash lubrication

split air-conditioning

split condenser

split system
spontaneous ignition

spool piece

spot cooling

spot welding

spray cooling
spray freeze drying
spray nozzle

spray pond

spray wall tank

spray-type air cooler
spray-type air washer

spray-type evaporator


spring range


stabilized temperature


stack effect
stagnation temperature

stand-alone system

standard air

standard ambient
standard barometric

standard conditions

standard cooling efficiency

ratio (SCER)
standard cubic feet per
minute (SCFM)

standard deviation

standard rating

standard rating conditions

standard rating cycle

standard temperature

standard units

standby condition

standing-seam joint

Stanton number

starting overload



state diagram

static discharge head

static gage pressure

static head
static pressure

static pressure loss

static regain method duct


static suction head

static suction lift

static temperature


status device

steady state

steady-state condition

steam boiler
steam exhaust

steam header

steam jet air ejector

steam jet refrigerating


steam quality

steam trap

steam-atomizing burner

Stefan-Boltzmann law
step change

step controller

step modulating control

stepped piston compound



still air freezing

Stirling cycle

stoichiometric reaction


Stokes laws

stonewall flow

stop valve

storage capacity

storage disease
storage efficiency

storage factor

storage gas
storage inventory

storage medium

storage water heater

stored heat

straddle refrigerating unit

(saddle unit; plug unit)

straightening element

stratification index

stratified airflow

stratified fluid
stratified storage

stratified system


strong liquor (rich liquor;

strong solution)

structural barrier

structural thermal
structure borne noise

stuffing box


subcooled liquid



subcooling heat rejection

subcooling refrigerating

sublimation front
(sublimation interface)

submaster controller

submerged arc welding

submerged coil condenser


suction head

suction inlet

suction lift

suction line
suction pressure

suction trap (suction line

accumulator; liquid
suction vapor

suction-line filter

suction-line-filter drier

sun effect (solar heat gain)


superconducting state
(superconductive state)

superconduction critical


supercooled liquid




superheated steam

superheated vapor


supersaturated air

supersaturated vapor

supply air

supply mains

supply pressure

surface coefficient
surface cooling

surface dehumidifier

surface effect

surface film resistance

surface film thermal


surface reflectance
surface tension

surface thermostat


swaging tool

swamp cooler

sweat joint

sweep rate
swept volume

swing check valve

swing joint



synthetic oil

system effect

system effects

system load management

system operation

systematic error

systematic uncertainty

system-refrigerating effect

systems manual

TAB technician

tankless heater


task/ambient conditioning
(TAC) system



temperature controller

temperature difference

temperature difference
temperature differential
temperature differential

temperature differential
within the occupied zone

temperature glide
temperature gradient

temperature gradient risk

temperature index
temperature index
coefficient of thermal

temperature of flowing

temperature profile

temperature sensor

temperature, dry bulb

temperature, wet bulb



tenable environment


terminal casing leakage

terminal damper leakage

terminal leakage
terminal unit


test air

test authority

test condition tolerance

test method

test operating tolerance

test panel

test period

test pressure

test pressure loss

test rooms


testing standard

testing, adjusting, and



theoretical storage
thermal absorptance

thermal anemometer

thermal anomalies

thermal boundary

thermal break

thermal bridge

thermal comfort

thermal conductance

thermal conductivity

thermal conductor

thermal convection

thermal delay

thermal diffusion

thermal diffusivity

thermal efficiency

thermal emissivity

thermal emittance

thermal energy
thermal energy meter

thermal energy storage

thermal envelope

thermal environment

thermal equilibrium

thermal expansion

thermal frequency

thermal inertia

thermal input

thermal insulation

thermal insulation fill

thermal lag

thermal load

thermal neutrality

thermal output

thermal plume

thermal radiance

thermal radiant flux


thermal radiation

thermal reflectance

thermal regain

thermal relay
thermal resistance

thermal sensation

thermal storage

thermal storage charge

thermal storage efficiency

thermal storage load


thermal storage medium

thermal superinsulation

thermal time lag

thermal transmittance

thermal unit





thermodynamic shock

thermodynamic system
thermodynamic trap

thermodynamic work


Thermodynamics First law




thermometer electric

thermophysical properties




thermosiphon exchanger


thermostat anticipator

thermostat compensator

thermostat offset

thermostatic balanced
pressure steam trap

thermostatic bimetallic
steam trap

thermostatic control

thermostatic expansion

thermostatic regulator

thermostatic switch
third octave (1/3) band
sound pressure level

three-phase electrical
three-pipe air-
conditioning system

three-way valve

threshold limit values

threshold limit value

time weighted average

throttling expansion

throttling range

throttling valve
through the wall air

throw (T)

tilt angle
time defrosting

time delay

titanium tetrachloride

toggle action

ton day of refrigeration

ton of refrigeration


torsional excitation

total air

total cooling effect

total head
total heat
total heat rejection
total irradiance

total pressure

total pump head pressure

total refrigerant heat

rejection effect

total refrigerating effect

total refrigeration capacity

total static pressure loss

total suspended

total thermal emittance

total ton

total-to-static efficiency

total-to-total efficiency

tower scrubber

toxicity of a refrigerant

training plan


transfer air

transfer fluid
transformation fitting

transient state

transition point


transmission loss

transmittance radiation

transpiration cooling

transport property data

transverse joint



trend log (trend record)

triple point


trombe wall

true solar time


tubeaxial fan

tube-in-sheet evaporator

tube-in-tube condenser

tube-on-sheet evaporator


tubular centrifugal fan

tunnel cooler

tunnel freezer



turbocompressor stall

turboexpander (expansion

turbulent flow

turning vane

two-phase flow

two-pipe system

two-stage control

two-stage thermostat

two-way valve

Type I hood
Type II hood

ultimate strength

ultraviolet (UV) radiation

unconditioned space

underfloor air-distribution
system (UFAD)


unglazed solar collector

uniflow compressor
uniform velocity

unit control panel (UCP)

unit cooler

unit heater

unit ventilator

unitary system

unprotected tubing

unshrouded impeller

unsteady state

upfeed system

usable storage capacity

use factor

useful refrigerating effect

utility meter

utilization factor
vacuum breaker (vacuum
vacuum cooling (vacuum

vacuum diffusion pump

vacuum freezing

vacuum gage
vacuum pump

vacuum pump (ion pump)

vacuum test
valve area
valve body
valve cage
valve cover
valve disc
valve flutter (valve
valve guard
valve lift
valve obturator
valve plate

valve plug

valve port

valve seat

valve stem

valve trim

Vant Hoffs principle

vane ratio

vaneaxial fan


vapor barrier

vapor concentration

vapor content ratio

vapor control
vapor jet

vapor lock

vapor lock device

vapor mass fraction

vapor pickup tube

vapor pressure

vapor quality

vapor refrigerating system

vapor retarder


vaporizing burner

variable flow

variable output

variable volume, variable

temperature (VVT)


variable-frequency drive

variable-speed control of
a fan
variable-speed drive
VAV box


velocity coefficient

velocity constant

velocity head

velocity pressure

velocity profile
velocity reduction method
duct sizing
vena contracta

vent connector

vent damper

vent gas

vent limiter

vent or air intake terminal

vent pipe

vent relief

vented crawlspace


ventilation air

ventilation effectiveness

ventilation effectiveness


Venturi tube


vertical axis of
measurement (y-axis)

very cold climate



vibration isolation
vibration severity



viscosity coefficient

viscosity index (VI)

viscosity manometer
viscous filter

viscous flow

volatile liquid
volatile organic
compounds (VOC)
volatile refrigerant

volt ohmmeter (VOM)

voltage drop

voltage relay

voltampere reactive (VAR)

volume control damper

volumetric efficiency due

to cylinder heating

volumetric heat capacity

volumetric moisture

volumetric total efficiency

wall section

wall sleeve

wall-mounted canopy

warm up

warming-up allowance

waste energy sources

waste heat


water column (wc)

water contaminant

water cooling tower

water defrosting

water economizer

water gage (wg)

water hammer

water heater

water heater low pressure

water loop heat pump


water manifold

water pollutant

water rejection efficiency

of a weather louver

water system

water treatment

water tube boiler

water vacuum
refrigerating system
water vapor
water vapor content

water vapor density

water vapor flux

water vapor migration

water vapor resistivity

water vapor retarder

water vapor transmission

rate (WVTR)

water-formed deposit

water-holding capacity

waterside economizer

waterside economizer

watt meter




welded joint
well ventilated

wet compression system

wet return

wet saturated steam

wet ton (moisture ton)

wet vapor

wet-bulb depression

wet-bulb temperature


white noise
white room

Wiens displacement law

Wiens radiation law

wind chill

wind pressure

window air conditioner


Wobbe index


working fluid

working pressure range

workplace environmental
exposure level (WEEL)

yield point




zeotropic refrigerant

zero energy band

zero point energy

zeroth law of


zone valve

zoned smoke control

ASHRAE. For personal use only. Use of this content in ASHRAE publications is permitted as needed. For non-ASHRAE
publications, up to 10 terms and definitions may be reprinted without requesting additional permission from ASHRAE.
Additional reproduction, distribution, or transmission in either print or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE's
prior written permission. To request permission from ASHRAE for additional uses, go to
filter having an efficiency of 99.90% or higher, capable of dealing with particle sizes down to 0.01 micrometer; a HEPA
filter. See [[HEPA filter]].
see [[water vapor density]].
a positive value of a pressure when the datum pressure is absolute zero.

temperature as measured above absolute zero.

space totally void of matter (theoretical).

see [[dynamic viscosity]].

zero point on an absolute temperature scale. See [[Kelvin temperature]]; [[Rankine temperature]].

that substance absorbed by an absorbent.

device containing fluid, or other material, for absorbing refrigerant vapor or other vapors.

the area of the absorber medium if both transfer fluid and solid surfaces jointly perform the absorbing function.

recirculate absorbent solution over the absorber tube bundle to ensure adequate wetting of the absorber surfaces. These
pumps are not found in all equipment designs.
see [[solar collector absorber]].
(1) absorbed portion of the radiant energy striking a surface. (2) ratio of the radiant flux absorbed by a body to that
incident upon it. Compare to [[reflectance]].
(1) a process whereby a porous material extracts one or more substances from an atmosphere, a mixture of gases, or a
mixture of liquids. (2) absorption of acoustical energy by acoustical materials and air. (3) transformation of radiant energy
to a different form of energy by interaction with matter.

refrigerating machine using heat energy and absorption input to generate chilled water or other chilled liquids.

ratio of the radiant flux absorbed by a body to that incident upon it.

(1) chemicals impregnated into small paper cards that change color with specific relative humidities. (2) instrument in
which the relative humidity is determined from the absorption of water vapor by a hygroscopic material.

refrigeration is created by evaporating a refrigerant in a heat exchanger (evaporator) with the vapor then absorbed by an
absorbent medium from which it is subsequently expelled by heating at a higher partial vapor pressure (in a generator)
and condensed by cooling in another heat exchanger (condenser).

absorbed portion of the radiant energy striking unit area of a substance. Compare to [[absorptance]].
See [[alternating current]].
the vector quantity that specifies the time rate of change of velocity.
a transducer that converts a mechanical input acceleration to an electrical output that is proportional to the input

air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by cognizant authorities and with
which a substantial majority (80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.

a component or system able to meet specified design parameters under actual load.

an environment that a substantial majority of the occupants would find thermally acceptable.

the level of vulnerability that has been deemed by the decision maker to be acceptable based on the level of risk, the
potential consequences, and other factors.
a formal action, taken by a person with appropriate authority (which may or may not be contractually defined) to declare
that some aspect of the project meets defined requirements, thus permitting subsequent activities to proceed.

the angular zone within which radiation is accepted by the receiver of a concentrator. Radiation is said to be accepted
because radiation incident within this angle reaches the absorber after passing through the aperture.

movable panel mounted in a surface of an enclosure in order to permit inspection of the inside.
accessories intended to permit access into ducts, they are positioned in proximity to all those internal parts which require
inspection and/or maintenance, such as fire dampers.
as applied to equipment and components, equipment or components where close approach is not prevented by locked
doors, elevation, or other barriers or obstructions.

(1) apparatus to store cold by accumulation of ice on a coil. (2) pressure vessel connected to more than one circuit of a
pneumatic system to obtain the average pressure of the connected circuits. (3) vessel for storing low pressure side liquid
refrigerant; also known as a low pressure receiver, surge drum, surge header, or surge tank.

(1) degree of freedom from error, that is, the degree of conformity to truth or to a rule. Accuracy is contrasted with
precision (e.g., four place numbers are less precise than six place numbers). (2) the ability of an instrument to indicate or
record the true value of a measured quantity. The error of indication, which is the difference between the indicated value
and the true value of the measured quantity, expresses the accuracy of an instrument.

device to sense velocity of air at a point by use of the Doppler effect on the velocity of sound. It may also sense
characteristics of a room that determine the qualities of sound therein, relative to hearing.

change in pitch of a sound observed when there is relative motion between source and observer.

one that evaluates temperatures from the measurement of the speed of sound in a gas. Used for very low temperatures.

(1) characteristics of a room that determine the qualities of sound therein, relative to hearing. (2) science of the
production, transmission, and effects of sound.

form of carbon made porous by special treatment which allows it to be capable of adsorbing various odors, gases, and
vapors. It may be coated or treated with chemicals to improve the removal of specific gases or odors.

device, either electrically, pneumatically, or hydraulically operated, that acts as a motor to change the position of movable
devices such as valves or dampers.

the adverse health effect(s) from a single, short-term exposure, as might occur during an accidental release of refrigerants.

a model that relates indoor design temperatures or acceptable temperature ranges to outdoor meteorological or
climatological parameters.
set of revisions to a document, contract, or standard in the form of a supplement.

compression of a gas during which no heat is exchanged with the surroundings.

expansion of a fluid during which no heat is exchanged with the surroundings.

thermodynamic process during which no heat is extracted from or added to the system.
evaporating water into air without external gain or loss of heat. Sensible heat in both air and water becomes latent heat in
evaporated vapor. The air is cooled and humidified.
the temperature at which water (liquid or solid) at temperature t, by evaporating into moist air at dry-bulb temperature t
and humidity ratio W, can bring air to saturation adiabatically at the same temperature t while total pressure p is constant.
Also known as thermodynamic-wet-bulb temperature.

see [[variable-frequency drive]].

the gross sensible capacity less the actual fan power. (Also see [[gross sensible capacity]].)

the agency or agent that adopts a standard.

[[air-diffusion performance index]]
material that has the ability to cause molecules of gases, liquids, or solids to adhere to its surfaces without changing the
material physically or chemically. Certain commercially available solid materials, such as silica gel, activated carbon, and
activated alumina, have this property.

(1) process in which fluid molecules are concentrated on a surface by chemical or physical forces or both. (2) surface
adherence of a material in extracting one or more substances present in an atmosphere or mixture of gases and liquids,
unaccompanied by physical or chemical change.
exposing a substance or area to the circulation of air.

time varying loads acting on the blades of a fan due to nonconformities of the airflow. Note: spatial nonuniformities of
airflow, which are steady in time, give rise to harmonic excitation at frequencies which are integer multiples of the rotation
rate of the fan. Time excitations of the airflow give rise to random excitation. Turbulence of the airflow gives rise to
random excitation.

small particles (solid or liquid) suspended in air (e.g., dust, fumes, fog, and smoke). The diameter of the particles may vary
from micrometers (formerly micron) down to less than 0.01 micrometer. See [[fume]].

See [[adjustable-frequency drive (AFD)]].

time of passage of air from one point to another within an indoor space.
See [[authority having jurisdiction]].
burner in which the oil is atomized by compressed air which is forced into and through one or more streams of oil,
breaking the oil into a fine spray.

condition where the introduction of air causes either a flow restriction or a malfunction of the system.

airflow in volumetric units per hour divided by the volume of the space on which the air change rate is based (normally
expressed in air changes per hour).
expression of the amount of air movement or air leakage into or out of a building in terms of the number of building
volumes or room volumes exchanged.
motion of air, either natural or induced.
device used to remove airborne impurities from air. Compare to [[filter]]. See also [[precipitator]].

the use of equipment that reduces the concentration of airborne contaminants, such as microorganisms, dusts, fumes,
respirable particles, other particulate matter, gases, odors, and/or vapors in air.

assembly of equipment for the simultaneous control of air temperature, relative humidity, purity, and motion. Compare to
[[air-conditioning system]].
the process of treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature, humidity,
cleanliness, and distribution.
unwanted airborne constituent that may reduce acceptability of the air.
controlled stream of air moving across the height and width of an opening with sufficient velocity and volume to reduce
the infiltration or transfer of air from one side of the opening to the other and to inhibit insects, dust, and debris from
passing through; or both.
the mass per unit volume of the air. See [[standard air]].

a diffuser, grille, register, or transfer grille used for controlling air patterns or air distribution or for preventing line of sight
through an opening while allowing airflow through. See [[air terminal device]] or [[diffuser]].

see [[diffuser]].

(1) distribution of the air in a space, called the treated space, in a manner to satisfy certain specified conditions such as air
change rate, pressure, cleanliness, temperature, humidity, air velocity, and noise level, in a specified zone within this
treated space, which is called the occupied zone. It is usually achieved by means of air terminal devices which form the
common boundaries between the treated space and the air-distribution system. (2) the introduction of air into a building
space for the purpose of providing acceptable velocity and temperature distribution in the occupied zone.

ratio of the net area at vena contracta of air flowing through an orifice to the total free area of the opening.

any diffuser system designed to, both, convey air within a room, space, or area and diffuse air into that space while
operating under positive pressure. Systems are commonly constructed of, but not limited to, fabric or plastic film.
transportation of a specified airflow to or from the treated space, by ducts or plenums. Air-treatment devices can be
added to the distribution system for the purpose of treating the air (e.g., cleaning, heating, cooling, humidifying or
dehumidifying, etc.)

there are three main categories of components: elements of distribution (components for the purpose of ensuring a
correct distribution of the air); air terminal units (ATUs) [equipment inserted into or added to the ends of ducts for the
purpose of controlling one or more of various parameters such as velocity, pressure, flow rate, and temperature (also see
air terminal unit)]; and accessories of distribution (components ensuring the fitting and fixing in place of the elements of
distribution and their inspection and maintenance).

vertical distance between the base of an air outlet and the bottom of the airstream at the end of the air throw. Note: drop
occurs from the natural expansion of the airstream.
rapid falling of cold air that occurs when a variable-air volume (VAV) box or other device reduces airflow and the supply air
leaves the diffuser at very low velocity.

duct-and-dampers arrangement with an automatic control system that together allow a cooling system to supply outdoor
air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.

(1) in a hydronic system, a fitting or tank mounted in the piping system that separates entrained air from the water and
discharges the air to an air vent. (2) in a steam system, a device that closes if either steam or water is present in the vent
body and opens when air or noncondensables reach it.
exchange of outdoor air with the air already in a building can be divided into two broad classifications: ventilation and
interior and exterior air surface film coefficients for winter and summer design conditions.
the uncontrolled inward airflow through openings in the building envelope caused by the pressure effects of wind, the
effect of differences in indoor and outdoor air density, or both (cfm) [m3/s].
airtightness expressed as the air leakage rate per unit envelope area.
air leakage of a component or components subjected to air pressure.
compartment whose purpose is to control air exchange into or out of a conditioned space. Two individual closures usually
are used to restrict air transfer by keeping one closure closed.

(1) pipe carrying air to the laterals supplying ice cans contained in a freezing tank. (2) supply line from air compressor or
central pressure reducing station to branch feeder in a pneumatic control installation. (3) tube carrying the supply of
compressed air to the components of a pneumatic control system.

(1) any combination of outdoor and transfer air intended to replace exhaust air and exfiltration. (2) totality of gas
molecules in a defined volume of air.
(1) air-operated device that is used primarily for opening or closing pneumatic valves and dampers. (2) device that
converts compressed air into mechanical force. (3) pneumatic operator, a final control device that assumes a position as
directed by an input pressure signal.
any device or opening for supplying air to a space (such as a diffuser, a grille, or a register), through which air is discharged
into a conditioned space. See [[air terminal device]] and [[diffuser]].
any material in the atmosphere that affects persons and their environment (pollutants include materials such as liquids,
solids, aerosols, gases, and odors).
result of the presence of air pollutants in the atmosphere.
(1) (theoretical), power required to drive a fan or blower as though there were no losses in the fan or blower (100%
efficiency). (2) operational power required to move air at a given rate of flow against a given resistance. The ratio of air
power to input power of a fan or blower is termed efficiency.

kitchen hood containing filters to remove contaminants, after which the treated air is recirculated to the room.

separation of the various components of air through distillation at very low temperature.

device used to remove air from another fluid stream. See also [[purge]].
an adjustable device for varying the amount of primary air entering atmospheric or powered burners.
the rate of air movement at a point, without regard to direction.

blade or blades fitted across an air duct to divide the airstream into a number of streams in parallel. Should not be used in
current engineering practice due to excessive pressure drop and noise considerations.
divergence of an airstream after it leaves an outlet.
see [[testing, adjusting, and balancing]].
the temperature of the air measured at a test point.
see [[air terminal unit]].
any device (e.g., grille, register, diffuser) placed in an opening to a room, through which controlled air enters or leaves.
Component of the air-distribution system which has the purpose of achieving the predetermined movement of air into or
from a treated space.

(1) an air-distribution assembly consisting of inlet duct connection(s) and outlet duct connection(s) whose purpose fulfills
(either manually or automatically) one or more of the following functions: controls the rate of the airflow, controls the
velocity or pressure and/or temperature of the air, mixes primary streams of different temperatures or humidities, or
mixes within the device primary air with air from the treated space. (2) an air terminal unit may be composed of
automatic or manual dampers, filters valves, heating or cooling coils, sound attenuation, nozzles, or fan assemblies. See
also [[diffuser terminal]].

horizontal or vertical axis distance an airstream travels after leaving an air outlet before the stream velocity is reduced to a
specific terminal value. The rated throw will be a function of a predetermined terminal velocity.

ratio of the rate of useful, sensible heat removal from the conditioned space to the energy input to the supply and return
fan motor(s), expressed in consistent units and within designated operating conditions.

process by which the state of the air is modified with respect to various properties such as temperature, moisture content,
dust content, bacterial count, gas, and vapor contents.
device to control volume and flow in air distribution. See also [[damper]].
rate of motion of air in a given direction, measured as distance per unit time. See also [[velocity]].
manual or automatic device for removing air from circulating hot or chilled water systems, also used for removing air from
steam systems. See [[air eliminator]].
unit for the purpose of removing particulate matter from the airstream by spraying or atomizing clean water into an air
supply system; capable of heating, cooling, humidifying, or dehumidifying the air depending on whether the water is
heated or chilled. See [[scrubber]].
see [[exhaust air]].
see [[makeup air]].
see [[outdoor air]].
see [[recirculated air]].
see [[standard air]].
see [[supply air]].
see [[transfer air]].
see [[ventilation air]].
value used in dust collector calculations to measure air velocity through the bag filter media. Note: calculated by dividing
active volumetric airflow by the effective area of the cloth media.

ratio of the air volume to the gas volume. A specified ratio is necessary to achieve a desired character of combustion.

ratio of the mass of atmosphere in the actual earth to sun path to the mass which would exist at sea level if the sun were
directly overhead.

value used in dust collector calculations to measure air velocity through non-cloth bag filter media (e.g., paper cartridges).
Note: calculated by dividing active volumetric airflow by the effective area of the cloth media.

cooling by forced circulation of air at high velocity. Compare to [[jet cooling]].

impurities as solid or liquid particulate matter from whatever source.
sound that reaches the point of detection by radiation through the air.
useful net, available refrigerating capacity of an air conditioner for removing sensible and latent heat from the space being
combination of all components required to provide air conditioning.

assembly of equipment for air treatment to simultaneously control its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution
to meet the requirements of a conditioned space. See [[air conditioner]].

air conditioner whose refrigerating system has an air-cooled condenser.

a refrigerant condenser in which heat removal is accomplished entirely by heat absorption by air flowing over condensing
surfaces. See also [[condenser]]; [[desuperheater]]; [[double-pipe condenser]] ([[tube-in-tube condenser]]); [[evaporative
condenser]]; [[shell-and-tube condenser]].

a refrigeration cycle consisting of four stages: compression of air, cooling the air down to ambient temperature, expansion
of the air, and heating of the cold air by heat absorption in the space to be cooled.

the air volume flow rate per unit area of the entire floor space being conditioned.

modular air-terminal device designed to diffuse air to the treated space from a pressurized plenum through holes or slots
in the ceiling surface or the supporting framework. Also see [[air terminal device]].

a single number rating of the air-diffusion performance of a mixing system at specified supply-air delivery rate,
temperature, moisture content, and space cooling load. ADPI is based on air speed and effective draft temperature.

surface or locus of points of equal velocity which describe an air-distribution profile.

(1) movement of air usually within boundaries (such as ducts). (2) the volume of air per unit time.
deterrent (due to friction, change of direction, etc.) to the passage of air within an air-distribution system and/or
material or construction that adequately impedes transmission of air under specified conditions. Compare to [[structural
barrier]]; [[water vapor retarder]].
a cross sectional blade shape of a fan type that is used to optimize flow to reduce turbulence.
assembly consisting of sections containing a fan or fans and other necessary equipment to perform one or more of the
following functions: circulating, filtration, heating, cooling, heat recovery, humidifying, dehumidifying, and mixing of air. Is
usually connected to an air-distribution system.
natural ventilation by window opening.
see [[air economizer]]
construction in which the building envelope is designed with a continuous air barrier.

qualitative term describing the integrity of the building envelope relative to air permeation; the resistance of the building
envelope to the flow of air and entrained moisture. Compare to [[air infiltration]].

ratio of actual heat transfer to the thermodynamically limited maximum heat transfer possible in a counterflow exchanger
of infinite transfer area. Note: effectiveness may be stated as total, sensible, or latent when the ratio defined above uses
these heats as the actual and maximum possible heat transfer quantities. Compare air-to-air energy recovery with system

ratio of the apparent heat recovered to the sum of the thermodynamically limited maximum possible in a counterflow
heat exchanger of infinite heat transfer area, plus, all external energy inputs including, but not limited to, fan energy,
auxiliary heaters, cross leakage, and casing loss. Note: this ratio adjusts heat exchanger effectiveness for auxiliary energy
inputs of the energy recovery system.

exchanger that transfers heat from an exhaust airstream to a separated supply airstream. Note: fixed plate, rotary wheels,
heat pipes, runaround coil loops, and shell and tube are the most common types.

the effective area of an air terminal device equal to the measured airflow rate divided by the velocity reading of a
particular instrument used in a prescribed manner.
signal, either audible or visual, or both, that alerts an operator to an off-normal condition which requires some form of
corrective action.
that point in the range of a variable which is the threshold of an off-normal condition.
ratio of reflected solar radiation from a surface and the incident solar radiation. See also [[reflectance]].

minute, freshwater plants that form a scum on the surfaces of recirculated water apparatus, interfering with fluid flow and
heat transfer.
any substance inhibiting the growth of algae.
prescribed set of well-defined rules or processes for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps (e.g., a full
statement of an arithmetical procedure for evaluating sine x to a stated precision).
sum of bicarbonate, carbonate, and hydroxide ions in water. Other ions, such as borate, phosphate, or silicate, can also
contribute to alkalinity.

a synthetic hydrocarbon composed of a benzene ring attached to one or more saturated hydrocarbon chains.

a device that monitors parameters used to determine the net HVAC energy consumed in conditioning an individual unit.

a replacement or addition to a building or its systems and equipment; routine maintenance, repair, and service or a
change in the buildings use classification or category shall not constitute an alteration.

electric current in an electrical circuit that periodically reverses polarity. See also [[frequency]].

nondepletable sources alternative to energy derived from combustible waste or heat recovery processes.

air within a defined space. Air surrounding a building, the source of outdoor air brought into a building, etc. (Usually
outdoor air or the air in an enclosure under study).

characteristics of the environment. For example, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and motion.

all noise associated within a given environment at a given time, including noise from the sound source of interest (e.g.,
background noise plus the particular sound of interest). Compare to [[background noise]].

(1) environmental pressure in which a device operates. (2) pressure of the medium surrounding a device. (3) the pressure
of the surroundings relative to zero absolute pressure.
anhydrous ammonia (NH3).
ability of a wire to carry electric current safely without undue heating.

(1) circuit used to increase the power, voltage, and/or current level of a signal. (2) device that enables an input signal to
control power from a source independent of the signal and thus be capable of delivering an output that bears some
relationship to, and is generally greater than, the input signal. (3) device whose output is an enlarged reproduction of the
essential features of an input signal and that draws power from a source other than the input signal.

data represented in a continuous form, as contrasted with digital data represented in a discrete (discontinuous) form; an
analog of the variable represented.
(1) display of a physical variable in a continuous form. (2) display of analog data values.
(1) a verifying quantity (e.g., pressure, voltage, or temperature) which can have any value between a minimum and a
maximum, used as the initiating part of a control system. (2) input of a physical variable in a continuous form, such as a
voltage input to a voltmeter.
(1) continuous variable used to represent another (e.g., in temperature measurement, an electric voltage or current
output represents temperature input). (2) output that is continuously variable and represents a physical variable such as a
voltage, current, or pressure output.

device that converts a signal that is a function of a continuous variable into a representative number sequence.

(1) method by which analog values are transferred from the sensing location to a controlling location. (2) sending of a
continuously variable signal from one point to another.

mathematical solution of a model that has a deterministic result for a given set of parameters and boundary conditions.

device in the high side of an absorption system for increasing concentration of refrigerant in the vapor entering the
rectifier or condenser.
device placed at the end of a test duct to prevent excessive reflection of the sound waves back into the test duct where
they would interfere with the waves to be measured.
device to sense and measure velocity of airflow at a point.
a barometer in which a change of atmospheric pressure relative to a vacuum bends a metallic surface connected to a
thin, disc-shaped box or capsule, usually metallic, partially evacuated and sealed, held extended by a spring, that expands
and contracts with changes in atmospheric or gas pressure.
loss of the ability to perceive pain and other sensory stimulation.
the largest included angle between center lines of principal jets of the primary airstream.
the angle between the solar beam and the normal to the aperture plane of the solar collector.
valve in which the inlet and outlet are at an angle, usually 45 or 90.

(1) ion that is negatively charged (e.g., chloride, silicate, sulfate). Compare to [[cation]]. (2) negatively charged ion of an
electrolyte that migrates toward the anode influenced by an electric potential gradient.

(1) process involving controlled heating and subsequent controlled, generally slow, cooling. Applied usually to induce
ductility in metals. (2) treatment intended to remove internal stresses, alter mechanical or physical properties, produce a
definite microstructure, and remove gases.

the ratio of annual output energy to annual input energy, which includes any nonheating season pilot input loss and, for
gas- or oil-fired furnaces or boilers, does not include electric energy.

the heating load for the entire one-year simulation period (e.g., for hourly simulation programs, this is the sum of the
hourly heating loads for the one-year simulation period).
sum of direct solar radiation and diffuse solar radiation that strikes a given surface for the entire one-year simulation
period when no shading is present (e.g., for hourly simulation programs, this is the sum of the hourly total incident solar
radiation for the one-year simulation period).

the average zone air temperature for the one-year simulation period (e.g., for hourly simulation programs, this is the
average of the hourly zone air temperatures for the one-year simulation period).

sensible-cooling load for the entire one-year simulation period (e.g., for hourly simulation programs, this is the sum of the
hourly sensible cooling loads for the one-year simulation period).
sum of direct solar radiation and diffuse solar radiation that strikes a given surface for the entire one-year simulation
period when no shading is present (e.g., for hourly simulation programs, this is the sum of the hourly total incident solar
radiation for the one-year simulation period.)
form of two-phase flow in a pipe where the gas forms the core and the liquid flows annularly against the internal walls of
the pipe.

positive electrode in an electrolytic system, such as is applied in cathodic protection. The electrode at which oxidation or
corrosion occurs or from which the current is transmitted to the electrolyte. Compare to [[cathode]].

valve or mechanical device that eliminates siphon flow.

the maximum projected area of a solar collector through which the unconcentrated solar radiant energy is admitted.

the projected plane at or above the solar collector through which the unconcentrated solar radiation is admitted.

[[application part-load value]]. See [[part-load value]].

the effective coil surface temperature when there is dehumidification. This is the temperature to which all the supply air
would be cooled if 100% of the supply air contacted the coil. On the psychrometric chart, this is the intersection of the
condition line and the saturation curve, where the condition line is the line going through entering air conditions with
slope defined by the sensible heat ratio ([gross sensible capacity]/[gross total capacity]). (Also see [[gross sensible
capacity]] and [[gross total capacity]].)

a value that can be calculated for a system based on the quantity of the fluid flow, the average temperature of the
entering fluid, and the average temperature of the space.
product of the volts and amperes of a circuit. This product generally is divided by 1000 and designated in kilovolt-amperes
(kVA). It comprises both real and reactive power.
time based on the apparent angular motion of the sun across the sky, with solar noon the time the sun crosses the
meridian of the observer.

temperature of an object as determined from the measured radiance.

on an indicator card, the ratio of suction line length to stroke.

part-load value based on operation at actual design conditions. Typically used in system design and specification.

a rating based on tests performed at application rating conditions (other than standard rating conditions).

digital controller dedicated to a specific application, such as a VAV box or water-source heat pump.

(1) in a water cooling tower or evaporative cooling device, the difference between the average temperature of the
circulating water leaving the device and the average wet-bulb temperature of the entering air. (2) in heat exchangers, the
temperature difference between the leaving fluids.
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.
thermostat designed for use in water.

geologic unit that is capable of yielding groundwater to a well in sufficient quantities to be of practical use.

group of welding processes wherein coalescence of metal is produced by heating with an electric arc or arcs, with or
without the application of pressure, and with or without filler metal.

a body immersed in a fluid undergoes an apparent loss in weight equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

designation reserved, usually by law, for a person professionally qualified and duly licensed to perform architectural
services, including, but not necessarily limited to, analysis of project requirements, creation and development of project
design, preparation of drawings, specifications and bidding requirements, and general administration of the construction
individual offering professional services as both architect and engineer.

in a parallel flow or counterflow heat exchanger, the arithmetic mean of the temperature differences between the two
fluids at both ends of the exchanger.

the amount of aromatic hydrocarbon fraction contained in an oil.

a compound containing carbon and hydrogen and having a molecular structure of one or more closed ring structures with
the carbon atoms joined by double bonds.

documents that represent the actual installed conditions, equipment, and systems, such as drawings, computer graphics,
equipment data sheets, operation manuals, maintenance manuals, and the training program and video media.

a sterile environment.
measure of the ability of a device to remove ASHRAE atmospheric dust from test air.

compounded test dust used for arrestance measurement and for loading filters.

(1) in any rectangular configuration, the ratio of the longer dimension to the shorter. (2) ratio of the length to width of a
rectangular air duct.

psychrometer having mechanical means for rapidly circulating air to be tested over dry and wet bulbs.

production of movement in a fluid by suction created by fluid velocity. See also [[Venturi]].
portion of an envelope component represented by an arrangement and connection of building construction materials with
a specific thermal transmittance or thermal conductance.
gas burner in which air for combustion is supplied by natural draft and the inspirating force created by gas velocity through

condenser in which the pipes in open air are cooled by water flowing over them.

particulate matter naturally occurring in the air. See also [[air contaminant]].

process in which the solid phase of the solvent is sublimed at atmospheric pressure.

standard atmospheric reference pressure (assumed sea level) is defined by the International Civil Aeronautics Organization
(ICAO) as 101.325 kPa. In I-P units, the value is approximately 14.696 psi, or 29.921 inches of mercury at 32F.
(also called natural draft cooling tower), air movement through a cooling tower by aspiration or natural convection.

to create a fine spray from a liquid.

the decrease in the sound level between the source and the receiver from various mechanisms, such as geometrical
divergence, atmospheric absorption, and building structures.

exhaust fan to exhaust air near the top of a building while air, generally cooler, is forced (drawn) in at lower levels.

introduction of cool, outdoor air into an attic by exhausting its warm air to the outdoors.

(of a controller), ratio of effect on a manipulated variable of one input signal as compared to that of another.

the agency or agent responsible for enforcing a standard.

self acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some nonmanual influence, such as a change in current
strength, pressure, temperature, or mechanical configuration.
changeover from one mode of operation to another without operator intervention (e.g., a thermostat that changes from
heat to cool without need for manual operation of levers or setpoints).

a device capable of automatically controlling devices without manual intervention.

(1) implementation of process by automatic means. (2) investigation, design, development, and application of methods of
rendering processes automatic, self moving, or self controlling. (3) theory, art, or technique of making a process more
unconditioned or partially conditioned supply or supplemental air delivered to a laboratory at the laboratory fume hood to
reduce room air consumption.
(also known as controls), equipment such as relays and switches to manipulate signals.
see [[auxiliary thermal source]].
fuel used in an auxiliary thermal source.
a source of thermal energy, other than solar, used to provide the service water heating, usually in the form of electrical
resistance heat or thermal energy derived from combustion of fossil fuels.
energy in the form of shaft work or in a form completely convertible to shaft work by ideal processes.
average of local mean ages of air measured throughout an indoor airspace.

the time-averaged speed of the air from each individual supply air outlet.

for an air cleaning devices with efficiencies less than 20% in the size range of 3.010.0 m, the average value of the
arrestances made on the device during the loading test, weighted by the amounts of dust fed to the device during each,
incremental, dust-loading step.
the average value of the arrestances made on a single filter during the loading test, weighted by the dust fed to the filter
between successive arrestance measurements.
the average value of the dust spot efficiencies made on a single filter during the loading test, weighted by the dust fed to
the filter during the intervals between successive dust spot tests.

under the same conditions of pressure and temperature, equal volumes of all gases contain equal numbers of molecules.

fan that moves air in the general direction of the axis about which it rotates.

turbocompressor in which the compressed fluid generally flows in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation.

perspective drawing showing plan and partial elevations on the same drawing.
a mixture of liquids whose vapor and liquid phases in equilibrium have identical compositions (the boiling point is

a blend containing two or more refrigerants whose equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions are the same at a
given pressure. At this pressure, the slope of the temperature versus composition curve equals zero, which mathematically
is expressed as (dt/dx)p = 0, which, in turn, implies the occurrence of a maximum, minimum, or saddle point temperature.
Azeotropic blends exhibit some segregation of components at other conditions. The extent of the segregation depends on
the particular azeotrope and the application.
temperature at which a liquid mixture boils and produces a vapor having the same composition as the liquid.

a blend that contains two or more refrigerants whose equilibrium vapor phase and liquid phase compositions are the
same at a given pressure. The temperature of an azeotropic refrigerant remains constant as it evaporates or condenses at
constant pressure (compare to [[zeotropic refrigerant]]).

the temperature at which the liquid and vapor phases of a blend have the same mole fraction of each component at
equilibrium for a specified pressure.
the ratio of path pressure drop, including fully open control damper pressure drop, to the pressure drop across the fully
open damper at design flow.
addition of a nonvolatile solid to a liquid in which it is soluble lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent in proportion to the
amount of substance dissolved.

the static pressure existing at the outlet of an operating pressure relief device due to pressure in the discharge line.

(also known as evaporator pressure regulator), an automatic valve located between the evaporator outlet and the
compressor inlet that responds to its own inlet pressure that prevents the evaporator pressure from falling below a
selected value.

reverse flow in a water system caused by negative pressure in an incoming pipe when the point of use is at atmospheric
pressure. Note: back siphonage generally is more evident in an open water system.

device which, when mounted in a duct or opening, permits the flow of air in one direction only. Can be gravity (counter
weighted) or power operated.
reverse flow in a water system from the normal or intended direction. Note: backflow generally is more evident in an open
water system.
device designed to prevent reverse flow in a water system. Note: term normally used where back-pressure-type backflow
is implied.
program, ordinance, or code designed to prevent backflow into a potable water system and to discover, eliminate, and
prevent all uncontrolled cross connections, existing or potential.
irradiance at the entrance aperture of the infrared sensing system that is not radiated directly from the object being

total noise from all sources other than a particular sound that is of interest. Compare to [[ambient noise]].

see [[backflow preventer]].

centrifugal rotor in which the convex sides of blades face in the direction of rotation.

component of a centrifugal fan or pump consisting of simple flat blades backwardly inclined to match the velocity pattern
of the fluid passing through the impeller wheel for high-efficiency operation. Impeller blade width and length affect flow
rate and pressure or lift performance. See [[centrifugal fan]]; [[centrifugal pump]].

surface, usually in the form of a plate or wall, used for separating spaces or deflecting fluids.
the outdoor temperature at which a building's heat loss to the environment is equal to internal heat gains from people,
lights, and equipment.

two fans connected to a combustion unit, one to supply the combustion air and the other to induce draft.

fluid flows where the design supply flow volumetric rate equals the design return/exhaust volumetric rate. Also called
balanced ventilation or balanced system.
occurs when internal heat gain equals recovered heat, and no external heat is introduced to the conditioned space.
Maintaining balance may require raising the temperature of recovered heat.
a pressure relief valve that incorporates means of minimizing the effect of back pressure on the operational characteristics
of the valve (opening pressure, closing pressure, and relieving capacity).

a commonly used term for the person or firm that performs testing, adjusting, and balancing of HVAC systems.

the methodical proportioning of air and hydronic flows through the system mains, branches, and terminal devices using
acceptable procedures to achieve the specified airflow or hydronic flow within testing, design, and installation limitations.
adjustable blade device to control airflow.

assembly to measure and control fluid flow; composed of a measuring device, a volume control device, and recommended
lengths of straight ductwork or pipe leading into and out of the measuring device.

metering-type valve with locking positions to control hydronic flow.

valve consisting of a rotatable ball with a hole through its center. Typically manufactured in either full port (opening) or
conventional (reduced) port (opening) construction.
a device used in conjunction with an electric discharge lamp to cause the lamp to start and operate under the proper
circuit conditions of voltage, current, wave form, electrode heat, etc.
ratio of commercial electric ballast lamp lumens to reference ballast lamp lumens, used to correct the lamp lumen output
from rated to actual.
electric power (watts) consumed internally by the ballast components.
instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. Standard atmosphere is the equivalent of 14.696 psia (101.325 kPa) or
29.92 in. (760 mm) of mercury at 32F (0C).
apparatus in which steam is condensed at reduced pressure by direct contact with water.

(1) counterweighted damper set so that variations in chimney barometric pressure will cause the damper to open or close
gradually to maintain a constant draft directly upstream of the damper. (2) mechanically balanced damper that rotates
from changes in pressure within breeching to bleed air into the breeching to maintain a steady draft.

variations in barometric pressure caused by altitude or weather changes.

the pressure of the atmosphere relative to zero absolute pressure (a perfect vacuum).
see [[building automation system]].
temperature from which temperature departure is calculated (e.g., degree-day).
primary HVAC system losses incurred and auxiliary system energy consumed in maintaining a central HVAC energy source
available for consumption by all residents.
steam, hydronic, or electric heating device located at or near the floor.

a computer representation of a hypothetical design based on the proposed building project. This representation is used as
the basis for calculating the baseline building performance for rating above standard design.

the annual energy cost for a building design intended for use as a baseline for rating above standard design.

the measurements and facts describing facility operations and design during the baseline period. This will include energy
use or demand and parameters of facility operation that govern energy use or demand.

the set of arithmetic factors, equations, or data used to describe the relationship between energy use or demand and
other baseline data. A model may also be a simulation process involving a specified simulation engine and set of input
the period of time selected as representative of facility operations before retrofit.

a document that records the concepts, calculations, decisions, and product selections used to meet the Owners Project
Requirements and to satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, standards, and guidelines. The document includes both
narrative descriptions and lists of individual items that support the design process.

irradiance received from the sun without significant change in direction from the suns apparent position.

absorption of light by a solution changes exponentially with the concentration, all else remaining the same.

(1) flexible, corrugated chamber that converts pressure variation into mechanical movement. (2) flexible, fluid-containing
vessel that will expand or contract as a result of a change in the pressure of the contained fluid. Can be used to transmit
force and/or motion in a pneumatic or hydraulic system or as a sensor of temperature or pressure when the bellows is

mechanical seal of flexible, corrugated-metal bellows with one end attached to a ring pressed against the shoulder of the
shaft, the other end to a disc pressed against the housing.

packless valve in which a bellows forms the seal between the adjustment spindle and the valve body.
tendency of an estimate to deviate in one direction from a true value (a systematic error). See [[error]]. Compare to
tubeaxial (ducted) fan whose motor is mounted outside a bifurcated (divided) duct with only the blades of the fan located
in the airstream.

information collected from invoices sent to an owner from the energy supplier (e.g., an electric or gas bill).

the demand used to calculate the demand cost. In the United States, this is very often the monthly peak demand of the
customer or the peak demand over a several month timeframe (a demand ratchet). Billing demand in many countries may
be the contract demand. Other variations are possible.

a thermometer that indicates temperature from the flexing of two strips of materials of different coefficients of expansion
bonded together.
a class interval or grouping, typically for outdoor air temperature.

energy calculation method, usually used in prediction, in which the annual (or monthly) energy use of a building is
calculated as the sum of the energy used for all of the outdoor temperature bins. The bin method allows heat pump (or
other heater or cooler) performance, which is different for each bin, to be accounted for.

characteristic or property involving a selection, choice, or condition in which there are two possibilities (as binary numbers
in a computer, on/off or open/closed switch position).
thermodynamic cycle relative to the varying condensing and evaporating temperatures of a nonazeotropic mixture of two
chemical substance capable of killing living organism, usually in a selective way.
water-formed deposits of biological organisms or the products of their life processes. Biological deposits include
barnacles, algae, or slimes.
(1) body that absorbs all the radiant energy falling on it. (2) body that has the maximum, theoretical, radiant-energy
emittance at a given temperature. See also [[absorber]].
apparent temperature of an object as determined from the measurement of its radiance and the assumption that it is an
ideal blackbody with emissivity of 1.0.

the angle between the chord of the blade and the plane of rotation (axial fan) or centerline of the rotor hub. The pitch
may be constant for the length of the blade, or it may be larger at the blade root than at the tip.

the property of a propeller blade describing the variation of the pitch from the blade root to the tip.

relatively flat and flexible insulation in coherent form, furnished in units of substantial area.

heat transfer surface, most frequently of an extended surface arrangement, over which air is blown to be heated or
cooled, depending on the temperature of the fluid within the coil.
chamber in which cold air is circulated rapidly around products to be frozen so that freezing occurs rapidly enough to avoid
formation of large ice crystals which may damage the product.
heavy duty duct closure device.
in an air-handling system, a sliding damper.

set of heat transfer coils or sections used to heat air which is drawn or forced through them by a fan. A unit heater.

valve that has a fixed orifice incapable of being closed by an action of the valve, permitting a flow through or in parallel
with the main valve port.
pipe attached to a unit, such as a condenser, to bleed off liquid refrigerant parallel to main flow.
refrigerants consisting of mixtures of two or more different chemical compounds, often used individually as refrigerants
for other applications.
flange used to seal the end of a pipe.

rigid insulation preformed into rectangular units.

(1) discharge of water from a steam boiler or open recirculating system that contains high total dissolved solids. The
addition of makeup water will reduce the concentration of dissolved solids to minimize their precipitation. (2) in pressure
relief-devices, the difference between actuation pressure of a pressure relief valve and reseating pressure, expressed as a
percentage of set pressure or in pressure units.
a ducted centrifugal fan used in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system. See also [[centrifugal fan]]; [[fan]].

an assembly consisting of a fan/blower and a calibrated flow measuring station [orifice plate, flow nozzle(s), flow ring, etc.]
used for pressurizing or depressurizing a building envelope.

safety valve that maintains a predetermined pressure in a vessel by discharging excess gas to the atmosphere.

air-handling unit with a section or sections downstream of the supply air fan.

sometimes called ocean energy, blue energy is a term for the method of generating electricity through the convergence of
both fresh and salt water. This energy can be extracted through a variety of means, including tidal power, current power,
wave power, thermal energy conversion, and osmosis. Power may also be collected by harnessing the wind power
associated with the body of water, usually the ocean.

see [[building management system]].

a closed, pressure vessel that uses fuel or electricity for heating water or other fluids to supply steam or hot water for
heating, humidification, or other applications.
boiler designed especially for gas and oil and sold integrally with the burner.
design maximum rate of heat output.

part of a boiler forming the top of the furnace in a firebox boiler or the equivalent surface in other types.

pump that returns condensed steam, makeup water, or both directly to the boiler. Normally installed with a large receiver.

water supplied to a boiler by pumping.

apparatus for raising the temperature of the boiler feedwater, usually with exhaust steam.

carryover of slugs of water into the piping from overloading of the boiler. Compare to [[boiler priming]].

part of an absorption machine in which the refrigerant vapor is driven off by heat.
surfaces of the boiler that are exposed to the products of combustion on one side and water on the other, expressed in
area units (of the side receiving the heat).
equivalent evaporation of 34.5 lb of water per hour from and at 212F (100C). This is equal to heat output of 970.3
Btu/lb/h 34.5 lb = 33,475 Btu/h, approximately 9809.5 W.
carryover of boiler water with the steam due to insufficient steam space, faulty boiler design, or operating conditions.
Compare to [[foaming]].
space that contains water between the outer shell and furnace shell.
level at which water is maintained within a steam boiler.

temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the absolute external pressure at the liquid vapor interface.

liquefied gas lost by vaporization during storage in a tank.

sensitive thermal device for measuring radiant energy.
(also known as electrical ground), connection to ground potential of a metal part on an appliance or component which
may become energized by an electrical fault or may develop a static charge.
accessory to increase output of, for example, a compressor, pump, or header.

sheet metal transformation piece used to make connection between round and rectangular ductwork.

inside diameter of a hollow cylinder or of a hole.

physical conditions (values of physical quantities, conditions of energy interchange, etc.) imposed on a system at the
boundaries separating the system from its surroundings.
region of retarded fluid flow near the surface of a body moving through the fluid or past which the fluid moves. See also
mechanical pressure measuring instrument that senses pressure with a curved oval tube that tends to straighten when the
pressure increases and recurves when the pressure decreases.

product of the volume of a gas times its pressure is a constant at fixed temperature. Also known as Mariottes law.
impure water with a lesser content of salt than seawater, but higher than that of potable water.
brake power expressed in horsepower.
actual power delivered by or to a shaft (from the use of a brake to measure power).
(1) in ducts, piping, or conduit, another section of the same size or smaller, at an angle with the main. (2) section of pipe
or duct from a main to a terminal device.
the circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s). The final wiring run to
the load.
air supply line connecting a controller and controlled device.
to join metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800F (427C) but lower than those of the
metals being joined. May be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing), in a furnace (furnace brazing), or by
dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing).
joined by fusion using a spelter of brass. Considered equivalent to hard soldering.
tube made from sheet or strip with a longitudinal brazed joint.

outdoor temperature at which total heat losses from conditioned spaces equal internally generated heat gains.

a condition that occurs in a gas phase filter when, as contaminated air passes through a filter, the outlet contaminant
concentration reaches a predetermined percentage of the challenge.
for gas phase filters, the sudden decline in efficiency, defined as the operating time (at constant operating conditions)
before a certain penetration is achieved.
the region within an occupied space between planes 3 and 72 in. (75 and 1800 mm) above the floor and more than 2 ft
(600 mm) from the walls or fixed air-conditioning equipment.
the connection to any fuel-fired equipment, device, or appliance and the horizontal section of the exhaust system used for
conducting the products of combustion from a fuel-fired equipment, device, or appliance to the vertical section, which is
identified as the vent, chimney, or flue.
index of refraction for a material is equal to the tangent of the polarizing angle for the material.
formerly any liquid cooled by a refrigerant and used for heat transmission without a change in its state, having no flash
point or a flash point above 150F (66C). Now called a secondary coolant.
vented reservoir in a closed, circulating brine system for the accommodation of volume expansion of brine due to
temperature change.
reservoir in an open, circulating brine system for storing brine at the pump suction and for inspecting the condition and
flow of brine.

(1) in a brine circulating system, a storage or balance tank for brine. (2) in an ice plant, a main freezing tank in which cans
are immersed while ice is being produced. (3) in domestic and commercial fields, a container surrounding the evaporator
and filled with brine for storing refrigerant or equalizing temperature at various points of the evaporator (especially an ice
cream cabinet).

cooling of air by spraying brine into the airstream. Note: process discontinued in meat refrigerating plants because of salt
corrosion of meat-carrying rails.
ice produced as small, regularly shaped and sized pieces.
metering system capable of measuring the energy added to or extracted from an electric or fluid stream. Also called
thermal energy meter, heat meter, or thermal meter. Compare to [[watt meter]].

a liquid-vapor equilibrium point for a volatile pure liquid or for a multicomponent mixture of miscible, volatile, pure
component liquids, in the absence of noncondensables, where the temperature of the mixture at a defined pressure is the
minimum temperature required for a vapor bubble to form in the liquid.

a computer representation of a hypothetical design based on the actual proposed building design. This representation is
used as the basis for calculating the energy cost budget.

(1) digital circuit element used to increase the number of outputs a circuit can drive or to convert input or output levels for
signal level compatibility. Also, any isolating amplifier stage. (2) insulating circuit used to avoid reaction of a drive circuit on
any driven circuit. (3) salts or other compounds that reduce the changes in the pH of a solution upon the addition of an
acid or alkali. (4) storage device used to compensate for a difference in rate of flow, data, time, or occurrence of events
when transmitting data from one device to another.

tank fitted into a circuit to dampen fluctuations in flow.

an unconditioned part of a building containing some or all of the distribution system.
a structure wholly or partially enclosed within exterior walls, or within exterior and party walls, and a roof, affording
shelter to persons, animals, or property.

an energy management system, usually with additional capabilities, relating to the overall operation of the building in
which it is installed, such as equipment monitoring, protection of equipment against power failure, and building security.
Compare to [[building management system]].

overall leakage of the building characterized by the airflow rate at a given pressure difference across the envelope of the
building. Compare to [[air infiltration]]).

(1) outer elements of a building, including walls, windows, doors, roofs, and floors, including those in contact with earth.
(2) the exterior plus the semi-exterior portions of a building. For the purposes of determining building envelope
requirements, the classifications are defined as follows. Building envelope, exterior: the elements of a building that
separate conditioned spaces from the exterior. Building envelope, semi-exterior: the elements of a building that separate
conditioned space from unconditioned space or that enclose semiheated spaces through which thermal energy may be
transferred to or from the exterior, to or from unconditioned spaces, or to or from conditioned spaces.

all exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose space, except for openings for windows, skylights, doors, and
building service systems (i.e., all areas of a building envelope that permit passage of radiant energy in or out of the
building space).

any localized area of the building envelope that has a thermal resistance significantly different from the area surrounding
it. The void may be due to partial or complete absence of thermal insulation.

any doorway, set of doors, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used only for emergency egress or convenience exit.

vertical distance from level grade or average grade to the highest finish roof surface, in the case of flat roofs, or to a point
at the average height of the highest roof having a pitch.

a data specification for representing building information for the purposes of interoperable data exchange. Also, a data
model of a specific building or its systems, components, or other information elements based on that specification.

the human activity of using BIM software and other related software, hardware, and technologies to create and use in a
building information model. See [[building information model]].
an energy management system relating to the overall operation of the building in which it is installed. It often has
additional capabilities, such as equipment monitoring, protection of equipment against power failure, and building
security. It may also be a direct digital control (DDC) system where the mode of control uses digital outputs to control
processes or elements directly.

the officer or other designated representative authorized to act on behalf of the authority having jurisdiction.

method of transmitting control signals using existing electrical wiring. Signals are introduced by superimposing on, or
altering, existing waveforms. Signals are sensed by detecting these modifications of the wave forms with a remotely
controlled receiver.
building or group of buildings proposed or under construction, including on-site energy conversion or electric generating
facilities, which utilize a single submittal for construction permit or are within the boundary of a contiguous area under
one ownership.

utilities (such as electricity, gas, steam, telephone, and water) supplied and distributed within a building.

the volume of a building that exchanges air with outdoor (ambient) air. The building volume is the space that is
deliberately conditioned for human comfort (ft [m]).

elements of a building that enclose spaces and which control or regulate heat and mass transfer (air, water vapor, and
entrained moisture) between the interior spaces and the building exterior. Note: the interior surfaces of insulated floors,
walls, windows, and ceilings generally comprise the thermal envelope. Compare to [[thermal envelope]]. See [[air

portion of a thermal sensing system that is placed in the controlled (or measured) variable.

ratio of the compressive or tensile force applied to a material per unit surface area to the change in volume of the material
per unit volume. Also known as bulk modulus, compression modulus, or hydrostatic modulus.
a parameter derived from the dimensionless Richardson number relating fluid inertial forces to buoyancy forces in a
storage device.
part of a fuel burning device (as a stove or furnace) where flame is produced.
(1) initiation of combustion. (2) process or means of igniting a fuel/air mixture.
setting that determines the fuel firing rate at which burner ignition occurs where low/high/low/off or modulating
combustion controls are used. The firing rate corresponds to approximately one third or less of the full burner delivery
rate for rotary burners. It corresponds to approximately one fifth or less of the full burner delivery rate of air for
mechanical atomizing burners.
series of air-directing vanes (usually adjustable) that are used to direct and/or control the combustion airflow through the
sleeve, usually formed of refractory, located at the burner exit, within which combustion starts.
device to introduce secondary combustion air into the furnace in a 360 pattern around the flame and, with an ignition
cone, to cause accelerated vaporization of the oil.
joint between two members lying approximately in the same plane.

weld formed by placing two edges or ends one against the other and welding them. Compare to [[lap weld]].

pipe welded along a butted longitudinal seam and not scarfed or lapped.

(1) damper consisting of a plate turning on a diametral axis inside a duct. (2) pair of flaps hinged to a common diametrical
spindle and permitting flow in one direction only. (3) two flaps in "V" arrangement.

valve in which the regulating mechanism is a circular or elliptical disc that is rotatable about an axis.

a pipe or duct, usually controlled by valve or damper, for conveying a fluid around an element of a system.

any portion of the mixed air that circumvents conditioning.

the percentage of the air that does not come into contact with the coil; the remaining air is assumed to exit the coil at the
average coil temperature. See also [[apparatus dew point]].
unwanted passing of untreated air into the treated air between the components within casings such as filters or coils
within a section.
air terminal unit using a method of volume modulation whereby airflow is varied by distributing that volume required to
meet the load, the balance of primary air being diverted to the return.
there are three main categories of components: air-terminal devices (ATDs), complementary accessories to air terminal
devices, fixing accessories for air-terminal devices.
[[computer-aided drafting]]
parts design and manufacturing method utilizing a computer database where drawings are not needed. Synonymous with
computer integrated manufacturing.
(1) variable that cannot actually be measured directly but one which can be calculated by measuring other variables (e.g.,
measure wet-bulb temperature and measure dry-bulb temperature to determine enthalpy). (2) variable that is calculated
from one or more inputs.
the act of comparing an instrument of unknown accuracy with a standard of known accuracy to detect, correlate, report,
or eliminate by adjustment any variation in the accuracy of the tested instrument.
comparison of the particular instrument with a primary standard, a secondary standard of higher accuracy than the
instrument to be calibrated, or a known input source.

heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1C; specifically, from 4C to 5C. The Fifth International
Conference on the Properties of Steam (1956) defined the International Table calorie as 4.1868 J. Mean calorie = 1/100
part of the heat required to raise 1 gram of water from 0C to 100C. Kilocalorie = 1000 calories.

device for measuring heat quantities such as machine capacity, combustion heat, specific heat, vital heat, and heat
[[computer-aided manufacturing]]
the arched curvature of the propeller blade.

the perpendicular distance from the chord of the blades cross section to the point of maximum camber.

covered area that extends from a wall of a building, protecting an entrance or a loading dock.
a wall-mounted or free-standing kitchen hood. Hoods will overhang the appliance(s) on all open sides, which forces
replacement air to be drawn across the open sides of the cooking equipment, thus increasing the effectiveness of the
hood to capture and contain effluent generated by the cooking operations.

see [[reed valve]].

property of an electric device or capacitor that permits storage of electric energy in an electrostatic field and the release
of that energy at a later time.

in an alternating electrical system, a device that will store an electric charge used to change a power factor.

(1) measure of the maximum amount of energy or material that may be stored in a given system. See also [[nameplate
rating]]; [[air-conditioner capacity]]. (2) the rate of heat removal by the refrigerant used in the compressor or condensing
unit in a refrigerating system. This rate equals the product of the refrigerant mass flow rate and the difference in the
specific enthalpies of the refrigerant vapor at its thermodynamic state entering the compressor or condensing unit and
refrigerant liquid at the thermodynamic state entering the mass flow control device. (3) the rate that heat is removed or
added to a system. (4) maximum load for which a machine, apparatus, device, or system is designed or constructed.

(of a machine, equipment, or thermal storage), ratio of the average load required, in the period of time considered, to the
capacity in mass, volume, or energy terms. Reciprocal of storage factor.
the rate, expressed in watts (Btu/h), at which the equipment removes latent heat from the air passing through it under
specified conditions of operation.
the rate, expressed in watts (Btu/h), at which the equipment removes sensible heat from the air passing through it under
specified conditions of operation.
the rate, expressed in watts (Btu/h), at which the equipment removes heat from the air passing through it under specified
conditions of operation.
action by which the surface of a liquid in contact with a solid (as in a small bore tube) is raised or lowered proportional to
surface wetting.
enclosure with an assembly of cells packed with fibrous materials over which water is sprayed and through which air is
passed to clean it.

(1) refrigerating capillary tube is a tube of small bore used for the simultaneous purposes of metering the refrigerant and
of accomplishing the expansion process between condenser and evaporator in refrigerating systems. (2) small-bore tube
used for metering by controlling length and bore size. In refrigeration, a tube of small internal diameter used as a
refrigerant pressure and flow control between high and low sides. (3) tube used to transmit pressure from the sensitive
bulb of some temperature controls to the operating element.

pipe that owes its properties chiefly to the carbon content of the steel.
absorption of injected CO2 into a liquid, usually preceded or accompanied by liquid cooling.
apparatus for injecting CO2 into water for preparing carbonated beverages.
formation of carbonaceous deposits, which may be produced by decomposition of lubricating oil or other organic
conversion of heat to work, which is limited by the temperature at which conversion occurs as (T1 T2)/T1, where T1 is
the higher absolute temperature where heat is absorbed, and T2 is the lower absolute temperature where heat is
in a periodic carrier, the reciprocal of its period. Note: the frequency of a periodic pulse carrier often is called the pulse
repetition frequency in a signal transmission system.
the frequency that is used to modulate the input signal for amplification.
complex control system in which the set value of one or more controllers is altered by one or more controlling equipment

one having two or more refrigerant circuits, each with a pressure-imposing element, condenser, and evaporator, where the
evaporator of one circuit cools the condenser of another (lower temperature) circuit.

enclosure normally housing fans, coils, filters, or other components and generally made of metal lined where necessary
with material for thermal insulation and/or acoustic attenuation.
(1) sound power that radiates from a fan located within a housing, section, or casing. (2) sound power that radiates from
the air terminal unit casing.
assembly of individual, hollow, cast-iron sections connected with push nipples, external headers, or internal seals.

negative electrode in an electrolytic system at which reduction occurs (e.g., Fe++, Cu++, Ca++, Mg++). Compare to

(1) electronic vacuum tube containing a screen on which information may be shown by modulated beam of electrons (a
beam of cathode rays). (2) electronic storage tube. (3) picture tube. (4) oscilloscope tube.

technique to minimize corrosion of a metal surface by coating the cathodic surface of an electrochemical cell.

positively charged ion of an electrolyte that migrates toward the cathode influenced by an electric potential gradient.

(1) formation by mechanical forces of vapor in liquids; specifically, the formation of vapor cavities in the interior or on the
solid boundaries of liquids in motion, where the pressure is reduced to a critical value without a change in ambient
temperature. (2) formation of cavities on a surface of a solid by liquid moving over it with velocity high enough to induce
erosion of the surface when the cavity collapses. (3) in pumps, cavitation occurs when the pressure of the fluid is below
the vapor pressure of the fluid at that temperature. Cavitation has been described as having marbles or small stones inside
the impeller casing. Cavitation over an extended period of time will erode the impeller and cause pump failure.

generally used with respect to airborne contaminants.

[[cooling degree day]]. See [[degree day]].

see [[diffuser]].
see [[diffuser]].

insulation composed principally of natural or synthetic elastomers or both, processed to form a flexible, semirigid or rigid
foam, having a predominately closed-cell structure. Insulation is usually expressed in k value (Btu/hftF [w/mK]).

air filter of juxtaposed square or rectangular elements which can be easily dismantled for cleaning or replacement.

insulation composed of cellular polystyrene in the form of boards, produced by heat and pressure from expansion of
foamable polystyrene beads within a mold (bead board) or by in situ foaming of molten polystyrene in an extrusion mode
(extruded board).

insulation composed principally of the catalyzed reaction product of polyisicyanate and polyhydroxy compounds, usually
processed with fluorocarbon gas to form a rigid foam having a predominately closed-cell structure.

temperature scale used with the SI system in which the freezing point of water is 0C, the triple point is 0.01C, and the
boiling point is 100C; absolute zero is minus 273.15C. (Formerly referred to as the centigrade scale).

in-line duct fan with centrifugal blades which can develop static pressures higher than normal duct fans. Also identified as
a tubular centrifugal fan.

see [[Celsius temperature]].

ability to control all functions from one central location, thereby enabling the operator to request and respond to all
commands from one physical or network location.

a nonpositive displacement compressor that depends, in part, on centrifugal forces for pressure rise. A turbocompressor.

factory-assembled fan consisting of one or several centrifugal wheels connected to a motor and enclosed in a housing. A
back-draft damper can be provided.

fan in which the air enters the impeller axially and leaves it substantially in a radial direction. Fan rotor or wheel within a
scroll-type casing (shroud) that includes supports for either belt drive or direct connection. Centrifugal-fan-types are as
follows: forward curve, backwardly inclined (backward curved), airfoil, or radial blade design. Fans can be provided as
single width, single inlet (SWSI) or double width, double inlet (DWDI) configurations and are limited to 16 predefined
arrangement types based on discharge location and rotation.
process in which a liquid product is vacuum frozen while being centrifuged in order to avoid foaming.

pump having a stationary element (casing) and a rotary element (impeller) fitted with vanes or blades arranged in a
circular pattern around an inlet opening at the center. The casing surrounds the impeller and usually has the form of a
scroll or volute. Centrifugal pump types are inline or base mounted. Pump arrangements are end suction, horizontal, or
vertical split case.

device for separating substances of different densities by centrifugal force.

[[cooling efficiency ratio]]

a document stating that all equipment, systems, and controls have been correctly installed; operated as specified; tested,
adjusted, and balanced; and are verified as ready for functional performance testing and other acceptance procedures.

an instrument calibrated by the manufacturer or other reliable agency and certified as traceable to the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST).

(1) change from one of the three phases, solid, liquid, or gas, to another. (2) occurrence in a remote system causing the
contact of an alarm or status device to move from one of two possible positions to the other (e.g., into alarm, causing the
contact of an alarm device to close or return to normal, causing the contact to open).

(1) change from heating to cooling or vice versa. (2) change from one set of controls to another.

outdoor temperature the designer selects as the point of changeover from cooling to heating by the HVAC system.

the amount of heat that can be transferred into the storage device at a specified rate for a specific set of values for the
initial temperature of the storage device, the temperature rise of the exiting fluid, and the mass flow rate of fluid through
the storage system.
a device that brings the charge distribution of the aerosol to a Boltzman charge distribution. This represents the charge
distribution of the ambient aerosol.
the duration of a single transient test in which energy is added to the storage device.
device to enable a refrigerating system to be charged with refrigerant. Also, the tube or hose through which charging is
valve used to charge or add refrigerant to a system or add oil to a compressor crankcase.

(also known as nonreturn valve), valve allowing fluid flow in one direction only. When flow is initiated, the force of the
fluid flowing opens a disc from its seating surface, allowing flow. Upon deactivation of flow, the disc returns the valve seat
and does not allow backflow. There are two main types of check valves: swing-check valves and lift-check valves.

verification checklists that are developed and used during all phases of the commissioning process to verify that the
Owners Project Requirements are being achieved. Checklists include general verification, testing, training, and other
specific requirements.
materials corrosive or in-themselves toxic or productive of poisonous gases or fluids. Flammable or explosive materials
easily ignited, including materials known to be fire producers or explosives.
to apply refrigeration moderately to products without freezing them.
the apparent temperature felt on exposed skin as a function of air temperature and wind speed. Chill factor is expressed in
time (e.g., 11 seconds) to express how long it will take exposed skin to freeze. Compare to [[wind chill]], which is
expressed as a temperature.

water used as a cooling medium (particularly in air-conditioning systems or in processes) at below ambient temperature.

(1) direct-expansion chillers are complete refrigerating systems consisting of a compressor, condenser, and evaporator with
all operating and safety controls. Compressor types include the following: reciprocating, centrifugal, or screw design.
Compare to [[absorption chiller]]. (2) refrigerating machine used to transfer heat between fluids. Chillers are either direct
expansion with a compressor or absorption type.

process of lowering of the temperature of a substance to a specific temperature above freezing. See [[supercooling]];
one or more passageways, vertical or nearly so, for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere. Compare to [[flue]] or
rising of air or gas in a duct or other vertical passage, like a building, caused by lowered density air at the top of the

(1) generally, any of several compounds composed of carbon, fluorine, and chlorine, used chiefly as refrigerants and as
blowing agents in plastic foams. Compare to [[fluorocarbon]]; [[halocarbon]]. (2) a fully halogenated (no hydrogen
remaining) halocarbon containing chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms.

the straight line distance between the leading and trailing edges of a blade.

a device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically at a
predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself (when properly applied within its rating).

free flow propeller fan designed to circulate the air in a room without any air duct.
flooded evaporator comprising a low-pressure receiver, in which the unvaporized refrigerant returns to the evaporator
inlet by gravity or by means of a pump or an ejector.
a small pump, typically fractional horsepower.
a defined area in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled within specified limits; air that has been
treated to remove pollutants, particulates, and odors.

specially constructed, enclosed area environmentally controlled with respect to airborne particulates, temperature,
humidity, air pressure, air-pressure flow patterns, air motion, vibration, viable organisms, and lighting.

(also known as crystal ice), block ice obtained by agitating water during freezing and subsequently removing, by suction,
the core of unfrozen water where impurities are concentrated.
when outlets are placed within or near the test zone, a clear zone is defined as the space around the outlet within which
long-term occupancy is not recommended.
distance between the item requiring maintenance and the closest interfering surface.

(1) short section of rolled steel angle used to connect two intersecting steel members. (2) strip of sheet formed by roll
forming into a profile that is used to secure the sheet metal rolled jointing flanges added to rectangular ducts.

[[cooling load factor]]

a unit used to express the thermal insulation provided by garments and clothing ensembles, where 1 clo = 0.88 ft 2hF/Btu
(0.155 m2C/W).
unit of measurement of the insulation or thermal resistance of clothing.
nipple with a length twice the length of a standard pipe thread.
one in which the crankcase is completely sealed from the atmosphere but connected with the low-pressure side of the
a refrigeration system where the fluid is used without introduction of new fluid.

series of changes of state in a system at the termination of which the system is reverted to its original state.

heating or refrigerating piping system in which circulating water or brine is completely enclosed, under pressure above
atmospheric, and shut off from the atmosphere, except that the expansion/compression tank could be open to the
atmosphere. See also [[water system]].

(1) (also known as feedback control) control system in which the effect of the control action on the controlled variable is
sensed and used by the controller to provide a new output (feedback control). Compare to [[open-loop control]]. (2) signal
path that includes a forward path, a feedback path, and a summing point and that forms a closed circuit.

the resistance to sensible heat transfer provided by a clothing ensemble. Expressed in clo units. Note: the definition of
clothing insulation relates to heat transfer from the whole body and, thus, also includes the uncovered parts of the body,
such as head and hands.
temperature at which a clear liquid becomes hazy or cloudy due to the formation of crystals or particles when tested
under standardized conditions.

characteristic of an airstream that causes it to cling to the surface along which it flows. The velocity of the airstream as it
passes along the surface generates low pressures. This action causes surrounding air to be aspirated.

specially constructed single or multiconductor cable which provides shielding from electrostatic fields.
water-cooled condenser in which water and refrigerant flow in parallel paths but in opposite directions.

generally a plug valve, usually for regulating the flow of a fluid, and requiring a wrench for operating.

see [[building official]].

a coefficient is a factor in a mathematical product.

coefficient required to correct the perfect gas equation when applied to real gases.

ratio of the net area at vena contracta of air flowing through an orifice to the total free area of the opening.

a number that, when multiplied into the number expressing the rise of temperature, gives the resulting expansion of a

a number that, when multiplied into the number expressing the pressure between two bodies, gives the resulting friction.

(1) ratio of the rate of net heat output to the total energy input expressed in consistent units and under designated rating
conditions. (2) ratio of the refrigerating capacity to the work absorbed by the compressor per unit time.

the ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system,
including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.

a fraction that, when multiplied into the relative velocity of two colliding bodies just before impact, gives their relative
velocity just afterward.

standard deviation of a group of measurements divided by the mean.

an agency or organization that has the expertise and jurisdiction to establish and regulate concentration limits for airborne
contaminants; or an agency or organization that is recognized as authoritative and has the scope and expertise to establish
guidelines, limit values, or concentrations levels for airborne contaminants.

cooling or heating element made of pipe or tube that may or may not be finned and formed into helical or serpentine
insulated, horizontal partition between refrigerated space and bunker.
the dimension of the finned surface as measured from the entering air face to the leaving air face in the direction of
product of the height and length of the coil finned area.
dimension of the vertical face of the coil as installed, including only the height over tubes and fins exposed to the flow of
air. Note: some steam coils have vertical tubes.

dimension of the face of the coil in the direction of the bare tubes, finned tubes, or both, exposed to the flow of air.

finned-tube water coils with interconnecting piping placed in supply and exhaust airstreams and filled with a circulated
liquid heat transfer fluid.
dimension of the face of the coil perpendicular to the direction of the tubes. Does not include the casing. Note: height
may be substituted for width if the condenser has a vertical coil orientation.

the heat exchanger that removes heat from (cooling) or adds heat to (heating) the airstream being conditioned.

the heat exchanger that rejects heat to (cooling) or absorbs heat from (heating) a source external to the conditioned
space. In the cooling mode, the coil operates as a condenser. In the heating mode, the coil operates as an evaporator.

the metered demand of a device, circuit, or building that occurs at the same time as the peak demand of the building or
facility or at the same time as some other peak of interest, such as a utilitys system load. This should properly be
expressed so as to indicate the peak of interest (e.g., demand coincident with the building peak.)

solid substance remaining after the partial burning of coal in an oven distillation or in a retort.
in a gas separation unit, the insulated section that contains the low-temperature heat exchangers and distillation columns.

continuity of means successively employed to provide the refrigerated preservation of perishable food stuffs from the
production to the consumption stage.
storage at a temperature below which physiological disorder in produce will manifest itself. This temperature will vary with
the produce.

insulated structure served by a refrigerating system.

process for assembling two precision-machined parts by cooling the inner member so that it can be inserted into the
outer member; the members fit tightly together when both are at the same temperature.

technology or systems used in the process of preserving perishables by refrigeration in systems usually operating below
45F (7C). Compare to [[cool storage]]; [[ice storage]].
refrigerated warehouse.

any technology which involves and deals with processes, systems, and equipment related to refrigeration and cold science.

apparatus in which the walls are cooled in order to condense and trap vapors; can be used to reduce pressure.

system that uses a primary air supply with a temperature range of approximately 33F to 50F (1C to 15C). Note: typically
used with ice storage systems. Compare to [[cold-water distribution system]].
projection on the door that extends into the refrigerated compartment(s) and that functions primarily as a barrier to
minimize heat flow to the interior of the cabinet.

two-way, push-through-type door made of thick plastic sheeting.

single or multiple door that is movable laterally, usually in guides.

door pivoting on a vertical axis and that can be either pulled or pushed open.

door that does not protrude beyond the face of the wall.

insulated room usually maintained below 40F (5C) but not below 30F (1C).

injury to produce occurring during storage.

cold-storage establishment containing food-storage boxes or lockers for individual users.

cold room designed to receive and store produce sometimes already cooled down to approximately the desired storage
(also known as cold store complex or cold store combine), warehouses and food processing plants grouped with a central
refrigerating installation.

system that uses a primary chilled-water supply with a temperature range of approximately 34F to 40F (1C to 10C).
Note: typically used with ice storage systems. Compare to [[cold-air distribution system]].

piece of metal that is added to shaped sheet metal components (e.g., tapers, transitions) to provide parallel ends to
facilitate jointing with adjacent components.

for plate-type electronic air cleaners, the metal plates on which dust is deposited, including those in the ionizing section.

the material covering the aperture to provide thermal and environmental protection.

the time required for the fluid leaving a solar collector to attain 63.2% of its steady-state change following a step change in
a heater installed within the collector loop when testing the solar domestic-water heating system with a nonirradiated

the angle within which the radiation beams from the source depart from the line drawn from the source to the receiver.

the appearance of a lubricant when viewed by transmitted light.

effect of a light source on the color appearance of an object in comparison with the color appearance observed under a
reference light source, usually daylight.
temperature of a perfect radiator (blackbody) that would emit the same relative intensity at two wavelengths (usually red
and green lights) as the relative intensity radiated by the subject surface.
control device in which one or more control variables are being monitored (such as a combination high- and low-pressure
control for a refrigerant system).

a unit that is designed to provide space heating and potable water heating from a single, primary energy source.

an assembly consisting of a heat pump or air conditioner, a desuperheater, a water heater, and if required, a potable water
pump; the assembly provides space conditioning and domestic hot water.

device that uses waste heat boilers to capture exhaust energy for steam generation.

system combining power production with the use of a lower-quality heat byproduct of power generation for district

a complete ceiling panel that is designed and can be independently installed and operated for both sensible cooling and
sensible heating of an indoor space through heat transfer between the thermally effective panel surfaces and the
occupants and/or the indoor space by thermal radiation and natural convection.

the seasonal coefficient of performance of the combined appliance when used to meet both the space-cooling and
domestic water-heating loads that occur during the space-cooling season. The quantity is dimensionless.

constant of proportionality relating the rate of combined convective and radiative heat transfer at a surface to the
temperature difference across the air film on that surface.

section within which two or more functions are combined.

an operating mode where the heat pump is space heating and the desuperheater is heating domestic water.

see [[combined radiative and convective surface coefficient]].

when gases take part in chemical reactions, the volume of the reacting gases and those of the products (if gaseous) are in
the ratio of small whole numbers, provided that all measurements are made at the same temperature and pressure. Also
known as Gay-Lussac's law.
if weights of elements that combine with each other are called their combining weights, then elements always combine in
ratio of their combining weights.

instrument for determining concentration of combustible gas or vapor.

chemical process of oxidation that occurs at a rate fast enough to produce heat and usually light either as a glow or flame.

air required to provide for the complete combustion of fuel and usually consisting of primary air, secondary air, and excess
enclosure, with or without lines or baffles, into which fuel or gaseous derivatives of fuel are discharged so that combustion
can occur.

(1) adjustment of the fuel rate and air/fuel mixture ratio in response to heating load and flue gas air condition over the full
range of the burner capacity from some preset minimum to 100%. (2) device or series of devices that control the flow of
fuel and combustion air in the desired ratio to provide efficient combustion.

part of primary safety control which is responsive directly to flame properties.

sampling of combustion products to determine the percentage of constituents and their temperature.

effluents from the combustion of a fuel, including the inerts but excluding excess air.
space provided for the burning of fuel.
treating air to control its temperature, relative humidity, cleanliness, and distribution to meet the comfort requirements of
the occupants of the conditioned space.
chart showing operative temperatures with dry-bulb temperatures, relative humidities, and air motion by which the
effects of the various conditions on human comfort may be compared.

environmental condition in a space such that the majority of the occupants should, on a statistical basis, be comfortable.

refrigeration for comfort, as opposed to refrigeration for storage or manufacture.

index combining the properties of an environment for evaluating the sensation of comfort of occupants; equal to 15 plus
0.4 times the sum of the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit. See also [[thermal comfort]].

(1) operative temperature. See [[temperature]]. (2) range of effective temperatures under which most of a group of
people feel comfortable.
(1) refrigerated enclosure containing goods which are accessible to the exterior through a door. (2) types of refrigerators
used commercially, including reach-ins, walk-ins, and refrigerated display cases (all types being either service or self-
service, which are used by business establishments).
heating, cooling, or refrigerating system used in a commercial or business place.
see [[commissioning process]].
an entity, identified by the owner, who leads, plans, schedules, and coordinates the commissioning team to implement the
commissioning process.

a quality-focused process for enhancing the delivery of a project. The process focuses upon verifying and documenting
that the facility and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained to
meet the Owners Project Requirements. (See [[Owners Project Requirements]]).

a written document that details activities completed as part of the commissioning process and significant findings from
those activities. The commissioning process progress report is continuously updated during the course of a project. The
progress report is incorporated into the commissioning plan as an ongoing appendix.

the individuals who, through coordinated actions, are responsible for implementing the commissioning process.

see [[district energy system]].

pipe flange to connect with another flange or with a flanged valve or fitting. It is attached to the pipe by threads, welding,
or other methods and differs from a flange (which is an integral part of a pipe or fitting).

a water cooler that, in addition to the primary function of cooling and dispensing potable water, includes a refrigerated
compartment with or without provisions for making ice.
act of complying with the rules or requirements of a standard.
smallest functional element of an installation.

a self-contained cabinet without a fan whose primary functions are (1) the conversion of the sensible heat of unsaturated
air passing through the cabinet to latent heat by the process of evaporating recirculating or nonrecirculating water directly
exposed to this air and (2) the movement of this air through the cabinet that allows a portion of this water to evaporate.

single, functional element forming a part of a ventilation or an air-conditioning installation.

every material consists of one substance or is a mixture of two or more substances, each of which exhibits a specific set of
properties independent of the other substances.

compression that is accomplished by stages, as in two or more cylinders in series.

compressor in which compression is accomplished by stages, as in two or more cylinders.

pressure gage that indicates pressures above and below atmospheric pressure.

multistaged refrigerating system where a single charge of refrigerant circulates through all stages of compression.

ease with which a fluid may be reduced in volume by the application of pressure. Compressibility depends on the state of
the fluid as well as the type of the fluid itself.
relative variation of the departure from the perfect gas laws.
refrigerating cycle composed of four principal stages: vaporization of the refrigerant, compression of the vapor,
liquefaction of the vapor, and expansion of the liquid.
process by which the pressure of a gas is increased by reducing its volume.
device that reduces compressor energy use by introducing intermediate pressure gas into the compressor during the
compression stroke.

ratio of work required to compress, adiabatically and reversibly, all the vapor delivered by a compressor (per stage) to the
actual work delivered to the vapor by the piston or blades of the compressor.

multipiece joint with cup-shaped threaded nuts which, when tightened, compress tapered sleeves so that they form a
tight joint on the periphery of the tubing that they connect.
ratio of the absolute pressure after compression to the absolute pressure before compression.
each part at compression whereby the total compression of a gas is accomplished by several compressors in series to
reduce the compression ratio for each stage.

that movement of a piston in a compressor cylinder during which the gas is compressed and discharged.

pneumatic cushioning device, operating at system pressure, that absorbs fluid expansion as a result of temperature
change and prevents unnecessary periodic operation of the relief valve. Compare to [[expansion tank]].

ratio of the volume of compression chamber at intake of gas to volume at discharge in positive displacement compressors.

system in which the temperature and pressure of a gaseous refrigerant are increased mechanically. In most cases, the
refrigerant undergoes changes of state.

(1) device for mechanically increasing the pressure of a gas. (2) often described as being either open, hermetic, or
semihermetic to describe how the compressor and motor drive is situated in relation to the gas or vapor being
compressed. Types include centrifugal, axial flow, reciprocating, rotary screw, rotary vane, scroll, or diaphragm. 1. device
for mechanically increasing the pressure of a gas. 2. specific machine, with or without accessories, for compressing
refrigerant vapor.

apparatus for determining the refrigerant flow rate and, subsequently, the capacity of a refrigerant compressor by
measuring the heat input required to balance the refrigerating effect produced in the evaporator by the compressor.

(1) design maximum rate of heat removal by the refrigerant assigned to the compressor in a refrigerating system. This is
equal to the product of the mass rate of refrigerant flow produced by the compressor and the difference in specific
enthalpies of the refrigerant vapor at its thermodynamic state entering the compressor and the refrigerant liquid at
saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure of the vapor leaving the compressor. (2) device, such as a clearance
pocket, movable cylinder head, or suction bypass, by which compressor capacity can be adjusted without otherwise
changing the operating conditions.

space of controlled volume to give the effect of greater or less cylinder clearance, thereby changing compressor capacity.

that part of the compressor at the high-pressure side.

that part of the piston stroke between the opening of the discharge valve and the top dead center.

actual volume of gas or vapor at compressor inlet conditions moved by a compressor per revolution or per unit of time.

process whereby a side port in the compressor (usually a screw compressor or multiwheel centrifugal compressor) is used
to provide refrigerant subcooling, resulting in an improvement in overall system efficiency.

transport of oil from the evaporator to the compressor.

volume swept by a piston during one stroke or one revolution of the crankshaft.

rate of heat removal by the refrigerant assigned to the compressor in a refrigerating system. This is equal to the product of
the mass rate of refrigerant flow produced by the compressor and the difference in specific enthalpies of the refrigerant
vapor at its thermodynamic state entering the compressor and refrigerant liquid at saturation temperature corresponding
to the pressure of the vapor leaving the compressor.
(also known as unloaded start), practice of starting a compressor after equalizing pressures in high- and low-side

condition achieved in a centrifugal compressor when the momentum of the refrigerant gas through the compressor is
insufficient to overcome the thermal lift requirement. Direction of flow temporarily reverses through the compressor until
the lift requirement decreases. The condition repeats until the operating condition is corrected. Accelerated wear and
damage can eventually result.

total volume swept by the working strokes of all the pistons of a compressor per revolution of the crankshaft or per unit of

a refrigerating component, designed to compress a specific refrigerant vapor, consisting of compressor, prime mover, and
regularly furnished accessories.
(1) device for controlling compressor capacity by rendering one or more cylinders ineffective. (2) device on or in a
compressor for equalizing the high- and low-side pressures for a brief period during starting in order to decrease the
starting load on the motor.
ratio of volume of compression chamber at intake of refrigerant gases to the volume at discharge in positive displacement
(1) (theoretical), enthalpy difference along an isentrope. (2) mechanical energy required by, or load imparted to, the piston
of a compressor or shaft of a centrifugal compressor.

general term for the computer equipment that holds information in any (usually binary) language in electrical, optical, or
magnetic form. This equipment also receives information for storage and gives out the stored information for storage and
later use. The word memory usually means storage inside the computer, while storage refers to optical and electrical
media storage outside of the computer.

(1) (general) representation of an actual system by analogous characteristics of some device easier to construct, modify, or
understand. (2) (physical) the use of a model of a physical system in which computing elements are used to represent
some but not all of the subsystems. (3) computer-aided decision process in which proposals are tested in a computer
before one or more of the proposals are considered for use (e.g., DOE-2).

programs and instructions put into a computer.

device that stores information temporarily during data transfers. Clarified by buffer. See [[computer memory]].

equivalent to conventional drafting, only performed on a computer. Points, lines, and symbols are used to convey design
intent or detail construction means and methods. Most often plotted onto paper media and published in that form for
drawings and specifications and delivered to the owner, contractor, and reviewing authorities and agencies for approval
and actual construction.

system in which a computer directs the manufacture and assembly of a product.

energy management system in which a computer is the central controlling device. See [[energy management system
installation of an air--terminal device where the attachment to the duct, wall, or ceiling is hidden from view to room

a solar collector that uses reflectors, lenses, or other optical elements to concentrate the radiant energy passing through
an aperture onto an absorber with a surface area smaller than the aperture area.

the quantity of one constituent dispersed in a defined amount of another.

liquid formed by condensation of a vapor. In steam heating, water condensed from steam; in air conditioning, water
extracted from air, as by condensation on the cooling coil.
pump used to transfer condensate from one point in a system to another receiver; usually installed with a receiver tank
and a float valve; the pump being controlled by tank level.

a variation of solution heat exchangers; used on steam-fired, double-effect machines and on some single-effect, steam-
fired machines. Uses the condensed steam to add heat to the solution entering the generator.

change of state of a vapor into a liquid by extracting heat from the vapor.
temperature at which a vapor liquefies if the latent heat is removed at standard or stated pressure. See also [[dew point]];
[[saturation temperature]]; [[boiling point]].
a heat exchanger in which the primary heat transfer vapor changes its state to a liquid phase.

the fluid used as the condensing media in a liquid cooled, self-contained refrigerator.

the mass flow rate of liquid through the condensing unit under the conditions specified.

for water-cooled condensers, the amount of heat added to the water removed from the load; the integrated product of
the flow rate through the condenser and the temperature difference across the condenser.

a water-cooled condenser with the tubes or pipes grouped in the upper portion of the shell, leaving the lower section of
the shell for use as a receiver.

number of degrees that a pressurized liquid is cooled lower than its saturated temperature at that pressure.

heat exchanger tube manufactured to special requirements such as tolerances, finish, and temper.

one that circulates the products of combustion and extracts available heat to a point that causes condensation to occur.
Some of this latent heat of condensation is recovered as usable energy, resulting in higher operating efficiency.

pressure of a gas at which it condenses.

automatic valve responsive to inlet pressure to prevent compressor discharge pressure from falling below a specific value.
Normally used as a form of head pressure control (backup valve) but also used on refrigerating systems for maintaining
hot-gas defrost systems.

(1) the saturation temperature, in F (C), corresponding to the refrigerant pressure at the condenser heat exchanger inlet.
(2) the saturation temperature, in F (C), corresponding to the measured refrigerant pressure at the condenser inlet.

(1) an apparatus for processing low-pressure refrigerant vapor back into high-pressure liquid refrigerant to be used for
cooling a refrigerator. (2) machine designed to condense refrigerant vapor to a liquid by compressing the vapor in a
positive displacement compressor and rejecting heat to a cooling medium. A condensing unit usually consists of one or
more positive displacement compressors and motors, condensing coils, liquid receivers, and other devices mounted on a
common base.

apparatus for determining refrigerant flow rate and, subsequently, the capacity of a condensing unit by measuring the
heat input required to balance the refrigerating effect produced in the evaporator by the condensing unit.

rate of heat removal by the refrigerant assigned to the condensing unit in a refrigerating system. This is equal to the
product of the mass rate of refrigerant flow produced by the condensing unit and the difference in the specific enthalpies
of the refrigerant vapor entering the unit at a specified superheat and the refrigerant liquid leaving the unit at a specified

on a psychrometric chart, the infinite number of wet- and dry-bulb temperatures which will satisfy the requirements of an
air supply for a given room temperature.

(also treated air) air treated to control its temperature, relative humidity, purity, pressure, and movement.

the probability that a stated interval will include the true value. In analyzing experimental data, a level of 95% is usually

used for multisample data and uncertainty interval (used for single-sample data), the range of values that can be expected,
given a stated probability, to include the true value. For example, a statement that the 95% confidence limit is 5 to 8
means that there is a 95% probability (19 chances out of 20) that the interval between 5 and 8 will contain the true value.

system in which flow is divided among two or more channels from a common starting point or header.

system in which flow through two or more channels is in a single path entering each succeeding channel only after leaving
the first or previous channel.

substantial agreement reached by concerned interests according to the judgment of a duly appointed authority after a
concerted attempt at resolving objections. It implies much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity.

procedures adopted by a standards-developing organization to reach consensus.

in ASHRAE, a standard developed by the consensus process reflecting a consensus of professional opinions of the
members of a committee of balanced interests with the support of other experts who review and comment on drafts
during open public review.
when a system of masses is subject only to internal forces that masses of the system exert on one another, the total vector
momentum of the system is constant.

see [[packaged air conditioner]].

used in refrigerating devices constructed to permit the cut-in point to remain constant while providing a variable cut-out
(variable differential) range when the setting is changed.

valve that maintains a constant output pressure regardless of the input pressure.

device for maintaining within a reservoir a constant level of fluid (e.g., oil fuel for delivery to an oil burner).

a form used by the contractor to verify that appropriate components are onsite, ready for installation, correctly installed,
and functional.
all potable water piping, valves, fittings, and appurtenances on the premises side of the service connection. It is the
secondary component of a public water system.
cooling by direct contact with a cold surface.

(1) a contact freezer is a freezer in which the product is frozen by contact with a refrigerated surface. (2) freezing of
produce by direct contact with a refrigerated surface. Crust freezing (shell freezing) is very quick freezing of the outer part
of a product (mainly poultry), and final freezing is completed by conventional methods.

process of chilling in which finely crushed ice is placed in direct contact with the product in its unpacked or packed state.

insulation that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service
openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.

include a wide range of documents that will vary from project to project, with the Owners needs, and with regulations,
laws, and countries. Contract documents frequently include price agreements; construction management processes;
subcontractor agreements or requirements; requirements and procedures for submittals, changes, and other construction
requirements; timeline for completion; and the construction documents.

in construction terminology, the person or entity responsible for performing the work and identified as such in an
owner/contractor agreement.
see [[fan types]].
to regulate the operation of equipment.
(of a controller or a controlling system), nature of the change of the output produced by the input (e.g., direct-acting or
reverse-acting devices).

in a control measuring unit, the element that responds directly to, or senses, the variable to be measured. See [[sensor]].

a specialized device used to regulate the operation of equipment.

mechanism that directly acts to change the value of the controlled variable (such as actuators or relays).

control logic is the diagrammatical flow chart of operations of programming for software that controls the operations of
the program. The control logic responds to commands from an input and generates an output to perform operation-
related tasks. Control logic can be modeled using a state diagram, which is a form of hierarchical state machine. These
state diagrams can also be combined with flow charts to provide a set of computational semantics for describing complex
control logic.

see [[derivative control mode]], [[integral control mode]], [[proportional control mode]].
assembly of the indicating devices and remote control units required for the operation of a system.

actuator in an automatic control.

see [[sequence of operation]].

the measured temperature at the location of the controlling device for a specific purpose (e.g., a room thermostat).
substance that is to be maintained at a specific value of temperature, concentration, or flow rate.
in either a closed-loop or open-loop control system, the measured physical phenomenon (e.g., temperature, humidity,
pressure, lighting, CO2) that causes a controller to respond in an effort to reduce or minimize the deviation from a desired
difference between the control point (actual value of the controlled variable) and the setpoint. This quantity may have a
positive or a negative value.
ratio of change in controller output to the change in the value of the sensed value.

range of controller output as it goes from one extreme to the other.

element used to measure the status of a controlled variable.

constant of proportionality relating the convective rate of heat transfer at a surface to the temperature difference across
the air film on that surface.

surface designed to transfer its heat to a surrounding fluid largely or wholly by forced and/or natural convection.

terminal unit used in hot-water or steam systems to deliver heat to a space (but primarily by convection and not
burner intended for field installation that changes the fuel type of an existing furnace or boiler from oil or coal to a gas-
burning system.
matter (such as moisture, vapor, products of combustion, smoke, and particulate matter) rising from cooking equipment
during equipment operation,.

to remove heat in an environment generally at a temperature not below 33F (1C). Compare to [[refrigerant]].

reduction of space temperature down to occupied setpoint after a period of shutdown or setup.
technology or systems used to store cooling capacity. Normally applies to comfort or air-conditioning applications.
Compare to [[cold storage]] and [[ice storage]].
a single-phase fluid (usually a liquid) used for transferring heat from one place to another. Sometimes referred to as heat
transfer fluid, brine, and/or secondary refrigerant (see [[refrigerant]]).
thermally insulated enclosure kept at a reduced temperature by a refrigeration system.

rate of heat absorption by a refrigerating medium (air, water, brine, etc.) flowing through a cooler at stated conditions. It is
measured as the product of the mass flow rate of the refrigerating medium and the difference in specific enthalpies of the
refrigerating medium entering and leaving the cooler.

removal of sensible and/or latent heat. Compare to [[chilling]] and [[refrigeration]].

(1) ambient air used to remove heat from a device, space, or system. (2) cooled air used to lower the temperature of a
space or products stored in a space.

see [[heat pump]], [[cooling]], and [[heating]].

(also known as total cooling capacity), design maximum rate at which equipment removes heat from a fluid under
specified conditions of operation.
an arrangement of pipes or tubes, not enclosed in a pressure vessel, that can be used either with refrigerant or secondary
coolant to provide cooling or cooling with dehumidification.

see [[degree day]].

the outdoor dry-bulb temperature equal to the temperature that is exceeded by 1% of the number of hours during a
typical weather year.

the outdoor wet-bulb temperature equal to the temperature that exceeds a stated number of hours during a typical
weather year. The value is normally stated as a percent. This value is applicable to cooling systems where the main
purpose is dehumidification and the prevention of mold and mildew.

the primary air dry-bulb temperature reduction divided by the primary air entering dry-bulb temperature less the entering
secondary wet-bulb temperature.
a ratio calculated by using the formula: CER = (C+ FE)/E where: C = cooling capacity, Btu/h (W), FE = fan electrical input, W
3.413 Btu/W (W), E = total electrical input (W).
the site electric energy consumption of the mechanical cooling equipment including the compressor, air-distribution fan
(regardless of whether the compressor is on or off), condenser fan, and related auxiliaries.

the flow rate of liquid refrigerant required for all cooling purposes in a compressor or condensing unit.

(1) amount of cooling per unit time required by the conditioned space or product. (2) heat that a cooling system must
remove from a controlled system over time.

ratio of the cooling building load to the steady-state cooling capacity.

substance used, with or without a change of state, to lower the temperature of other bodies or substances. See
[[coolant]]. See [[refrigerant]].
apparatus for lowering the temperature of a space or product to a specified temperature.

a ratio calculated by dividing the net total cooling capacity in watts by the total power input in watts (excluding reheaters
and humidifiers) at any given set of rating conditions. The net total cooling capacity is the total gross capacity minus the
energy dissipated into the cooled space by the blower system.

heat transfer device, often tower like, in which atmospheric air cools warm water, generally by direct contact

unit that includes means for cooling and which may also include means for other air-handling-unit functions.

smallest tower subdivision that can function as an independent heat exchange unit. It is bounded by exterior walls or
partitions. Each cell may have one or more fans or stacks and one or more distribution systems.

see [[cooling-tower packing]].

fog condition created when the exhaust air or plume from a cooling tower, which is essentially a saturated air/water vapor
mixture warmer than ambient air, becomes supersaturated so that part of the water vapor condenses into visible liquid

(also known as tower fill), that part of a crossflow, counterflow, or natural draft tower consisting of splash bars, vertical
sheets of various configurations, or honeycomb assemblies, tile, or other materials which cause the water to break up into
droplets to effect heat and mass transfer between the circulating water and the air flowing through the tower.

visible exhaust from a cooling tower. Compare to [[cooling-tower fogging]].

total heat rejection capacity of a cooling tower; traditionally, 15,000 Btu/h. Note: this value is based on 25% compressor
heat added to a ton of refrigeration. Current energy-efficient equipment may have lower values than traditional values.

drawings showing the work of all trades to illustrate that equipment can be installed in the allocated space without
compromising equipment function or access for maintenance and replacement.

[[coefficient of performance]]
a multiplier (1) applied to the full-load system COP or COP2. CDF is a function of part-load ratio. (Also see [[part-load
total plane area of the portion of a grille, face, or register bounded by a line tangent to the outer edges of the outer
openings, through which air can pass.
product of minimum height (h) and minimum width (b) of the front opening of a sand trap louver assembly with the
louver blades removed. Also see [[core area of an air terminal device]].
area of an air terminal device located within a convex closed surface of minimum area, inside of which are all openings of
the air terminal device through which the air can pass.

(a) acceleration which, when added to the acceleration of an object relative to a rotating coordinate system and to its
centripetal acceleration, gives the acceleration of the object relative to a fixed coordinate system. (b) vector that is equal
in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of definition (a).

(a) deflection relative to the earths surface of any object moving above the earth, caused by the Coriolis force. Note: an
object moving horizontally is deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern. (b) the
effect of the Coriolis force in any rotating system. Also called Coriolis deflection.
velocity-dependent pseudoforce in a reference frame that is rotating with respect to an inertial reference frame; it is equal
and opposite to the product of the mass of the particle on which the force acts and its Coriolis acceleration.

effective temperature corrected by accounting for the effect of radiation. See also [[operative temperature]].

output from controlling device that inputs to the controlled element.

classification of expended or reserved resources used to predict and correct impending failure. Corrective action is strictly
remedial and always performed before failure occurs. The identical procedure performed in response to failure is classified
as a repair. Corrective action may be taken during a shutdown caused by failure, provided the action is optional and
unrelated. Corrective maintenance is carried out on all items where the consequences of failure or wearing out are not
significant (less important items), and the cost of this maintenance is not greater than preventive maintenance.

states of fluids when the ratios of their state variables (pressure, temperature) to the critical values of these variables have
equal values.
rusting or deterioration of a substance (usually a metal) because of a reaction to its environment.
(1) typically, a chemical agent that protects internal machine parts from the corrosive effects of the absorbent solution in
the presence of an air chemical agent that slows corrosion of metal parts of a system. (2) substance added to a brine or
other cooling medium.
capacity of an environment or environmental factor to bring about destruction of a specific metal by the process of

the attraction or repulsion between two electric charges acts along the line between them, is proportional to the product
of their magnitudes, and is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

heat exchanger in which fluids flow in opposite directions approximately parallel to each other; inlets for the two fluids are
at opposite ends of the exchanger.

directional pattern of the heat transfer fluids used in energy-exchange equipment where the warmest fluid A indirectly
contacts the warmest fluid B at the entering side of the equipment and the coldest fluid A indirectly contacts the
coldest fluid B at the leaving side of the equipment. Most energy exchange equipment is designed to use this method of
heat transfer as it creates the highest log mean temperature difference (LMTD). When an energy exchange equipment is
designed for counterflow heat transfer, and it is correctly connected in the field, the results would be loss in heat transfer

one in which air, drawn in through air inlets at the tower perimeter (induced draft) or forced in (forced draft) at the base
by the fan flows up through the fill material in a direction opposite to the falling hot water.

air terminal device intended to be installed above a natural ventilation exhaust duct with the aim (by creating negative
pressure and depending on wind speed) of avoiding reverse flow and increasing flow rate. It may or may not have moving

slow make/break action of a switch mechanism in a controller, as differentiated from snap action or toggle action.

the point in the load profile at which the combination of the required discharge rate and the current storage inventory
causes the discharge temperature from the thermal storage device to rise to its highest value.

(peak nucleate boiling heat flux), heat flux for which the surface coefficient of heat transfer between a heating wall and a
liquid under nucleate boiling is a maximum. Also called maximum nucleate boiling heat flux.

the location on a plot of thermodynamic properties at which the liquid and vapor states of a substance meet and become
indistinguishable. The temperature, density, and composition of the substance are the same for the liquid and vapor
phases at this point. The density, pressure, specific volume, and temperature at the critical point are referred to as the
critical density, critical pressure, critical volume, and critical temperature, respectively.
processes with environmental control needs that are more constrained than occupancy comfort parameters. Examples of
typical processes or areas that have unique needs and are thus critical are as follows: printing, papermaking, textiles,
computer rooms, broadcasting studios, food processing, medical and hospital areas, cleanrooms, controlled laboratories,
unusual safety and health needs, potentially explosive areas, cold storage, milling and machining, casting, glassmaking,
and other specialized manufacturing or process spaces.

compromise refrigerant quantity required by a system to maximize performance when a capillary or fixed restriction
expansion device is used.
operating speed at which the vibration of a unit reaches an unacceptable limit.
see [[critical point]].
(1) in fluid mechanics, the velocity above which flow in a pipe is no longer laminar. (b) velocity at which given phenomena

(1) connection between supply and return line in a hydronic system. May be used to balance system pressure, maintain a
minimum circulation flow rate or temperature, etc. (2) in a piping system, a connection in which a pipe carrying potable
water is connected to a closed vessel (or system) that is above atmospheric pressure and that contains nonpotable fluid.
This is typically the point where a backflow preventer is required.

fitting with four branches in the same plane with right angles between them.
(1) natural ventilation in which the airflow mainly results from wind pressure effects on the building facades and where
stack effects in the building are of less importance. (2) type of ventilating with air supply and exhaust points at opposite
sides of ventilated space.

(first line of defense) installation of a backflow preventer or a vacuum breaker at each cross connection on a premise to
protect both premise system and the main system.

heat exchanger in which fluids flow perpendicular to each other. Compare to [[counterflow heat exchanger]].

one in which air, drawn or forced in through the air intakes by a fan, flows horizontally across the fill section perpendicular
to the falling hot water.
migration between airstreams.
undesirable transfer of energy from active signal line(s) to one or more independent signal lines, creating signals that may
reach proportions to cause system errors.

cooling below 244F (153C, 120 K).

liquefied gas below 244F (153C, 120K).

science that deals with the production of very low temperatures and their effect on the properties of matter.

(freeze grinding) , grinding at a low temperature of a substance that otherwise could not be ground or would be spoiled by
the temperature rise resulting from the operation.
eutectic mixture of which one component is water. See also [[eutectic solution]].
device designed for producing an ultrahigh vacuum by condensation or adsorption of a gas at a very low temperature,
usually below 320F (196C, 77 K).
batch operating apparatus in which a cryogenic liquid or solid evaporates to maintain a cryotemperature, which need not
be constant but may vary in a predetermined fashion.

temperature within a few degrees of absolute zero (2.2 K).

surface cooled below 244F (153C, 120 K) in order to condense vapors. Can be used to reduce pressure.

device with several (often hemispherical) cups attached to the ends of symmetrical radial arms that rotate by air motion
(wind) at a speed proportional to the wind velocity.
temperature above which a given ferromagnetic substance becomes paramagnetic.

magnetic susceptibilities of most paramagnetic substances are inversely proportional to their absolute temperatures.

susceptibility of a paramagnetic substance above the Curie temperature varies inversely as the excess of the temperature
above that point.
a written document that details the current functional requirements of a facility and the expectations of how it will be
used and operated. This includes goals, measurable performance criteria, cost considerations, benchmarks, success
criteria, and supporting information.
initiation of an event for which control is applied.
predetermined value (pressure, temperature, etc.), at which operation commences.
cessation of an event for which control is applied.
[[coefficient of variation]]

[C-scale or dB(C)], sound levels at different frequencies modified by a weighting network as defined in ANSI S1.4. Adjusts
the levels of a frequency spectrum in a modest way, similar to the way the human ear does when exposed to high levels of
sound. These results are close to unweighted or linear sound spectrums.

(1) complete course of operation of working fluid back to a starting point, measured in thermodynamic terms (functions).
(2) complete series of values of a periodic quantity that occur during a period. (3) in alternating current, the time for a
change of state from a zero through a positive and a negative maximum and back to zero. (4) interval of space, time, or a
sound wave in which one set of repetitive events or phenomena is completed. (5) process or series of processes wherein
the initial and final states of the system are identical. Therefore, at the conclusion of a cycle, all the properties have the
same value as at the beginning. (6) set of operations that is repeated regularly in the same sequence. The operations may
be subject to variations on each repetition. (7) the period of equipment operation from cut-in to cut-in.

a system in which the refrigerated surfaces of the general refrigerated compartments are defrosted while maintaining
nominal refrigerated food temperatures. Defrost water is disposed of automatically or collected in a container for
subsequent manual removal.

ratio of the integrated energy output to the integrated energy input of a process or machine for a single cycle of operation.

(1) continuous oscillation occurring without periodic stimuli. A situation in a closed-loop system where the controller
output to an input change causes instability. (2) periodic change in the controlled variable from one value to another. Also
called hunting.
expected total duration of lifetime cycling expressed in time or number of events.
funnel-shaped device for removing particles from air or other fluids by centrifugal action or force.
in a reciprocating engine, pump, or compressor, the end of a cylinder opposite to that from which the piston rod or
connecting rod projects.
difference between high and low temperatures for a typical day. Used in HVAC load calculations.
each constituent of a mixture of gases behaves thermodynamically as if it alone occupied the space. The sum of the
individual pressures of the constituents equals the total pressure of the mixture.

a building that has a persistent and excessive accumulation of moisture which will, if allowed to persist, shorten the
intended useful life of the buildings contents, materials, structural fasteners, or systems.

element inserted into an air-distribution system or element of an air-distribution system permitting modification of the air
resistance of the system and consequently changing the airflow rate or shutting off the airflow.

device that provides the necessary force to position a damper.

(1) progressive diminution with time of certain quantities characterizing a phenomenon. (2) reducing the amplitude of
vibrations by dissipating the corresponding mechanical energy to some suitable absorbing sink.

measure of permeability. At one darcy, a material will pass a fluid of one centipoise viscosity through a section of one
square centimeter at a rate of one cubic centimeter per second, with a drop in pressure of one standard atmosphere.

(1) general term used to denote any or all facts, numbers, letters, and symbols that refer to or describe an object, idea,
condition, situation, or other factors. (2) information obtained by experimental means, assumed to be in numerical form;
recorded values of the variables; readings.
any electronic depository of data.
ordered and named collection of data, particularly for use in computerized information systems.
device that stores computer output and translates this output into signals that are distributed to a program-determined
group of lights, annunciators, and numerical indicators in operator consoles and remote stations.

(1) (also known as real time processing) processing of data in synchronism with a physical process so that the results of the
data processing are useful to the physical operation. (2) device used for collection of characters or analog signals. (3)
recording of data about events that occur in time sequence.

process of transforming masses of raw test- or experimentally obtained data (usually gathered by automatic recording
equipment) into useful, condensed, or simplified intelligence.
collection of data with each item uniquely identified either by some label or by its relative position.
[[dry-bulb temperature (DBT]]
(also known as dead zone) stagnant area in a space unaffected by air circulation.

the range of values within which a sensed variable can vary without initiating a change in the controlled process.

piping arrangement for collecting oil or liquid refrigerant from suction gas prior to entry to a compressor.

(1) to isolate and remove a mistake or malfunction. (2) to operate equipment prior to use to detect and replace parts that
are defective or expected to fail and to correct error in fabrication or assembly.

any physical attribute that decreases with time in a regular fashion. An example is the rate of decay of the concentration of
a tracer gas, as used to measure the air infiltration rate of a building. See also [[sound decay rate]].

designated individual responsible for risk management of a given facility.

angle of the sun above or below the equatorial plane. The value is plus if north of the plane and minus if south.

process of chemical change; breaking up of structures; spoilage.

a ventilation system that delivers 100% outdoor air to each individual space in a building.

ground temperature at or below a soil depth of two meters.

(also known as high vacuum), a vacuum of 1000 m Hg (130 Pa) or less of absolute pressure.
a given chemical compound always contains the same elements in the same fixed proportions by weight. Also known as
the definite proportions law.

analog device containing a pivoted vane that rotates within its casing from the force of air moving through the casing so
that the indicated tension in a coil spring, with damping, is related to the velocity of the air at that instant.

act of controlling the refrigerating cycle or heating cycle to periodically melt the unacceptable accumulation of ice on
evaporator tubes, windows, etc.
the process of removing unwanted ice or frost from a surface.
duration of the off cycle of a refrigerating system sufficient to permit defrosting of a cooling coil.
ratio between the energy transferred into the supply air and the maximum recoverable energy in exhaust air, excluding the
energy input for defrosting.
equipment and controls designed to remove frost (ice) from cooling coils of a refrigerating system.
imposed transformation from a green color to a yellow or orange color (especially with citrus fruits) due to destruction of

the set of independent displacements and/or rotations that specify completely the displaced or deformed position and
orientation of the body or system. This is a fundamental concept relating to systems of moving bodies in engineering. A
particle that moves in three-dimensional space has three translational displacement components as DOFs, while a rigid
body would have at most six DOFs, including three rotations. Translation is the ability to move without rotating, while
rotation is angular motion about some axis.

removal of water vapor from air.

an air cooler or an absorption or adsorption device used for lowering moisture content.
mass of water condensed during cooling or the equivalent refrigerating capacity expressed in terms of the latent heat of
the water condensed per unit of time.
removal of water from any substance.
a device for removing moisture from refrigerant or other substances.
intentional melting of an ice layer.
the ratio of the thermal energy transferred to or from the conditioned space to the thermal energy transferred at the
equipment distribution system heat exchanger. Energy delivered to or from the conditioned space includes distribution
system losses to the conditioned space.

part of an electric bill based on kilowatt demand and the demand interval, expressed in dollars per kilowatt. Note:
demand charges offset construction and maintenance of a utilitys need for large generating capacity.

automatic defrosting system in which the defrost cycle is initiated by a drop in performance of the refrigerating system.

ratio of the maximum electric demand to the connected load, usually monthly or annually. See also [[electric power load
period during which kilowatt demand is monitored by a utility service, usually 15 or 30 minutes.

removing interruptible or deferrable load(s) at the user level when electric power or current flow to that user, or to a
portion of the load, exceeds a specified level for more than a specified time, as determined by agreement. The automatic
function can be enabled or disabled remotely by the serving utility via centralized communication.

a device that monitors user electric power demand and causes that demand to be limited in a manner not to exceed a
selected or programmed maximum value.
actual load on a circuit at any time. Sum of all loads which are on. Equal to the connected load minus the loads that are
electric power demand interval.
the reduction in the demand from the pre-retrofit baseline to the post-retrofit demand once independent variables (such
as weather or occupancy) have been adjusted for. This term is usually applied to billing demand, to calculate cost savings,
or to peak.

thermal storage system controlled to limit the electric power demand.

the accuracy of an instrument testing against a primary or calibrated instrument.

cold-air system maintained under pressure greater than atmospheric in which air is compressed, heat of compression
dissipated, and the air, chilled by expansion and performance of work, can create useful refrigeration.

mass per unit of volume.

direct formation of the solid phase by cooling a vapor below the triple point.
control action in which the output is based on the rate of change of the input.
mode that contributes to the output of the controller an amount equal to the derivative of the error signal, multiplied by
the derivative gain.
(1) a solid that will collect and hold water from a liquid or gas. It must be insoluble in the refrigerating medium to be in
order to be used in refrigerant driers. (2) absorbent or adsorbent liquid or solid that removes water or water vapor from a
process for evaporating water or removing water from a material.
in freeze drying, ratio of the mass of the substance resulting from a freeze drying process to the mass of the original
product. Dryness ratio in freeze drying is the ratio of the mass of dry matter to the mass of frozen substance. See [[freeze
drying (lyophilization)]].
air temperature which an HVAC system or apparatus is designed to maintain (indoor design air temperature) or to operate
against (outdoor design air temperature).

required airflow when the system is operating under assumed maximum conditions of design, including diversity.

output capacity of a system or piece of equipment at design conditions.

specified environmental conditions, such as temperature and light intensity, required to be produced and maintained by a
system and under which the system must operate.
the annual energy cost calculated for a proposed design.
an initial version of the operating manual developed in the conceptual design stage. It contains a description of the
building functions for which the design is intended, lists the design parameters of systems to perform these functions, and
provides a brief description of the operating routines that are to be followed to comply with the functional requirements
of the building.

a detailed, written document evolving throughout the commissioning process, clearly defining items and criteria of the
design intent.
peak instantaneous load that a system is expected to meet.
the maximum allowable working pressure that a system, a part of a system, or an apparatus is designed to and/or can

individual responsible for the design and preparation of architectural or engineering contract documents. An architect or
engineer licensed to practice in accordance with applicable state licensing laws.

(1) the temperature at which a system or zone is meant to maintain. (2) the temperature, or range of temperatures, at
which a piece of equipment is selected to perform.
specific voltage for which a line or piece of equipment is designed. A reference level of voltage for identification and not
necessarily the precise level at which it operates.

in the United States, the maximum working pressure for which an apparatus has been designed. See [[design pressure]]. In
some countries, the design pressure is greater than the maximum working pressure. Compare to [[operating pressure]].

liberation of a gas held in a substance by sorption.

a refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger that transfers heat from high-pressure, high-temperature refrigerant to domestic
water. Heat transfer occurs when the heat pump (air conditioner) operates to satisfy the building space conditioning load.
Within the refrigeration circuit, the desuperheater is located between the compressor discharge and the reversing valve of
a heat pump or between the compressor discharge and the inlet to the refrigerant-to-air condenser of an air conditioner.

heat exchanger, preceding the condenser or incorporated in it, for removing all or part of the superheat.

sensible heat rejection from gaseous refrigerant in a condenser. Occurs prior to the gas-to-liquid phase change.

a complete set of measurements for a particular point of operation of a fan.

(1) difference between the setpoint and the value of the controlled variable at any point in time. (2) the difference
between a single result and the mean of many results.

piece of equipment or a mechanism designed to serve a special purpose or to perform a special function.

deposit of water droplets on cold surfaces. Formed by the condensation of water vapor.

temperature at which water vapor has reached the saturation point (100% relative humidity). Temperature of the air at
which it must be cooled at constant barometric pressure for water vapor to condense. When the dew-point temperature
falls below the freezing point, it is often identified as the frost point. Compare to [[frost point]].

silvered vacuum flask with double walls with the space between the walls highly evacuated.

difference between dry-bulb temperature and dew-point temperature. See [[wet-bulb temperature]].

device that measures the temperature at which water droplets appear on a cooled, polished surface.

increase in moisture content (specific humidity) of air expressed in terms of a rise in dew-point temperature.

temperature of moist air saturated at pressure p, with the same humidity ratio W as that of the given sample of moist air.
It is defined as the solution td(p, W) of the equation: Ws(p, td) = W
a device that indicates temperature by a pointer moving over a circular scale.

(1) bellows whose elastic deflection can be increased by the use of corrugations. (2) flexible membrane separating two
cavities. (3) in pneumatics or hydraulics, the membrane separating the fluid pressure system from the mechanical side.

type of oil-free compressor in which flexion of a diaphragm creates compression.

membrane valve that closes with the admission of fluid pressure to a diaphragm and opens when pressure is reduced.

packless valve in which the seal between the adjustment spindle and the valve body is a diaphragm.

pertaining to the nature of a substance or a space that allows the passage of heat (more particularly, radiant heat).

for an isotropic medium, the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with a given dielectric to that of the same
capacitor having only a vacuum as a dielectric.
maximum electric field that an insulator can withstand without breakdown.

process using dielectric heating with high voltage and high frequency or ultrahigh frequency electric fields.

in a two- or four-stroke reciprocating engine, air without fuel is compressed, usually to more than 500 psig (3500 kPa), to
raise its temperature above the ignition temperature of the fuel that is injected into the hot compressed air at or near the
start of the power stroke. In modified diesel engines, a glow plug is used to aid ignition when the engine is started.

reciprocating engine that changes thermal energy to mechanical energy using the heat of compression to ignite the
injected fuel.
(1) of a control, the difference between cut-in and cut-out temperatures or pressures. (2) range which the controlled
variable must pass in order to actuate various control functions.
(1) controller reactive to the difference between values of two variables. (2) device used to maintain a given difference in
pressure or temperature between two elements or two points.
the difference in pressure between any two points in the system.

see [[differential controller]].

(1) difference in temperature that exists between any two points or states when measured on the same temperature
scale. (2) in control terminology, the difference in temperature between the high event and the low event.

indicates that flux propagates in many directions as opposed to a single direction, as in a direct beam, which refers to
collimated flux . When referring to reflectance, it is the directional hemispherical reflectance less the specular reflectance.
Note: diffuse has been used in the past to refer to hemispherical collection of transmitted or reflected radiation (including
the specular component). This use is deprecated in favor of the more precise term hemispherical.

directional hemispherical reflectance less the specular reflectance.

solar radiation that has been scattered in passing through the earths atmosphere. It is equal to the global irradiance less
the direct-normal and ground-reflected components.
the solar radiation received from the sun after its direction has been changed by scattering by the atmosphere or other
objects, such as the ground.

(1) circular, square, rectangular, or linear air-distribution outlet, generally located in the ceiling, and composed of
deflecting members discharging supply air in various directions and planes and arranged to promote mixing of primary air
with secondary. (2) duct of increasing area following the outlet of a rotary blower so that the reduced velocity of the fluid
will convert some of the kinetic energy into pressure energy.

see [[throw (T)]].

diffuser with an integral air terminal.

(1) displacement of the molecules of a fluid within another fluid. (2) distribution of air within a space by an outlet
discharging supply air in various directions and planes.
refrigerating absorption system that, in addition to refrigerant and absorbent, also has an inert medium (such as hydrogen)
to balance pressure in the various parts of the refrigerating circuit.
effective area covered by a jet of air on leaving an outlet air device.
see [[mass diffusivity ratio]].

(1) device that transforms digital data into analog data. (2) in data processing, a device that converts an input number
sequence into a continuous variable. (3) in power system communications, a circuit or device whose input is information
in digital form and whose output is the same information in an analog form.
neutral fluid added to another fluid to reduce the concentration of the second fluid in a mixture.
flue designed to effect the dilution of flue gases with air before discharge from an appliance.
[[distributed isolation material]]

ratio of various physical properties (such as density or heat capacity) and conditions (such as flow rate or mass) of such
nature that the resulting number has no defining units of mass, rate, etc. Also called a nondimensional parameter.

liquid-holding process vessel in which components to be treated can be immersed.

device or control where the control action of the device or control increases (or decreases) as the variable increases (or
decreases). Compare to [[reverse acting]].
electric current in an electrical circuit that does not reverse polarity. Note: direct current is said to flow from positive to
negative, but electrons travel from negative to positive.
a type of control where controlled and monitored analog or binary data (e.g., temperature, contact closures) are converted
to digital format for manipulation and calculations by a digital computer or micro processor, then converted back to analog
or binary form to control physical devices.
driver and driven equipment with positive connections for rotation at the same speed.
see [[direct-expansion (DX) refrigeration systems]].

ice storage system using a method of heat exchange in which ice is formed by direct refrigeration and melted by
immersion in circulating water or secondary coolant. Also called static direct contact storage.

(beam) irradiance received from the sun without significant change of direction from the apparent position of the sun. See
also [[pyrheliometer]].
sound that reaches a given location in a direct line of sight from the source, without any reflections.
system that provides outdoor air directly to a unit for combustion and for draft relief and which provides for discharge of
all flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

(1) system in which the cooling effect is obtained directly from the expansion of the liquid refrigerant into a vapor. (2)
common term applied to an air-conditioning or refrigeration system that utilizes the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.
In a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant removes heat in the evaporator by directly expanding the
entering liquid refrigerant into vapor as it leaves the evaporator. The vapor is then compressed and piped to a condenser
where the heat removed by the evaporator and the heat of compression are rejected to another medium so that the
gaseous refrigerant is condensed to a liquid. The liquid is then piped to a pressure reducing device/metering device to be
supplied to the evaporator.

system where the combustion heat and the products of combustion are transferred directly to the heated medium.

device that injects steam directly into the airflow.

ratio of the radiance from a surface in a particular direction to the radiance in that direction from a blackbody at the same
temperature under the same conditions.

subfunction of power system distribution automation that controls interruptible user loads or otherwise selected user
appliances from one or more centralized, utility-operated locations in chosen groups, load classes, and/or timed patterns.
Characterized by remote control by the serving utility of user interruptible loads. Also called active load management.
Compare with [[load management]].

two-pipe system in which the heat transfer medium supplied to the first load is the first returned to the heat transfer
equipment. Compare to [[reverse return piping system]].

the amount of thermal energy that can be removed from the storage device during a period of time and for a specific set
of values for the initial temperature of the storage device, the temperature of the entering fluid, and the mass flow rate of
fluid through the storage system. Compare to [[storage capacity]].

in the flow of fluids through nozzles and orifices, the product of the velocity coefficient and the contraction coefficient.
See also [[air discharge coefficient]].

(also known as hot gas line), line through which refrigerant vapor flows from a compressor to a condenser.

(also known as discharge stop valve), shutoff valve fitted to a compressor (or in the discharge line adjacent to it) which can
be used to isolate the compressor from the discharge line.
discharge or intake velocity (Vk) of an outlet or inlet, in fpm (m/s), is the velocity of the airstream measured at specified
locations relative to the face of an outlet or inlet.

(1) the pressure generated on the leaving side of a fan or pump. (2) the pressure generated on the output side of a gas
compressor in a refrigeration or air-conditioning system. The discharge pressure is affected by several factors: size and
speed of the condenser fan, condition and cleanliness of the condenser coil, and the size of the discharge line. An
extremely high discharge pressure coupled with an extremely low suction pressure is an indicator of a refrigerant
restriction. It is also called high-side pressure or head pressure. (3) operating pressure in a system measured in the
discharge line at the compressor or fan outlet.

sound power that is transmitted from a device emanating sound and proceeding out of a device such as a terminal outlet.

(also known as delivery temperature), temperature of fluid as discharged, such as from a fan or compressor.

the duration of a single transient test in which energy is removed from the storage device.
(also known as delivery valve or outlet valve), in a compressor, the valve that allows compressed fluid to flow from the
cylinder and prevents return flow.

actual discharge airflow rate divided by the theoretical discharge airflow rate at a given pressure difference.

withdrawing cooling or heating potential from thermal storage.

a device, group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of

movement of air within a space in a piston- or plug-type motion. Minimal mixing of the room air occurs in ideal
displacement flow, which is desirable for removing pollutants generated within a space. The laminar flow air-distribution
system that sweeps air across a space may produce displacement flow.

a type of air-distribution system, used only for cooling purposes, in which air at a temperature below room temperature is
supplied to the floor level at a low discharge velocity [<100 fpm (0.5m/s)] and is returned near ceiling level. Thermal
plumes, which develop over heat sources in the room, drive the overall floor to ceiling air motion, producing a stratified
environment with cooler and fresher air near the floor and warmer and less fresh air near the ceiling.

filters that are designed to operate through a specified performance range and then be discarded and replaced. An
example is the cartridge filter.
those fees, charges, or assessments for energy use that are apportioned to individual units on any prorata basis, rather
than on the basis of measurements.
pads cut from sheets of material (usually cross ribbed, oil-resistant neoprene) placed between the deck and mounting
surfaces of a heavy machine to isolate vibration.

if a substance is dissolved in two immiscible liquids, the ratio of its concentration in each is constant.

(1) conveying means, such as ducts, pipes, and wires, to bring substances or energy from a source to the point of use. The
distribution system includes auxiliary equipment such as fans, pumps, and transformers. (2) parts of a cooling tower,
beginning with the inlet connection, that distribute the hot, circulating water within the tower to the points where it
contacts the air.
device for dividing flow of fluids into parallel paths.

concept of providing and distributing, from a central plant, cooling energy to a surrounding area (district) of tenants or
clients (residences, commercial businesses, or institutional sites). Compare to [[district heating]].

centralized facility for generation and distribution of the heating and cooling and/or power needs of a community, rather
than individual heat or cold generators (i.e., furnace or air conditioner) at each residential, commercial, or institutional

concept of providing and distributing, from a central plant, heating energy to a surrounding area (district) of tenants or
clients (residences, commercial businesses, or institutional sites). Compare to [[district cooling]].

measure of cooling demand per unit area. Customary units are kW/hectare or tons/acre.
measure of heating demand per unit area. Customary units are kW/hectare or therms/acre.

Venturi jet or orifice in a tee that induces flow through branch lines by reducing the pressure in the main line following the
element to divert the flow of air from one duct to another.

three-way valve piped to supply a single source of fluid to either of two outlets. Compare to [[mixing valve]].

[[degrees of freedom]]
(1) heating water for domestic or commercial purposes other than space heating and process requirements. (2) potable
hot water as distinguished from hot water used for heating.

coil of tubing within a boiler to heat water for potable use; usually a hot-water tank is used for hot-water storage.

the point in the response spectrum (normally plotted as velocity versus frequency) that has the highest value.

change in the observed frequency of an acoustic or electromagnetic wave due to the relative motion of the source and

breaker arrangement whereby dual circuit breakers are used to reduce likelihood of extended power outages of any circuit
due to circuit breaker trouble; permits breaker maintenance without a feeder outage.

a double island canopy hood is placed over back-to-back appliances or lines of appliances. It is open on all sides and
overhangs the front and the sides of the appliance(s). It may have a wall panel between the backs of the appliances.
Mounting height varies.
compressor which has two compression strokes per revolution of crankshaft per cylinder (i.e., both faces of the piston are
working faces).
condenser that contains two separate tube bundles, allowing the option of either rejecting the heat to the cooling tower
or to another building system requiring heat input.

a backflow prevention device designed to protect water supplies from contamination. It consists of two check valves
assembled in series, usually with a ball valve or gate valve installed at each end for isolation and testing. Often, test cocks
(very small ball valves) are in place to attach test equipment for evaluating whether the double-check assembly is still
functional. The double-check valve assembly is suitable for prevention of back pressure and back siphonage but is not
suitable for high-hazard applications. It is commonly used on lawn irrigation, fire sprinkler, and combi-boiler systems. May
also be referred to as double-check assembly (DCA).

contact freezer in which the product to be frozen is placed between two refrigerated surfaces and makes contact with

device designed to serve also as a detector check on fire-protection systems where pollutants are involved. Note: DDC
includes a line size, approved double-check valve backflow preventer with a metered bypass, into which has been
incorporated a three-quarter inch, approved, double-check valve backflow preventer.

condenser constructed of concentric tubes in which the refrigerant circulates through the annular space and the cooling
medium through the inner tube.

two pipes arranged concentrically, one within the other, and in which one fluid flows through the inner pipe and the other
through the annulus between them.
(1) contact arrangement of two separate contacts (i.e., two single-pole contact assemblies). (2) two isolated contacts
operated in unison.
arrangement of two vertical suction lines in order to ensure oil entrainment or carryover at minimum load. Often the
minimum load line is smaller than the full-load suction riser.

valve having two seats and two discs arranged so that the upstream pressure is acting on one side of one disc and the
opposite side on the other disc. This acts to cancel system forces and allows the use of a smaller actuator.

split suction valving arrangement on compressor for carrying two suction pressures.

see [[double-riser suction line]].

three-contact switch that can change the circuit connections from one to the other of its two operating positions.

two fluids separated by two walls with the space between open to the atmosphere so that a fracture on one wall will not
transfer one fluid into the other. Used in water systems with a potable fluid and a potentially hazardous fluid.

makeup air delivered directly to the interior plenum of an exhaust hood such that it is introduced vertically downward,
typically from the front edge of the hood. Sometimes this kind of makeup air is referred to as an air curtain.

piping arrangement for heating, air-conditioning, or refrigerating systems in which heating and cooling fluid is circulated
through supply mains which are above the levels of the heating or cooling units they serve.

one designed with airflow essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the bottom of the furnace.

[[draft rate]]

(1) current of air, when referring to pressure difference that causes a current of air or gases to flow through a flue,
chimney, heater, or space. (2) current of air, when referring to localized effect (generally, the unwanted local cooling of the
body caused by air movement) caused by one or more factors of high air velocity, low ambient temperature, or direction
of airflow whereby more heat is withdrawn from a persons skin than is normally dissipated.

a device that is not an integral part of the furnace or boiler and is connected to the furnace or boiler by a short length of
flue pipe. It is designed to (a) provide for the exhaust of the products of combustion in the event of no draft, back draft, or
stoppage beyond the draft hood; (b) prevent a back draft from entering the furnace; and (c) neutralize the effect of stack
action of the chimney or gas vent upon the operation of the furnace.

percentage of people predicted to be dissatisfied due to draft.

device installed in the breeching between a fuel-fired appliance and the chimney to control chimney draft. Draft regulators
can be barometric or power operated. Barometric draft regulators operate by gravity and are commonly provided with an
adjustable counter weight to set the minimum draft requirements. Power-operated draft regulators include controls that
are capable of maintaining a constant pressure in a furnace under all normal operating conditions. In addition, it includes a
low draft cutoff that shuts off the burner when the draft falls below the preselected minimum value. See [[regulator]].

provision for drafts to escape the venting system of a boiler or furnace.

opening provided in draft hood to permit the ready escape to the atmosphere of the fuel gases in the event of no draft or
stoppage beyond the draft hood and to permit inspiration of air into the draft hood to neutralize strong chimney or vent

an index that establishes a quantitative prediction of the percentage of occupants dissatisfied due to draft.

coefficient expressing the resistance encountered by a body when it is moving in a fluid.

refers to systems in which the fluid in the solar collectors is allowed to drain back to storage whenever solar energy is not
being collected (i.e., the fluid-circulating pump is not operating).
see [[drain plug (drain cock)]].

refers to systems in which the fluid in the solar collectors is drained from the system under prescribed circumstances.

vessel or tray placed under an evaporator coil or cooling coil to receive condensed moisture, melted frost, or ice. Also
called a drip tray or a defrost pan.

removable plug or key-operated draw-off valve intended to permit the removal of fluids or condensates.

valve fitted to the lowest point of an apparatus or refrigeration system for the purpose of tapping or draining the system.

see [[draft]].
difference between the static water level and the active-pumping water level.

graphic and pictorial document showing the design, location, and dimensions of the elements of a project.
(1) desiccant or refrigeration device placed in the main air line of a pneumatic control system to reduce moisture.
Compare to [[desiccant]]. See also [[dryer]]. (2) a device containing desiccant(s). It is used in the liquid line of a refrigerant
system for the primary purpose of collecting and holding water that may have entered the system.

additional length of pipe or coil added to a direct-expansion evaporator in order to provide superheat at the thermostatic
expansion valve sensing bulb without using evaporator tubing.

(1) change in mechanical or electrical characteristics with the passage of time, change in temperature, or both. (2) change
in output/input relationship over a period of time with the change unrelated to input, environment, or load. (3) in a
cooling tower, water lost as liquid droplets entrained in the exhaust air. It is independent of water lost by evaporation. (4)
movement of current carriers in a semiconductor under the influence of an applied voltage.

(also known as carryover eliminator), component that removes entrained moisture from the ducted air.

unit in which drinking water is cooled by refrigeration and usually dispensed by a manual valve.

(1) leak in a liquid system. (2) liquid which appears on thawing frozen food, water melting from evaporator, or water
droppings from a cooling surface. (3) pipe or a steam trap and a pipe considered as a unit that conducts condensation
from the steam side of a piping system to the water or return side of the system.

vessel or tray placed under the cooling coil to receive the melt from frost or ice. Also called drain pan.

(1) deviation from the no-load control point that results from a change in the heating or cooling load. (2) linear term
referring to the percentage decrease in output voltage for a square wave or rectangular wave as a function of time. Also
can apply to voltage error caused by leakage in a sample and hold circuit. (3) (of an air jet in mixing air diffusion), vertical
distance (hv) between the lowest horizontal plane tangent to a specified isovel and the center of the core of an air jet.

replacement refrigerant that has thermodynamic properties similar to one being replaced and does not require air
conditioning or refrigerating equipment to be replaced but may require modifications.

phenomenon encountered when the condensate does not wet the cold surface but settles in the form of separate
rotating refrigerated cylinder whose surface is in contact with the liquid to be cooled.
(1) air unmixed with or containing no water. (2) air without entrained water vapor.
compression of initially dry saturated or superheated vapor.

process of heat removal by a refrigerant in an evaporator fed by a flow control device, responsive to temperature,
pressure, or both at some point in the evaporator or to the difference between high- and low-side pressures and not to
the liquid level in the evaporator. All entering refrigerant is evaporated before being recirculated. See [[direct-expansion
(DX) refrigeration systems]].
DX refrigerant evaporator with organized distribution from which the refrigerant exits at a vapor quality of one, usually
with superheat. Compare to [[flooded evaporator]].
solid carbon dioxide, CO2. A proprietary term.
in a refrigerated vehicle, a compartment containing dry ice to keep the load cooled.
filter having a dry filtering medium (as opposed to a viscous filter).
type of oil-free compressor in which no lubricating oil is used in the cylinder; the piston is usually equipped with low-
friction labyrinth rings.
steam at the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure and containing no liquid water in suspension.
Compare to [[wet saturated steam]].

vapor at the saturation temperature corresponding to the existing pressure and without any liquid phase.

sensible heat load expressed in tons of refrigeration.

cooler that removes sensible heat from dehydrated air.

temperature of air indicated by an ordinary thermometer shielded from solar and long wave radiation

(1) temperature of air indicated by an ordinary thermometer shielded from solar and long wave radiation. (2) in general,
any thermometer that indicates the temperature of air (or other fluids); distinguished from a wet-bulb thermometer.
appliance that removes moisture. Compare to [[drier]].
steam heating in which a return pipe carries both condensate and air. The return pipe is always above the waterline in the
boiler in a gravity system.

forced-circulation air cooler wherein heat transfer is not implemented by a liquid spray while in operation.

mechanical, refrigerated equipment using metal or plastic as a direct heat transfer medium and for reserve cooling
continuous tube evaporator in which refrigerant from a pressure-reducing device is fed into one end and the suction line
connects to the outlet end.
a transformer in which the core and coils are in a gaseous or dry compound.

compression of refrigerant entering a single cylinder from two sources at different suction pressures.

(1) pneumatic thermostat designed to maintain one temperature during the day and a lower temperature during the
night. (2) changes thermostat output from direct acting (DA) to reverse acting (RA) for seasonal changeover. (3) two
temperature controls in one enclosure.

system of a central plant that produces conditioned air at two temperatures and humidity levels to supply air through two
independent duct systems to the points of usage where mixing may be carried out.

terminal that mixes, for individual zonal needs, varying portions of two independent sources of primary air.

compressor in which the cylinders have an additional suction inlet partway along the compression stroke which enables
refrigerant to be drawn in at two different suction pressures.
device responsive to temperatures of two zones or to two variable conditions.
burner designed to burn either gas or oil (but not both simultaneously).
heating system utilizing two fuel or energy sources, such as gas, oil, coal, or electric power, either as alternate sources or
with one as a booster to the other.

(1) combined pressure-regulating device, one part connected to the low pressure side of the system and one part to the
high-pressure side of the system, with a common switch mechanism. (2) two pressure controls in one enclosure. (3) use of
a single device to accomplish some form of pressure control at two distinct setpoints, such as a dual-pressure switch.

upstream pressure regulator equipped with two controls, used in refrigerant suction lines to provide freeze-up protection
or for safety pressure relief.
two pressure relief devices mounted on a three-way valve that allows one device to remain active while the other is
two compartment refrigerated cabinet with one used for chilling foods and the other for either freezing foods or storing
frozen products.

a tube or conduit used to convey or encase; an air duct is a tube or conduit used to convey air (air passages in self-
contained systems are not air ducts); a pipe duct is a tube or conduit used to encase pipe or tubing.

rigid board composed of insulation material with one or both sides faced with a finishing material. The outer facing is
normally a vapor barrier and can also be used as an air barrier.
transmission or radiation of noise from some part of a duct system to an occupied space in the building. Also called
flanking path noise or duct radiation.

means intended to facilitate the joining of two components of ductwork.

distribution of air into a room or a building by means of ductwork.

transition between sizes or shapes of duct.
inside dimensions of the duct or duct liner if used in duct.
insulation, usually fiberglass, applied to the inside of a steel ducts. It is used for both thermal retention and sound
attenuation reasons.

means taken either to ensure the airtight sealing of the air-distribution system or to minimize leakage therefrom.

calculation of dimensions of ducting for a given air-distribution system with consideration for fan power, noise, etc.

means used to suspend or support ductwork within a building structure.

series of ducts, elbows, and connectors to convey air or other gases from one location to another.
see [[duct fitting]].
section of duct, breeching, or stack used to connect those elements with structures of different cross-sectional

a listed, packaged system incorporating a hood, a fan, and air-treatment devices designed to remove most grease and
particulate matter from the airstream before reintroducing the treated air into the occupied space.

distance between or frequency of supports along the length of a duct route.

system of ducts for distribution and extraction of air. See [[system]].
the product of the specific heat per gram and the atomic weight of many solid elements at room temperature have almost
the same value, about 6.3 calories per degree Celsius (264 J/K).
the water drainage from an ice maker to control the clarity of ice or to prevent scaling.
method of separation and automatic return of liquid refrigerant from an accumulator in the low side to the high side of
the plant.
(1) circuit that has two separate sources of supply. (2) pair of circuits where either one usable when failure occurs in the
(1) simultaneous two-way independent transmissions in both directions. (2) (also known as double transmission)
transmission of each data word twice and comparison bit by bit for accuracy.

air suspension (aerosol) of solid particles, usually with particle size less than 100 micrometers. See [[air contaminant]].

device, usually applied at a dust-generating source, that traps dust particles suspended in the air or gases passing through
it. Compare to [[filter]].
system that traps dust particles in the gas or airstream passing through it.
the amount of dust fed during a definite part of the loading procedure.
the percent decrease in the relative light transmission of a dust-spot sampling target resulting from dust buildup on the
number that expresses the relative dust accumulation on a dust-spot sampling target, corrected for the nonlinearity of
opacity increase, at a constant dust-accumulation rate.
for disposable and manually renewable devices air filters, it is the average arrestance multiplied by the amount of ASHRAE
dust fed to the device measured to the nearest gram. See also [[MERV rating]].

for devices whose renewal mechanism is designed to restore the performance characteristics of the device to starting
conditions, dust -holding capacity per cycle is determined by feeding dust until a steady-state condition is achieved. The
dust-holding capacity per cycle is averaged over at least four cycles. The result is expressed in g/cycle to the nearest gram.

process of turning off electric consuming equipment for predetermined periods of time during operating hours to reduce
consumption and demand.
[[direct-expansion (DX) refrigeration systems]]

the resonance frequencies and mode shapes of a fan.

the reduction in the velocity head during flow, consisting of friction or energy losses per length of pipe and losses
associated with bends, fittings, valves, etc. The most common equation used to calculate major head losses is the Darcy
Weisbach equation. Older, more empirical approaches are the Hazen-Williams equation and the Prony equation.

ice formed on a cooling surface, then removed to be stored in an insulated container (tank). Compare to [[ice harvester]].

see [[velocity pressure]].

positive static suction head minus friction head and minus velocity head.

sum of suction lift and velocity head at the pump suction when the source is below the pump centerline.

force per unit area required to produce unit-relative velocity between two parallel areas of fluid unit distance apart. Also
called coefficient of viscosity.
device for measuring power output of a running engine or motor.
(also known as turbulator or turbulence promoter), device inserted in flooded evaporator tubes to prevent the evaporator
from becoming oil bound or the refrigerant liquid from becoming quiescent at a pressure lower than its boiling point.

(1) a process employing heat recovery equipment or heat exchangers. (2) device that, on proper variable sensing, initiates
control signals or actions to conserve energy. A control system that reduces the mechanical heating and cooling
see [[entering dry-bulb (EDB) temperature]]
(1) electric current induced in the body of a conductor when that conductor either moves through a nonuniform magnetic
field or is in a region where there is a change in magnetic flux. (2) localized areas of fluid turbulence known as eddies give
rise to persistent vortices.

nondestructive test in which the change of impedance of a test coil brought close to a conducting specimen indicates the
eddy currents induced by the coil, thereby indicating certain properties or defects of the specimen (e.g., thickness).

see [[turbulent flow]].

[[equivalent direct radiation]]. See [[thermal radiation]].
[[energy efficiency ratio]]
the constant outdoor air change rate that would result in the same average pollutant concentration over the same period
of time as actually occurs under varying conditions.

network input absorbed at the shaft of a compressor, irrespective of time.

(1) overall efficiency. (2) ratio of the work absorbed in conveying and compressing a unit mass of refrigerant in a perfect
compressor and the work absorbed, per unit mass of refrigerant, by the shaft of an actual compressor.

the combined effect of emittances from the boundary surfaces of an air space, where the boundaries are parallel and of a
dimension much larger than the distance between them.
time required from a given initial temperature to freeze a product and to lower its temperature at the thermal center to a
given value.

dimension by which a straight duct contributes to the length of an air-distribution installation.

dimension by which a duct fitting contributes to the length of an air-distribution installation.

average electrical power input to the equipment within a defined interval of time, in watts (i.e., the sum of: the power
input for operation of the compressor, excluding additional electrical heating devices; the power input of all control and
safety devices of the equipment; and the proportional power input of the conveying devices for the transport of the heat
transfer media through the heat pump only. Also, indoor-side and outdoor-side pumps, whether internal or external,
whether provided with the equipment or not).

see [[operative temperature]].

difference between the room air temperature and the supply air temperature at the outlet in the room.

actual energy transfer divided by the maximum possible transfer.

ratio of the actual heat transfer to the thermodynamically limited maximum heat transfer possible in a counterflow
exchanger of infinite transfer area.

(1) for filters: (1 penetration). Penetration and efficiency are usually expressed as percentages or decimal fractions. (2)
general: the ratio of the energy output to the energy input of a process or a machine.

ratio of the energy output to the energy input of a process or a machine.

in a fluid-carrying pipe, a device with a reduced diameter to increase the fluid velocity sufficiently to induce a lower static
pressure at that point to draw another fluid into the line.
material that can be stretched markedly and repeatedly and, immediately on release of the stress, returns to its
approximate original length.

pipe or duct fitting to make an angle between connected pipes or ducts. If angle is not specified, a 90 angle is implied.

thermometer designed to indicate temperature by closing in succession a series of electrical contacts.

movement or flow of charge in an electrical circuit, measured in amperes.

maximum load that a generating unit, generating station, or other electrical apparatus can carry under specified
conditions for a given period without exceeding approved limits of temperature and stress ratings.

random electrical signals, introduced by circuit components, natural disturbances, or other and unrelated circuits, which
tend to degrade the performance of a control system.

time rate of generating, transferring, or using electric energy. Expressed in watts (W) or kilowatts (kW).

(1) factor equal to the cosine of the phase angle between voltage and current, by which the product of voltage and current
is multiplied to convert volt amperes to power in watts. (2) ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (kVA) at any given
point and time in an electrical circuit. Generally expressed as a percentage.

(1) comparison of electricity use to electric demand for a given time period, calculated by dividing electricity usage in
kilowatt hours (kWh) by the product of electric demand in kilowatts (kW) times the hours in the period. (2) ratio of
average load in kilowatts supplied during a designated period to the peak or maximum load in kilowatts occurring in that

control method of stopping selected power uses to avoid overloading power supply or to avoid demand charges.

generation of any electrical energy on customers property, with or without use of recoverable heat.

temperature measuring and display instrument in which an electric resistance varies as a function of the temperature.

permanently installed electric heating as the principal source of space heating throughout an entire dwelling or business
common portion of one or more conductors used for transmitting signals or power from one or more sources to one or
more destinations.

reciprocal (opposite) of resistance. The current carrying capacity of any wire or electrical component.

see [[demand]].

case enclosing electrical equipment and wiring that is designed expressly to prevent (1) a person from accidentally
contacting uninsulated energized parts; (2) burning or molten materials from contacting adjacent combustible materials or
falling onto combustible materials; (3) conductive or combustible materials from dropping on uninsulated energized parts;
and (4) mechanical abuse of electrical equipment not designed or approved to withstand the intended normal use without
such additional enclosure.

energy derived from either moving or stationary electric charge, measured in joules. Measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) in
the electric utility industry.
short circuit, either line-to-line or line-to-ground.
sensor with an element that changes output based on humidity.
process of producing electron flow by the relative motion of a magnetic field across a conductor.
material having high electrical resistivity and, therefore, suitable for separating adjacent conductors in an electric circuit or
preventing possible future contact between conductors.
opposition that limits the amount of current that can be produced by an applied voltage in an electrical circuit, measured
in ohms.
(1) electrical component that adds resistance to an electrical network. (2) material used to produce heat or reduce voltage
by passing a current through the material.
electrical resistance of a substance contained between flat, parallel electrodes, multiplied by the area of the electrodes
and divided by the thickness of the substance.
large, steady electric load of an electric system produced by the largest, most efficient generating facilities within the
system. Note: these facilities are operated to the greatest extent possible to maximize system mechanical and thermal
efficiency and to minimize system operating costs.

any of several processes that either use waste heat from generation of electricity to satisfy thermal needs or process
waste heat in the steam generation of electricity.

solution through which an electric current can flow.

any brine capable of causing chemical decomposition of one of two dissimilar metals by electrolysis or galvanic corrosion.

electromagnetic waves and, especially, the associated electromagnetic energy.

electric potential difference, measured in volts, between the terminals of any device used as a source of electrical energy
(i.e., to supply an electric current).
a ballast constructed using electronic circuitry.
semiconductor device designed to operate without mechanical contacts (e.g., SCR).

one that converts an electric signal to a pneumatic signal.

filter in which the airstream is passed through a high-voltage ionizing field to impart an electrical positive charge to
particles, then collecting them on electrically negative plates. See also [[precipitator]].

device for removing dust from the air by inducing an electric charge on the dust particles.

two-dimensional graphic representation of the design, location, and dimensions of a project, or parts thereof, seen in a
vertical plane viewed from a given direction.

see [[plate evaporator]].

energy management and control system. See [[energy management system (EMS)]].

manually operated safety valve for discharge of refrigerant in case of fire or other emergency.

[[electromotive force]]
(electromagnetic interference), generated at radio frequencies inside systems
see [[emittance]].
radiation property of a material, evaluated with its surface optically smooth and clean and of sufficient thickness to be
ratio of the radiant flux emitted by a physical surface to that emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature and under
the same conditions.
see [[energy management system]].
relatively stable suspension of small but not colloidal particles of a substance in a liquid with the suspended particles
(1) apparatus for cooling fluid out of contact with the atmosphere. (2) within a pressure-tight vessel, a heat exchanger
consisting of an assembly of tubes containing the liquid to be cooled.
a volume substantially surrounded by solid surfaces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and
operable windows.
one in which heat must be supplied to further the reaction. Compare to [[exothermic reaction]].
(1) capability for doing work. (2) capacity for producing an effect. Having several forms, which may be either stored or
transient, and can be transformed from one into another. Forms include thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical,
radiant, and chemical. (3) time rate of work being done.
identification and documentation of gross energy usage during a calendar period using any of several means such as
source, department, product, equipment, and cost.

maximum fraction of energy in a system that, in the presence of a medium at a given temperature T0, can be converted
into useful work during a process at the end of which the system temperature is T0.

multiple use of an energy stream for successive needs.

(also known as total energy system), a single fuel source provides all energy services such as electricity, heating, and
more effective use of energy resources. Energy conservation seeks to reduce energy invested per unit of product output,
service performed, or benefit received through waste reduction. Energy conservation and energy use reduction are not

installation of equipment, subsystems, or systems or modification of equipment, subsystems, systems, or operations for
the purpose of reducing energy and/or demand (and, hence, energy and/or demand costs).
the total cost for energy, including such charges as base charges, demand charges, customer charges, power factor
charges, and miscellaneous charges.

systems providing a means to apportion approximate energy consumption to individual dwelling units in a multiple-
occupancy residential building, based on one or more parameters controlled by the resident.

the annual energy cost for the budget building design.

(1) ratio of net cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions. (2)
ratio of the net total cooling capacity to the effective power input at any given set of rating conditions, in watts per watt.

measure of overall efficiency in terms of energy output compared to energy consumption over a 24-hour usage cycle.

state of a physical system with a certain defined energy.

apply to the efficient and effective use of energy in buildings.

a system of computer applications used by building engineering staff to monitor, control, and optimize the building's
operating performance (e.g., energy consumption, occupant comfort levels). EMS optimizes building operating
performance through supervisory control programs that utilize core BMS functionality.

heat exchanger assembly for transferring heat between two isolated fluid sources. The recovery system may be of air-to-
air design or a closed loop hydronic system design. The system will include all necessary equipment such as fans and
pumps, associated ducts or piping and all controls (operating and safety), and other custom-designed features.

the reduction in use of energy from the pre-retrofit baseline to the post-retrofit energy use, once independent variables
(such as weather or occupancy) have been adjusted for.
an organization that designs, procures, installs, and possibly maintains one or more energy conservation measures (ECMs)
at an owners facility or facilities.
conventionally, fossil fuels, hydro, nuclear, solar, geothermal, and wind.
(1) system that has to be operated during on-peak as well as off-peak periods. (2) system wherein the load demand is met
by a combination of stored thermal energy and an energy conversion device.
energy use value to which a building is designed.
the allotment of energy costs to residents at an aggregate cost sum, which does not exceed the actual costs paid to
purchase and rebill that energy.
prime mover; device for transforming fuel or heat energy into mechanical energy.

air extracted from the compressor stages of gas-turbine propulsion engines and auxiliary power units.

the discipline, art, and profession of acquiring and applying technical, scientific, and mathematical knowledge to design
and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that safely realize a desired objective or

water vapor pressure enhancement factor, f, is the ratio of the actual partial pressure, pwvs, of saturated water vapor in
moist air to the vapor pressure of pure H2O, e, at the same temperature. [f = pwvs(p, t)/e(t)]. This factor accounts for the
nonideal behavior of saturated water vapor in air due to (a) the effect of intermolecular forces (gas imperfections), (b) the
effect of pressure on the properties of the condensed phase, and (c) the effect of dissolved gases.

the temperature that a thermometer would measure for air entering the evaporator coil. (E.g., for a draw-through fan
configuration with no heat gains or losses in the ductwork, EDB equals the indoor dry-bulb temperature).

the temperature that the wet-bulb portion of a psychrometer would measure if exposed to air entering the evaporator
coil. For a draw-through fan with no heat gains or losses in the ductwork and no outdoor air mixed with return air, this
would also be the zone air wet-bulb temperature. For a similar configuration, but when outdoor air is mixed with return
air, EWB equals the mixed-air wet-bulb temperature. For mixtures of water vapor and dry air at atmospheric temperatures
and pressures, the wet-bulb temperature is approximately equal to the adiabatic saturation temperature (temperature of
the air after undergoing a theoretical adiabatic saturation process). The wet-bulb temperature given in psychrometric
charts is really the adiabatic saturation temperature.
(also known as heat content), thermodynamic quantity equal to the sum of the internal energy of a system plus the
product of the pressure volume work done on the system. H = E + pv, where H = enthalpy or total heat content, E =
internal energy of the system, p = pressure, and v = volume. (Compare to [[specific enthalpy]].)

(also known as conventional mixing). Systems with ceiling-based supply air diffusers and return air grilles are common
examples of air-distribution systems that produce entrainment flow.
ratio of the heat absorbed by a substance to the absolute temperature at which it was added.
loss in pressure caused by a fluid stream flowing into a pipe, duct, hood, or vessel.
the boundary surface of points of equal terminal velocity that describe the air-diffusion profile. Envelope is also referred to
as isovel.
major section of the entire envelope, such as the opaque walls above grade, ceilings, slabs, floors, glazings, doors, or walls
below grade.

that lower portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that has conditioned or semiheated
space above and is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60F (15C) from horizontal but excluding slab-on-grade
floors. For the purposes of determining building envelope requirements, the classifications are defined as follows: (a) mass
floor: a floor with a heat capacity that exceeds (1) 7 Btu/ftF (39.7 watt h/m C) or (2) 5 Btu/ftF (28.4 watt h/mC)
provided that the floor has a material unit mass not greater than 120 lb/ft (1924.6 kg/ m); (b) steel joist floor: a floor
that (1) is not a mass floor and (2) that has steel joist members supported by structural members; (c) wood framed and
other floors: all other floor types, including wood joist floors.

all of the elements over which a designer has no control and that affect a system and its input or output.

(also known as climatic chamber), enclosed space designed to create a particular environment.

natural or controlled conditions of air and radiation prevailing around a person, an object, a substance, etc.

systems that primarily use a combination of mechanical equipment, airflow, water flow, and electrical energy to provide
heating, ventilating, air conditioning, filtration, humidification, and dehumidification for the purpose of human comfort or
process control of temperature and humidity.
complex organic substance (such as diastase, pepsin, etc.), capable of transforming other compounds by catalytic action; a
soluble ferment.

method in which ducts are sized so that their frictional resistance per unit length is constant.

(1) general: piping arrangement to maintain a common liquid level or pressure between two or more chambers. (2)
refrigeration: piping arrangement on an enclosed compressor to equalize refrigerant gas pressures in crankcase and
suction; also a device for dividing the liquid refrigerant between parallel low side coils; also a piping arrangement to divide
the lubricating oil between the crankcases of compressor operating in parallel or in tandem. (3) steam: piping
arrangement to equalize steam header pressure and condensate return pressure in a steam boiler.

receiver fitted between the compressor suction line and the return lines of several evaporators in parallel.

device to maintain constant downstream static pressure or volume flow.

thermodynamic expression relating the volume, pressure, and temperature of a given substance.

difference between true solar time and local mean time as the result of earths orbit about the sun. The difference varies
throughout the year, reaching a maximum of 16 minutes during the first week of November. See [[true solar time]].

the steady-state condition during which the fluctuations of variables being measured remain within stated limits.

the water content of a liquid refrigerant after being in contact with a specific drier at a particular temperature long enough
to reach an equilibrium state. EPD is expressed in milligrams of water per kilogram of refrigerant (ppm).

devices that serve all or part of the building and may include electric power, lighting, transportation, or service water
heating, including, but not limited to, furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, water heaters, lamps,
luminaires, ballasts, elevators, escalators, or other devices or installations.
the manufacturer's rated capacity at the defined rating point for HVAC equipment. Equipment capacity should be adjusted
for altitude and other effects.
diameter of a circle having the same area as another geometric shape.
thermal radiation expressed in terms of square foot of steam radiator surface emitting 240 Btu/hr. The metric equivalent is
757 watts/m. Note: this term is generally not used in SI.

amount of water a boiler would evaporate, in pounds per hour (kilograms per second), if it received and vaporized
feedwater at 212F (100C) and standard atmospheric pressure. (Used for comparison of different boilers.)

the length of a straight section of pipe or duct causing the same pressure drop as actually occurs within the system at the
same flow rate.

field erasable via exposure to ultraviolet light and reprogrammable (requires no batteries).

(1) incorrect step, process, or result. (2) part of an erratum due to a particular identifiable cause (e.g., a truncation error as
contrasted with a mistake). In a restricted sense, an error is that deviation due to unavoidable random disturbances or to
the use of finite approximations to what is defined by an infinite series. (3) an error that persists and is usually due to the
particular instrument or technique of measurement.

clear, colorless liquid used to depress the freezing point of water for use as a secondary coolant in HVAC&R systems.
Inhibitors are required to control corrosion caused by ethylene glycol solutions.
instrument for volumetric measurement and analysis of gases.
instrument for assessing comfort environment in terms of operative temperature.
mixture of substances whose solid and liquid phases in equilibrium have identical composition. Such a mixture has a
minimum freezing point.
frozen eutectic mixture used as cold accumulation.
thin, rectangular container containing eutectic mixture, generally with a coil to be connected to a refrigerating system in
order to freeze the mixture.
freezing temperature of a liquid mixture that produces a solid phase of the same composition.

mixture that melts or freezes, normally at a specific temperature, with constant composition. The mixture's melting point
is usually the lowest possible for mixtures of given substances. See also [[cryohydrate]].

(also known as vacuum insulation), insulation consisting of double walls, with the space between them (with or without
packing) evacuated.

temperature at which a fluid vaporizes at a given pressure.

change of state from liquid to vapor.

water evaporated into the atmosphere as the condenser water is cooled, typically in a cooling tower.
mass of substance evaporated per unit time.

condenser in which the removal of heat from the refrigerant is achieved by the evaporation of water from the exterior of
the condensing surface, induced by the forced circulation of air and sensible cooling by the air.

a cooler that cools indoor air by moisture evaporation, thereby lowering its dry-bulb temperature and raising its wet-bulb
temperature, all at a constant energy (adiabatic) level. See also [[evaporative cooling]].

two methods using evaporating water to cool air: (1) direct, which is adiabatic and humidifies the air, and (2) indirect,
which is not adiabatic and cools the air being treated without adding moisture.

the condition attained on a wet-bulb instrument when the wetted wick has reached a stable and constant temperature.

heat exchanger, usually of the shell-and-tube type, over which liquid refrigerant is dripped or sprayed and evaporated.

ability of an evaporator to stay cold after evaporation stops.

automatic valve or control device used to maintain the pressure, and thereby the temperature, in an evaporator above a
predetermined minimum.
assembly of refrigerating compressor, evaporator, and necessary accessories attached to one base.
see [[entering wet-bulb (EWB) temperature]]
in combustion, percent of air greater than that required theoretically to completely oxidize the fuel.
(1) armature current that induces the magnetic field in a rotating electric machine. (2) external force applied to a system
that causes the system to vibrate. See also [[torsional excitation]].

property of a system that is the maximum useful work possible during a process that brings the system into equilibrium
with a heat reservoir. Exergy is a combination property of a system and its environment because unlike energy, it depends
on the state of both the system and environment. The exergy of a system in equilibrium with the environment is zero.
Exergy is neither a thermodynamic property of matter nor a thermodynamic potential of a system.

(1) leakage of indoor air out of a building through similar types of openings. Like natural ventilation, it is driven by natural
and/or artificial pressure differences. (2) uncontrolled outward air leakage from conditioned spaces through unintentional
openings in ceilings, floors, and walls to unconditioned spaces or the outdoors caused by pressure differences across these
openings due to wind, inside-outside temperature differences (stack effect), and imbalances between supply and exhaust
airflow rates.

air discharged from a space to the outdoors as differentiated from air transferred from one space to an adjacent space.

opening through which air is removed from a conditioned space.

a system consisting of one or more fans that remove air from the building, causing outdoor air to enter by ventilation
inlets or normal leakage paths through the building envelope.
see [[exhaust air]] or [[relief air]].

total radiant flux that leaves unit area of a surface. The sum of the radiant flux emitted and reflected by the surface plus
any radiant flux transmitted through that surface. Compare to [[radiosity]].

chemical reaction that releases more energy (heat) than is required to start it. The combustion reaction (burning) is an
example, as are fission and fusion reactions. Compare to [[endothermic reaction]].

(also known as work extraction cycle or work cycle), thermodynamic cycle in which the working fluid transfers mechanical
energy to some outside system (e.g., in a mechanical expander).
increase in volume of a substance.
bend, usually a loop, put into a pipe run to relieve stresses induced by expansion and contraction from temperature

change in length per unit length or the change in volume per unit volume per degree change in temperature.

device in a structure, a pipe run, etc. that can by linear compensation accept variation of length from expansion or
contraction due to temperature changes.
part of the piston stroke between the top dead center and the opening of the suction valve.
partially filled tank for the accommodation of volume expansion of a fluid, typically water. Compare to [[compression
controlling device for automatically regulating the flow of refrigerant into a cooling unit, actuated by changes in
evaporator pressure. The basic response is to regulate evaporator pressure.
refrigerating effect in watts, Btu/h, or tons (12,000 Btu/h) produced by the evaporation of refrigerant passed by the valve
under specified conditions.
difference between the temperature of the external bulb and the corresponding system refrigerant saturation
temperature at the bulb location.

change in superheat of a thermostatic expansion valve required to open the valve a predetermined amount.

(1) liquefied gas (generally liquid nitrogen) whose vapor is lost after change of phase. (2) solid carbon dioxide (dry ice).

a systematic approach for collecting information on a physical apparatus or system to determine the nature of its
computer programs that attempt to provide an answer to control problems where normally one or more human experts
would need to be consulted by using previous and current data to assemble a knowledge base and use internal
procedures. Expert systems are a form of artificial intelligence.
(also known as augmented surface), increase in area of a heat transfer surface by addition of fins, discs, micro channels or
other means.

see [[building envelope]].

the maximum lighting power in watts allowed for the exterior of a building.

generation of thermograms of outside surfaces of a building. Compare to [[interior imaging survey]].

defrosting using heat from external sources.

in a thermostatic expansion valve, a connection from a selected point in the low-pressure part of the circuit to the system
pressure-sensing side of the actuating element such that the selected point pressure is transmitted to the actuating
element (e.g., diaphragm or bellows).

heat generated from sources outside the conditioned area. This heat from gas, oil, steam, electricity, or solar sources
supplements internal heat and internal process heat sources. Recovered internal heat can reduce the demand for external
device or switch designed to disconnect load from a power source or distribution center under an overload or short-circuit

interrupt generated by an alarm point going into alarm. See also [[interrupt device]].

see [[static pressure loss]].

see [[static pressure loss]].

airflow leaving a treated space. Compare with [[return air]].

an eyebrow hood is mounted directly to the face or top of an appliance above the opening(s) or door(s) from which
effluent is emitted, overhanging the front of the opening(s) to capture the effluent. Mounting height is fixed.

filter having a textile-based filter medium.

area of the facade, including overhanging soffits, cornices, and protruding columns, measured in elevation in a vertical
plane parallel to the plane of the face of the building. Nonhorizontal roof surfaces shall be included in the calculation of
vertical faade area by measuring the area in a plane parallel to the surface.

total plane area of the portion of a grille, coil, or other item bounded by a line tangent to the outer edges of the openings
through which air can pass.
the rate of air movement at the face of the device (airflow rate divided by face area), expressed in m/s (fpm) to three
significant figures.

see [[EMS]], [[EMCS]], [[BAS]], and [[BMS]].

ratio of a normal working condition to the ultimate condition, such as, in strength of materials, the ratio of working stress
to ultimate strength.
temperature scale used with the I-P system in which, at standard atmospheric pressure, the boiling point of water is 212F
and its freezing point is 32F; absolute zero is minus 459.69F.

(1) position or mode of operation a controlled device takes on removal of the control signal and/or power. (2) to return to
a position that, on loss of control system power, allows the controlled system to go to a safe mode.

actions performed by the maintenance department resources that are expended or reserved for dealing with interruptions
in the operation or function of a system or equipment under the maintenance program. These responses have two types
of classification: repair and service.
(1) a machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas, such as air. (2) any device with two or more blades or
vanes attached to a rotating shaft used to produce an airflow for the purpose of comfort, ventilation, exhaust, heating,
cooling, or any other gaseous transport. The opening(s) may or may not have an element or elements for connection to
ductwork. (3) fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades that act on the air (impeller). Usually it is contained
within some form of housing or case. This housing or case may direct the airflow or increase safety by preventing objects
from contacting the fan blades. Most fans are powered by electric motors, but other sources of power may be used,
including hydraulic motors and internal combustion engines. Fans produce airflows with high volume and low pressure, as
opposed to compressors, which produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. A fan blade will often rotate when
exposed to an air stream, and devices that take advantage of this, such as anemometers and wind turbines, often have
designs similar to that of a fan. (4) see also [[impeller]].

density of air corresponding to the total pressure and total temperature at the fan inlet when the fan is operating.

the volumetric airflow rate at fan air density.

fan scroll outlet area less the area of the cutoff.

interface between the fan and the remainder of the system at a plane perpendicular to the airstream where it enters or
leaves the fan. Appurtenances such as inlet boxes, inlet vanes, inlet cones, silencers, screens, rain hoods, dampers, and
discharge cones may be included as part of the fan between the inlet and outlet boundaries.

factory-made assembly that provides the functions of air circulation, cooling, heating, or cooling and heating.

see [[fan performance curve]].

area where the fan discharge scroll stops. Used in fan system effect calculations.

area of the fan or fan-equipment fitting provided for connection to attached ductwork.

the interface between the fan and its driver. Drive or coupling losses may be included as a part of the input power.

(1) flow rate varies in direct proportion to fan speed (rpm). (2) flow rate varies in direct proportion to pitch diameter of the
motor sheave.

the electric power required to drive the fan and any elements in the drive train that are considered a part of the fan.

line of zero vibration response on the fan such that the blades on opposite sides of the line vibrate in opposite phases.

graphical representation of static or total pressure and power input over a range of air volume flow rate at a stated inlet
density and fan speed(s). It may include static and mechanical efficiency curves.

the power required to drive the fan and any elements in the drive train that are considered a part of the fan.

the useful power delivered to air by the fan; it is proportional to the product of the fan airflow rate, the fan total pressure,
and the compressibility coefficient.

a means for determining the air leakage of a building using a fan-induced pressure difference.

protective housing that surrounds the fan and which may also direct the flow of air.

total sound power radiated by the fan and transmitted to the duct and the areas surrounding the fan itself.

the rotational speed of the impeller. If a fan has more than one impeller, fan speeds are the rotational speeds of each
the fan total efficiency multiplied by the ratio of fan static pressure to fan total pressure.
the difference between the fan total pressure and the fan velocity pressure. Therefore, it is the difference between static
pressure at the fan outlet and total pressure at the fan inlet.
the sum of the nominal power demand (nameplate horsepower) of motors of all fans that are required to operate at
design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source
or exhaust it to the outdoors.
the ratio of fan power output to fan power input.
difference between the total pressure at the fan outlet and the total pressure at the fan inlet.

there are two main categories of fans used in HVAC&R applications: centrifugal and axial fans. Centrifugal fans types
include the following: forward curved (FC), backward curved or backward inclined (BI), airfoil (AF), and radial. Axial fan
types include the following: propeller, vaneaxial, and tubeaxial.

the pressure corresponding to the average air velocity at the fan outlet. Measured with pilot tube tranverse of duct.
Assumes no change in density or area between the plane of measurement and the fan outlet.

revolving part of a fan or blower. See also [[impeller]].

inlet ring, impeller shroud, impeller rim annular plate, or conical ring on the air inlet side of a centrifugal fan to which the
impeller blades are fixed.
dimensionless number f used in studying fluid friction in pipes, equal to the pipe diameter times the drop in pressure in
the fluid due to friction as it passes through the pipe divided by the product of the pipe length and the kinetic energy of
the fluid per unit volume.

the portion of the sound field beyond the near field of a sound source in which the sound pressure level decreases by 6 dB
for each doubling of distance from the source. Typically free of any reflecting surfaces.

(1) amount of any substance dissolved or deposited in electrolysis is proportional to the total electric charge passed. (2)
amounts of different substances dissolved or deposited by the passage of the same electric charge are proportional to
their equivalent weights.

an element or pathway within a control system that passes a controlling signal from a source in the control system's
external environment, often a command signal from an external operator, to a load elsewhere in its external environment.
A control system that has only feed-forward behavior responds to its control signal in a predefined way without
responding to how the load reacts; it is in contrast with a system that also has feedback. Compare to [[feedback]].

the situation when output from (or information about the result of) an event or phenomenon in the past will influence an
occurrence or occurrences of the same (i.e., same defined) event/phenomenon (or the continuation/development of the
original phenomenon) in the present or future. When an event is part of a chain of cause and effect that forms a circuit or
loop, then the event is said to "feed back" into itself. Compare to [[feed forward]].

main distribution line (usually three phase) supplying electric energy within an electric service area or subarea.

heat exchanger installed in the hot-gas duct between the boiler and the stack to transfer a portion of the heat (that would
be lost up the stack) to the feedwater.

(1) commonly used to refer to any opening, usually glazed, in a building envelope; windows. Examples include windows,
plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, glass doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. (2) in an external
wall of a building, any area that allows light to pass.

(1) framing, mullions, muntins, and dividers. (2) glazing material, either glass or plastic. (3) external shading devices. (4)
internal shading (5) integral (between glass) shading systems or devices.

an electromagnetic wave takes a path that involves the least travel time when propagating between two points.

rate of diffusion of matter across a plane is proportional to the negative of the rate of change of the concentration of the
diffusing substance in the direction perpendicular to the plane.
(1) physical area of engineering activity. Compare to [[shop]]. (2) sphere of engineering operation, observation, or
intellectual activities.
total angular dimensions within which objects can be imaged, recorded, and displayed by an imaging device when the
device is pointed in a fixed direction.

microprocessor (DDC) control panel, field mounted and connected. Compare to [[product-integrated control]].

a quantity used to characterize the performance of a device, system, or method relative to its alternatives. In engineering,
figures of merit are often defined for particular materials or devices in order to determine their relative utility for an
application. See also [[part-load value]].
an alphanumeric designation assigned to each symbol for ease in referencing.
weld of approximately triangular cross section, joining two surfaces approximately at right angles in a lap joint, tee joint,
corner joint, or socket joint.
boiling phenomenon corresponding to the development of a continuous vapor layer on the heating surface that separates
this surface from the boiling liquid.

heat transferred between a surface and a fluid in unit time through unit area induced by unit temperature difference.

cooling tower with a type of packing over which the water spreads in a thin film.
phenomenon encountered when the condensate wets a cold surface to form a continuous film that separates this surface
from the vapor.
(1) capacitor and/or inductor placed in a series/parallel combination across a DC line to remove the effects of the AC signal
or to decrease the ripple voltage in a DC power supply. (2) device to remove gases from a mixture of gases. (3) device to
remove solid material from a fluid.

(also known as filter cartridge, filter unit, or filter element), interchangeable frame or cylinder containing a filter medium.

encased desiccant, generally inserted in the liquid line of a refrigerating system, and sometimes in the suction line, to
remove entrained moisture, acids, and other contaminants.
contaminant capacity divided by contaminant loading, expressed as a percent.
see [[MERV rating]].

portion of a filtrating system (such as close-woven textiles, metal screens, papers, nonwoven fabrics, granular beds, or
porous media) that provides the filtration process or liquid solid separation,

in air-handling units, the section containing the filters and the outside air/return air dampers and mixing plenum.

ratio of the mass of particles extracted to the mass of particles contained in the air before filtering.

the mean rate of air movement through the filter media (airflow divided by net effective filtering area). The term is not
applicable to plate-type electronic air cleaners. Media velocity is measured in m/s (fpm).

process of passing a liquid through a porous material in such a manner as to remove suspended matter from the liquid.

thin piece of metal attached to a pipe, tubing, or other surface in order to increase the heat transfer area. See also [[heat
transfer surface]].
ratio of heat actually transferred by a fin to heat transferred if the whole fin were at the temperature of the primary
surface to which it is attached.
number of transverse fins per unit length of tube.
distance between two successive transverse fins on a tube.
(1) a filter positioned in the last filtering position in an air-handling system. (2) filter used to collect the loading dust that
has passed through a device during the test procedure.

(1) the resistance at which a filter, or filter media, should be replaced. (2) the resistance to airflow of the air-cleaning
device at which the test is terminated and results calculated, expressed in Pa (in. of water).

on a finned tube, the distance between the two end fins (excluding lengths for return bends and other overall lengths).

total area of fins and prime surface of tube or plate to which fins are attached.
heat transfer tube or pipe with extended surface of fins, discs, or ribs.

a heating terminal unit that primarily consists of one or more finned tubes and a casing cabinet.

a boiler whose heat exchanger consists of only finned tubes.

wall-mounted heater with a plurality of fins bonded to a tube, usually carrying steam or hot water. Also see [[baseboard

device that interrupts airflow automatically through part of an air system to restrict passage of flame. Installed in a fire-
rated wall or floor and closes automatically in the event of fire to maintain the integrity of the fire-rated separation.

lowest temperature at which a product ignites and continues to burn for a specified time after a small flame has been
applied to its surface under standardized conditions. Compare to [[flash point]].
boiler with straight tubes surrounded by water through which tubes pass the products of combustion.

combustion chamber in a furnace or boiler.

firefighter's smoke control station (FSCS) includes monitoring and overriding capability over smoke-control systems and
equipment provided at designated location(s) within the building for use by the fire department.

lubricated, plug-type variable-position valve usually operated with an attached handle or, in the large sizes, by a loose-
fitting key or extended-handle wrench.
in a cleanroom, air that issues directly from the HEPA filter before it passes over any work location.
a project through which furnishings, including partitions, furniture, and tenant equipment (e.g., copy machines, fax
machines, personal computers) are delivered.

measured total inside area determined at the plane(s) of the inlet connection(s). The area shall be based on physical
measurements for rigid fittings and physical measurements minus twice the lining thickness for lined fittings.

total inside area determined at the plane(s) of the outlet connection(s). The area shall be based on physical measurements
for rigid fittings and physical measurements minus twice the lining thickness for lined fittings.

a term that has the same meaning as systematic error.

control in which the setpoint cannot be altered.
condition existing when the flame resulting from the combustion of the fuel comes into contact with any interior surface
of the furnace. It has the potential of causing damage to the heat exchanger.

system for sensing the presence or absence of flame and for indicating, alarming, or initiating control action.

refrigerant that is ignitable when mixed with air (e.g., ethyl chloride, methyl chloride, and the hydrocarbons). Note: see
ASHRAE Standard 34 for flammability categories.

(1) disc rim on the end of a pipe for coupling pipes together, usually by bolts. Flange types include weld neck, slip-on, and
grooved end. Flange face can be raised face or flat faced. (2) parts of a channel at a right angle to the central section or
web. See also [[pipe fittings]]. (3) projection of metal on formed objects.

a joint made by bolting together a pair of flanged ends. The seal is created from a gasket placed between the two flange
faces and having the bolts pinching the surface of the gasket.
reduction in sound transmission loss of a wall caused by sound traveling around the wall by other paths (structure borne,
leaks, etc.).
nut used to hold flared tubing on a flare fitting.
(also known as flare fitting), metal-to-metal compression joint in which a conical spread is made on the end of a tube that
is compressed by a flare nut against a mating flare.
(also known as flaring block), device for shaping the end of a ductile pipe or tube to increase its diameter to a shape suited
for a flare fitting.
in a refrigerating system, a separating tank placed between the expansion device and evaporator to separate and bypass
any flash gas formed due to pressure reduction.
portion of the liquid refrigerant that is vaporized by sudden reduction of pressure.

vessel located between compression stages where injected liquid refrigerant vaporizes immediately.

(1) at the pump suction, the pressure below which the liquid will flash into vapor. See [[net positive suction head]]. (2) in a
piping system, the pressure below which the liquid will flash into vapor. (3) in a vacuum-cooling chamber, that pressure
corresponding to the vapor pressure at the product temperature and below which water vaporizing commences. (4)
lowest temperature to which a product must be heated for its vapors to ignite in the presence of a flame when operating
under standardized conditions. Compare to [[fire point]].

(also known as steam systems), a steel tank that allows any superheated condensate to be vaporized into saturated steam.
The tank is usually vented to atmosphere.

(also known as instantaneous vaporization), partial or total vaporization obtained by sudden reduction of pressure.
the physical transformation of a fluid from its liquid state into its vapor or gaseous state. It is caused by the actual pressure
of the fluid being lower than the vapor pressure of the fluid at that operating temperature.

nonconcentrating solar collector in which the absorbing surface is essentially planar and approximately equal in area to
the aperture.

sound pressure level versus frequency, which is not adjusted by any weighting network but is taken just as it is.

ducts constructed of flexible materials, such as polymeric films, metal foils, and impregnated fabrics, and used to connect
rigid duct to air devices and terminals.

impeller and shaft are a one-piece assembly, the latter of a small diameter so that it can flex and spontaneously balance
the inertial forces resulting from rotation.

device in which a float ball, through variations of the level of liquid, operates one or more sets of electrical contacts to
activate or deactivate other controls or alarms.
a valve that operates due to changes in liquid level.

see [[steam trap]].

steam trap that relies on the density of water to raise a float-and-lever mechanism to operate a valve head. It discharges
condensate as it forms and enters the trap body. It includes a thermostatic balance pressure or bimetallic air vent to allow
free passage of air on start up and discharges incondensable gases reaching the trap during operation.

continuous action in which the input variable determines the rate of change of the output variable.

composite flooring system that exhibits a high sound transmission loss value and consisting of a floating flooring surface
supported from a structural floor through the use of a series of vibration isolation pads.

temperature observed at the start of the formation of wax or other solid; determined by a standardized test to assess the
low-temperature compatibility of certain petroleum products with refrigerants.

refrigerant evaporator characterized by no organized flow, in which most of the evaporator surface is in contact with the
liquid refrigerant, and from which the refrigerant exits at a vapor quality of one, without significant superheat. Compare to
[[dry expansion evaporator]].

the horizontal area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building space. Also, the sum of the areas of
several floors of the building including basements, mezzanine, intermediate floored tiers, and penthouses of headroom
height, measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the centerline of walls separating buildings but
excluding covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces, pipe trenches, exterior terraces or steps,
chimneys, roof overhangs, and similar features.

method of treating material by floating it in a liquid; an ice making method in which ice floats away from the surface on
which it has been frozen.

continuous motion of a fluid in pipes, ducts, channels, or through openings. See also [[airflow]]; [[backflow]]; [[slip]].

in a heat exchanger with a bundle of tubes, the section that is effectively traversed by the external fluid.

experimentally determined proportionality constant relating the actual velocity of fluid flow in a pipe, duct, or open
channel to the theoretical velocity expected under certain assumptions.
modulation of a fluid flow rate through a system of piping, ductwork, or variable devices.

(1) a perforated plate installed downstream of a fan in an air-handling unit designed to diffuse airflow equally across a
downstream coil. Also called a diffuser plate. (2) in a multiple cooling tower installation, a pipe installed below and
interconnecting the cold basin of multiple cooling towers to equalize the basin water levels and prevent the sump suction
in one tower from drawing air or creating a vortex. (3) in refrigeration, a line or lines installed between compressors to
equalize oil levels. (4) the bypass pipe in a primary/secondary flow system that hydronically decouples the primary from
the secondary pumping system. See [[cross connection]].

tube specially shaped to increase the discharge velocity of the fluid.

configuration of the direction and velocity of a flowing fluid.
the mass or volumetric flow of a fluid per unit of time that moves past a given plane.

(1) a device employing a detecting element that determines the flow rate of a volatile refrigerant in the gaseous or liquid
phase within a closed conduit by measuring a suitable response of the detecting element. (2) a device for measuring or
determining the mass or volumetric flow rate of a fluid in a duct, pipe, or terminal device.

conduit between the furnace or boiler outlet and the integral draft diverter, draft hood, barometric draft regulator, vent
terminal, or any other point of draft relief.
that portion of an appliance designed for attachment to a chimney, vent connector, or a draft hood.

an electrical or mechanical device in the flue outlet or in the inlet of or upstream of the draft control device of an
individual, automatically operated, fossil-fuel-fired appliance that is designed to automatically open the flue outlet during
appliance operation and to automatically close the flue outlet when the appliance is in a standby condition.

(also known as vent gas), all gases in a flue during combustion in the combustion chamber, including reaction products
such as excess air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen, and other inerts.

chamber designed to capture the products of combustion and accompanying excess air.
see [[flue]].

the sum of sensible and latent heat losses above room temperature of the flue gases leaving the furnace or boiler.

opening provided in an appliance for the release of flue gases.

substance, as a liquid or gas, that is capable of flowing and that changes shape when acted on by a force.

mechanics of flowing (deforming) fluids involving changes in momentum, direction of flow, turbulence, pressure, and
the transfer of air, water, or other fluids between components.
science and technology of using the properties of flow of fluids to perform functions of sensing, amplifying, and control in
nonelectric circuits and without the use of any mechanical moving parts.
trough having a perforated bottom through which an upward flow of cold air suspends the produce, usually of small unit
size, and causes it to flow like a fluid.

any of a broad group of organic compounds analogous to hydrocarbons in which all or most of the hydrogen atoms of the
hydrocarbon have been replaced by fluorine; some types also contain chlorine, and these are called chlorofluorocarbons.
The saturated, aliphatic-type fluorocarbons comprise the series of refrigerants developed by Midgeley in the 1930s.
Compare to [[halocarbon]].

(1) (electrical use), amount of some quantity flowing across a given area (often a unit area perpendicular to the flow) per
unit time. Note: the quantity may be, for example, mass or volume of a fluid, electromagnetic energy, or number of
particles. See also [[magnetic flux]]. (2) (mechanical use), substance or mixture that promotes fusion and prevents
formation of or eliminates oxides, nitrides, or other undesirable inclusions in the joint area during brazing and soldering
operations. (3) (thermal use), See [[heat flux]].

heavy wheel attached to a shaft to reduce rotation fluctuations.

the continuation of heat transfer after the heat transfer system/equipment has been removed or de-energized. The effect
is due to the thermal mass of the space and capacity of that mass to store/release heat. See [[thermal inertia]].

insulation formed by introducing into prepared cavities a chemical component and a foaming agent that react to fill the
space with a foamed plastic.
formation of a foam or froth of oil refrigerant due to rapid boiling out of the refrigerant dissolved in the oil when the
pressure is suddenly reduced. See also [[boiler foaming]].
fine, airborne droplets usually formed by condensation of vapor.
[[figure of merit]]
thrust bearing used to support the lower end of a vertical shaft.

combustion air supplied under pressure to the fuel-burning equipment. Compare to [[induced draft]]; [[natural draft]].
(also known as pump lubrication, mechanical lubrication, or forced-feed oiling), lubricating system with the oil fed under
pressure by a pump.
movement of air by mechanical means.
a heating and/or cooling system that uses motor-driven blowers to distribute heated, cooled, and otherwise treated air for
the comfort of individuals or equipment.
an electric, gas, or oil-burning appliance designed to supply heat through a system of ducts with air as the heating
medium. Forced-air furnaces circulate the heated air by means of a fan or blower, whereas gravity furnaces depend
primarily on natural convection.

burner that has a fan capable of supplying all necessary air for proper combustion with positive pressure in the firebox.

type of mechanical draft tower in which one or more fans are located at the air inlet to force air into the tower.

in an ice plant, a device for cooling water before pouring into ice-making cans; precooler.

centrifugal rotor in which the concave sides of blades face in the direction of rotation.

fuel derived from a hydrocarbon deposit such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas derived from living matter of a previous
geologic time.

multiple piping arrangement in which each unit is fitted with supply and return pipes separately for hot and chilled water.

(1) in three-phase power transmission, the use of four wires WYE connected. (2) transmission of data in two directions
simultaneously over two pairs of wires. Also known as full duplex transmission.

(1) dimensionless number used in calculation of unsteady-state heat transfer, equal to the product of the thermal
conductivity and a characteristic time divided by the product of the density, the specific heat at constant pressure, and the
distance from the midpoint of the body through which heat is passing to the surface. Symbol is Fo, Fo, or NFo. (2)
dimensionless number used in unsteady-state flow calculations, equal to the product of the dynamic viscosity and a
characteristic time divided by the product of the fluid density and the square of a characteristic length.

[[field of view]]
a change in composition of a blend by preferential evaporation of the more volatile component(s) or condensation of the
less volatile component(s).
(1) actual open area between the fins of a grille or register. (2) total area through which air can pass in a grille, face, or
the point of operation where the external static pressure is zero.
refers to a situation where mechanical heating and cooling equipment is off so that the space or zone temperature varies
without constraint.

a sound field free of reflections where the sound declines by 6 dB per doubling of distance out of doors.

concentrating a solution by partial freezing of water and removing ice crystals.

freezing saline or brackish water, so that salt-free ice crystals are formed and then removed and melted.

apparatus or system for drying substances by dehydration in a frozen state. A drum freeze-dryer apparatus having a
rotating cylinder in which a product is freeze dried.

dehydration of a substance by freezing and subsequent sublimation of ice.

to separate the constituents of a mixture by freezing one of them.

see [[low-limit controller]].
(1) failure of a refrigerating unit to operate normally due to formation of ice at the expansion device. (2) frost formation
that impedes airflow through a coil.

property of a material which permits it to be alternately frozen and thawed through many cycles without damage.

substance added to a product to be freeze dried in order to facilitate recovery of the frozen mass.
damage to frozen produce caused, essentially, by excessive desiccation. Compare to [[cold injury (low-temperature
(1) an insulated room kept below 32F (0C). Typical freezer setpoints are generally 10F (12C). (2) device for freezing
perishables. See [[freezing room]].
process of changing a liquid substance or the liquid content of a food or other commodity to a solid state by removing
mixture of salts with crushed ice to lower the ice's melting point.

during the freezing of produce, that part of the graph of temperature against time in which the temperature remains
virtually constant. The freezing plateau is induced by the time required to remove latent heat.

for a particular pressure, the temperature at which a given substance will solidify or freeze upon removal of heat. Compare
to [[solidification point]].
ratio between the distance from the mean surface of a food mass to its thermal center and the time elapsed between the
surface reaching 32F (0C) and the thermal center reaching 14F (10C).

cold chamber usually kept at a temperature of 22F to 31F (5C to 1C), with high-volume air circulation.

difference between the freezing temperature of a pure solvent and that of a solution.

(1) number of cycles per second through which an alternating electric current passes; in North America, frequency is
generally standardized at 60 cycles per second (60 Hz). Most other countries standardize using 50 Hz. (2) the number of
times a quantity (such as a sound wave) repeats itself in one second.

for general purposes, the frequency range of interest includes one-third octave bands with center frequencies between 31
Hz and 16000 Hz.

the normalized motion (vibration) response of a device, such as a fan, to a known excitation, expressed as a function of the
frequency of the excitation. The frequency response is usually given graphically by curves showing the relationship of the
response to the excitation (and, where applicable, phase shift or phase angle) as a function of frequency.

the amplitude of sound or vibration at various frequencies or bands of frequencies.

volume of outdoor air introduced into a space.

(1) any of several dimensionless numbers used in studying fluid friction in pipes, equal to the Fanning friction factor times
some dimensionless constant. (2) coefficient used to calculate friction forces due to fluid flow. (3) quotient of the
tangential force exerted by a fluid on a surface (per unit area) by half the product of the density and the square of the

height of liquid that represents system resistance caused by the flow.

pressure loss due to friction between a flowing fluid and its contact surface.
component, rotary or fixed, of a shaft seal with a precision-machined contact face of the ring that provides the gastight or
liquidtight seal.
resistance of fluid flow due to friction between the fluid and the contact surface over which it flows.
frost formed on the cold surface (tubes, plates) of a cooling coil.
frost formed on any cold part of a refrigerating circuit.
lifting of part of a structure due to the expansion of freezing water in the supporting soil.
temperature at which visible frost forms on a surface being chilled.
coating of frost on suction line and crankcase due to liquid refrigerant leaving an evaporator and carried along the suction
line into the compressor crankcase.

(1) dimensionless number equal to the ratio of the speed of flow of a fluid in an open channel to the speed of very small
gravity waves, the latter being equal to the square root of the product of the acceleration of gravity and a characteristic
length. (Symbol is Fr2 or NFr 2). See also [[gravity current]]. (2) dimensionless number used in studying the motion of a
body floating on a fluid with production of surface waves and eddies; equal to the ratio of the square of the relative speed
to the product of the acceleration of gravity and a characteristic length of the body. (Symbol is Fr, Fr1, or NFr 1).

(also called frozen ground storage or frozen soil storage), underground storage of liquefied gas within a space with walls,
floor, and roof consisting of frozen soil or rock.
refrigerated cabinet for the short-term storage of frozen foods.

individual lockable compartment in a collective, multicompartment establishment for the freezing and storage of food.
conversion factor of 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3) for a net freezer space weight rating. Many commercially available packaged
frozen foods weigh less than 35 lb/ft3 (560 kg/m3).

rate at which fuel is supplied to an appliance. The rate may be expressed in Btus per hour, watts, or thousands of Btus per
hour (MBH); in cubic feet per hour, liters per second, or thousands of cubic feet per hour; in therms (th) or dekatherms
(dth) per hour; or in gallons per hour (GPH).

(1) current in amperes through a device when at maximum demand. Not to be confused with inrush amperes (at start-up)
or locked rotor amperes (work exceeds rating). (2) current that a rotating machine will draw from the power line when the
machine is operating at rated voltage, speed, and torque.

solid particles formed by condensation of vapors of solid materials or a discharge gas or byproduct of combustion or
chemical process. Very small airborne particles, usually less than one micrometer in size, from burning or melting
materials or a chemical process. Note: popularly, the term fumes refers to any kind of air contaminant; many laws and
regulations add a qualification that the contaminant have some unwanted action.

(generic term) a fume-collection device mounted over a work space, table, or shelf and serving to conduct unwanted
gases away from the area enclosed. The least effective fume hood is a canopy hood, open on four sides. The most effective
fume hood effective is an enclosed hood with operable front sash and fixed sides and back. Compare to [[laboratory fume

plane of minimum area at the front portion of a laboratory fume hood through which air enters when the sash is fully
opened or opened to a stop position [usually in the same plane as the sash(es) when present].

an arrangement consisting of a fume hood, its adjacent room environment, and the air exhaust equipment (such as
blowers and ductwork) required to make the hood operable.

in the food industry, exposure of a product to gaseous substances, generally to kill insects, their eggs, and larvae.

(1) the process of determining the ability of the HVAC system to deliver heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning services
in accordance with the final design intent. (2) that full range of checks and tests carried out to determine if all
components, subsystems, systems, and interfaces between systems function in accordance with the contract documents.
In this context, function includes all modes and sequences of control operation, all interlocks and conditional control
responses, and all specified responses to emergency conditions.

(1) enclosed chamber or structure in which heat is produced, as by burning fuel or by converting electrical energy. (2) part
of a warm-air heating system in which energy is converted to heat.

safety device for release of pressure by melting a contained substance with a predetermined melting temperature.

chemical term for a change of phase from solid to liquid.

(1) instrument for measuring pressure, flow, level, or other factors. (2) arbitrary scale of measurement for sheet-metal
thickness and wire and drill diameters.
device for showing liquid level in a tank, boiler, or other storage container.

the difference between absolute pressure and ambient or surrounding pressure. It may be negative or positive.

corrosion resulting from the contact of two dissimilar metals in an electrolyte or from the contact of two similar metals in
an electrolyte of nonuniform concentration.
the increased resistance to sensible heat transfer obtained from adding an individual garment over the nude body.
Expressed in clo units.

state of matter in which substances exist in the form of nonaggregated molecules and which, within acceptable limits of
accuracy, satisfy the ideal gas laws; usually a highly superheated vapor. See [[state]].

constant of proportionality appearing in the equation of state of an ideal gas, equal to the absolute pressure of the gas
times its molar volume divided by its absolute temperature. Also known as the gas law constant.

R in the perfect gas relation pV = mRT.

increasing the heat content of a gas by mixing it with a gas of higher heat content.
arc-welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a continuous filler metal
(consumable) electrode and the work. Note: shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture.

arc-welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating with an arc between a single tungsten (nonconsumable)
electrode and the work. Note: shielding is obtained from a gas or gas mixture. Pressure may or may not be added.

(1) electric generating station in which the prime mover is a gas turbine. (2) prime mover in which gas, under pressure or
formed by combustion, is directed against a series of turbine blades; the energy in the expanding gas is converted into
mechanical energy supplying power at the shaft. Also called a combustion turbine or a simple cycle turbine.

group of welding processes wherein coalescence is produced by heating with a gas flame or flames, with or without the
application of pressure, and with or without the use of filler metal.

lean mixture: gas/air mixture of which the air content is more than adequate for complete combustion, and the resultant
combustion gases will contain an excess of oxygen. Rich mixture: gas/air mixture of which the air content is not sufficient
for complete combustion and the resultant combustion gases will contain burnable but unburned hydrocarbons.

one of the three basic states of matter, characterized by the greatest freedom of molecules and the lack of any inherent
fixed shape or volume.
lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. General lighting shall not include
decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature
within such area.
a specification, rule, guide, or procedure in the field of engineering, or related thereto, recognized and accepted as
direct or indirect utilization of available heat in the ground.
see [[packing]].
the absolute value of the difference between the starting and ending temperatures of a phase-change process by a
refrigerant within a component of a refrigerating system, exclusive of any subcooling or superheating. This term usually
describes condensation or evaporation of a zeotrope.

(1) (also known as hemispherical irradiance), quantity of solar energy incident on a unit surface area in unit time through a
unit hemisphere above the surface, expressed in Btu/hft2 (W/m2). (2) the global (or hemispheric) solar radiant energy is
the quantity of solar energy incident upon a unit surface area in unit time through a unit hemisphere above the surface,
expressed in W/m2 (Btu/[hft2]).

an index developed to provide a simplified means of describing the relative ability of a chemical compound to affect
radiative forcing, if emitted to the atmosphere, over its lifetime in the atmosphere, and thereby to affect the global
climate. Radiative forcing reflects the factors that affect the balance between the energy absorbed by the earth and the
energy emitted by it in the form of longwave infrared radiation. The GWP is defined on a mass basis relative to carbon
dioxide. The GWP for a compound must be calculated up to a particular integrated time horizon, for example, 20, 100, or
500 years. The time horizon most widely accepted is 100 years.

dimensionless number used in calculation of streamline flow, equal to the mass flow rate of a fluid times its specific heat
at constant pressure, divided by the product of its thermal conductivity and a characteristic length. Also spelled Gratz
number. Symbol Gz, Gz, or NGz.
the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density.
convenient unit of measurement of water vapor. 1 grain = 1/7000 pound avoirdupois (historically, the average weight of a
grain of wheat).

according to US FDA/HHS

dimensionless number used in the calculation of free convection of a fluid caused by a hot body, equal to the product of
the fluids coefficient of thermal expansion, the temperature difference between the hot body and the fluid, the cube of a
typical dimension of the body, and the square of the fluids density divided by the square of the fluids dynamic viscosity.
Also known as free convection number. Symbol Gr, Gr or NGr.

organized evaporator with circulation induced by a static head of liquid refrigerant driving an opposing column of boiling
refrigerant in the evaporator; sometimes referred to as a thermosiphon.
heating or refrigerating system in which heating or cooling fluid is circulated by the forces induced by the differences in
densities of cooler and warmer fluids in the system or surrounding atmosphere.

stream of incoming fluid that moves horizontally immediately adjacent to the upper or lower boundaries of a stagnant
body of fluid. The stream moves due to density differences between the fluid in the stream and that in the stagnant body
of fluid. See also [[Froude number]].

a containment system for the transportation of air and grease vapor. The system is designed and installed to reduce the
possibility of the accumulation of combustible condensation, thus reducing the possibility of damage if a fire occurs within
the ventilation system.
effluent from a cooking process that contains grease particles or grease vapor. This type of exhaust requires a rated hood
(e.g., Type I, Type II).
a listed device (such as, but not limited to, baffle filters, removable extractors, and stationary extractors) designed and
installed to remove grease vapor and/or particles from the airstream, .

constructed and performing in such a manner as to prevent the passage of grease under normal operating conditions.

energy that is produced in a manner that has less of a negative impact on the environment than energy sources like fossil
fuels, which are often produced with harmful side effects. Some greener types of energy are solar, wind, geothermal,
and hydro energy. There are several more, even including nuclear energy, that are sometimes considered a green energy
source because of its lower emissions relative to energy sources such as coal or oil.

louvered or perforated covering for an opening in an air passage which can be located in a wall, ceiling, or floor.

coupling system that joins pipes end to end by engaging circumferential grooves in the pipe using split couplings and a

the gross floor area of the building envelope, excluding slab-on-grade floors.

load (uncorrected) that a machine, apparatus, device, or system is designed to deliver.

the gross floor area of a conditioned space.

the sum of the floor areas of all the spaces within the building with no deductions for floor penetrations other than atria.
Gross floor area is measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls or from the centerline of walls separating buildings,
but it excludes covered walkways, open roofed-over areas, porches and similar spaces, pipe trenches, exterior terraces or
steps, roof overhangs, parking garages, surface parking, and similar features.

the gross floor area of lighted spaces.

total rate of heat removal from all sources by the evaporator of a refrigerating system at stated conditions. It is numerically
equal to the system refrigerating effect.
the area of the roof measured from the exterior faces of walls or from the centerline of party walls.

the gross floor area of semiheated spaces.

the rate of sensible heat removal by the cooling coil for a given set of operating conditions. This value varies as a function
of performance parameters such as EWB, ODB, EDB, and airflow rate. (Also see [[sensible heat]].)

the maximum projected area of the complete collector module, including integral mounting means.

the total rate of both sensible heat and latent heat removal by the cooling coil for a given set of operating conditions. This
value varies as a function of performance parameters such as EWB, ODB, EDB, and airflow rate. Also see [[sensible heat]]
and [[latent heat]].
the area of the wall measured on the exterior face from the top of the floor to the bottom of the roof.

in a thermal storage system or a heat pump, a closed loop of piping, plastic tubing, or ducting used as a heat exchanger
between the ground (acting as a low-grade heat source or heat sink) and a circulating fluid.

unintentional electrical connection to ground. Electrical ground plane voltage or any point electrically connected to the
earth or ground.
heat pump using a brine solution circulating through a subsurface piping loop functioning as a heat source/heat sink.

water that exists within the zone of saturation. Water that occurs below the surface of the earth, also called subsurface
water, to distinguish it from surface water such as lakes oceans and streams.
assembly of adjustable guide vanes fitted to the inlet of a fan or turbocompressor. The guide vane's function is to modify
the flow and the pressure/flow rate.

isolation damper with a blade which is withdrawn from the duct area when the damper is fully open.

building space intended for continual human occupancy; such space generally includes areas used for living, sleeping,
dining, and cooking but does not generally include bathrooms, toilets, hallways, storage areas, closets, or utility rooms.

device to detect gas leaks using the color changes of a flame in the presence of a halogenated hydrocarbon.

a hydrocarbon derivative containing one or more of the halogens bromine, chlorine, or fluorine; hydrogen also may be
fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon is one in which all of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine and fluorine
atoms. Atmospheric lifetimes of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons are long (75 years for CFC 11 and 111 years for CFC
valve that is operated manually by a handwheel attached to the spindle.
a sinusoid whose frequency is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency.
integer that defines the numerical value of the multiple of the fundamental frequency.

condensate return arrangement for low-pressure steam heating systems, featuring a constant waterline in the boiler.

[[heating degree day]].

(1) energy per unit mass of fluid divided by gravitational acceleration. (2) in fluid statics and dynamics, a vertical linear
measure. Note: the terms head and pressure are often mistakenly used interchangeably. See also [[suction head]]. (3)
operating pressure measured in the discharge line at a pump, fan, or compressor outlet (i.e., at the head).

automatic valve, located between the air-cooled condenser and the receiver, that will back up liquid in the condenser to
reduce the effective area of the condenser, thus keeping the discharge pressure to a predetermined minimum value
during low ambient temperatures. Used in conjunction with a pressure differential valve between the discharge line and
the receiver.

a pipe or tube (extruded, cast, or fabricated) to which other pipes or tubes are connected.

(1) energy that is transferred in the direction of lower temperature. (2) form of energy that is exchanged between a system
and its environment or between parts of the system induced by temperature difference existing between them.

ability of a thermostat or control system to terminate the heat or cooling input at a temperature other than its setting and
in advance of the time that the temperature at the thermostat or control system sensor normally would cause a control
statement that shows the changes in a system from heat and work input to output losses.
(also known as heat channel or heat leak), part of the boundary construction of an insulated enclosure through which heat
can flow readily by conduction.
(1) the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a given mass one degree; numerically, the mass multiplied
by the specific heat. (2) the capacity of a body to store heat.

heat energy corresponding to a unit of mechanical energy.

(1) heat exchange surface area of any heat exchanger available for transmitting heat. (2) process of heat transfer in which
heat flows from one substance to another. (3) (also known as heat interchanger), device to transfer heat between two
physically separated fluids. See also [[superheater]].

passage of heat from one point to another or one space to another by one or more of the three modes: conduction,
convection, and radiation. See also [[thermal transmittance]].

the flow of energy per unit of area per unit of time. It is sometimes called thermal flux and also referred to as heat flux
density or heat flow rate intensity. It has both a direction and a magnitude, so it is a vectorial quantity.
quantity of heat absorbed by an enclosed space or system.

an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity in an attempt to determine the human-perceived
equivalent temperature (how hot it feels, also termed the felt air temperature). When the relative humidity is high, the
evaporation rate is reduced, so heat is removed from the body at a lower rate, causing it to retain more heat than it would
in dry air. Compare [[wind chill]].

time elapsing between the initiation of a thermal phenomenon and the appearance of its effect.
(1) (also known as infiltration losses) energy required to warm outdoor air leaking in through cracks and crevices around
doors and windows, through open doors and windows, and through porous building materials. (2) (also known as
transmission losses) heat transferred through confining walls, glass, ceilings, floors, or other surfaces. (3) See also [[heat
gain (heat uptake)]].

rate at which heat is lost from the storage device per degree temperature difference between the average temperature of
the storage medium and the average temperature of the surrounding air or fluid.

the rate at which heat is lost from the storage device per degree temperature difference between the average storage
medium temperature and the ambient temperature (or ground temperature, if the storage device is buried).

see [[thermal energy meter]].

the heat released when a substance is combusted, determined as the difference in the enthalpy between the reactants
(refrigerant[s] and air) and their products after combustion as defined in Section The heat or enthalpy of
combustion is often expressed as energy per mass (e.g., kJ/kg or Btu/lb).

(1) heat energy required to cause a change of state from solid to liquid at constant temperature. For ice to water, 143.5
Btu/lb (333.8 kJ/kg). (2) latent heat involved in changing between the solid and the liquid states.

heat per unit mass (or per mole) of reagents and substances in a chemical reaction; exothermal if heat is given off,
endothermal if absorbed.
quantity of heat removed from a liquid to reduce it from its saturation temperature at saturation pressure to some lower
temperature at the same pressure.

describes any equipment whose energy source is thermal energy. Heat may be provided by combustion, steam, or other
means. The heat may manifest itself as thermal energy (elevated temperatures) or other available energy (such as
elevated pressure) and may activate a heat cycle (e.g., absorption process) or a work cycle (e.g., vapor compression cycle)
by means of heat transfer surfaces and/or heat engines (prime movers).

thermodynamic heating/refrigerating system to transfer heat. The condenser and evaporator may change roles to transfer
heat in either direction. By receiving the flow of air or other fluid, a heat pump is used to cool or heat. Heat pumps may be
the air source with heat transfer between the indoor air stream to outdoor air or water source with heat transfer between
the indoor air stream and a hydronic source (ground loop, evaporative cooler, cooling tower, or domestic water).

temperature at which the heat pump capacity and the building heat requirement are equal. Heat pump heating effect. See
[[compressor heating effect]].
temperature at which the installed heat pump capacity is equal to the heat requirement of the building. For a
geoexchange system, the temperature at which supplemental heating or cooling is required. For an air-to-air system, the
temperature at which supplemental heating is required. For a water loop system, the temperature at which heating and
cooling requirements are equal.

(1) rate of heat delivery by the refrigerant assigned to the compressor in a heat pump. (2) rate of heat delivery by the
refrigerant assigned to the compressor in a heat pump system equal to the product of the mass rate of refrigerant flow
produced by the compressor and the difference in specific enthalpies of the refrigerant vapor at thermodynamic state
leaving the compressor and saturated liquid refrigerant at the pressure of the vapor leaving the compressor.

see [[heat flux]].

use of heat that would otherwise be wasted from a system or process (e.g., heat-recovery chiller; a machine using hot
waste gases as a heat source).
mass flow rate times the difference between the entering and leaving enthalpies.
system that can absorb or reject heat from storage.
substance or environment into which unwanted heat is directed.

substance or environment from which heat is taken.

technology or systems used to store heating capacity.

a heating system where the externally applied heat source follows (traces) the object to be heated (e.g., water piping).

(also called heat transmission, heat transport, and thermal transmission), transfer of energy, in Btu/h (W), induced by a
temperature difference. May occur by conduction, convection, radiation, mass transfer, or any combination of these.

fluid used in a heat transfer process.

an imaginary coefficient expressing the proportionality of radiant heat exchange between two bodies to their temperature
outside area of a heat exchanger through which heat flows. See [[fin]].
a device or arrangement of the piping entering and leaving a water heater constructed to counteract the convective forces
of the heated water (thermosiphoning) during standby periods.
heating and cooling a metal or alloy to obtain desired properties or conditions.
(also known as heat of combustion), amount of heat released in the oxidation of one mole of a substance at constant
pressure or constant volume.

concrete slab-on-grade floor containing wires, cables, pipes, or ducts that transfers heat to the conditioned space.

apparatus or appliance to supply heat to a space or a fluid. See also [[water heater]].

in a heat exchanger with a bundle of tubes, the section that is effectively traversed by the external fluid just before it
passes through the tube bundle. The area measured is the lesser area of the two heat-exchanger surfaces.

(also known as tube sheet), plate located at the end(s) of a multitubular shell-and-tube heat exchanger, into which the
tubes are fixed.
process of adding heat energy causing a rise in temperature or a transfer of sensible heat into latent heat. See also
[[district heating]]; [[heating system]].
the rate of heat that the equipment adds to the conditioned space or heat transfer fluid in a defined interval of time,
expressed in Btu/h (W).
coil that uses a heat transfer fluid, condensing refrigerant, or direct electrical resistance elements to provide heating to
heat fluids (air, gas, or liquids).
the period of operation including prepurge, primary heat-producing energy flow, and postpurge.
see [[degree day]].
[i.e., HDD65 (HDD18)]. For any one day, when the mean temperature is less than the local or country-specific common
temperature base. Annual HDDs are the sum of the HDDs over a calendar year.
the outdoor dry-bulb temperature equal to the temperature that is exceeded at least 99.6% of the number of hours during
a typical weather year.
heating rate required to replace heat loss from the space being controlled.
(1) ratio of the heating building load to the steady-state heating load. (2) ratio of the total heating of a complete cycle for a
specified period, consisting of an on time and off time, to the steady-state heating done over the same period at constant
ambient conditions.

for the space-heating season, the ratio of the total space heating delivered to the total electrical energy input if the
combined appliance operated exclusively in a space heating only mode. The quantity is expressed in units of Btu/Wh. For
SI use, compare coefficient of performance.

sensible heat carried away by the flue gas and the sensible and latent heat carried away by the water vapor in the flue gas.

one in which heat is transferred from a source of energy through a distribution network to spaces to be heated.
amount of heat produced by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel. The gross or higher heating value is that
obtained when all the products of combustion are cooled to the temperature existing before combustion, the water vapor
formed during combustion is condensed, and all the necessary corrections have been made. The net or lower heating
value is obtained by subtracting the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion of the
hydrogen in the fuel from the gross or higher heating value.

average directional thermal emittance over a hemispherical envelope over the surface.

mass of a slightly soluble gas that dissolves in a definite mass of liquid at a given temperature is nearly directly
proportional to the partial pressure of that gas. This holds for gases that do not unite chemically with the solvent.

high-efficiency particulate air filter.

a motor compressor assembly contained within a gastight housing that is permanently sealed by welding or brazing, with
no access for servicing internal parts in the field.

evaporator in which the tubes, arranged in the vertical plane, are bent in the form of a V.

[[hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)]] a halocarbon that contains only fluorine, carbon, and hydrogen.
safety device that acts when an abnormal rise in the discharge temperature starts an alarm or stops the compressor or
heat-producing device.
control action that occurs at the higher value of the activating variable being sensed.
two level action in which both levels are controlled within defined limits.

dielectric thawing using suitable frequencies of a few megahertz or higher.

isolated and occupant-controllable events that release pollutants in excess quantities. Typical cooking, bathing, and
laundry activities are not considered high-polluting events.

(1) boiler for generating steam at pressure in excess of 15 psig [103.4 kPa (gage)]. (2) hot-water boiler intended for
operation at pressures exceeding 160 psig [1100 kPa (gage)] and/or temperatures exceeding 250F (120C).

pressure-responsive device that cycles and/or stages condensers, cooling-tower fans, and pumps to control head pressure.

(also known as high-side float valve), float-type expansion valve operated by changes in liquid level on the high-pressure
system whose gage pressure at room temperature (74F [23.3C]) is typically more than 100 psig (689 kPa). Common high-
pressure refrigerants include R-22, R-502, and R-125.

switch designed to stop the compressor or machinery when the discharge pressure reaches a predetermined high value.

(also known as high side), that portion of a refrigerating system operating at approximately the condenser pressure.

found only in double-effect machines. This type of condenser is typically inside of the tubes of the second-stage generator.

gastight joint obtained by joining metal parts with alloys that melt at temperatures higher than 1500F (800C) but at less
than the melting temperatures of the joined parts. Compare to [[soldered joint]].

hydronic system intended for operation at pressures exceeding 160 psig [1100 kPa (gage)] and/or temperatures exceeding
250F (120C). Compare to [[low-temperature hot-water system]].

thermal resistance system that depends on a high vacuum for its performance. An example is a thermos or Dewar flask.

electrical insulation test that consists of the application of a high voltage between a circuit and its frame.

describes a building or space that has been specifically designated as historically significant by the adopting authority or is
listed in The National Register of Historic Places or has been determined to be eligible for such listing by the U.S. Secretary
of the Interior.
two or more slotted slides in parallel arrangement and adjustable against each other.
[[heating load factor]]
deposit of ice crystals produced in a manner similar to dew but at a temperature below 32F (0C).
(also known as service charge), reduced quantity of refrigerant or inert gas used to avoid the ingress of air and moisture
into a component before start-up.
apparatus to store cold by fusion of ice or eutectic on a refrigerated coil.

wiring from the device all the way to the distribution panel. This wiring is usually run in the most direct paths but with
standard wiring practices and the wiring does not contain any splices, branches, or devices.

a device designed to capture cooking and/or ware washing effluent. See [[Type I hood]] and [[Type II hood]].

the plane of minimum area at the front portion of a laboratory fume hood through which air enters when the sash is fully
opened, usually in the same plane as the sash when sash is present.
within the elastic limit of any body, the ratio of stress to strain produced is constant.
(also known as circumferential stress), stress imposed in the wall of a cylindrical tube in the circumferential direction by
internal pressure.

an axis of measurement that is parallel to the mounting base of a piece of equipment or the building foundation.

a water cooler that, in addition to the primary function of cooling and dispensing potable water, includes means for
heating and dispensing potable water.
hot air chamber forming part of an air handler.
refrigerant gas in the high-pressure side of the system.

climate in which the wet-bulb temperature is 67F (19C) or higher for 3500 h or more or 73F (23C) or higher for 1750 h
or more during the warmest six consecutive months of a year that is typical for that geographic area.

automatic valve, operated by the suction pressure, which it maintains above a given value by diverting a certain quantity
of high-side vapor to the low side of the system.
solenoid valve located in a bypass line running from the outlet of the compressor to the evaporator.
(also known as internal defrosting), method that utilizes heat from inside the pipes of the evaporator, usually the highly
superheated vaporized refrigerant from the compressor.
(1) line used to convey discharge gas from the compressor to the condenser. (2) line used to convey discharge gas from the
compressor to the evaporator for the purpose of defrosting.

(also known as hydronic heating system or wet heating system) heating system for a building in which the heat-conveying
medium is hot water and the heat emitters are radiators, convectors, or panel coils.

tank used to store water that is heated integral to or separate from the tank.

boiler completely filled with water and that furnishes hot water to be used externally to itself at pressures not exceeding
160 psig or at temperatures not exceeding 250F (120C) at or near the boiler outlet.

heating load for a given hour.

sum of direct solar radiation and diffuse solar radiation that strikes a given surface for a given hour.

ratio of increase of enthalpy of moist air to the rise of temperature expressed per unit mass of the dry air component
under conditions of constant pressure and humidity ratio.
device to add moisture to air or gases.
to add water vapor or moisture to any moisture-absorbing material, including the atmosphere.
product of the mass of water evaporated times the latent heat at the evaporating temperature.
an automatic control device used to maintain humidity at a fixed or adjustable setpoint.
ratio in percent of the mass of moisture at a given temperature to the maximum possible at the same temperature. See
ratio of the specific humidity to that at saturation at the same temperature and pressure, usually expressed as a
condition that occurs when a controller, controlled device and system, individually or collectively, continuously overrides
and undershoots or overshoots the control point with resulting fluctuation and loss of control of the condition to be
duct and fittings used for conveying air in residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial heating, ventilating, and air-
conditioning systems.
the equipment, distribution systems, and terminals that provide, either collectively or individually, the processes of
heating, ventilating, or air conditioning to a building or portion of a building.
combined end-to-end accuracy of the EMCS (energy monitoring and control system) and the accuracy with which the
EMCS sensors represent the HVAC process.
a space or group of spaces, within a building with heating, cooling, and ventilating requirements, that are sufficiently
similar so that desired conditions (e.g., temperature) can be maintained throughout using a single sensor (e.g., thermostat
or temperature sensor).

for a fully filled duct or pipe whose cross section is a regular polygon, the hydraulic diameter is equivalent to the diameter
of a circle inscribed within the wetted perimeter. For a fully filled duct or pipe whose cross section is round, the hydraulic
diameter is equivalent to the diameter of the duct of pipe.

in a pumping system, the static height (head) to be overcome by the pump.

internal pressure stress imposed in piping systems by a sudden change in liquid velocity, as by the sudden stopping of flow.

a compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon.

a halocarbon that contains only fluorine, carbon, and hydrogen.

a chemical reaction during which molecules of water (H2O) are split into hydrogen cations (H+) (conventionally referred to
as protons) and hydroxide anions (OH) in the process of a chemical mechanism. The most common hydrolysis occurs
when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water. Water autoionizes into negative hydroxyl ions and
positive hydrogen ions. The salt breaks down into positive and negative ions.

an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the
liquid to the density of water.

a thermal distribution system that uses water or a mixture of water and additives as the distribution medium in a building.

adjusting water flow rates through hydronic distribution system devices, such as pumps and coils, by manually adjusting
the position valves or by using automatic control devices, such as automatic flow control valves.

science of heating and cooling water.

device for controlling the level of a liquid in a reservoir.

internal pressure stress in piping or vessels due to a temperature rise in liquids (such as refrigerants, water, or secondary
coolants) when the containment volume is completely filled with liquid.

(1) normal force per unit area that would be exerted by a moving fluid on an infinitesimally small body immersed in it if
the body were carried along with the fluid. (2) pressure exerted by a fluid at rest.

instrument responsive to relative humidity, usually relative humidity in the atmosphere. Compare to [[psychrometer]].

branch of science that deals with the measurement of humidity

capable of absorbing and retaining/losing moisture.
cooling tower of hyperbolic shape that depends on natural draft for air movement through the tower. The air movement
can be either crossflow or counterflow.

in control systems, the difference between the response of a system to increasing and decreasing signals.

spot-cooling effect produced in a tube into which gas is introduced tangentially, producing vortex flow.

(also known as pulse tube), device in which the Ranque-Hilsch effect is produced.
[[indoor air quality (IAQ)]]
refrigerated coils immersed in a tank of water used for forming ice and to provide ice water.
machine that collects ice on a cooling surface, then delivers it to storage or use in a process.
automatic ice-making machine in which ice is formed, harvested, and stored.
temperature at which water freezes under normal atmospheric pressure, 14.696 psig, 32F (101.325 kPa, 0C).

suspension of ice crystals in a secondary coolant.

thermal storage system used for chilling processes or for comfort cooling that uses primarily the latent heat of phase
change from ice to water. Ice is formed during periods of low refrigerating demand for delivery of cooling during periods of
high refrigerating demand. Compare to [[cool storage]] and [[cold storage]].

treatment to smooth the ice surface.

container for freezing water into ice.
(1) melted ice. (2) water chilled, as with ice.
control of the thickness of a bank of ice for off-peak cool storage; also for use with milk coolers and other refrigerating
cabinets in which refrigerating capacity is stored by means of ice.
water cooler in which ice is allowed to collect on the evaporator tubes.
evaporator immersed in water. Ice will form on evaporator.

water-cooling tank in which ice is allowed to build up on the evaporator tubes to provide a reserve for cooling.

equipment that uses metals or plastic as a direct heat transfer medium and that uses ice as a primary source of

combination of a pump, distributing piping, hose, and device, by which impure water may be withdrawn from the
unfrozen core of an ice block, and, by connecting the source of water supply, the core may be refilled with pure water.

actual productive mass output of an ice-making plant in a given time.

temperature range in which most freezing takes place [i.e., about 25F to 30F (4C to 1C) for water]. Also called zone of
maximum crystal formation.

device for cooling water before it is frozen in an ice maker.

latent heat absorbed by ice at 32F (0C) in liquefying into water phase at 32F (0C). For precise data, 143.5 Btu/lb. (334.4
kJ/kg); for definition of ton, 144 Btu/lb (2.326 kJ/kg).

container (tank) in which ice is formed on tubes or pipes.

(1) [[induced draft]]. (2) Also, i.d., inside diameter.

the maximum concentration from which unprotected persons are able to escape within 30 minutes without escape-
impairing symptoms or irreversible health effects.

temperature at which a combustible material will unite with oxygen in the atmosphere and combustion will commence.

luminous (or photometric) irradiance.

apparatus that scans in a single dimension and is moved perpendicular to the scan direction to produce a two-dimensional
thermal map of the scene.
filter in which air is submitted to sudden changes of direction and speed to induce deposit of heavier particles on an
adhering surface.
total restriction (resistance and reactance) that an electrical circuit presents to the flow of an alternating current;
specifically, the ratio of voltage to current and the phase angle between them.

(also known as rotor or wheel), rotating part of a device (fan, blower, compressor, or pump) that moves fluid.

(also known as impeller hub disc or impeller hub plate), disc rotating with the axle to which the impeller blades of a
centrifugal fan are fixed.

ratio of the variation of the fluid pressure in the impeller to the total variation of pressure in the device.
tonal noise related to the blade pass frequency of the impeller. Impacted by the number of blades and the rotational
speed of the impeller. There will be a primary tone frequency and harmonics that are multiples of the primary frequency
(2, 3, etc.)
angle defined by the intersection of a line normal to a surface and a ray that strikes that surface.

the angle between the outward drawn normal to the solar collector aperture plane and the solar beam.

burning with an insufficient supply of air so the burning substance is only partially consumed and could have been burned
further with additional air supply. See [[stoichiometric reaction]].

work equivalent of indicator card area for a reciprocating compressor or engine. See also [[indicator diagram]].

power capacity as measured by means of an indicator diagram.

work as measured by an indicator diagram, independent of time.

thermometer designed for the visual display of temperature.

(also known as indicator card), pressure volume diagram tracing a gas in a compressor or engine cycle in terms of pressure
and volume displaced. See also [[volumetric efficiency]].

curve on an indicator card representing the pressure; the total volume relationship of clearance fluid during the initial
portion of the return stroke of the piston prior to the opening of the suction valve.

system in which a liquid such as brine or water, cooled by the refrigerant, is circulated to the material or space to be
refrigerated or is used to cool air so circulated.

(1) a heat and mass transfer device used to sensibly cool a primary airstream without addition of moisture, by means of an
evaporatively cooled secondary airstream. Since the secondary air provides wet-bulb depression, it represents a heat sink
to the primary air. (2) an indirect evaporative cooling device consisting of an indirect evaporative-cooling heat exchanger, a
means of delivering and distributing water to the wet passages of the heat exchanger, a basin for collecting water, a
recirculating water pump, and the piping that connects the basin and the water distribution system.

an indirect evaporative cooling device with integrated primary (dry) and secondary (wet) air passages in a single sensible
and evaporative heat exchanger.

machines using steam or hot liquids as a heat source.

(also known as water heater), heat exchanger taking heat from steam or water rather than heat directly.

(also known as internal melt), ice storage system using a method of heat exchange in which ice in containers is formed and
melted by a circulating secondary coolant enclosed in a pipe or tube.
subfunction of power system distribution automation that implements economic incentives to induce user action,
including automation provided by the user. Characterized by user local control of loads in response to economic incentives
applied. Also called passive load management.
system in which a secondary coolant, cooled or heated by the refrigerating system, is circulated to the air or substance to
be cooled or heated.
refrigerating system in which secondary coolant, cooled by a refrigerant, is circulated to the material or space to be cooled
or is used to heat or cool circulated air.
usually of the shell-and-tube type with the absorbent solution either flooded or sprayed outside the tubes and the heat
source (steam or hot fluid) inside the tubes.
one in which combustion products do not come into contact with the material to be heated; heating of the material is
accomplished by radiation or conduction from the heated surface.

one in which a fluid, such as air, is circulated to the material or space to be heated or is used to heat air so circulated.

attributes of the respirable air inside a building (indoor climate), including gaseous composition, humidity, temperature,
and contaminants. See also [[indoor environment quality (IEQ)]]. See also [[sick building syndrome]].
the entire air volume of a space or building in which the ventilation air is distributed, including ductwork and plenums.
The volume of indoor furnishings, equipment, and occupants must be subtracted from the gross indoor volume that is
based on interior dimensions of the space or building.

the heat exchanger that removes heat from or adds heat to the conditioned space.

a perceived indoor experience of the building indoor environment that includes aspects of design, analysis, and operation
of energy efficient, healthy, and comfortable buildings. Fields of specialization include architecture, HVAC design, thermal
comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), lighting, acoustics, and control systems. See [[indoor air quality (IAQ)]].

that part of the system that removes heat from or adds heat to the indoor airstream.
air temperature of the internally induced airflow. The mixed airstream resultant temperature of the mix of room air
temperature stream with supply airstream.
fan-induced movement of hot gases from the heat-absorbing equipment.
type of mechanical draft tower in which one or more fans are located in the air outlet to induce airflow through the air
entrainment of room air by the jet action of a primary airstream.
ratio of total (primary plus secondary) air to primary air.
terminal that supplies varying proportions of primary and induced air to satisfy the indoor load (excludes fan-powered
one that uses nozzles or the velocity of the primary air source to induce a flow of secondary air to be mixed with the
primary air.
alternating current load in which current lags voltage.

a vendor-neutral, open-data-exchange specification. It is an object-oriented file format developed for the building industry
and is commonly used in building information modeling to facilitate interoperability between software platforms.

uncontrolled inward air leakage to conditioned spaces through unintentional openings in ceilings, floors, and walls from
unconditioned spaces or the outdoors, caused by the same pressure differences that induce exfiltration.

a measure of the severity of the climate as it relates to infiltration (F day [C day]).

the ratio of the building infiltration load with the distribution effects included to the load with the distribution system
effects excluded.
that portion of unconditioned outside air drawn into the heated space as a consequence of loss of conditioned air through
the exhaust system of a furnace or boiler (expressed as a decimal).
an appendix that is not part of the standard but is included for information only.
device that transduces the infrared irradiance incident on it into some other form of energy.
ratio of the infrared spectrum radiant flux emitted by a physical body to that emitted by a blackbody at the same
temperature and under the same conditions.
apparatus that converts the two-dimensional spatial variations in infrared radiance from any object surface into a two
dimensional thermal map of the same scene in which variations in radiance are displayed in gradations of gray tone or

equivalent temperature difference measure of the (electric) noise of an infrared imaging system or line scanner; the
target-to-background temperature difference between a low-spatial-frequency blackbody target and its blackbody
background at which a ratio of one is obtained between the peak-to-peak signal and RMS noise at the output of the
detector processing electronics of the sensor in question.

range of electromagnetic radiation wavelengths greater than those of visible light and shorter than those of microwaves;
generally between 0.8 micrometer and 1 millimeter. IR originates from either incandescent or nonincandescent hot bodies
or from flames. The energy is used as a means of direct heat transfer from the source to the object(s) to be heated
without materially heating the intervening air.

measure of the capability of an infrared thermal sensing device to distinguish the apparent radiance temperature
difference between two blackbodies near the same temperature.
wide class of instruments used to display and/or record information that is proportional to or equivalent to the thermal
radiation from any object surfaces viewed by the instrument. The instrumentation varies from simple spot radiometers,
(which measure only one spot or area) to two dimensional thermal imagers (which provide photographic quality pictures
and which map the scene radiosity).

device buried in the motor winding to detect the winding temperature and interrupt the supply line when the allowable
winding temperature is exceeded.

property of a system to reach a steady state after a disturbance, without the intervention of a control equipment.

chemical substance that reduces the rate of corrosion, scale formation, fouling, or slime production.

the pressure loss of the device operating at a specified airflow rate with no dust load, expressed in Pa (in. of water).

the gross inside area measured in the plane(s) of the inlet connection(s). For converging inlets without connection
elements, the inlet area shall be considered to be that where a plane, perpendicular to the airstream, first meets the bell
mouth or cone.
in thermal storage, volume flow rate leaving a diffuser per unit length divided by the kinematic viscosity of the incoming
fuel burning capacity of an appliance in British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) [kilowatts (kW)] as specified by the
manufacturer. Appliance input ratings are based on sea-level operation and need not be changed for operation up to 2000
ft (600 m) altitude.
equipment that introduces data into or receives data from a data communications system.
a combined appliance where refrigerant tubing is inserted directly into the water heater, usually through one of the ports
on the water heater; the inserted tubing is the desuperheater.
reduction in sound pressure level caused by installation of an element in the sound path.

(1) thermostat that has an element that is inserted directly into the airstream of a duct or pipe. (2) thermostat with the
sensing member in the sensed variable but with the controlling element outside.

inside diameter, width, height, or cross-sectional diagonal.

solar radiation incident on the solar collector. See [[instantaneous irradiance]].

person(s) designated by governing codes to inspect installed systems for compliance with regulations.

the ratio of the energy removed by the transfer fluid per unit of collector area to the total solar radiation incident on the
collector per unit area (aperture or gross) during a test period for which the condition of the test corresponds to the
steady state or quasi-steady state.

a self-contained packaged water-heating device that is capable of providing a continuous supply of hot water at a
predetermined temperature without any storage capacity. Energy sources can be fuel fired (natural gas/propane), electric,
or steam fired. The term is typically utilized for domestic water-heating applications, but pool, spa, and radiant heating
systems are also an application. Another term that is used on smaller heaters is point-of-use heaters. Some manufacturers
allow for multiple unit installations when the need for larger capacity is required.

the rate at which solar radiation is incident on a unit surface area in unit time, measured in Btu/(hft 2) [W/m2].

the amount of energy removed by the transfer fluid per unit of gross collector area during the specified time period
divided by the global total solar radiation incident on the collector per unit area during the same test period, under steady
state or quasi-steady state.

see [[instantaneous heater]].

circuit that contributes to the output of the controller an amount equal to the integral of the error signal over time,
multiplied by the integral gain.
a device that is an integral part of a furnace or boiler and is designed to (a) provide for the exhaust of the products of
combustion in the event of no draft, back draft, or stoppage beyond the draft diverter; (b) prevent a back draft from
entering the furnace; and (c) neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent upon the operation of the
surface extension formed from the parent material at time of manufacture.
a boiler operated in conjunction with an indirectly fired storage water heater or an external storage tank in which
domestic water, heated by the boiler, is stored. Part-load value based on operation at standard ARI conditions; typically
used for ARI rating purposes.

a single-number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP, or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning
and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at specific increments of load capacities for the equipment.
Typically used for ARI rating purposes.

(1) more than one building system, such as lights and air distribution, combined into a common design. (2) system in
which many subsystems of a building are combined into a single package (e.g., fire, security, clock, and HVAC).

a device using signals from temperature and flow sensors through time for computing thermal energy transferred.

apparatus for cooling compressed gas or vapor between two compression stages.

generation of thermograms of portions of a building as viewed from the building interior. Compare to [[exterior-imaging

the maximum lighting power, in watts, allowed for the interior of a building.

any space not affected by exterior loads.

small back-pressure- and back-siphonage-type backflow prevention device designed to operate under continuous
pressure, for use where certain quasi contaminants are involved.

pressure prevailing between stages of multistage compression.

ignition source that is automatically ignited or energized when an appliance is called on to operate and that remains
continuously ignited or energized during each period of main burner operation (ANSI Standard Z 21.13).

burner for which ignition is supplied initially to start, not continually, and at timed intervals so long as combustion is
makeup air delivered directly to the interior of an exhaust hood such that it is exhausted without entering the occupied
space. Sometimes this kind of makeup air is called short-circuit makeup air.
sum of all kinetic and potential energies contained in a substance due to the states of motion and separation of its several
molecules, atoms, and electrons. It includes sensible heat (vibration energy) and that part of latent heat represented by
the increase in energy during evaporation.
in a thermostatic expansion valve, an integral internal part or passage whereby the actuating element (e.g., diaphragm or
bellows) is exposed to pressure leaving the valve.

the volume as determined from internal dimensions of the container with no allowance for the volume of internal parts.

total passive heat generated within the conditioned space. It includes heat generated by lighting, computers, business
machines, occupants, and mechanical and electrical equipment such as fans, pumps, compressors, and transformers.

heat from industrial activities and sources such as wastewater, boiler flue gas, coolants, exhaust air, and some waste
materials. This heat is normally wasted unless equipment is included to extract it for further use.

see [[static pressure loss]].

in rotating equipment, isolation of all moving parts is within the unit that supports the rotating device.

written explanation of the meaning of specific provisions, as determined by the issuing body in response to an inquiry.

device to disconnect a load from a power source or distribution center under an overload or short circuit condition (e.g., a
fuse, disconnect switch, etc.) This interrupt is not an integral part of the operating equipment.

see [[intermittent burner ignition]].

electrical or gas loads that by contract can be interrupted by the supply system in the event of a capacity limit in the
supplying system.
price rate, normally covering reduced pricing for a supply of electricity, that can be interrupted at the utilitys option,
either instantaneously as required or with advance notice.
space between two zones, rooms, or floors of a building.
component or circuit that limits the energy available in a hazardous location to a level that is incapable of igniting the
hazardous atmosphere.

see [[steam trap]].

steam trap in which the inlet is channeled to the bottom of the trap body so that the condensate enters underneath the
inverted bucket. A small hole in the top of the bucket helps discharge incondensable gases and entrapped air. The outlet
from the trap is at the top and, as long as the trap is filled with steam, it floats in the condensate and keeps the outlet
closed. The valve opens when the trap fills with condensate, sinks, and discharges the condensate into the return line.

units using inches, pounds, and other designations. Examples are: foot, Btu, horsepower, gallon. As compared to SI unit
sectorized blades.

(1) at a point of a surface, quotient of the flux incident on an element of a surface containing the point, divided by the area
of that element, measured in watts per square meter. (2) radiant flux density. See also [[solar irradiance]].

expansion of a fluid during which no heat or mechanical energy is exchanged with the surroundings; the enthalpy remains
(also known as reversible adiabatic), thermodynamic change at constant entropy.
(1) line at one barometric pressure. (2) line graph of state representing an isobaric process.
(also known as isopiestic), thermodynamic change at constant pressure.
thermodynamic change at constant volume.
graph that shows the variation of one quantity with another; for example, the variation of pressure with temperature
when the volume of the substance is held constant.

sampling in which the flow in the sampler inlet is moving at the same velocity and direction as the flow being sampled.

an installation in which a furnace or boiler is installed indoors and all combustion and ventilation air is admitted through
grilles or ducts from outdoors and (all such air) does not communicate with air in the conditioned space.

in thermodynamics, a system that can interchange neither matter nor energy with its surroundings.

devices that isolate HVAC zones so that they can be operated independently of one another. Also, a device, such as a
service valve, that allows maintenance of a portion of a system. Isolation devices include, but are not limited to, separate
systems, isolation dampers/valves, and controls providing shutoff at terminal boxes.

one of a group of substances with the same ultimate chemical composition but different molecular structure.

form of three-dimensional projection in which all of the principal planes are drawn parallel to corresponding established
axes and at true dimensions.
state of constant relative humidity.
graph of a state line that represents one temperature.
process at constant temperature.
a formal and ongoing record of problems or concernsand their resolutionthat have been raised by members of the
commissioning team during the course of the commissioning process.
process that repeatedly executes a series of operations until some prescribed condition is satisfied.
(1) integral covering, sometimes fabric reinforced, that is applied over insulation. Also, the core, shield, or armor of a cable
to provide mechanical or environmental protection. (2) sealed space around a piece of equipment or a storage unit,
through which a thermal medium can be circulated.
concentrated airstream formed as primary air leaves the diffuser.
quick chilling process using air at very high speed forced around the products, usually while those products are
continuously moving on a conveyor belt. Compare to [[air-blast cooling]].

quick freezing process using cold air at very high speed forced onto the produce. Also called blast freezing.

ejector or injector pump.

a filter used to collect the ASHRAE dust passing a device during an arrestance test.
set of quantum mechanical phenomena occurring when a current flows through an (electrically) weak link or junction
connecting two superconductors (e.g., by tunneling through a dielectric barrier or by flowing through a sufficiently narrow
constriction in a superconducting material).

alcohol thermometer used to measure low velocities in air circulation by heating the large bulb of the thermometer above
100F (38C) and noting the time it takes to cool from 100F to 95F (38C to 35C) or some other interval above ambient
temperature with the time interval being a measure of the air current at that location.

instrument for measuring the CO2 concentration in a cold storage atmosphere working on the principle that CO2 has a
thermal conductivity different from other gases. Concentrations of other gases can also be measured using this principle.

SI absolute temperature scale on which the triple point of water is 273.16 K and the boiling point is approximately 373.15
K (1 K = 1C). The Kelvin is the fraction 1/273.16 of the temperature of the thermodynamic triple point of water. See
[[triple point]].

three laws describing the motions of planets in their orbits: (1) the orbits of planets are ellipses with the sun at the
common focus; (2) the line joining a planet and the sun sweeps over equal areas during equal intervals of time; (3) the
squares of the periods of revolution of any two planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the

time rate of steady-state heat flow through a unit area of a homogeneous material, induced by a unit temperature
gradient in a direction perpendicular to that unit area. Units are Btu in./hft2F or Btu/hftF [W/(mK)].

the product of the line current (amperes) times the nominal system voltage (kilovolts) times 1.732 for three-phase
currents. For single-phase applications, kVa is the product of the line current (amperes) times the nominal system voltage

ratio of absolute viscosity to density of a fluid. A measure of a fluids resistance to flow in units of centistokes.

energy caused by the velocity of molecules.

(1) stop valve between receiver and liquid main in a refrigeration system. (2) stop valve on boiler head.

ratio of the emissivity of a heat radiator to the absorptivity of the same radiator is the same for all bodies, depending on
frequency and temperature alone, and is equal to the emissivity of a blackbody.

when ionization is complete, the conductivity of an electrolyte is equal to the sum of the conductivities of the ions into
which the substance dissociates.
optical absorption bands of a solution are displaced toward the red when its refractive index increases because of changes
in composition or other causes.

equipment or materials to which a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization, acceptable to the authority
having jurisdiction, has been attached. This organization is concerned with product evaluation and maintains periodic
inspection of the production of labeled equipment or materials. By labeling the equipment or materials, the manufacturer
indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

facility acceptable to the local, national, or international recognized authority having jurisdiction and which provides
uniform testing and examination procedures and standards for meeting design, manufacturing, and factory testing

box-like structure enclosing a source of potential air contamination, with one or more open or partially open sides into
which air is moved for the purpose of containing and exhausting air contaminants. A laboratory hood is generally used for
bench scale laboratory operations but does not necessarily involve the use of a bench or table.

device consisting of a series of grooves, fins, etc., machined into or fitted onto a shaft, piston, packing piece, etc. to
prevent leakage of a fluid.
(1) delay attributable to the transport of material or the finite rate of propagation of a signal or condition. Note: also
termed transport lag and transportation lag. (2) delay in action of the sensing element of a control device due to the time
required for the sensing element to reach equilibrium with the variable being controlled (i.e., temperature lag, flow lag).
(3) in thermal insulation, preformed, narrow blocks attached around large pipes or vessels by wires or bands. (4)
retardation of an output with respect to the causal input.

(1) illumination of a surface by a light ray varies as the cosine of the angle of incidence between the normal to the surface
and the incident ray. (2) luminous intensity in a given direction radiated or reflected by a perfectly diffusing plane surface
varies as the cosine of the angle between that direction and the normal to the surface.

having airflow nominally in one direction.

weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering; applied particularly to the longitudinal joint
produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe, in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they
are overlapped, they can be welded together.
the rate, expressed in Btu/h (W), at which the equipment removes latent heat (reduces the moisture content) of the air
passing through it under specified conditions of operation.

that portion of the cooling effect that results in water vapor condensation in the air circulating through the equipment.

the change in enthalpy associated with a change in humidity ratio, caused by the addition or removal of moisture.

(also known as moisture tons or wet tons), cooling load required to remove latent heat.
quantity of heat released on change of unit mass of saturated vapor to saturated liquid with no change in temperature,
measured in Btu/lbm (J/kg).

quantity of heat required to change a unit mass of ice to water at 32F (0C) temperature, measured in Btu/lb m (J/kg).

quantity of heat required to cause a change of state of a substance from a saturated liquid to a saturated vapor with no
change in temperature, measured in Btu/lbm (J/kg).
use of a phase change of a medium for storing heating or cooling capacity. See also [[ice storage]].
airflow within the fume hood is described as lazy when smoke remains on the work surface without smoothly flowing to
the back baffle.
(1) in gravity warm air heating, the duct running horizontally from the furnace to the riser or stack. (2) in plumbing, a
water conductor from the roof to the storm drain.
any operation designed to reveal a leak in a system.

(1) volumetric flow rate required to maintain a constant static pressure in the test section. (2) the amount of air
interchanged between the room side and outdoor side through a unit as a result of construction features, faulty sealing
techniques, temperature differential, or height differential. See [[infiltration]].

divisions of airtightness based on normalized leakage.

estimate in statistics and econometrics. The method of estimation that involves the choice of an estimate such that the
sum of the squares of the deviations of the data from the estimate is a minimum.

when an external force is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system adjusts so as to minimize the effect of the applied
an electromotive force (emf) induced in a conductor is always in such a direction that the current it would produce would
oppose the change that causes the induced emf.
dimensionless number equal to thermal diffusivity divided by mass diffusivity. Symbol Le, Le, or NLe.

person or entity certified by governmental authority (where required by law) to engage in construction contracting.

the process of evaluating a component, product, assembly, building, etc. and its development from the moment of
extraction of raw materials, transportation, processing, manufacturing, use, recyclability, and disposal and assigning a
value or assessment of its cumulative and ultimate social, environmental and economic costs, benefits, and impacts. This
is often referred to as a cradle-to-grave or cradle-to-cradle assessment.

cost of equipment over its entire life including operating, maintenance, and repair/replacement cost. May also include
decommissioning cost.
vertical distance that fluid must be pumped to reach a specified height.
valve with the mechanism lifting vertically from its seat. Lift-check valves are primarily used in vertical piping. See [[check
(1) the amount of incident light passed through a glazing system. (2) the percentage of incident light passed by the
translucent sampling filters (targets) used in the dust spot test.

the component of a luminaire that houses the lamp or lamps, positions the lamp, shields it from view, and distributes the
light. The fixture also provides for connection to the power supply, which may require the use of a ballast.

the maximum lighting power per unit area based on space function.

a group of luminaires circuited or controlled to perform a specific function.

control device used to limit the desired maximum or minimum state of the controlled variable or to provide an alarm if
those limits are exceeded.
controller designed to provide limit control.
physical stop or device that prevents an operator from adjusting the setpoint of a controller beyond a maximum or
minimum setting, often for safety.
control to limit some function. Once tripped, can be automatically reset or can require manual reset.
device that acts to automatically control the temperature of a room or space in which it is installed by switching directly to
the control device.

finding a straight line that best fits the data points, commonly by use of the least squares technique.

percentage increase in the length of a test specimen, usually an elastomer, as a result of exposure to refrigerants or oils.

(1) control device that automatically opens the line connections to a motor when a predetermined unsafe temperature
exists in the windings of the motor. (2) electrical motor protective action that causes the power line to the motor to be
interrupted on protective requirement.
a continuous vapor barrier liner installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members.
change of state to liquid; generally used instead of the term condensation in cases of substances that are ordinarily

mixed hydrocarbon gases stored under pressure in liquid form.

state of matter intermediate between crystalline substances and gases in which the volume of a substance, but not the
shape, remains relatively constant.

(1) a factory-made assembly of elements in which the heat is transferred from the liquid to the refrigerant, causing the
refrigerant to evaporate and the liquid to be cooled. (2) heat exchanger designed to cool liquids.

connection between the pumping unit outlet and the evaporator inlet.
tube or pipe carrying the refrigerant liquid from the condenser or receiver of a refrigerating system to a pressure-reducing

superheater or desuperheater.

system feeding an evaporator with refrigerant at a rate to make the exit vapor quality less than one.

(also known as liquid circulation), evaporator feed system whereby refrigerant liquid is flashed to saturated suction
pressure and temperature in an accumulator and is then fed by a mechanical pump or by refrigerant vapor pressure to the
evaporators. This liquid is normally fed at a rate greater than the evaporation rate for the refrigerant to ensure wetting of
the entire evaporator surface for better heat transfer.

(also known as liquid slug), accidental trapping of liquid refrigerant at any point in the system.

a vessel, permanently connected to a refrigerating system by inlet and outlet pipes, for storage of liquid refrigerant.

one of the three states of matter characterized by limited freedom of molecules and by substantial incompressibility. See
also [[liquid]].
in applications where the sensing point is always at a higher temperature than the rest of the system, vapor pressure is
transmitted by a column of liquid.
device for collecting liquid refrigerant at a given point in a refrigerating circuit.
vacuum pump in which the flow of the gas is induced by a vaned rotor and a mass of liquid projected by centrifugal force
against the stator.
liquid and gaseous phases of a single substance or azeotrope, usually at saturation.
vapor thermostat charged with such an amount of liquid that a certain quantity of liquid remains in the bulb whatever the
operating conditions may be.
a condensing unit in which the condensing media is a liquid (for example, water).
trap with an adjustable bellows and steel valve head located downstream of the steam system. It operates on temperature
rise, with the setpoint adjustable from the outside. It discharges at a fixed temperature for protection from freezing and
for high-capacity venting requirements.

a transformer in which the core and coils are immersed in an insulating liquid.

valve which controls the introduction of liquid refrigerant (e.g., into the intercooler in a multistage compression system).

a device for removing and retaining solid contaminants from the liquid line of a refrigeration system.

a filter containing a desiccant capable of removing moisture and other dissolved contaminants in the refrigerant stream.

a method of internally cooling the compressor mechanism or lubricant or the reduction of discharge temperature by
introducing saturated or subcooled discharge-side liquid refrigerant into the compressor or condensing unit. Liquid-
refrigerant injection mass flow rate is not taken into account when calculating compressor or condensing unit efficiency,
capacity, or volumetric efficiency.
solution used in absorption refrigeration.

equipment or materials included in a list published by an approved, nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection
agency, or other organization concerned with product evaluation which maintains periodic inspection of production of
listed equipment or materials and whose listing states either that the equipment or material meets nationally recognized
standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner.

an absorption system where water (R-718) is the refrigerant and lithium bromide (LiBr) is the absorbent.

(1) amount of heat per unit time imposed on a system by the required rate of heat addition or removal. (2) energy
absorbing device. (3) material, force, torque, energy, or power applied to or removed from a system or element. See also
in a thermal storage system, the ratio of average daily load to maximum capacity. A 100 kW chiller meeting an average
load of 75 kW would have a diversity of 0.75.
ratio of actual mean load to a maximum load or maximum production capacity in a given period. See [[electric power load
factor]]; [[cooling load factor]]; [[heating load factor]].
charging a thermal storage system at a constant rate during a complete cycle.
deliberate local control or influencing of user loads to affect the time of use of power or energy such as gas, steam, or
electric. Compare with [[direct-load management]].

summary of thermal or other energy loads in a system over a period of time. Note: for example, a common load profile on
a peak design day for thermal storage designs would show hourly system load requirements for 24 hours.

a compounded, synthetic dust used for air cleaner capacity and efficiency testing.

magnitude of the time-averaged vector of velocity at a point of an airstream.

(also known as locked rotor amperage [LRA]), steady-state current taken from the line with the rotor locked and with rated
voltage (and rated frequency in the case of alternating current motors) applied to the motor.

see [[control logic]].

choice or ability to choose between alternatives. This amounts to a yes or no answer to a question of equality or relative
detailed statement of the work order in terms of logic or built-in operations and characteristics of a specified machine.
Concise symbolic notation is used to represent the information and describe the input, output, arithmetic, and logical
operations by use of a standard set of block symbols. A coding process normally follows a logical flowchart.

instruction that carries out a logical operation, such as AND, OR, NOR.
(1) electric circuit containing a complete, continuous path, as in a feedback loop. (2) sequence of instructions that is
repeated until an exit condition prevails.
(1) device that is capable of discerning the loss of refrigerant charge in a refrigerating machine and of reacting to protect
the apparatus from motor burnout. (2) splitting of a condensate line to permit vapors to pass above and condensate to
pass below an obstruction.
device consisting of an assembly of parallel sloping vanes, intended to permit the passage of air while providing a measure
of protection against environmental influences. Also spelled louvre.
the temperature range for maintaining product in a frozen state in refrigeration applications.
limited fill thermal element, located in the mixed air portion of an HVAC unit, which opens an electrical circuit if any one
foot portion of the element reaches its setpoint (usually 35F [2C]). It usually shuts down the HVAC unit and/or initiates
an alarm. Formerly referred to as freeze stat.

electric, gas, or oil-burning appliance designed to supply low-pressure steam or hot water for space-heating application. A
low-pressure steam boiler operates at or below 15 psig [103 kPa (gage)] steam pressure; a hot-water boiler operates at or
below 160 psig [1100 kPa (gage)] water pressure and 250F (120C) water temperature.

(1) electric switch and pressure-responsive element connected into the suction side of a refrigerating system to control the
operation of the system. (2) pressure-responsive device actuated directly by refrigerant vapor pressure in the low side.

float-type expansion valve operated by changes in liquid level on the low-pressure side.

(1) sometimes referred to as an accumulator or surge drum, this vessel acts as the separator for the mixture of vapor and
liquid returning from the evaporators; the constant refrigerant level is usually maintained by control devices. (2) vessel on
the low side of a refrigerating system into which liquid refrigerant can be collected and used to supply evaporators.

system whose gage pressure at room temperature (74F [23.3C]) is near or less than atmospheric pressure. Common low-
pressure refrigerants include R-11 and R-123.
(also known as suction pressure safety cut-out), switch designed to stop the compressor motor when the suction pressure
reaches a predetermined low value.

(1) low side or suction side. (2) portion of a refrigerating system operating at approximately the evaporator pressure.

compression stage from a low to an intermediate pressure level.

gastight joint obtained by the joining of metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys that melt at temperatures below
1500F (800C) but above 800F (427C). Compare to [[soldered joint]].
use of fluids less than 200F (50C) (in round numbers) for district-heating supply; permitting use of energy sources
formerly discarded.
hydronic system intended for operation at temperatures below 200F (93C). Compare to [[high-temperature hot-water
air terminal device that is designed for thermally controlled ventilation (e.g., displacement flow applications). Also see
[[air terminal device]].
[[liquefied petroleum gas]]
the ratio of the mass of lubricant circulating through a refrigerant system to the total mass of refrigerant and lubricant
flowing through the system at a specified set of operating conditions.
see [[plug valve]].

(also known as photometric), referring to a radiometric quantity, luminous indicates the weighted average of the spectral
radiometric quantity, with the product of the photopic spectral luminous efficiency functions and the standard solar
spectral irradiance distribution being the weighting function.

monitoring and verification. See [[monitoring]] and [[verification]].

ratio of the speed of a body or of a point on a body with respect to the surrounding air or other fluid or the ratio of the
speed of a fluid to the speed of sound in the medium. Symbol M or NMa.
a space that is designed to safely house compressors and pressure vessels.
a ballast constructed with magnetic core and a winding of insulated wire.
cryocooling by adiabatic demagnetization of certain paramagnetic substances.
lines of force that exist about a magnetized body and collectively constitute a magnetic field.
degree of concentration of magnetic lines of force.
one that indicates temperature from the measurement of magnetic properties (e.g., susceptibility) of any suitable
substance; used for very low temperatures.
(1) pipe or duct for distributing flowing fluid to or collecting flowing fluid from various branches. (2) regulated compressed
air piped to pneumatic controls.

the meter that measures the energy used for the whole facility. There is at least one meter for each energy source and
possibly more than one per source for large facilities. Typically, utility meters are used, but dataloggers may also be used
as long as they isolate the load for the facility being studied. When more than one meter per energy source exists for a
facility, the main meter may be considered the accumulation of all the meters involved.

maintenance concept in terms of time and resource allocation. The maintenance program documents the objectives,
establishes the criteria for evaluation, and commits the maintenance activities to basic areas of performance (e.g., prompt
response to mechanical failure, repair, adjustment, and planned service functions that protect the capital investment and
minimize downtime or failure response).

(1) dedicated replacement air. (2) air brought into a building from the outdoors to replace air that is exhausted. Makeup air
may or may not be conditioned. (3) any combination of outdoor and transfer air intended to replace exhaust air and
exfiltration. (4) in a cleanroom, air introduced to the secondary air system for ventilation, pressurization, and replacement
of exhaust air. (5) in a laboratory or kitchen, outdoor air deliberately brought into the building from the outside and
supplied to the vicinity of an exhaust hood to replace air, vapor, and contaminants being exhausted. Makeup air is
generally filtered and fan forced, and it may be heated or cooled depending on the requirements of the application.
Makeup air may be delivered through outlets integral to the exhaust hood or through outlets in the same room.

air-handling unit that provides 100% outdoor air to offset air that is exhausted and exfiltrated, often providing conditioning
or treatment of the outdoor air.
water supplied to replenish the water of a system.
provision of information useful for management of a building environment and/or its energy efficiency and/or HVAC
system maintenance.

portion of a main in which several branches are close together. Also, a single piece in which there are several fluid paths.

device for measuring pressure or head in a fluid.

requiring personal intervention for control. Nonautomatic does not necessarily imply a manual controller, only that
personal intervention is necessary. See [[automatic]].
changeover from one operation to another by means of operator intervention.

device that can be used to manually adjust the airflow rate by manual operation. Also see [[damper]]; [[valve]].

hand-operated, needle-type valve for controlling the flow of liquid refrigerant to an evaporator.

automatic shutoff valve installed in a supply piping and set to shut off when unsafe conditions occur. The device remains
closed until manually reopened.
(1) device for interrupting or changing the path of electric current or mass flow by a physical means. (2) device used to
manually turn on or interrupt an electric circuit.
device that can be used to shut off the flow by manual operation. Also see [[damper]] and [[valve]].

see [[manual damper]].

opening with removable cover in a vessel to permit periodic entry to the interior of the vessel or inspection of an area.

see [[Stanton number]].

quantity of matter in a body measured in terms of resistance to acceleration by a force (i.e., its inertia). In SI, the standard
unit of mass is the kilogram (kg); in I-P, the standard unit of mass is the slug.

(also known as diffusion coefficient), ratio of the mass flow of a substance diffusing through a surface of unit area to the
rate of variation in the concentration of this substance normal to this surface.
mass of a substance flowing per unit time.
transfer of one component of a mixture relative to the motion of the mixture. It is the result of a concentration gradient.
Compare to [[heat transfer]].
ratio of the mass flow rate of a fluid to the cross-sectional area of the flow.
rate of a chemical reaction for a uniform system at constant temperature is proportional to the concentrations of the
substances reacting. Also known as Guldberg and Waage law.

(1) central device that develops corrective action, in response to the area control error, for execution at one or more
generating units. (2) controller that contains the necessary circuits to operate slave controllers. (3) instrument whose
variable output is used to change the setpoint of a submaster controller.

central utility meter for an aggregation of multiple units.

all materials not hazardous by nature, existing at near ambient pressure and temperature, and not placing at risk people
working on systems carrying such materials.

the period of time within which charging of the thermal storage device must be completed. This period is typically
determined by the utility rate structure, the building operating schedule, and the design operating strategy.

(1) maximum gage pressure permitted on a completed system. (2) the setting of the pressure-relieving devices protecting
the system.

for a set of multiple measurements of a physical property, from which statistical methods have been used to remove
spurious data points, the greatest of the deviations of the set of indicated values from the mean of the set.

the position of the sash at which the fume hood has the largest opening.
a modulating damper or set of dampers used to control the outdoor airflow to the system in excess of minimum
ventilation outdoor air for free cooling (airside economizer). Also called economizer outdoor air damper. May also serve to
provide the minimum outside airflow control.

the difference between the saturated liquid temperature (bubble point) and the saturated vapor temperature (dew point)
for the "as-formulated" blend composition at constant pressure. For a given pressure, the evaporator temperature glide in
a direct-expansion system will typically be 70% to 80% of the maximum temperature glide (as the refrigerant blend
entering the evaporator is a mixture of liquid and vapor) and not at the saturated liquid temperature of the as-
formulated blend composition.

the maximum fluid supply temperature at which the cooling load can be met without adversely affecting latent space

the maximum fluid temperature at which usable cooling can be obtained from the thermal storage device.

see [[design pressure]].

used where a provision is permissible but not mandatory.

the sum of measurement values divided by the number of measurements. It is considered the best approximation of the
true value.

temperature is based on the arithmetic average of the mean daily minimum and mean daily maximum outdoor (dry-bulb)
temperatures for the month in question.

theoretical uniform surface temperature of an enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of
radiant heat as in the actual nonuniform enclosure. Compare to [[operative temperature]].

arithmetic mean of tank-water temperatures. Determination of number and type of measurements can be as specified by
standards or guidelines.
can be calculated as the average of temperature readings over a period of time or the average of the high and low
temperatures over a given time.
an average of the instantaneous air velocity over an interval of time.

a continuous and unobstructed path of travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way.

element inserted in the ductwork that facilitates the determination of air temperature, air humidity, airflow rate, and/or
that full range of checks and tests carried out to determine if all installed measurement system components, subsystems,
systems, and interfaces between systems function in accordance with the measurement plan. Also used to ascertain the
as-installed uncertainty of the measurement system.
mechanical instrument that directly measures air velocity; a device, that is sensitive to air movement, with a calibrated
airspeed measuring indicator.

burner supplied with fuel oil under pressure, causing self-atomization.

refrigerating machine using mechanical energy input to generate chilled water.

reducing the temperature of a fluid by using vapor compression, absorption, desiccant dehumidification combined with
evaporative cooling, or other energy-driven thermodynamic means. Indirect or direct evaporative cooling alone is not
considered mechanical.
ratio of the compression energy or work of a compressor to the energy or work input.
capacity for doing work, usually expressed in work units (foot-pounds or newton-meters); sometimes in heat units (Btu or
joule). Energy may be inherent in the speed of a body (kinetic energy) or in its position relative to another body (potential
raising the temperature or change of phase of a solid or fluid by use of fossil-fuel burners, electric resistance heaters, heat
pumps, or other systems that require energy to operate.
joints obtained by joining parts through a mechanical construction (such as flanged joint, screwed joint, flared joint). Also
see [[compression joint]].

properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied or that involve the relationship
between stress and strain; for example, the modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and fatigue limit.

refrigerating system using mechanical compression to move the refrigerant from the low-pressure side and to deliver it to
the high-pressure side of the system.
seal with small enough clearance between moving parts to provide pressure tightness and minimize leakage between
mechanical parts.

energy delivered or absorbed by a mechanism, such as a turbine, air compressor, or internal combustion engine.

(1) the active process of supplying or removing air to or from an indoor space by powered equipment such as motor-
driven fans and blowers but not by devices such as wind-driven turbine ventilators and mechanically operated windows.
(2) ventilation provided by mechanically powered equipment, such as motor-driven fans and blowers, but not by devices
such as wind-driven turbine ventilators and mechanically operated windows.

tower through which air movement is effected by one or more fans. There are two main types: forced draft with fans
located at the air inlet and induced draft with fans located at the air exhaust. See also [[cooling tower]].

system whose gage pressure at room temperature (74F [23.3C]) is greater than atmospheric pressure but typically less
than 100 psig (689 kPa). Common medium pressure refrigerants include R-12, R-500, and R 134a.

the temperature range for maintaining food product above freezing in refrigeration applications. Typically 35F to 40F
(3C to 5C).

thermodynamic state shown by all superconductors in a sufficiently weak magnetic field, characterized by the exclusion or
expulsion of magnetic flux from everywhere within the superconductor except a thin surface layer.

change of state from solid to liquid, caused by absorption of heat.

for a given pressure, the temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of the substance are in equilibrium.
pressure gage with a flexible membrane whose deformations are used to indicate pressure.

an adjustable mechanical device that allows a valve to be closed (for service) and limits the valve to a predetermined
position when reopened.
(1) free surface of a liquid which, near the walls of a vessel, is curved because of surface tension. (2) in a manometer, the
datum point measured at the center of the free surface.

glass tube partially filled with mercury. Electrical contact is established when the tube is tilted so that the mercury bridges
the gap between contacts located at the same end. Tilting in the opposite direction opens the circuit.

bulb and attached glass capillary tube containing mercury which expands or contracts with changes in temperature; so
marked that the end of the mercury column indicates the ambient temperature.
see [[minimum efficiency reporting values (MERV)]].
see [[minimum efficiency reporting values (MERV)]].

heat produced by oxidation of food elements (i.e., metabolism) in humans or animals. The met represents the average
heat produced by a sedentary man, approximately 90 kcal/h or 100 W (340 Btu/h).

(1) rate of energy production of the body. The rate varies with the type of activity. (2) the rate of transformation of
chemical energy into heat and mechanical work by metabolic activities within an organism, usually expressed in terms of
unit area of the total body surface. Metabolic rate is expressed in met units.

chemical changes in living cells by which energy is provided for vital processes.
energy end use data collected over time using a measuring device or group of measuring devices.
the average time rate of energy flow over a period of time.
collection of energy data using a measuring device or group of measuring devices.
CH3OH, colorless, toxic, flammable liquid with a boiling at 148.9F (65.0C) and having a flash point (open cup) of 54F

conditions such as temperature, humidity, and motion of air within an enclosure or limited outdoor area.

a microscopic organism, especially a bacterium, fungus, or protozoan.

insulation composed principally of fibers manufactured from rock, slag, or glass, with or without binders.

scaled rating of the effectiveness of air filters. The scale is designed to represent the worst-case performance of a filter
when dealing with particles in the range of 0.3 to 10 micrometers. The MERV rating is from 1 to 16. Higher MERV ratings
correspond to a greater percentage of particles captured on each pass, with a MERV rating of 16 filter capturing more than
95% of particles over the full range.

the minimum efficiency occurring in a population of motors of the same manufacturer and rating.

the minimum pressure where effective operation is achieved

a damper in parallel with the maximum outdoor air damper to provide the minimum outdoor air required for ventilation.

ability of a liquid or gas to dissolve uniformly in another liquid or gas.

specific activities, technologies, or equipment designed or deployed to capture or control substances upon loss of
containment to minimize exposure of the public or the environment. Passive mitigation means equipment, devices, or
technologies that function without human, mechanical, or other energy input. Active mitigation means equipment,
devices, or technologies that need human, mechanical, or other energy input to function.

(1) air that contains two or more streams of air. (2) combined outdoor air and recirculated air.
fan whose characteristics combine both centrifugal and axial airflow.
air diffusion where the mixing of supply air and room air is intended. Also see [[air diffusion]].

compartment into which two air supplies are mixed together before being discharged.
a section for the mixing of two air streams at differing temperatures or humidities or both.

a type of air-distribution system in which conditioned air is delivered to the space at a velocity sufficient to promote
complete mixing of supply air with room air, thereby maintaining the entire volume of air in the space at a relatively
uniform temperature, humidity, and air quality condition. A conventional overhead air distribution, which supplies and
returns air at ceiling level, is an example of a mixing system.

three-way valve to mix two fluids. Compare to [[diverting valve]].

in a system undergoing vibration, a mode of vibration designates the characteristic pattern of displacement assumed by
the system vibrating at one of its resonance frequencies.
the shape of the structure when vibrating at a natural frequency. Note: mode shapes should be normalized (usually by
referring all values to a fraction of the motion at some reference point).

a mathematical representation or calculation procedure that is used to predict the energy use and demand in a building or
facility. Models may be based on equations that specifically represent the physical processes (refer to [[simulation
model]]) or may be the result of statistical analysis of energy use data.

on-site assembly of prefabricated components, each with a functional role in an air-conditioning (air-circulation, air-
filtration, cooling, heating, humidification, etc.) system.
boiler designed and constructed to include increments of capacity.

(1) to adjust by small increments and decrements. (2) to vary a voltage or other variable with a signal.

(1) a step-modulating control that is capable of controlling flow rate between the maximum and the minimum adjustable
input rate in response to varying heating or cooling load. (2) method of control in which the output of the controller may
vary infinitely over its range.

valve capable of increasing or decreasing by increments the fluid flow according to deviation from the set control value.

adjustment of controller action by increments and decrements.

retention and transport of water droplets in a gas stream (usually air) (e.g., water droplets formed by bridging fins of a coil
and transported by the airstream).
the amount of moisture per unit volume of porous material, w, in lbm/ft3 (kgm/m3).

process for making things impervious to liquid. Note: if not completely impervious, use moisture retarder.

the amount of moisture per unit weight of dry porous material or the volume of moisture per unit volume of dry material,
in percent.

the mass of water vapor removed from the process air per unit of time and expressed in kg/h (lb/h).

the mass of water vapor removed from the desiccant per unit of time via the regeneration process (desorption) and
expressed in kg/h (lb/h).
in humid air, the ratio of the number of water vapor mols to the total number of mols in the mixture. Compare to
biological growth or fungi growing on moist organic matter.
gaseous flow where the average free path of the gas molecules is greater than the largest dimension of the cross section
of the duct. Parallel flow.
adsorbent composed of porous aluminosilicates with pores of uniform molecular dimensions that selectively adsorb
molecules of the substance to be adsorbed.

graph of enthalpy versus entropy of a vapor on which isobars, isothermals, and lines of equal dryness are plotted.

observing, supervising, controlling, or verifying the operations of a system.

(1) a plan for gathering of relevant measurement data over time to evaluate equipment or system performance. The plan
defines specific M&V methods to be used, including baseline determination, performance period measurements, savings
verification calculations, and acceptance criteria. The M&V methods chosen are consistent with the current facility
requirements (CFR). During the implementation phase, a list is developed of specific instrumentation and data-gathering
equipment that must be maintained at the site. During the hand-off phase, the type, frequency, and distribution of M&V
reports to be submitted for approval is confirmed. (2) equipment to measure and record the parameters of the HVAC&R
systems (i.e., temperature, humidity, pressure, electric current, kW, and volts). (3) gathering of relevant measurement data
over time to evaluate equipment or system performance (e.g., chiller electric demand, inlet evaporator temperature and
flow, outlet evaporator temperature, condenser inlet temperature, and ambient dry-bulb temperature and relative
humidity or wet-bulb temperature, for use in developing a chiller performance map (e.g., kW/ton versus cooling load and
versus condenser inlet temperature).

the square root of the frequency of an x-ray spectral line belonging to a particular series is proportional to the difference
between the atomic number and a constant that depends only on the series.

devices that automatically disconnect a motor from its energy supply when predetermined unsafe temperatures or
overcurrent conditions exist. See [[line-break motor protection]].
machine in which power is applied to do work by the conversion of various forms of energy into mechanical force and

valve operated by an electric motor or actuator.

[[mean radiant temperature]]

(1) device intended to reduce noise; more particularly, an expansion chamber in the exhaust line of an internal
combustion engine. (2) device to reduce sound level.
damper having two or more blades or leaves.

thermal insulation consisting of waffled or corrugated sheets of metal foil to form a cellular structure.

apparatus in which fluids exchange heat by flowing in an assembly of separated channels.

many thin layers of materials combined to obtain a very high thermal resistance (superinsulation).

a number of shutters in opposed blade or parallel arrangement.

condenser consisting of a number of closed shell-and-tube units.
compression in two or more stages; usually the low-stage compressor discharges to the suction of a higher-stage

compressor in which compression is accomplished in more than two stages in separate cylinders or impellers.

allowing refrigerant to pass through two or more expansion valves in series with each other.

system in which compression of refrigerant is carried out in two or more steps.

sliding vane compressor with several vanes, sliding-in slots in the rotor, and that maintains continuous contact with the
inner periphery of the fixed casing.
(1) air-conditioning unit capable of handling variable loads from different sections of a building simultaneously. (2) spatial
divisions of a building having different air-conditioning loads.
poppet valve whose head is mushroom shaped.
(1) object point that is directly beneath an aircraft flying an airborne imaging survey. (2) point of the celestial sphere that is
directly opposite the zenith and vertically downward from the observer.

North American Industry Classification System, as published by the Office of Management and Budget, 1997.

full-load, continuous rating of a generator, prime mover, or other equipment under specified conditions, as designated by
the manufacturer and usually indicated on an attached plate. Compare to [[capacity]].
a petroleum-lubricating oil fraction in which naphthenic ring-type hydrocarbon structures predominate.

see [[laboratory]].

(1) air circulation caused by air movement or pressure differences. (2) air circulation caused by differences of density
induced by differences of temperature and/or humidity.
heat transmission by movement of a fluid, caused by density differences. Usually created by a thermal heat source or heat
(1) cooling a fluid by natural convection over the cooling surface. (2) cooling a space by means of air cooled by natural

airflow resulting from the difference between atmospheric density and some lower density; chimney effect.

naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon gases found in porous geologic formations beneath the
earths surface, often in association with petroleum. The principal constituent is methane.

movement of air into and out of a space primarily through intentionally provided openings (such as windows and doors),
through nonpowered ventilators, or by infiltration.
burner that depends primarily on the natural draft created in the chimney or venting system to induce the air required for
combustion into the burner.
one in which air movement is dependent upon the difference in density between the entering air and internal air. As the
heat of the water is transferred to the air passing through the tower, the warmed air tends to rise and draw in fresh air at
the base of the tower. See [[hyperbolic tower]].
thermal storage in which temperature stratification is achieved and maintained by density differences alone and not by
mechanical separators.
a zeotropic blend with a temperature glide sufficiently small that it may be disregarded without consequential error in
analysis for a specific application.

the sound field close to a sound source (between the source and the far field) where the instantaneous sound pressure
and particle velocity are not in phase. Measurements in this region typically do not correlate to sound power measured at
a further distance, and the boundary of this field is typically one to two dimensions of the source away.

operation at a frequency near, but not exactly equal to, the resonance frequency.
to supply very fine water spray or steam into an airstream or enclosure.
type of roller bearing in which rod-like rollers have small diameters relative to their lengths.
(1) valve having a very small hole in the seat, fitted with a needle-shaped plunger. (2) valve in which the obturator is a
stem ending in a conical point which mates with a corresponding valve seat.
(1) in a building, pressure lower than pressure outdoors. Note: as the negative pressure increases, outdoor air is drawn in
through any openings in the building envelope. (2) in building spaces, pressure lower than pressure in adjacent spaces or

tested maximum negative pressure at which a duct is rated.

(1) (equipment effective capacity), maximum load that a machine, apparatus, device, or system is capable of carrying
under service conditions. (2) capacity (volume) of a room after deducting the loss of space due to coils, columns, air ducts,
dunnage, and other dedicated space required to provide air circulation.

rate of heat removal from a fluid flowing through a cooler (air, water, brine, etc.) at stated conditions; the difference in
specific enthalpies of the cooling fluid entering and leaving the cooler. In case frosting occurs within the cooler, the latent
heat of fusion and the subcooling heat of the ice (frost) must be added in determining the net cooler refrigerating

the total area in the device on which dust collects. For devices using fibrous media, it is the net upstream area of the
media exposed to airflow measured in the plane or general surface of the media. Net effective area excludes the area
blocked by sealants, flanges, or supports. In electronic air cleaners, it is the total exposed surface of those electrodes
available for dust precipitation, including the ionizing section but excluding supports, holes, and insulators. Net effective
filtering area is measured in m2 (ft2) to three significant figures.

the exhaust flow rate for a hood minus any internal discharge makeup airflow rate.
the total useful capacity of the air conditioner for removing water vapor from the space to be conditioned.

the floor area of an occupiable space defined by the inside surfaces of its walls but excluding shafts, column enclosures,
and other permanently enclosed, inaccessible, and unoccupiable areas. Obstructions in the space such as furnishings,
display or storage racks, and other obstructions, whether temporary or permanent, are considered to be part of the net
occupiable area.

minimum head at the pump inlet to prevent the liquid being pumped from flashing into a vapor at that temperature and
pressure and potentially causing the pump to cavitate. There are 2 types of NPSH values: net positive suction head
available (NPSHA) and net positive suction head required (NPSHR). NPSHA is actual or available head at the pump impeller
and should be greater than the vapor pressure of operating fluid at the operating temperature. NPSHR is the value stated
by the pump manufacturer that is the minimum required head at the pump impeller. NPSHA should be greater than
NPSHR. Values of NPSH are expressed as head in units of feet (kPa).

the product of the weight rate of liquid flow and the difference in enthalpy of the entering and leaving liquid, expressed in
heat traits per unit of time.
that portion of the total refrigeration capacity of a liquid cooler that produces useful cooling. This is the product of the
mass flow rate of liquid, specific heat of the liquid, and the difference between entering and leaving liquid temperatures
expressed in energy units per unit of time. It is represented also by the total refrigeration capacity less the heat leakage

the gross total capacity less the default rate of fan heat assumed by the manufacturer; this rate of fan heat is not
necessarily the same as for the actual installed fan (see [[adjusted net total capacity]]). (Also see [[gross total capacity]].)

total cooling capacity with fan power adjustment

the refrigeration capacity available for space and product cooling. It is equal to the gross total cooling effect less the heat
equivalent of energy required to operate the cooler.

the volume of interior usable space intended for refrigerated storage or display, specifically consisting of the usable
interior volume within the claimed load limit boundaries. Any of this volume occupied by evaporator coils, fan grilles,
ducts (including any space intentionally made unusable by fences and grilles), or any other significant interior protrusions
are excluded from the net usable volume. For cases normally equipped with shelves, the front edge of the shelf is
assumed to be the front-load limit boundary. To be consistent, shelves and other display devices are not treated as
significant interior protrusions. The volume occupied by shelves and other display devices is not subtracted from the net
usable volume.

computer circuits patterned after the complex interconnections among nerve cells in the brain.
(also known as neutral zone) building height at which there is no difference between inside and outside building static air

the rate of heat flow out of an object by both natural convection and radiation is proportional to the temperature
difference between the object and its environment and to the surface area of the object.

(1) change of motion is proportional to force applied and takes place in the direction of the line of action of the force. (2)
every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, except insofar as it may be compelled to
change that state by action of some outside force. (3) to every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction.

removable cover placed over an open-top refrigerated display case during overnight periods in order to reduce energy
transfer with the environment.
manual or automatic reset of temperature control point of a thermostat, usually coupled with a start-up time for
restoration of desired daytime temperature level.

the volumetric flow rate, L/s (cfm), equivalent to the mass flow rate of dry nitrogen that would be passed for a specified
inlet pressure if discharge had been to standard atmospheric pressure of 101.325 kPa (14.696 psi) absolute.

procedure in which nitrogen gas is bled into piping as it is welded, brazed, or soldered to displace gases within the piping.
The nitrogen displaces the air from inside the pipe, minimizing oxidation and resultant scale formation.

a line of zero response on the fan such that blades on opposite sides of the line vibrate in opposite phase.
(1) system in which all the refrigerated surfaces in the cabinet are defrosted by an automatic defrost system. (2) use of a
secondary coolant sprayed on evaporator surfaces to prevent formation of frost; water absorbed in the coolant is removed
by distillation.

(1) ambient background sound when equipment is not in operation. (2) any disagreeable or undesired sound.

a series of curves of octave band sound spectra in a system for rating the noisiness of an occupied indoor space; an actual
octave band spectrum is compared with this set of curves to determine the NC level of the space. See also [[room criterion
curve (RC curve)]].

difference between the average sound pressure levels, or sound intensity levels, of two spaces. Usually those two spaces
are two adjacent rooms called, respectively, the source room and the receiving room.

(1) the capacity recorded and reported by a given test. (2) the capacity reported by the manufacturer for a specified
for a given product of specified dimensions and at an initial uniform temperature of 32F (0C), the time it takes for the
thermal center to reach 14F (10C).

the median efficiency occurring in a population of motors of the same manufacturer and rating.

nominal value of dimensions of the prepared opening (duct) into which the air terminal device is to be fitted.

reference dimension used for designation, calculation, and application of duct and fitting.

a theoretical capacity of the thermal storage device, which in many cases is greater than the usable storage capacity. This
measure should not be used to compare usable capacities of alternative storage systems.

the indoor air volume of a space or building divided by the rate of outdoor air supply; the nominal time constant also
equals the average age of air exiting from the space or building. The reciprocal of the nominal time constant is called the
nominal air change rate.
see [[manual]].
a synonym for the preferred term zeotropic. See [[zeotropic]].

a solar collector in which the absorber heat flux is not greater than the solar irradiance across the aperture area.

gas that cannot be liquefied at normal operating pressures and temperatures.

located in the absorber tube bundle or external to the absorber/evaporator vessel.

continuous ice maker with simultaneous water supply, freezing, and harvesting phases in the ice-making operation.

forms of energy (excluding minerals) derived from incoming solar radiation (including photosynthetic processes); from
resulting phenomena including wind, waves and tides, and lake or pond thermal differences; and from the internal heat of
the earth and nocturnal thermal exchanges.

sources of energy (excluding minerals) derived from incoming solar radiation (including photosynthetic processes); from
phenomena including wind, waves and tides, lake or pond thermal differences; and energy derived from the internal heat
of the earth (including nocturnal thermal exchanges).

procedure that evaluates equipment fitness and integrity without permanently altering physical state or arrangement.

lighting that would not impair the safety nor materially interfere with the occupancy of an area if it were turned off.
Examples include decorative, advertising (except simple identification of structures or addresses), and multiple lamp
groupings resulting in illumination levels greater than accepted standards for the purpose (as for aisles, corridors, streets,
and highways).

generation of a set of apparent temperature measurements of building surfaces (usually the interior) obtained with a
nonimaging thermal sensing device.
jet in which the primary air temperature differs from the mean space temperature.

one without uniform airflow patterns and velocities.

(1) impedance that cannot be represented by a first order mathematical equation. (2) impedance that varies with applied

a compressor in which the increase in vapor pressure is attained without changing the internal volume of the compression

energy derived from a fossil-fuel source.

device that allows air to flow only in a predetermined direction. See [[backdraft damper]].
check valve.

devices that are designed to operate through a specified performance range and then be manually cleaned or
reconditioned by equipment not included in the air cleaner itself. An example is the washable expanded metal filter.

a single-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions for
units that are not designed to operate at ARI standard rating conditions.
fluid flow varying in velocity across the plane perpendicular to the flow.
one that remains a liquid during the process of absorbing heat within the air cooler. See [[secondary coolant (secondary

a point of operation representing normal usage of the equipment.

adjustment of the results of a model due to changes in baseline assumptions (nonindependent variables) during the test
or post-retrofit period.
dimensionless value calculated from the leakage area, building height, and floor area that describes the relative
airtightness of the building envelope.
(1) controlled device that closes when the control signal is off. (2) device that returns to the closed position when power is
device that returns to the open position when power is off.
integral parts of the mandatory requirements of the standard, which, for reasons of convenience, are placed after all other
normative elements.
facing within 45 degrees of true north (northern hemisphere).
short tube with a taper or constriction used to speed up or direct a flow of fluid.

discharge opening suitably shaped to produce a jet of air or other fluid of regular form and given throw.

[[nonstandard part-load value]]

[[net positive suction head (NPSH)]]
(1) no requirement. (2) [[noise reduction]].

boiling in which bubble formation is at the liquid/solid interface rather than from external or mechanical devices.

see [[direct digital control (DDC)]].

dimensionless number, used in calculation of forced convection, that gives a measure of the ratio of total heat transfer to
conductive heat transfer, equal to the heat transfer coefficient times a characteristic length divided by the thermal
designer specializing in the operations and maintenance aspects of the project.
size in the object plane which corresponds to the products of the systems instantaneous field of view in radians and the
distance from the system to the object.
a device that detects the presence or absence of people within an area and that causes lighting, equipment, or appliances
to be regulated accordingly.

those spaces where the thermal conditions of the space are regulated primarily by the opening and closing of windows by
the occupants.

(1) any enclosed space inside the pressure boundary (including, but not limited to, all habitable spaces, toilets, closets,
halls, storage and utility areas, and laundry areas) and intended for human activities. (2) that portion of the premises
accessible to or occupied by people, excluding machinery rooms.

(1) outside diameter. (2) outside dimension.

see [[outdoor dry-bulb temperature]].
a quality of gases, liquids, or particles that stimulates the olfactory organ.

time taken to reduce odor to a defined level from a given concentration and resulting from a standard test.

efficiency of the reduction of odors by a device.

(1) method of defrosting in which the temperature of the evaporator coils is allowed to rise naturally during an off-cycle,
during which no refrigerant is supplied. (2) rapid heating of the evaporator coil during the off part of each cycle.

building or structure for office, professional, or service-type transactions (such as a medical office, bank, library, or
business), including governmental offices.
time of day other than the on-peak period of electrical demand.
refrigerating or cooling system with control that normally avoids use of power during peak-load periods and usually
requires means for storage of energy.
direct current flowing in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the voltage applied to the circuit; Ohm's law is valid
for metallic circuits and many circuits containing an electrolytic resistance.
normal quantity of oil in a reciprocating compressor or engine.

a heat exchanger that can be cooled by air, brine, water, or refrigerant vaporization to cool oil in a lubrication system.

transfer of heat from oil in a pipe or tubing to a refrigerant or brine.

valve for draining out the oil from all collection points in a system.

support of combustion in a furnace, stove, etc. by the injection of fuel oil.

(also known as differential oil pressure switch or oil failure switch), safety device used to stop the compressor or burner
when the oil pressure reaches a preset, abnormally low value.
pressure of an oil pump in pressure-lubricated machines or oil burners.
gage fitted to the delivery side of an oil pump.

vessel for receiving and separating collected oil prior to returning to or discharging from the refrigerating system.

(also known as oil still), apparatus for purifying oil by vaporizing the refrigerant contained.
removal of oil or oil vapor from a refrigerant vapor.

migration of oil from the evaporator to the crankcase of the compressor. See [[compressor oil return]].

a device for separating oil and oil vapor from the refrigerant; usually installed in the compressor discharge line.

a device to separate oil from refrigerant by a distillation process.

safety device used to stop the compressor when the oil temperature reaches a preset, abnormally high value.

device for separating and collecting oil at a given point in a refrigerating circuit.
nozzle for mechanically atomizing fuel oil in a burner.
valve enabling one to charge or top a refrigerating system with oil.
a hand or electrically operated pump for forcing oil into the compressor crankcase.
the ratio of the mass of lubricant circulating through a refrigerant system to the total mass of refrigerant and lubricant
flowing through the system at a specified set of operating conditions.
compressor in which no oil is used in the compression chamber. See [[dry piston compressor]].
unit for quantifying the source strength of air pollution. One olf is the emission rate of air pollutants (bioeffluents) from a
standard person.
see [[instantaneous heater]].
piping system in which a single pipe loop provides the cooling or heating distribution to multiple devices or through
secondary or tertiary loops.
piping system in which the condensable vapor withdrawn from the supply main passes into a heating unit and returns as
condensate to the same supply main.
a continuation of the commissioning process well into occupancy/operations to continually improve the operation and
performance of a facility.

(1) time of day during which creating electrical demand incurs more cost. (2) time of day when use of power within a
building is at a maximum, which may be the peak period of either the consumer or of the utility.

see [[dust spot opacity]].

a number that expresses the relative dust accumulation on a dust spot sampling target, corrected for the nonlinearity of
opacity increase at the constant dust accumulation rate. See [[dust spot opacity index]].

condenser in which the water passes in a film over the inner surfaces of the tubes, which are open to the atmosphere.

heating or refrigerating piping system in which the circulating water or brine return main is connected to an open-vented
elevated tank that serves as a reservoir to accommodate expansion and contraction of the fluid and as an inspection point
for the condition of the fluid. See also [[down-feed system]]; [[water system]].

system in which the circulating brine returns to an open tank which serves as a reservoir for the pump suction and as an
inspection tank for the condition and flow of brine.

cellular plastic in which interconnected cells predominate.

control system in which the effect of the control action is not felt by the sensed variable (e.g., outside air when it is used
for reset). Compare to [[closed-loop control]].

control system that controls outputs by inputs only and where the actual system output is not considered.

extended surface cooling towers with interconnecting piping placed in supply and exhaust airstreams. A circulated heat
and mass transfer fluid is alternately brought in direct contact with each airstream.

refrigerant compressor with a shaft or other moving part extending through its casing to be driven by an outside source of
power, thus requiring a shaft seal or equivalent rubbing contact between fixed and moving parts.

difference between the cut-out and cut-in at the sensing element.

ratio of output to input.

expected useful life of a device, usually expressed in number of operations or years/months/hours of typical operation.

the position of the sash at which the fume hood user places the sash while working at the face of the fume hood. The
operating opening should take into consideration all of the procedures to be conducted in the fume hood. There may be
more than one operating opening.
the pressure occurring at a reference point in a system when the system is in operation.
a cleanroom in normal operation with all services functioning and with production equipment and personnel present and
performing normal work functions.

the uniform temperature of an enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of heat by radiation plus
convection as in the actual nonuniform environment. Compare to [[mean radiant temperature]].

(1) in the description of a process, that which indicates the action to be performed on operands. Compare to [[actuator]].
(2) person responsible for operating building automation equipment or who operates a machine.

point of operator interface to a building automation system using a graphic user interface and optional printers.

change in the observed frequency of light or other electromagnetic radiation caused by relative motion of the source and
the observer. Note: the frequency change does not depend on whether it is the source or the observer that is moving.

(1) collection of data in a control system in order to produce the best possible output, usually in accordance with what is
most economical. (2) procedure used in the design of a system to maximize or minimize some performance index. May
entail the selection of a component, a principle of operation, or a technique. (3) refinement of a system to reduce its
energy requirements.
operative temperature that satisfies the greatest possible number of people at a given clothing and activity level. See
[[operative temperature]].

charge achieving maximum possible refrigerant effect within design limitations.

a control system that is designed to automatically adjust the start time of an HVAC system each day with the intention of
bringing the space to desired occupied temperature levels immediately before scheduled occupancy.

instrument that measures fluid flow by recording differential pressure across a restriction placed in the flow stream and
the static or actual pressure acting on the system.
relatively sharp-edged orifice in a plate used for the calculation of fluid flow rates from measurements of the pressure
difference between the two sides of the orifice.
ring gasket of circular cross section; a torus.
gas analyzer based on absorption of CO2, O2, etc. by separate chemicals that have a selective affinity for each of those
plan and elevation detail drawing.
differential pressure that must be applied to the fluid on one side of a semipermeable membrane to create diffusion
through the membrane.
in a two- or four-stroke reciprocating engine, the compressed fuel air mixture is ignited by a spark at or near the start of
the power stroke, as in conventional automobile engines.

(1) air outside a building or taken from the external atmosphere and, therefore, not previously circulated through the
system. (2) ambient air that enters a building through a mechanical ventilation system, through intentional openings for
natural ventilation, or by infiltration. (3) compare to [[outside air]].

the ratio of the volumetric rate at which outdoor air enters a building space to the building volume with identical volume
units (normally expressed in units of air changes per hour).
the outdoor air fraction is the ratio of the volumetric flow rate of outdoor air brought in by the air handler to the total
supply airflow rate.

the heat exchanger that rejects heat to, or absorbs heat from, a source external to the conditioned space.

see [[dry-bulb temperature (DBT)]].

that part of the system that rejects heat to or absorbs heat from a source external to the indoor airstream.

gross overall discharge area of a given component in an air-distribution system.

the distance, measured from centerline to centerline, between adjacent air outlets.
see [[discharge valve]].
average velocity of fluid emerging from an outlet measured in the plane of the outlet.

(1) (general) current, voltage, power, or driving force delivered by a circuit or device; terminals or other places where
current, voltage, power, or driving force may be delivered by a circuit of device. (2) capacity, duty, performance, net
refrigeration produced by a system. (3) process of transferring data from an internal storage.

air external to a defined zone (e.g., corridors).

heat flow per area for a given construction and for an overall temperature difference of one degree.

ratio of the useful energy at the point of use to the thermal energy input over a designated time period.

quantity of heat transferred per unit of temperature difference into a building through its walls or roof, due to solar heat
gain and outdoor/indoor temperature difference.
any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. It may result from overload, short
circuit, or ground fault.
(1) device used to interrupt the supply voltage to a motor when the allowable full-load current is exceeded. (2) overload
devices, either eutectic alloy or bimetal, that protect a motor against an overcurrent. Fuses and circuit breakers do not
protect a motor, they only protect branch wiring.
heating, air-conditioning, or radiant system in which the heating or cooling emission is overhead.
pressure in excess of the designed normal operating range.

(1) amount of the overtravel of an indicator beyond its final steady deflection when a new, constant value of the measured
quantity is suddenly applied to the instrument. (2) condition in a control system where the controlled variable exceeds the
desired setpoint as a result of approaching that setpoint too quickly. (3) excursion of the controlled variable beyond the
differential or proportional band.

a person or legal entity that will own the delivered facility or an agent representing the owner, who defines the project
a written document that details the functional requirements of a project and the expectations of how it will be used and
operated. These include project goals, measurable performance criteria, cost considerations, benchmarks, success criteria,
and supporting information. (The term project intent is used by some owners for their commissioning process Owners
Project Requirements.)

the document that outlines the owners overall vision for the facility and expectations of how it will be used and operated.

person(s) authorized to function on behalf of the owner.

triatomic form of oxygen, O3. Sometimes used as an oxidant in air conditioning and as an odor eliminator in cold storages
or exhaust stacks. It is toxic in concentrations of 1 ppm and higher.

a numerical quantity describing the extent of ozone depletion calculated to arise from the release to the atmosphere of
one kilogram (2.2046 lb) of a compound relative to the ozone depletion calculated to arise from a similar release of the
refrigerant R-11. The calculation is an integration of all known potential effects on ozone over the whole time that any
portion of the compound could remain in the atmosphere.

provided by a manufacturer or vendor in a substantially complete and operable condition.

(also known as self-contained unit), complete air-conditioning unit, including refrigeration compressor, cooling coils, fans,
filters, automatic controls, etc., assembled into one casing.

a boiler that is shipped complete with heating equipment, mechanical draft equipment, and automatic controls; usually
shipped in one or more sections. A packaged boiler includes factory-built boilers manufactured as a unit or system,
disassembled for shipment, and reassembled at the site.

a self-contained unit including a fan and fan motor whose primary functions are (1) the conversion of the sensible heat of
unsaturated air passing through the cabinet to latent heat by the process of evaporating recirculating or nonrecirculating
water directly exposed to this air and (2) the movement of this air through the unit.

an indirect evaporative cooler with integrated or nonintegrated primary and secondary air passages and provided with
both primary and secondary air moving devices. This device also includes the entire water distribution, collection, and
recirculation system with pump and piping. This type may have provisions for installation of other heat and mass transfer
devices, such as a direct evaporative cooler and auxiliary heating and cooling coils.

heat recovery devices that combine the exchanger with filters, fans, and controls.
a factory selected wall sleeve and separate unencased combination of heating and cooling components, assemblies, or
sections. It may include heating capability by hot water, steam, or electricity and is intended for mounting through the wall
to serve a single room or zone.

a PTAC capable of using the refrigerating system in a reverse cycle or heat pump mode to provide heat.

(1) cooling tower packing. See [[stuffing box]]. (2) stuffing around a shaft or valve stem to prevent fluid leakage.

production operation for slaughtering, dressing, and processing animals; also used in connection with processing
vegetables and fish.
valve that does not use packing to seal against leaks around the stem (e.g., bellows valve).
found in large, direct-fired and small, indirect-fired machines that continuously remove the small amount of hydrogen gas
that is produced by corrosion.
refrigerated flat surface.

a petroleum lubricating oil fraction in which straight and/or branched-chain hydrocarbon structures predominate.
an inaccurate reading of a meter due to line of vision between the scale and the indicator being misaligned or angled.

terminal device that combines a true VAV box in parallel with a fan and optional heating coils. Fan operation is

heat exchanger in which fluids flow approximately parallel to each other and in the same direction.

directional pattern of heat transfer fluids used in energy exchange equipment where the warmest fluid A indirectly
contacts the coldest fluid B at the entering side of the exchanger.
(1) partial pressure of component i for any (ideal or nonideal) gas mixture is the product of the mole fraction of the
component, xi, and the mixture pressure, p. [ pi xi p for any gas mixture]. (2) portion of total gas pressure of a mixture
attributable to one component (Daltons law of gases).
see [[fan types]].
the ratio of the net refrigeration effect to the adjusted net total capacity for the cooling coil. (Also see [[net refrigerating
effect]] and [[adjusted net total capacity]].)

single number figure of merit expressing part-load efficiency for equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various
partial-load capacities for the equipment; expressed in kilowatts per ton of refrigeration.

parts per million by mass.

a fire wall on an interior lot line used or adapted for joint service between two buildings.

confined fluid transmits externally applied pressure uniformly in all directions without change in magnitude.

uses a pipe surrounded by a coil in order to form a radiator system. Passive chilled beams have no method for maintaining
the humidity of a room and must be paired with a ventilation system in order to maintain latent heat gains.

(1) a combined appliance that does not use a water pump but relies on thermosiphon flow through the desuperheater
and water heater; generally the desuperheater is mounted on the side of the water heater or at an elevation lower than
the water heater. (2) a system where natural forces are utilized for HVAC purposes in lieu of
mechanical/electrical/chemical sources.
tendency of a metal to become inactive in a given environment.
[[phase-change material]]
(1) [[pressure dependent]]; (2) [[pressure difference]]; (3) [[pressure drop]].
the maximum level of metered demand during a specified time period.
the maximum rate at which heat is added to storage (cooling discharged from storage).
the maximum number of standard drinks drawn under standard test conditions without the beverage exceeding 40F
(4.4C) at a draw rate defined by the manufacturer within a given time limit.
the total distance traveled by the vibrating part, from one extreme limit of travel to the other extreme limit of travel,
usually expressed in terms of linear displacement.

dimensionless number used in calculation of heat and mass transfer, consisting of the mass velocity times a characteristic
length and the specific heat at constant pressure, divided by the thermal conductivity. Symbol Pe, Pe, or NPe.

evolution or absorption of heat produced by an electric current passing across junctions of two suitable dissimilar metals,
alloys, or semiconductors.
the ratio, fraction, or percentage of particles that pass through the air cleaner or filter, as measured downstream of the

criteria used to determine the adequacy of the penetration data.

volumetric outside airflow rate expressed as a percentage of total supply airflow rate.
fuel-burning condition in which all combustibles are consumed with no excess air so that only the theoretical amount of
oxygen is used.
a theoretical airflow distribution pattern within a ventilated space where the supply air is instantaneously and uniformly
mixed with the air in the space such that the concentration of all constituents in the air, and the age of air, are spatially
a halocarbon composed only of fluorine and carbon.
perforated ceiling panels used to distribute the air uniformly throughout the ceiling or a portion of the ceiling. Filter pads
may be used to achieve a similar result.
see [[flow equalizer]].
manner in which an individual, a building, a system, or a component fulfills specified behavior.

used in most lithium bromide equipment to achieve design performance. The typical additive is one of the octyl alcohols.

a binding agreement between two parties prescribing the range and magnitude of achievement required of equipment,
subsystems, or systems, which is provided by one party for the benefit and use of the other.

the ratio of capacity to power input at specified operating conditions. Using consistent units, the performance factor may
be expressed in dimensionless form as a coefficient of performance (COP) or as the energy efficiency ratio (EER).

a series of numbers and letters consisting of the letters AM, AI, or AU and a two or three digit number. AM identifies an "as
manufactured" test, that is, the laboratory hood is built and assembled by the manufacturer and testing is performed at
the factory. The typical equipment remains in the hood and other activities in the laboratory continue. AI identifies an "as
installed" test, that is, the laboratory hood is installed at the location of the customer. The hood is tested empty, but with
the ventilation system in the installation balanced and the hood in its final location. AU identifies an "as used" test, that is,
the tests are conducted after the hood has been installed and used by the chemist. An example of the series of numbers
and letters is AM yyy where AM identifies an "as manufactured" test and yyy is the control level of tracer gas established
by the test in ppm. A test rating of AU 0.5, for example, would indicate that the hood controls leakage into the laboratory
to 0.5 ppm at the mannequin's sensing point with a tracer gas release rate of 4.0 Lpm (70 mL/s).

any space with at least one surface exposed to exterior loads.

properties of the chemical elements and their compounds are a periodic function of their atomic weights.

insulation composed of natural perlite ore, a glassy volcanic rock expanded by heat to form a cellular structure.

the capacity of the permanent bleed provision, expressed either as a percentage of the nominal capacity or in kW (Btu/h
or tons) of refrigerating effect produced by the evaporation of that amount of refrigerant flow.

a valve that has a fixed flow passage incapable of being closed by action of the valve. Such a fixed orifice permits a flow
through or in parallel with the main valve port.

time rate of water vapor transmission through unit area of flat material of unit thickness induced by unit vapor pressure
difference between two specific surfaces, under specified temperature and humidity conditions. When permeability varies
with psychrometric conditions, the spot or specific permeability defines the property at a specific condition. Note:
permeability is a property of a material, but the permeability of a body that performs like a material may be used.
Permeability is the arithmetic product of permeance and thickness.

the time weighted average concentration (set by OSHA, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) for a
normal 8 hour work day and a 40 hour work week to which nearly all workers can be repeatedly exposed without adverse
effect. Chemical manufacturers publish similar recommendations [e.g., acceptable exposure level (AEL), industrial
exposure limit (IEL) or occupational exposure limit (OEL), depending on the company], generally for substances for which
PEL has not been established.

range of a physical quantity which satisfies the different parameters for each of the categories of the specified
(1) [[power factor]]. (2) [[projection factor]]
[[perfluorocarbon]]; a hydrocarbon composed only of fluorine and carbon.
logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. pH values below 7 are increasingly acidic;
those above 7 are increasingly alkaline.

substance that undergoes changes of state while absorbing or rejecting thermal energy at constant temperature.

radiometer designed for measuring luminous intensity, luminous flux, or illumination.

a system capable of generating a voltage as a result of exposure to visible or other radiation.
device that detects or measures electromagnetic radiation by generating a potential at a junction (barrier layer) between
two types of material, on absorption of radiant energy. Also known as barrier layer cell, barrier layer photocell, boundary
layer photocell, or photronic photocell.
(1) [[pressure independent]]. (2) [[proportional control mode]] and [[integral control mode]]
[[product-integrated control (PIC)]]
actual load for heating the system following setback.
[[proportional control mode]] and [[integral control mode]] and [[derivative control]].
instrument for measuring pressure or compressibility.
two chilling plants, centrifugal and absorption, usually steam driven, using the same steam supply in sequence, with
chilled water running counterflow to stream.
class of operation in which the ultimate load is controlled by auxiliary means.
volt ampere rating that is applied to electric devices intended to control an electromagnetic load other than an electric
motor, such as a control coil or other solenoid.
a pressure relief valve in which the major relieving device is combined with and is controlled by a self-actuated auxiliary
pressure relief valve.
small valve where the opening or closing directly influences a larger valve, as in a servo system.

a valve in which the solenoid functions to directly open and close a relatively small pilot flow port. Flow through the pilot
port parallels the flow path of the main port. Starting or stopping flow through the pilot port creates a pressure imbalance
on the main valve member, causing the main valve port to open or close.

expansion valve of a type used on large capacity systems (e.g., direct-expansion chillers) where the required capacity per
valve is beyond the range of direct-acting valves; this type of valve is under the control of a direct acting valve.

parts used to join, adapt, or adjust other parts of the piping (e.g., flange, joint, manifold).
small bore tube inserted perpendicular to a flowing stream with its orifice facing the stream to measure total pressure. At
present, the term is often used for a double-tube instrument from which the flow velocity can be calculated with one
orifice facing the flowing stream to register total pressure and the other perpendicular to the stream to register static

formation of small depressions in a surface due to sand blasting, mechanical gouging, acid etching, or corrosion.

longitudinal folded joint used in rectangular sheet-metal duct construction. Pocket lock joint transverse joint used in
rectangular sheet metal duct construction.
two dimensional graphic representation of the design, location, and dimensions of a project, or parts thereof, seen in a
horizontal plane viewed from above.
uniform temperature of an enclosure where the radiance on one side of a small plane element is the same as in the
nonuniform actual environment.

classification of maintenance department resources that are invested in prudently selected functions at specified intervals.
All functions and resources attributed to this classification must be planned, budgeted, and scheduled. Planned
maintenance embodies two concepts: preventive and corrective maintenance.

evaporator consisting of two plates containing channels for the circulation of refrigerant or a set of tubes connected to and
between the two plates.

plate drilled or punched to receive a number of parallel tubes, with the purpose of increasing the heat transfer area.

contact freezer in which the refrigerated surface is a flat metal plate. Compare to [[double-contact freezer]].

fixed plates that separate and keep the hot and cold fluids separate. See also [[plate liquid cooler]].

heat exchanger made of thin plates so formed that liquid to be cooled flows through the passage between the plates and
the cooling fluid flows through the alternate passages.
(1) air-cooled condenser consisting of plates between which are arranged channels for the circulation of refrigerant. (2)
water-cooled condenser consisting of a coil through which the refrigerant circulates, arranged between two plates, with
water circulating between coil and plates.
(also called plenum box and plenum chamber) (1) a compartment or chamber, to which one or more ducts are connected,
that forms a part of the air-distribution system and that is not used for occupancy or storage. A plenum often is formed in
part or in total by portions of the building. (2) an air compartment that is attached to, or is an integral part of, a forced-air
furnace which is designed to either distribute the heated air after it leaves the heat exchanger in the case of a supply
plenum or to collect air that enters the return inlet in the case of a return plenum. (3) component forming an interface
between a ductwork and one or more air terminal devices; by virtue of its design or by the inclusion of accessories, it can
also be used to equalize the pressure/velocity across the air terminal device.

fan assembly consisting of a single inlet impeller mounted perpendicular to airflow that pressurizes a plenum chamber in
an air-distribution system. The impeller is typically an airfoil or backward-inclined design.

(1) (also known as piston flow), flow of solids suspended in liquid, characterized by slippage of the cylindrical mass and
equal velocity in cross section. (2) flow regime where the flow is predominantly in one direction and any contaminants are
swept along with the flow. (3) form of two-phase flow in which plugs of gas and liquid flow alternately in the pipe.

valve in which the fluid passage is a hole in a rotatable, tapered plug in the valve body.

(1) a device that is part of a system to deliver and drain away water and waste but is also configured to enable a particular
use. (2) end-use equipment such as sinks, lavatories, toilets, showers, drinking fountains, etc.

[[part-load value]]
[[predicted mean vote (PMV)]]

device that converts a pneumatic value to an equivalent electric (volt, milliamp) value.

(1) control device that interfaces pneumatic to electric systems. (2) control device with a pneumatic input and an electric
control device that makes and/or breaks an electrical circuit based on the level of a pneumatic signal. The device has an
adjustable setpoint and optional adjustable differential.
the relative position on the cooling unit characteristic curve corresponding to a particular airflow rate. It is controlled
during a test by adjusting the position of the throttling device, by changing flow nozzles or auxiliary fan characteristics, or
by any combination of these.
presence of undesired elements that are deleterious to the comfort, health, and welfare of persons or the environment
(pollution includes elements such as noise, vibration, odors, and gases).
a characteristic of an aerosol for which the width of its number distribution shows a geometric standard deviation of g >
graphical line representing a polytropic process.

compression of a fluid involving heat exchange with temperature change and temperature variation (not isothermal).

expansion of a fluid, involving heat exchange.

a process in which heat is being exchanged with the surroundings, represented by the equation pvn = constant (n is the
polytropic exponent).

any structure, basin, or tank containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving, or recreational bathing. The term
includes, but is not limited to, swimming pools, whirlpools, spas, and hot tubs.

valve composed of a mushroom-shaped circular head and integral stem.

the average tracer gas concentration at a position during a test.

the maximum 45 second rolling average of the tracer gas concentration observed during a series of sash movement tests
at one ejector and mannequin position.
the design that permits the continued operation of the combustion blower in a power vented unit, power burner unit, or
forced draft unit for a period of time after the main burner is shut off for the purpose of venting of residual flue gas in the
heat exchanger and the venting system.
the time following a retrofit, during which savings are to be determined.
suitable for human consumption.
energy possessed by a system caused by the attractive forces existing between molecules or the elevation of the system.

the lowest temperature at which a lubricant will flow under prescribed conditions.
a modifying factor that adjusts the effective connected lighting power (CLP) of a space to account for the use of energy-
conserving lighting-control devices.

a burner that supplies air for combustion at a pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure; a burner that depends on the
draft induced by a fan incorporated in the furnace; a fan-powered burner that depends on the natural draft developed by
a chimney for proper operation; a pulse-combustion burner.

a factor, equal to the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage, by which the product of voltage and current
is multiplied to convert volt amperes to power in watts.

a term used to refer to the power input to the shaft of open compressors; a term used to refer to the power input at the
motor terminals for hermetic compressors, semihermetic compressors, or motor compressors; a term used to refer to
refer to the power absorbed by all ancillaries that are necessary to sustain the operation of the compressor or condensing
unit (e.g., oil pump, fan motors, controls components, and circulating pumps).

(also referred to as an up blast fan). A fan designed for curb mounting on a roof or, within size and design constraints, for
wall mounting. Air enters the fan in a typical axial arrangement but discharges radially from the centrifugal impeller and
turns 90 degrees to exit through the top of the fan. It may be listed under UL Standard 705, Standard for Power
Ventilators, in accordance with UL Subject 762, Outline of Investigation for Power Roof Ventilators for Restaurant Exhaust

fan consisting of a centrifugal- or axial-type impeller with integral driver in a weather-resistant housing with base designed
to fit (usually by means of a curb) over a wall or roof opening.
[[predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD)]]
[[parts per million]]

(1) dimensionless number used in calculation of forced and free convection, equal to the dynamic viscosity times the
specific heat at constant pressure, divided by the thermal conductivity. (2) dimensionless number used in calculation of
diffusion in flowing systems, equal to the kinematic viscosity divided by the molecular diffusivity. Symbol is Pr or Pr. Also
known as Schmidt number 1 (Sc, Sc, or NSc1).

device to remove fine ash, tars, dusts, or smoke particles from flue gases or other gaseous streams; the device may
employ mechanical, electrostatic, or chemical means, or a combination of these. See [[air cleaner]].

(1) closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the same physical quantity by the same method under the
same conditions and with the same instrument. (An instrument may be precise but not accurate.) (2) the statistical error
of an instrument subjected to repeated measurements over a range of input values.

(1) a device for transferring heat from the incoming potable water to the spill. (2) cooler for removing sensible heat before
shipping, storing, or processing. (3) device for cooling a fluid before it enters a system.

index that predicts the mean value of thermal sensation votes of a large group of persons, expressed on a seven-point
index that predicts the percentage of a large group of people who are likely to feel thermally dissatisfied for the body as a
whole (i.e., feel either too warm or too cold).

function of corrective maintenance. Statistically supported objective judgment is implied. Nondestructive testing,
chemical analysis, vibration and noise monitoring, as well as visual inspection and logging are all classified under this
function, providing that the item tested or inspected is part of the planned maintenance program.

heating coil installed upstream of cooling coil or at the front of an air-handling system to preheat air.

(1) heating a food product prior to a subsequent treatment. (2) in air conditioning, to heat the air ahead of other
processes. (3) to heat the water prior to heating by the auxiliary thermal source.
an elaboration of the design intent that includes operating information developed during the construction documents
design stage.
successive sets of readings compiled during continuous cooler operation with the objective of establishing a steady-state
operating a burner blower prior to flame ignition to blow out possible leaked gas. See [[purge]].

in a turbocompressor, an assembly of adjustable guide vanes fitted to the inlet; the prerotary vane assembly's function is
to orient the fluid so that the pressure/flow rate characteristics can be modified.

for energy compliance alternatives , a prescriptive design includes specified assumptions concerning shape, orientation,
HVAC, and other system design features. The prescriptive design is compared with the proposed design using the annual
energy cost method.

(1) force exerted per unit area. Note: the terms head and pressure often are used interchangeably; however, head is the
height of a fluid column supported by fluid flow, while pressure is the normal force per unit area. For liquids, it is
convenient to measure the head in terms of the flowing fluid. With a gas or air, however, it is customary to measure
pressure on a column of liquid. (2) thermodynamically, the normal force exerted by a homogeneous liquid or gas, per unit
of area, on the wall of the container.

device that responds directly or indirectly to deviation from a desired pressure by actuating a control or initiating a control

the flow rate through a flow control device varies in response to changes in system pressure.

difference between pressures measured at two points or levels in fluids or gases.

cut-out control reactive to the difference between two pressures.

(also known as spring-loaded check valve), automatic valve that opens in response to a pressure difference across the
valve port. Commonly used in conjunction with a head-pressure control valve (backup valve) between discharge line and
receiver inlet.

(1) difference in pressure between two points in a flow system, usually caused by frictional resistance to fluid flow in a
conduit, filter, or other flow system. Compare to [[pressure loss]]. (2) loss in pressure, as from one end of a refrigerant line
to the other, from friction, static, heat, etc.

allowing high- and low-side pressures to equalize or nearly equalize during idle periods by an unloading valve, by a vapor-
lock liquid control, or by nearly equalizing inlet and discharge pressures on compressors to reduce starting torque load.

ratio between the suction pressure effect and the pressure due to an air velocity passing over an inlet or outlet.

hydrostatic height of fluid, equal to the fluid pressure divided by the density times the gravitational acceleration.

any device or portion of the equipment used to increase refrigerant pressure.

the flow rate through a flow control device is not affected by changes in system pressure.

maximum pressure difference at which the rated watertightness is assured under test conditions.

decrease in total pressure due to friction and turbulence. It is a measure of the mechanical energy lost by the flow per unit
volume of the fluid.

factor for mechanical energy loss as a result of flow.

receiver device having inlet and outlet nonreturn valves and a float-operated mechanism, enabling a secondary medium
(steam, compressed air, or inert gas) to pressurize the receiver body through a fill and discharge cycle actuated from the
float mechanism.
(1) valve used to reduce a high supply pressure to a usable level. (2) valve that maintains a uniform pressure on its outlet
side irrespective of pressure variation on its inlet side.
device to maintain controlled downstream fluid pressure with varying upstream pressure.

(1) a pressure-actuated (not temperature-actuated) valve or rupture member designed to automatically relieve excessive
pressure. (2) means for relieving internal pressure and preventing explosive shattering of the housing. (3) valve or rupture
member designed to relieve excessive pressure automatically.

see [[pressure relief device]].

regulating or safety device actuated by change in pressure.

automatic pressure and temperature sensitive device actuated by a predetermined internal pressure, temperature, or
both and used to prevent or relieve excessive pressure or temperature within a tank.

(1) any refrigerant-containing receptacle in a refrigerating system. This does not include evaporators where each separate
evaporator section does not exceed 0.5 ft3 (0.014 m3) of refrigerant-containing volume regardless of the maximum inside
dimension. This also does not include evaporator coils, compressors, condenser coils, controls, headers, pumps, and
piping. (2) container for fluids at a pressure different from atmospheric pressure (vacuum to high), capable of withstanding
associated stresses.

relationship of pressure, volume, and temperature as fundamental, thermodynamic properties of a fluid in a single-phase

control system in which the airflow through the air terminal varies with system pressure.

a pressure-responsive electronic or mechanical control designed to automatically stop the operation of the pressure-
imposing element at a predetermined pressure.

valve providing maintenance of designated pressure level within a system.

an air cooler designed for use with external elements that impose air resistance.

a type of smoke control system in which stair shafts are mechanically pressurized with outdoor air to keep smoke from
contaminating them during a fire incident.

a refrigerant pressure-control system that prevents refrigerant loss and infiltration into idle low-pressure chillers and is also
used to pressurize for leak testing without the use of noncondensables.

classification of resources allotted to ensure proper operation of a system or equipment under the maintenance program
by providing for systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before
they develop into major defects. Durability, reliability, efficiency, and safety are the principal objectives.

(1) any air that is mixed with fuel at or in a burner prior to burning. (2) in a cleanroom, air that recirculates through the
work space. (3) treated supply air that enters the space through any supply air device, such as air outlet or through any air
supply terminal, such as a VAV unit or fan terminal unit. The air is not mixed with space air before entering the space.

air temperature of the primary airflow (e.g., supply airflow from an air-handling unit).

test procedure using an alternate method of installing a test unit, or an alternate test apparatus, that produces
reproducibility and accuracy equivalent to the primary test method.
working fluid of a refrigerating cycle (as opposed to secondary refrigerant).

(1) (direct surface), portion that is exposed to radiation from fire and transfers heat directly to the air being heated. (2)
surface that is in direct contact with both the heat-absorbing and heat-emitting media.

the test from which ratings are calculated.

test procedure incorporating the preferred method of installing a test unit and the preferred test apparatus that produces
the desired reproducibility and accuracy.
the fluid that flows through the solar collector.
contractor on a project having a contract directly with the owner.
engine, turbine, water wheel, or similar machine that drives an electric generator.
person or entity having a contract directly with the owner for professional services.
surface having the heating medium on one side and fluid (or extended surface) on the other.

the approach to and execution of a sequence of work operations to yield a repeatable and defined result.
(1) a sequence of events. (2) change in thermodynamic state that can be defined as any change in the properties of a
system. Note: a process is described by specifying the initial and final equilibrium states, the path (if identifiable), and the
interactions that take place across system boundaries during the process.

(1) closed-loop control as applied to processes or operations or both. Note: HVAC systems may be considered as
processes. (2) control for automatic regulation of operations or processes or both.
energy consumed in support of a manufacturing, industrial, or commercial processes other than conditioning spaces and
maintaining comfort and amenities for the occupants of a building.
the load on a building resulting from the consumption or release of process energy.

direct digital control (DDC) panel, factory mounted and connected, able to monitor, control, and diagnose the significant
functions of the equipment of which it is a part. Compare to [[field-installed device (FID)]].

not field modifiable, nonvolatile (requires no batteries).

control system that provides for performing various operations in predetermined sequences related to time or other
the baseline energy use or demand applied to the post-retrofit period and conditions.
the ratio of the horizontal depth of the external shading projection divided by the sum of the height of the fenestration
and the distance from the top of the fenestration to the bottom of the farthest point of the external shading projection in
consistent units.

(1) fan in which the air enters and leaves the impeller in a direction substantially parallel to its axis. (2) propeller- or disc-
type wheel within a mounting ring or plate and including driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct

mode that requires offset from the desired setpoint to move the controlled device through its proportional band.

the annual energy cost calculated for a proposed design.

clear, colorless liquid used to depress the freezing point of water for use as a secondary coolant in HVAC&R systems. Note:
inhibitors are required to control corrosion caused by glycol solutions.
[[pressure reducing valve]]. See also [[pressure relief valve]].
a permanent split-capacitor motor.

instrument for measuring relative humidities with wet- and dry-bulb thermometers. See [[hygrometer]].

temperature indicated by a wet-bulb sensing element when the sensor is covered with a water-saturated wick over which
air is caused to flow, at approximately 4.5 m/s (900 ft/min), to reach an equilibrium temperature of water evaporating into
air when the heat of vaporization is supplied by the sensible heat of the air. Psychrometer wet-bulb temperature is not a
thermodynamic property.

relating to the measurement or determination of atmospheric conditions, particularly regarding moisture mixed with air.

graphical representation of the properties of moist air, usually including wet- and dry-bulb temperatures, specific and
relative humidities, enthalpy, and density.
branch of physics concerned with the measurement or determination of atmospheric conditions, particularly the moisture
in air.
[[packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC)]]
statement of the assigned values of those performance characteristics, under standard rating conditions, by which a unit
may be chosen to fit its application.

the unmet cooling load that accumulates during a period when cooling is not provided to the load and that must be met
upon system start-up. Maximum pull-down load generally occurs on a Monday morning.

first operational check on a refrigerating installation to measure the time taken to pull the temperature down to the
desired conditions while also measuring the temperatures, pressures, and associated data.

fluid flow phenomenon characterized by periodic (or pseudoperiodic) variation in velocity.

machine for imparting energy to a fluid, causing it to do work, drawing a fluid into itself through an entrance port, and
forcing the fluid out through an exhaust port. Main types are air lift, centrifugal, diaphragm, positive displacement,
reciprocating, and rotary. Pumps can be configured as individual (one motor, one impeller, one fluid stream) or combined
(one motor, multiple impellers, multiple fluid streams).

impeller housings and impellers are always placed sufficiently below the expected pumping level to prevent cavitation at
the peak production rate. For example, this pump should be placed at least 115 ft (30 m) below the casing top [pump
setting depth = 115 ft (30 m)] to allow for adequate submergence at peak flow. The specific net positive suction head
(NPSH) pressure required for a pump varies with each application and should be carefully considered in selecting the
setting depth.

of refrigerant, withdrawal of all refrigerant from the low side of a system by pumping it to either the condenser or the
liquid receiver.

(1) (also known as affinity laws for pumps), power varies directly with specific gravity or density changes of the fluid. (2)
with constant impeller diameter and variable speed, flow of a constant gravity pump varies directly with the speed
change, head varies as the square of the speed change, and power changes as the cube of the speed change. (3) with
variable-impeller diameter and constant speed, flow varies directly with the diameter change, head varies as the square of
the diameter change, and power varies as the cube of the diameter change.

the sum of the nominal power demand (nameplate horsepower) of motors of all pumps that are required to operate at
design conditions to supply fluid from the heating or cooling source to all heat transfer devices (e.g., coils, heat exchanger)
and return it to the source.

the quantity of refrigerant stored at some point in the refrigeration system for operational, service, or standby purposes.

level that exists under specific pumping conditions. Generally, this level is different for different pumping rates (higher
pumping rates mean lower pumping levels).
costs for units of energy or power purchased at the building site. These costs may include energy costs as well as costs for
power demand as determined by the adopting authority.
ice made by using water with less than 5 ppm of solids concentration.
a sound wave that is at a single frequency.

(1) removal of air from a hydronic system. (2) removal of noncondensable gases from a refrigeration system. (3) removal of
unburned gases from a combustion chamber. (4) to rid of whatever is impure or undesirable.

(also known as purger), system used to recover refrigerant from purged mixture of gases and water.

required on lithium bromide absorption equipment to remove noncondensables (air), which leak into the machine, or
hydrogen (a product of corrosion), which is produced during equipment operation. Even in small amounts,
noncondensable gases can reduce chilling capacity and even lead to solution crystallization. Purge systems for larger sizes
above 100 tons (359 kW) of refrigeration typically consist of these components: vapor pickup tube(s), noncondensable
separation and storage tank(s), and vacuum pump or valving system.

a device to allow noncondensable gases to flow out of a system.

an automatic, semiautomatic, or hand-operated device that collects gases from the condenser or receiver, condenses the
condensable refrigerant therefrom, and releases the remainder to the atmosphere.

[[pressure volume temperature (PVT)]]

[[pumping water level (PWL)]]
radiometer used to measure solar radiation received from the whole hemisphere (two steradians). Note: the instrument is
suitable for measurement of global or diffuse solar radiation.

a radiometer used for measuring the incoming atmospheric infrared radiation spectrums from approximately 4 m to 100
m on a black surface at ambient air temperature. The solar shortwave radiation is excluded from the energy measured.

radiometer used to measure the direct or beam solar irradiance incident on a surface normal to the suns rays.

instrument for measuring temperature, usually above the range of mercury thermometers.
a radiometer used to measure the total solar radiation incident upon a surface per unit time per unit area. This energy
includes the direct radiation, the diffuse sky radiation, and the solar radiation reflected from the foreground.

a procedure employed for verifying the accuracy of the measuring techniques (temperature, airflow rates, duct heat
calibration) employed in determination of the room heating effect. This qualification procedure is periodically employed in
determining the room heating effect.
a monitored condition used to establish active or inactive status for a measured parameter.

a process for evaluating a subset (sample) of the total population. The sample is based upon a known or estimated
probability distribution of expected values; an assumed statistical distribution based upon data from a similar product,
assembly, or system; or a random sampling that has scientific statistical basis.

shift of a radar echo due to relative motion of target and radar source. Note: Doppler radar can differentiate between fixed
and moving targets and can measure target velocity.

one in which the blades are flat and disposed radially from the fan hub to the outer edge.

system of radial feeders extending outward from a centrally located district energy plant (heating or cooling). Each feeder
normally is composed of one supply pipe and one return pipe.

total radiant flux emitted from a surface through unit projected area by unit solid angle. It includes the self-emitted
radiation plus reflections from sources other than the object evaluated as interpreted from the direction of measurement.
The term intensity of radiation is sometimes used as a synonym for radiance. See also [[radiosity]].

radiating rays of light; emitting or reflecting beams of light; vividly shining; glowing; brilliant.
difference between the plane radiant temperature of the two opposite sides of a plane element. See [[plane radiant
a surface of low emissivity (less than 0.1) placed inside an attic or roof space above (but not touching) the distribution
system to reduce radiant heat transfer.
energy passing through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (such as light or ultraviolet or infrared radiation) or
as a stream of particles (e.g., electrons or protons).
the time rate of flow of radiant energy (watts).
measure of radiant power per unit area flowing across or onto a surface. (Also called irradiance).
heat transferred by radiation.

a heating or cooling surface that delivers 50% or more of its heat transfer by radiation, which may be either an integral
part of the building (e.g., floor or ceiling heating) or detached from the building elements (e.g., suspended ceiling panel).

ratio of the reflected radiant (or luminous) flux to the incident radiant (or luminous) flux.

ratio of the transmitted radiant (or luminous) flux to the incident radiant flux.

a sensible cooling system that provides more than 50% of the total heat flux by thermal radiation.

a sensible heating system that provides more than 50% of the total heat flux by thermal radiation.

act or process of radiating, specifically the process by which energy is emitted from molecules and atoms, owing primarily
to internal temperature change.
(also known as shape factor), when the space above an element of surface is partially occupied by a body exchanging
radiant energy with the surface, the angle factor represents the fraction of the angular field of view where energy
exchange is taking place.
irradiation, using moderate doses, to enhance keeping quality by killing most of the spoilage microorganisms present;
viruses are not affected.

(1) device designed to intercept radiated heat. (2) in a furnace, a sheet of metal or other material supported between the
heat exchanger and the casing to protect the casing from heat; not to be considered as a heat transfer surface.
irradiation using high doses to kill the microorganisms present.

represents the net amount of infrared radiation absorbed by gases in the atmosphere. The radiative forcing of a gas
depends on the efficiency with which it traps infrared radiation and its concentration in the atmosphere. Atmospheric
concentration depends on emission rates and the atmospheric lifetime of the gas.

manual or automatic valve that controls the flow of the fluid to a radiator.
materials that emit ionizing radiation.
instrument for measuring irradiance in energy or power units.
total radiant flux that leaves unit area of a surface. The sum of radiant flux emitted and reflected by the surface, plus any
radiant flux transmitted through that surface. Compare to [[exitance]].
see [[louver]].

an error that causes readings to take random values on either side of some mean value. Measurements may be precise or
imprecise depending on how well an instrument can reproduce subsequent readings of an unchanged input.

memory providing access time that is independent of the address and is addressable for both reading from and writing
into memory.
(1) difference between the highest and the lowest operational values, such as pressure, temperature, rate of flow, or
computer values. (2) region between limits within which a quantity is measured, transmitted, or received, expressed by
stating the lower and upper range values.

theoretical thermodynamic cycle used in steam engines, comprising four principal stages: (1) vaporization of water under
high pressure, (2) expansion of steam, (3) condensation of steam, and (4) pumping of the water back to initial pressure.

absolute temperature scale conventionally defined by the temperature of the triple point of water equal to 491.68R, with
180 divisions between the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water under standard atmospheric pressure (1R =
1F). See [[triple point]].

molar weights of nonvolatile nonelectrolytes, when dissolved in a definite mass of a given solvent under the same
conditions, lower the solvents freezing point, elevate its boiling point, and reduce its vapor pressure equally for all such
the airflow rate in m3/s (cfm) at which the device is tested.
the operating pressure loss at the airflow rate at which a disposable device (e.g., filter) should be replaced or renewed, as
recommended by the manufacturer, expressed in Pa (in. of water).

tested maximum positive pressure at which a device or component is rated.

the assigned values of those performance characteristics, under stated rating conditions, by which a unit may be chosen to
fit its application. These values apply to all units of like nominal size and type (identification) produced by the same
(1) untreated water. (2) water used for ice making, except distilled water.
[[refuse-derived fuel (RDF)]]
portion of apparent power that does no work. It is measured commercially in kilovars. Reactive power must be supplied to
most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors. It is supplied by generators or by electrostatic equipment such as

(1) capable of being quickly and easily reached for operation, maintenance, and inspection. (2) see [[accessible]].

memory with stored data that can be read but not changed or written into.

energy or work producing part of apparent power. The rate of supply of energy, measured commercially in kilowatts. The
product of real power and length of time is energy, measured by watthour meters, and expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh).

a vessel in the refrigerating system designed to ensure the availability of adequate liquid refrigerant for proper functioning
of the system and to store the liquid refrigerant when the system is pumped down.

a positive displacement compressor that changes internal volume of the compression chamber(s) by the reciprocating
motion of one or more pistons.
air taken from a space and returned to that space, usually after being passed through a conditioning system. The part of
the return air that is reused. Air removed from a space and reused as supply air.

a domestic or service hot-water distribution system that includes a closed-circulation circuit designed to maintain usage
temperatures in hot-water pipes near terminal devices (e.g., lavatory faucets, shower heads) in order to reduce the time
required to obtain hot water when the terminal device valve is opened. The motive force for circulation is either natural
(due to water density variations with temperature) or mechanical (recirculation pump).

a remote unit with cooling that is provided at the dispensing valve and accomplished by circulating cold water or cold
carbonated water through one of the lines and returning the same to a refrigeration unit.

(1) a condition pertaining to air-cooled condensers in which a portion of the discharge air enters along with the fresh air;
the amount of recirculation is determined by equipment design, placement in regard to adjoining objects, and
atmospheric conditions. The effect is generally evaluated on the basis of the decrease in unit capacity. (2) condition
pertaining to cooling towers and evaporative condensers in which a portion of the discharge air enters along with the fresh
air; the amount of recirculation is determined by equipment design, placement in regard to adjoining objects, and
atmospheric conditions. The effect is generally evaluated on the basis of the increase in entering wet-bulb temperature
compared to the ambient.

to process used refrigerant to new product specifications.

refrigerants reprocessed to the same specifications as new refrigerants by any means, including distillation. Such
refrigerants have been chemically analyzed to verify that those specifications have been met.

an application of the commissioning process requirements to a project that has been delivered using the commissioning
process. This may be a scheduled recommissioning developed as part of an ongoing commissioning process or it may be
triggered by use change, operations problems, or other needs.

(1) cooling of air that has been previously heated. (2) lowering the temperature of air that has been previously heated by a
mechanical heating system.
drawings that record the conditions of the project as constructed. These include any refinements of the construction or
bid documents.

a thermometer that indicates temperature by traces on a moving chart; recording may be done on a cylinder, a circular
chart, or a strip chart.

to remove refrigerant in any condition from a system and store it in an external container.

portion of thermal input to a prime mover and that is not converted to mechanical power and can be reclaimed.

energy reclaimed for useful purposes and that would otherwise be wasted.
comes from internal heat sources. It is used for space heating, domestic or service water heating, air reheat in air
conditioning, process heating in industrial applications, or other similar purposes. Recovered heat may be stored for later

refrigerants removed from a system in any condition without necessarily testing or processing them.

(1) externally cooled heat exchanger in the high side of a refrigerating absorption system for condensing absorbent and
separating it from the refrigerant before passing it to the condenser. (2) in electricity, a device for converting AC to DC
to reduce contaminants in used refrigerants by separating oil, removing noncondensables, and using devices such as filter
driers to reduce moisture, acidity, and particulate matter.

refrigerants for which contaminants have been reduced by oil separation, removal of noncondensable gases, and single or
multiple passes through filter driers or other devices that reduce moisture, acidity, and particulate matter.

the input rate resulting from burner operation at the manufacturer's recommended adjustment setting or the midpoint
back-pressure and back-siphonage-type device designed to serve as a detector check on fire protection systems where
contaminants are involved. Note: RPDC includes a line-size approved, reduced pressure zone backflow preventer with a
metered bypass into which has been incorporated a three-quarter inch, approved, reduced pressure zone backflow

back-pressure and back-siphonage-type device designed to operate under continuous pressure where contaminants are

an exterior finish applied to roof systems in order to reduce the absorption of solar radiation. The solar absorptivity must
be 0.4 or less.
for furnaces or boilers equipped with automatic modulating control, the input rate resulting from the lowest factory-
adjusted setting of the control.

(1) a type of check valve that restricts flow of fluids to a single direction and consists of thin strips of flexible metal,
fiberglass, or other materials fixed on one end. They open and close with changing pressures across opposite sides of the
valve. (2) compressor valve consisting of a plate having a number of slots and flexible steel strips fitted over the slots.

dry-media-type filters that are carefully measured for resistance and initial efficiency immediately after a test system is
qualified. These filters serve as references to ensure that the test system continues to operate as it did when it was
the temperature at an appropriate, fixed location within the test zone, for example, at 42 in. (1.1 m) above the floor for an
office space served by a mixing air system.

(1) portion of the incident radiation on a surface that is reflected from the surface. Note: for an opaque surface, the sum of
the reflectance and the absorptance is unity at equilibrium. Absorptances and reflectances are of various types, as are
emittances. (2) the ratio of the light reflected by a surface to the light incident upon it.

insulation that reduces radiant heat transfer across spaces by use of one or more surfaces of high reflectance and low
emittance, for example, aluminum foil.
portion of the radiation-striking unit area of a surface that is not absorbed or transmitted by the surface. See

(1) refrigerating fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system and that absorbs heat at a low temperature and low
pressure of the fluid and transfers heat at a higher temperature and a higher pressure of the fluid, usually involving
changes of state of the fluid. Compare to [[coolant]]. (2) in a refrigerating system, the medium of heat transfer that picks
up heat by evaporating at a low temperature and pressure and gives up heat on condensing at a higher temperature and
pressure. (3) substance that changes phase or condition (e.g., from liquid to vapor [evaporation] or from bonded to solid
to vapor [desorption]) in the process of absorbing heat within the air-conditioning equipment.

a refrigerant composed of two or more different chemical compounds often used individually as refrigerants for other
(1) actual amount of refrigerant in a closed system. (2) weight of refrigerant required for proper functioning of a closed
device used in conjunction with a thermostatic expansion valve to ensure equable refrigerant distribution from the valve
to individual parallel sections of an evaporator.

total useful capacity of a refrigerant condenser for removing heat from the refrigerant circulated through it.

splitting of refrigerant compounds by reaction with water (e.g., reaction of dichlorodifluoromethane or methyl chloride
with water, forming acid products).

the mass flow rate of the volatile refrigerant, which is potentially mixed with lubricant.

device that controls the flow of liquid refrigerant to an evaporator.

device or portion of equipment used for the purpose of increasing refrigerant pressure.

recirculates liquid refrigerant from the refrigerant sump at the bottom of the evaporator to the evaporator tube bundle in
order to effectively wet the outside surface and enhance heat transfer (when used).

dedicated apparatus for transfer of refrigerant from a chiller or other refrigerating system to a separate and distinct
storage vessel.
vessel in a refrigerating system designed to ensure the availability of adequate liquid refrigerant for proper functioning of
the system and to store the liquid refrigerant when the system is pumped down.

a machine that removes refrigerant from a refrigerating system, preventing refrigerant discharge to the environment.

heat exchanger, after the condenser, for subcooling the condensed refrigerant.

process of cooling refrigerant below condensing temperature for a given pressure; also, cooling a liquid below its freezing
point where it can exist only in a state of unstable equilibrium. See [[supercooling]].

heat removal by direct contact of the packaged product with refrigerated plates.

a refrigerated vehicle where the space given to the ice or cooling element is in the end of the truck or rail car.

thermodynamic cycle of a system that transfers heat from a low-temperature reservoir to a high-temperature reservoir.

in a refrigeration system, the rate of heat removal.

technique of design, manufacture, application, and operation of refrigerating machinery and its primary equipment.

interconnected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is circulated and having the condenser located to
transfer heat to the zone to be heated.

amount of heat per unit time imposed on a refrigerating system for the required rate of heat removal.

quantity of heat to be removed from a refrigerated space to compensate for opening doors, presence of personnel, heat
from electric lights, etc.
a system that, in operation between a heat source (evaporator) and a heat sink (condenser) at two different temperatures,
absorbs heat from the heat source at the lower temperature and rejects heat to the heat sink at the higher temperature.
See also [[refrigerating unit]].

refrigerating systems are classified according to the degree of probability, low or high, that leaked refrigerant from a failed
connection, seal, or component could enter an occupied area. The distinction is based on the basic design or location of
the components.

contaminants include water (the most important and universal contaminant); dirt; particles; organic materials such as
waxes, acids, and sludges; or other products of chemical reactions taking place while the system is operating.

unit assembly composed of a compressor, evaporator, condenser, and expansion device, used for refrigerating and for
extracting heat.

parts subjected to approximately the condenser pressure.

parts subjected to approximately the evaporator pressure.

refrigerating equipment forming a part of the refrigerating system, including any or all of the following: compressor,
condenser, generator, absorber (adsorber), liquid receiver, connecting piping, and evaporator.

ratio of the useful refrigerating effect of the system to the power input.

device capable of providing the necessary difference in pressure between the high- and low-pressure sides of the
refrigerating system.
(1) any use of mechanical- or absorption-refrigerating machinery for applications other than the comfort of human beings.
Compare to [[cooling]]. (2) process of extracting heat from a substance or space by any means, usually at a low
assembly of refrigerant-containing parts used in a refrigerating cycle.

a stable fluid that is compatible with system components, will form a friction-reducing film between rubbing surfaces, will
seal critical clearances, and has low-temperature properties suitable for the application.

plate, wall, or partition that is designed to perform one or more of the following functions: (1) prevent contact of food
with refrigerated surfaces, (2) prevent dripping of condensate on food, (3) regulate and/or direct circulation of refrigerated
separate insulating element or integral insulating extension of the cabinet interior surfaces around the periphery of the
cabinet door or drawer opening(s), which functions as a thermal barrier to minimize heat flow to the cabinet interior (i.e.,
it breaks a thermal leakage path).

refuse used as a combustion fuel source to provide heat in a district-heating plant.

mass of moisture reabsorbed by a dried material when exposed to humid air.

the airstream used as a carrier for the desorbed moisture and/or a mechanism to transfer heat for the regeneration of the
desiccant in a dry desiccant system.
device used to heat the solid desiccant regeneration air or the liquid desiccant.

energy per unit moisture removed expressed in kJ/kg (Btu/lb).

air-cycle refrigerating system fitted with heat regenerators.

process of using heat that must be rejected or absorbed in one part of the cycle to perform a useful function in another
part of the cycle.
simple cycle gas turbine to which has been added a heat exchanger to warm incoming combustion air with heat from
exhaust gases in order to increase thermal efficiency.
heat rejected in one part of a system and used to perform a useful function in another part.
scrubber in which the active reagent can be regenerated.
the structure or section containing the desiccant to be regenerated.
combination grille and damper assembly over an air opening. See [[air outlet]].
appropriately qualified and licensed professional engineer. See also [[design professional]].
valve capable of regulating the flow of water through a condenser according to changes in condensing pressure or water
device to establish or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of a unit or process.
agencies whose rules are mandated by law or by owners specification. Examples include the U.S. Coast Guard, American
Bureau of Shipping, and U.S. Public Health Service.
application of sensible heat to supply air that has been previously cooled below the temperature desired for maintaining
the temperature of the conditioned space.
heating coil installed downstream of cooling coil.
terminal that heats a single source of supply air.
true VAV box with a reheat coil mounted on the discharge of the unit.

raising the temperature of air that has been previously cooled either by mechanical refrigeration or an economizer system.

(1) ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor to the mole fraction of water vapor saturated at the same temperature and
barometric pressure. (2) ratio of the partial pressure or density of water vapor to the saturation pressure or density,
respectively, at the same dry-bulb temperature and barometric pressure of the ambient air.

the light transmission of a dust spot sampling target relative to that of a translucent standard.

(1) electrical mechanism that uses the current in a control circuit to open or close electric contacts. (2) fluid (liquid or
pneumatic) device that uses variations in fluid pressure to actuate final control devices.

in freeze drying, that part of the water contained in the product and that may be extracted without spoiling the quality of
the product.
any movement of refrigerant out of its containment, including, but not limited to, by a leak, by an action of filling or
testing, or by failure.
the rate of release, in actual liters per minute (Lpm), of tracer gas during a hood test.

(1) mathematical probability that a device will perform its objective adequately for the period of time intended under the
operating conditions specified. (2) probability that a device will function without failure over a specified time period or
amount of usage. See [[accuracy]]; [[precision]]; [[repeatability]]. (3) probability that an instruments repeatability and
accuracy will continue to fall within specified limits.
(1) all return air that is discharged directly to the outside or exhausted by separate exhaust fans. (2) building return air
discharged by the air-handling unit (AHU) equipment to control building pressure when an HVAC system is operating in the
economizer cycle.
thermostat in which the sensing bulb can be located at a distance from the instrument proper while remaining flexibly
connected to it.
energy obtained from sunlight, wind, earth, geothermal sources, or bodies of water to provide heating, cooling, lighting, or
water-heating services to buildings.

empirical unit of resistance to water vapor flow through a material or construction. One rep = 1 hour square foot in. Hg
pressure difference between the two surfaces per grain (avoirdupois) water vapor (hft2in. Hg/gr). (The resistance may be
stated in other units consistent with this value.) The rep is the reciprocal of the perm (1 rep = 1/perm). It is not an SI unit.

(1) the reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance. (2) to restore to
good or sound condition within the following constraints: operation must be fully restored without embellishment and
failure must have occurred.

(1) closeness of agreement among consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of input approaching from
the same direction. Compare to [[accuracy]]; [[precision]]; [[reliability]]. (2) closeness of agreement among repeated
measurements of the same variable under the same conditions. (3) the ability to obtain the same observed value in
repeated experiments. Lack of repeatability is commonly associated with precision error, the random component of the
total error.

outdoor air that is used to replace air removed from a building through an exhaust system. Replacement air may be
derived from one or more of the following: makeup air, supply air, transfer air, and infiltration. However, the ultimate
source of all replacement air is outdoor air. When replacement air exceeds exhaust, the result is exfiltration.

estimate of the current or future cost to replace existing facilities either as currently structured or as redesigned to
embrace new technology with facilities that will perform the same functions.

repetitions of measurements at the same conditions that are taken to estimate the uncertainty in the results.

studious inquiry; usually critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation with the aim of revision of accepted
conclusions in light of newly discovered facts.
automatic adjustment of the controller setpoint to a higher or lower value.
control method using a remote or external signal to modify the setpoint of a controller.
period that the contaminant molecule is within the boundaries of the media bed.
the occupant or occupants of an individual unit in a multiple-occupancy residential building who have entered into an
agreement with the owner.

engineer employed by the owner to represent the owners interests at the project site during the construction phase.

spaces in buildings used primarily for living and sleeping. Residential spaces include, but are not limited to, dwelling units,
hotel/motel guest rooms, dormitories, nursing homes, patient rooms in hospitals, lodging houses, fraternity/sorority
houses, hostels, prisons, and fire stations.

air conditioning as applied to private houses or apartments.

providing comfort heating for single-family living quarters.

in a freeze-dried product, the ratio of the mass of residual water to the original mass of product.
in freeze drying, the pressure of the gas (usually air) at the trap.

(1) dimensionless group equal to four times the Fanning friction factor. Also known as Darcy-Weisbach coefficient and
Darcy number 1. (2) dimensionless number used in the study of flow resistance; equal to the resistance force in flow
divided by one-half the product of fluid density, the square of fluid velocity, and the square of a characteristic length.

the electrical conducting medium that is heated by an electric current and that also dissipates this heat into the air or a
temperature sensors that utilize the predictable change in electrical resistance of some materials with changing
temperature. They are commonly made of platinum. There are two broad categories, film and wire-wound types. Film
temperature sensors have a layer of some resistive material, such as platinum, on a substrate: the layer may be extremely
thin, perhaps 1 micrometer. Wire-wound temperature sensors can have greater accuracy, especially for wide temperature
ranges. The coil diameter provides a compromise between mechanical stability and allowing expansion of the wire to
minimize strain and consequential drift.

welding with resistance heating and pressure, the work being part of the electrical circuit.

(1) electric load with all energy input converted to heat and light. (2) electric load without capacitance or inductance or
one in which inductive portions cancel capacitive portions at the operating frequency.

(1) for digital techniques, the number of discrete values that can be indicated by the digital word from zero to full scale
(e.g., a ten bit binary word has a resolution of one point in 1024). (2) in analog to digital conversion, resolution refers to
the smallest input increment that can be measured and indicated by an output change. This can also be called sensitivity.

condition of high-vibration response. The exact resonance of a system in forced vibration exists when any change, however
small, in the frequency of excitation causes a decrease in the response amplitude (i.e., when the driving frequency equals
the natural frequency).
the frequency at which operation of the equipment leads to a peak in the response spectrum. Note: for lightly damped
structures, the resonance frequency can be taken to be the natural frequency.
system in which the refrigerant vapor is not condensed to a pure liquid but is absorbed in a weak solution from which it is
subsequently evaporated at a lower temperature to produce refrigeration.

product of an energy resource [includes application of resource utilization factor (RUF)] anticipated to be used in providing
fuel or energy to a building site, multiplied by an RIF for that particular form of energy resource. Total resource energy
impact is the sum of all resource energy impacts for a building project.

multipliers applied to fuel and energy resources required by a building project to permit a quantitative evaluation on the
economy of those resources resulting from the selection of on-site fuel and energy forms. Availability and social,
economic, environmental, and national interest issues are considered.

multiplier, applied to the quantity of fuel or energy delivered to a building site, that provides a quantitative estimate of the
energy resources consumed in providing that fuel or energy. Variant multipliers account for the burden of processing,
transporting, converting, and delivering fuel or energy from the point of extraction to the building site.

particles small enough to be inhaled into a nonciliated portion of the lung. Peak deposition of respirable particles occurs
within the size range of 0.2 to 5.0 micrometers. Particles greater than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter are not

(1) breathing process of animals. (2) production of carbon dioxide and heat by ripening of perishables in storage.

of the adsorbent, the amount remaining after a saturated bed reaches equilibrium in clean air.

the commissioning process applied to an existing facility that was not previously commissioned. The same process for
retrocommissioning needs to be followed from predesign through occupancy and operations to optimize the benefits of
implementing the commissioning process philosophy and practice.

modification of existing equipment, systems, or buildings to incorporate improved performance, updated operation,
improved energy performance, or all three. Derived from retroactive refit.
the savings measurement approach that determines energy or demand savings through the use of meters to isolate the
energy flows for the system(s).
pipe or duct to carry fluid back to the source.
air removed from a space to be recirculated or exhausted. Air extracted from a space and totally or partially returned to an
air conditioner, furnace, or other heating, cooling, or ventilating system.
nozzle for a mechanical atomizing oil burner in which part of the oil supplied to the atomizer is withdrawn and returned to
storage or to the oil line to the atomizer.

temperature of the heat transfer fluid at the exit of a test panel.

compressor in which the suction valve is located in the cylinder head of the compressor.

persistence of sound to bounce around in an enclosed space after the sound source has stopped.
time in seconds for sound energy to decay 60 decibels. A common reference is often the time for the sound in the 500 Hz
octave band to decay 60 dB.
device or control where the action of the device or control decreases (or increases) as the variable increases (or
decreases). Compare to [[direct acting]].

cycle obtained when a fluid is made to follow the different thermodynamic stages of a cycle in the reverse order.

defrosting an evaporator by reversing its function with that of the condenser.

airflow within the hood when smoke released in the hood moves forward, toward the front of the hood. This term does
not apply to the forward motion of the roll inside the hood that occurs in the upper cavity of the hood above the hood
opening or to the cyclonic motion that occurs behind a closed horizontal sash.

(1) output pressure of a reversing relay that changes in opposition to the input signal (i.e., as the input pressure increases,
the output pressure decreases). (2) pressure differential existing in a heat pump reversing valve to affect a reversal of flow
through the valve.
two-pipe system in which the heat transfer medium supplied to the first load is the last returned to the heat transfer
equipment. A system in which the water return piping from terminal units is sized to provide equal lengths for balanced
flow rates. Compare to [[direct-return piping system]].
theoretical thermodynamic cycle composed of a series of reversible processes.
maximum useful work obtained for a given change of state. It includes heat supplied from other systems but excludes
work done on the surroundings.
relay designed to reverse the direction of current flow or of function, on actuation.

a dimensionless number, designated Re, that indicates whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent. For flow in a pipe,
transition generally occurs between Reynolds numbers of 2300 and 4000.

[[relative humidity (rh, RH)]]

dimensionless number used in studying the stratified flow of multilayer systems; equal to the acceleration of gravity g
times the density gradient of a fluid divided by the product of the fluids density and the square of its velocity gradient at a
wall (symbol NR).
ducts constructed of rigid materials such as metal and fiberglass duct board.
calculated by using the average inside duct dimensions determined by measurement of a minimum of three
representative sections of the duct envelope.
granular deposit of opaque ice on a surface, formed by quick freezing of supercooled water droplets.
alternating-current component from a direct-current power supply arising within a power supply.
vertical distance (hv) between the highest horizontal plane tangent to a specified isovel and the center of the core of an air

(1) measure of the time required for a circuit to change its output from a low voltage level to a high voltage level, normally
from 10 to 90 percentage points. (2) time required for the output of a system (other than first order) to make the change
from a small specified percentage (often 5% to 10%) of the steady-state increment to a large, specified percentage (often
90% to 95%) either before overshoot or in the absence of overshoot.

system of air conditioning in which packed beds of crushed stone or gravel are used for both evaporative cooling and heat
energy storage.
the rotation of air in the upper cavity of the hood. The roll is induced by the momentum of the air entering the hood
through the hood opening.
evaporator consisting of two metal plates that are weld bonded together (with the exception of the printed circuit forming
the refrigerant passage, which is obtained by inflation under pressure).
filter in which the filter medium is a continuous belt on movable rolls to bring clean filter media into the airstream, either
automatically or manually.
bearing consisting of a number of rollers in a cage between the inner and outer races.
special type of small rotary compressor having a rotor aligned eccentrically within the stator, used in domestic
the upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle
of less than 60 from horizontal.

all components of the roof/ceiling envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or
gain, where such assembly is exposed to outdoor air and encloses a heated and/or mechanically cooled space.

system that reduces heat gain through a roof by cooling the outside surface with a water spray; suited for only temporary
treatment because high humidity may be introduced by air intakes on the roof.

packaged air conditioner mounted on a roof, the conditioned air being discharged directly into the rooms below or
through a duct system.

an encased assembly designed as a unit primarily for mounting in a window, through a wall, or as a console. It is designed
primarily to provide free delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room, or zone. The room air conditioner
includes a primary source of refrigeration and dehumidification, means for air circulation, air cleaning, and heating and
may include means for ventilation and humidification.

a test facility consisting of a room-side compartment and an outdoor-side compartment, each of which is equipped with
instrumented reconditioning equipment. The output of this equipment is measured and controlled to counterbalance the
room-side net total cooling effect of the air conditioner under test.

a factor that characterizes room configuration as a ratio between the walls and ceiling and is based upon room
a series of curves of octave band sound spectra in a system for rating the noisiness of an occupied indoor space; an actual
octave band spectrum is compared with this set of curves to determine the RC level of the space. Rates sound from 16 to
16,000 Hz octave bands.

(1) for a sinusoidal motion, the RMS value is 0.707 times peak. (2) for a velocity measurement, root mean square is often
used when vibrations are random or consist of a number of sinusoidal vibrations of different frequencies. The RMS value is
a measure of the effective energy used to produce the vibration of the machine. (3) root mean square is the square root of
the time average of the sound (vibration) wave(s).

burner in which atomization is accomplished by feeding oil to the inside of a rapidly rotating cup.

a positive displacement compressor in which the change in internal volume of the compression chamber is accomplished
by the rotary motion of a positive displacement.
process of deliberately interrupting preselected loads from an electric power system, as a nonroutine remedy of energy
management implemented through transmission supervision and substation automation, on a substation bus or
distribution feeder basis in a sequentially timed pattern for the purpose of matching demand to temporarily limited

device consisting of rotating-propeller-type vanes; the air velocity is indicated from the rotational speed of the vanes.

ratio of size of projections from the surface of a pipe or duct to the diameter of the pipe or duct.
[[resistance temperature device (RTD)]]
finned-tube coils (closed system) or spray chambers (open systems) in which a liquid is circulated by gravity or pump
action through a heat source exchanger and then through a heat sink exchanger. Antifreeze may be used in the coil loop
and a desiccant in the spray system.
regenerative-type closed secondary system in which a continuously circulated fluid absorbs heat from the primary system
fluid at one place and sends it to the primary system fluid at another place.
(1) the period of time between the start and the stop of a cycle. (2) the period of time between the start of refrigeration
after a defrost termination and the beginning of the next successive defrost.
(1) accumulated hours of equipment operation. (2) period of operation of a system on test.

(also known as pressure relief device or pressure limiting device), valve or rupture member designed to relieve pressure at
a predetermined setting by mechanical failure of the disc. A rupture disc is a single-use device and must be replaced after
the incident (as opposed to a relief valve, which may be manually or automatically reset).
(1) measure of the acoustical absorption properties of a room; the average absorption of all the surfaces in a room times
the total surface divided by the average reflection. (2) (also known as thermal resistance), quantity determined by the
temperature difference, at steady state, between two defined surfaces of a material or construction that induces a unit
heat flow rate through unit area (R = T/q). R-value is the reciprocal of thermal conductance.

(1) dimensionless unit of acoustical absorption, equal to the equivalent sound absorption of one square foot of a surface
of unit absorptivity (i.e., of one square foot of surface that absorbs all incident sound energy). (2) dimensionless unit of
acoustical absorption, equal to the equivalent sound absorption of unit of area of a surface of unit absorptivity.

maximum pressure a system can be subjected to without component failure.

(1) ancillary device fitted to an apparatus or machine in order to prevent accident or damage in the event of abnormal
functioning of the system. (2) control that causes equipment to cease operation when adverse or excessive conditions
in a compressor, a cylinder head held in place by a spring of such strength that it will not be compressed during normal
operation but will be compressed by solid matter or liquid coming between it and the piston, thereby protecting the
see [[safety device]].
hydrometer calibrated in salt concentration.

a tubular windscreen to be attached to a standard microphone and designed to minimize its sensitivity to airflow noise.

device intended to allow the passage of outdoor air or exhaust air while minimizing the ingress of airborne sand. Also see

the maximum of the positional sash movement effects for all the positions tested on a particular hood.

a series of letters and numbers consisting of the letters SME-AM, SME-AI, or SME-AU and a two- or three-digit number,
(i.e., SME-AU yyy, SME-AI yyy, SME-AM yyy), where SME means sash movement effect, AM means as manufactured, AI
means as installed, AU means as used, and yyy equals the sash movement effect, ppm. A test rating of SME-AM 10, for
example, would indicate that the peak concentration of tracer gas measured during a sash movement test under the as
manufactured test [with a tracer gas release rate of 4.0 Lpm] was 10 ppm.

an organic (carbon-containing) compound in which each carbon atom is joined to four other atoms; all of the chemical
bonds in a saturated compound are single.

(1) air that holds the maximum water vapor possible at a specified temperature and pressure. (2) moist air in which the
partial pressure of the water vapor is equal to the vapor pressure of water at the existing temperature.

liquid existing at the saturation temperature and pressure.

the water-vapor pressure at the saturation temperature corresponding to the reference pressure and without any liquid

(1) condition for coexistence in stable equilibrium of a vapor and liquid or a vapor and solid phase of the same substance.
As an example, steam over the water from which it is being generated. See [[vapor pressure]]. (2) physical adsorbent that
contains all the contaminant it can hold at the challenge concentration, temperature, and humidity. This point is its
activity, expressed as a percentage of the carbon mass or fraction (i.e., g contaminant/g adsorbent). (3) condition for
coexistence in stable equilibrium of a vapor and liquid, or a vapor and solid phase of the same substance. As an example,
steam over the water from which it is being generated. See [[vapor pressure]].

dimensionless difference between the humidity ratio of an air sample and the saturation humidity ratio of air at the same
temperature and pressure.

the dry-bulb temperature reduction achieved by the ECU divided by the entering wet-bulb depression.

the pressure at which vapor and liquid exist in equilibrium at a given temperature.

the temperature where a substance changes between its liquid and its vapor phase. If the pressure in a system remains
constant, a vapor at saturation temperature will begin to condense into its liquid phase as thermal energy is removed, and,
conversely, a liquid at saturation temperature will begin to evaporate as thermal energy is applied.
the process of separating a retrofits (energy conservation measures) effectiveness from a facilitys energy use pattern. It
involves measurements of physical conditions and analysis of resultant data.
the estimation of energy and demand savings associated with an energy conservation measure for a piece of equipment, a
subsystem, or a system. The estimated savings are based on some kind of measured data from before and after the retrofit
and may be calculated using a variety of engineering techniques. There are several different savings measurement

(1) the formation of thick corrosion product layers on a metal surface at high temperature. (2) the precipitation of water-
insoluble constituents on a surface.
substance added to water used in condensers, boilers, piping, and cooling towers to prevent or minimize the formation of
insoluble deposits.

(1) control setpoint at which temperature is to be maintained. (2) indicated temperature to which a thermostat is set.

in a refrigeration system, an arrangement for gravitational separation of the larger impurities from a refrigerant.

an indication of how often scans are initiated. Throughput rate is the maximum rate the entire data acquisition system can
accept, process, and transfer data.

an indication of how fast a recording instrument proceeds from measurement to measurement within a given scan.

standard cubic feet per minute.

drawing illustrating the relationship of project components and/or the fundamental outline of a functional system.

dimensionless number consisting of the mass transfer coefficient times a characteristic length divided by the mass
diffusivity. Symbol Sc, Sc, or NSc. See [[Prandtl number]].
fire tube boiler consisting of a cylindrical shell with one or more cylindrical internal furnaces in the lower portion and a
bank of tubes attached to both end closures.

exchanger having a surface on which a fluid can be solidified and the solid layer scraped off.

apparatus in which a liquid freezes on the surface of a cooled drum to form a thin layer which is removed by a scraper.

piston ring of special section, designed to prevent oil from the crankcase entering the cylinder head.

a positive displacement rotary compressor that produces compression with two intermeshing helical rotors.

positive displacement compressor in which the reduction in internal volume of the compression chamber is accomplished
by an orbiting scroll (involute spiral) within a mating stationary scroll.
(1) device for reducing the CO2 content of a controlled-atmosphere storage room. (2) system to reduce noxious substances
from a flowing stream, as in chimneys or process discharges.
device to prevent the passage of a gas or liquid into or out of a pipe, container, or along a shaft.
hermetic unit with compressor and motor enclosed in the same housing without external shaft or shaft seals with the
motor operating in the refrigerant.

see [[hermetic compressor]].

tube produced by drawing and forming operations from a pierced bar or hollow billet.
(1) air for combustion supplied to the furnace to supplement the primary air (after ignition). (2) air prevailing in a treated
space. (3) air used to reject heat to an ambient environment or elsewhere. (4) primary air recirculated through a terminal
condenser cooled by the evaporator of a secondary system.

any liquid used for the transmission of heat without vaporization.

a fluid of known properties (e.g., water, steam, or brine) that is used as a heating medium.

(1) a volatile refrigerant (usually a single refrigerant or an azeotropic mixture) of known properties that is used as a heating
medium. (2) volatile or nonvolatile substance in an indirect refrigerating system that absorbs heat from a substance in
space to be refrigerated and transfers this heat to the evaporator of the refrigerating system.

(also known as indirect surface), in extended surface exchangers, the additional surface that is not in direct contact with
both the heat-absorbing and heat-emitting media.
(1) the fluid that flows through the condenser as a coolant. (2) fluid that flows through a heat exchanger that transfers
thermal energy from the primary transfer fluid to the application that uses solar energy.

generation of an emf induced by a difference in temperature at the junctions of two dissimilar materials selected for their
emf characteristics and temperature limits.

a complete, factory-assembled and factory-tested system that is shipped in one or more sections and has no refrigerant-
containing parts that are joined in the field by other than companion or block valves.

a factory-made assembly in one structure that includes a complete mechanical refrigerating system and that has the
primary function of cooling potable water and also provides for dispensing such water, by either integral or remote means
or both.

method of control which requires no external or auxiliary power supply.

devices that incorporate means to maintain performance at a nearly constant level or within preestablished limits.
Examples are roll filters, filters equipped with vacuum-cleaning systems, and self-washing electronic air cleaners. The self-
renewal action is accomplished by means incorporated within the device itself; actuation may be manual or automatic.

selection of heating or cooling operation by means of a combination of manual and automatic switches, which usually are
located at the room thermostat.
defrost system in which the defrost cycle is started manually and ends automatically with automatic resumption of normal
refrigeration at the end of defrost operation.
a motor compressor assembly contained within a gas tight housing that is sealed by gasketed joints to provide access for
servicing internal parts.

a component an indirect evaporative cooler provided with a primary air-moving device, that delivers primary air. This
device also includes the entire water distribution, collection, and recirculation system with pump and piping.

a component an indirect evaporative cooler with integrated or nonintegrated primary and secondary air passages and
provided with a secondary air moving device, which delivers secondary air. This device also includes the entire water
distribution, collection, and recirculation system with pump and piping.

a mixture of synthetic and petroleum oils that can act as a lubricant.

the rate, expressed in Btu/h (W), at which the fan coil under test reduces or increases the dry-bulb temperature of the air
passing through it.
the rate, expressed in W (Btu/h), at which the equipment lowers the dry-bulb temperature (removes sensible heat) of the
air passing through it under specified conditions of operation.
(1) amount of sensible heat removed from air during cooling. (2) difference between total cooling effect and
dehumidifying effect.

a panel designed for sensible cooling of an indoor space through heat transfer to the thermally effective panel surfaces
from the occupants and/or indoor space by thermal radiation and natural convection.

the energy exchanged by a thermodynamic system that relates to a change of temperature.

ratio of the sensible heat to the sensible plus latent heat to be removed from a conditioned space.
[also known as sensible heat factor (SHF)], the ratio of sensible heat transfer to total (sensible + latent) heat transfer for a
process. Also see [[sensible heat]] and [[latent heat]].
the rate, expressed in Btu/h (W), at which the equipment raises the dry-bulb temperature (adds sensible heat) of the air
passing through it under specified conditions of operation.
a complete panel that is designed and can be independently installed and operated for sensible heating of an indoor space
through heat transfer from the thermally effective panel surfaces to the occupants and/or indoor space by thermal
radiation and natural convection.
a measure of the smallest incremental change to which an instrument can respond.
in instrumentation, ratio of a change in output magnitude to the change of input that causes it after the steady state has
been reached.
device or instrument designed to detect and measure a variable.
vessel that removes solids and entrained liquid from a liquid or gas stream using a combination of a baffle or a coalescer
with a screening (filtering) element.

(1) an organized narration specifying how the integrated functions of a device, system, or facility will perform. It should
incorporate energy efficiency and environmental concerns with detailed, comprehensive control strategies, i.e., how each
individual piece of equipment will be controlled and what information and adjustment will be available to the user. These
may be provided in a combination of narratives, diagrams, and point lists for every unique type of equipment and for each
system. (2) one in which successive operations are carried out in a sequence, either predetermined or resulting from the
correct execution of each successive operation.

instrument that provides sequence control.

terminal where primary airflow is modulated and mixed with induced air by a continuously operated integral fan to
provide a relatively constant volume of discharge.
hot-water heating system in which each radiator is connected in series with the next and all flow returns to the boiler in
the loop. Also known as a single pipe or one pipe system.
an agency capable of providing calibration, testing, or manufacture of equipment, instrumentation, metering, or control
apparatus, such as a contractor, laboratory, or manufacturer.
see [[domestic hot water]].

pertaining to the ease with which equipment in buildings can be serviced for maintenance purposes.

mechanism that automatically actuates a system according to the variation of input. The device is designed so that a small
input power controls a much larger output power.

combination of devices for controlling a source of power in which the output (or some function thereof) is fed back and
compared to some reference at the input; the difference of this comparison being used to effect the desired control.

the pressure at which a pressure relief device or pressure control is set to operate.
reduction of heating (by reducing the setpoint) or cooling (by increasing the setpoint) during hours when a building is
unoccupied or during periods when lesser demand is acceptable.
point at which the desired temperature (F [C]) of the heated or cooled space is set.
ratio of absorbed and transmitted solar heat relative to fenestration fitted with shading devices to that occurring with
unshaded single-strength glass.

the ratio of solar heat gain at normal incidence through glazing to that occurring through standard thickness of clear,
double-strength glass. Shading coefficient does not include interior, exterior, or integral shading devices.

a type of smoke control system that is intended to positively pressurize stair and/or elevator shafts with outdoor air by
using fans to keep smoke from contaminating the shafts during an alarm condition.

natural ventilation by means of a duct mounted vertically or near vertically.

where used in standards, codes, and regulations, the term is meant to indicate a required or mandatory compliance with
codes or regulations.
radiation angle factor.

cold storage freezer room, generally kept at 30F to 10F (34C to 23C), to receive unfrozen goods and freeze them.

condenser in which the cooling medium circulates in a coil located in a shell containing the condensing refrigerant.

closed, cylindrical shell containing an evaporator coil which is in contact with the liquid to be cooled.

condenser consisting of an outer shell containing multiple tubes.

evaporator in which the fluid to be cooled is passed through the tubes, which are immersed in the refrigerant.

nest of tubes or pipes, or a coil of tube or pipe, contained in a shell or container. The pipe(s) carries a fluid through it,
while the shell is also provided with an inlet and outlet for flow of another fluid.
dimensionless number consisting of the mass transfer coefficient times a characteristic length divided by the mass
diffusivity. Symbols are Sh, Sh, or NSh.
place, building, or room where manufacturing or repairing is done.
drawing, diagram, schedule, and other data specially prepared for the work by the contractor or any sub contractor,
manufacturer, supplier, or distributor to illustrate some portion of the work.
excessive frequency of starting and stopping in an operating system.

typically a 15 min. time weighted average (TWA) exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a work day.

entrainment flow with very poor mixing within the room because much of the supply air leaves the room without mixing
with the room air.
where used in standards, codes, and regulations, the term is meant to indicate a provision that is not mandatory but that
is recommended as good practice.
the point of operation where the fluid flow rate is zero.

the international agreement on the metric system of units using meters, grams, and other designations, as opposed to I-P
units in the Inch-Pound system.

building in which the indoor air quality is unacceptable to a substantial majority of people exposed. Volatile organic
compounds (VOC) of various types and other contaminants are present in concentrations sufficient to act synergistically on
many occupants, resulting in a sick building syndrome, usually when concentrations are too high. This syndrome does not
conform to a particular illness and is difficult to trace to a specific source. See [[indoor air quality (IAQ)]]; [[volatile organic
compounds (VOC)]].

the term may apply to a combination of ailments (a syndrome) associated with a place of work, residence, or assembly.
Sick building syndrome can be related to a lack of adequate outdoor air ventilation, improper exhaust, ventilation of odors,
chemicals or fumes, or poor indoor-air quality. Other sources of sick buildings may be linked to contaminants produced by
outgassing of some types of building materials, VOC, bacteria molds, etc. This syndrome does not conform to a particular
illness and is difficult to trace to a specific source. See [[indoor air quality]], [[volatile organic compounds (VOC)]].

(1) a device for direct visual indication of the presence, level, flow, or condition of a confined fluid. (2) transparent tube or
window (bulls eye) used to indicate the liquid level in a boiler, tank, bearing, and similar fluid-containing equipment.

device that changes one set of protocols, codes, modes, sequences, or frequencies to a different set. See also
device or unit installed in air duct systems to reduce air noise in the duct. See [[sound attenuator]].

form of silicon dioxide which absorbs moisture and may be used as a drying agent.

a computer model that provides information on the energy-using systems in a building (e.g., HVAC, lighting, occupancy,
plug loads, building envelope). The model serves as the input data for a specific computer building energy simulation
program, along with weather data. When run, the computer simulation program will predict the energy use and demand
in the described building for a time interval specified in the simulation model. Depending on the kind of simulation
program and how it is set up to run, various kinds of output may be produced.

a computer program that is capable of simulating the energy performance of building systems.
interruption of any one conductor in a three-phase system.

compressor having one compression stroke per revolution of the crank for each cylinder.

system in which the air, having been conditioned, is distributed to various zones through a single duct.

air-terminal unit assembly having one ducted air inlet and a device for regulating the airflow rate so it is independent of
inlet pressure changes.
building containing one or two living units or a townhouse, including a modular house.
a single-island canopy hood is placed over a single appliance or appliance line. It is open on all sides and overhangs the
front, rear, and sides of the appliance(s).
the flap centrally mounted or at one end (sometimes one or a combination of this damper is used as diverting element).

a simplified schematic drawing that shows the connection between two or more items. Common multiple connections are
shown as one line.

compression from evaporator to condenser pressure by passing through one compressor stage only.

a control that cycles between two states, typically between on and off (maximum and minimum).
sliding-vane compressor with one vane, sliding in a slot in the fixed casing, maintaining continuous contact with the rotor,
and separating the suction and the delivery ports.
an HVAC system serving a single HVAC zone.
thermal, chemical, or electrical energy derived from direct conversion of incident solar radiation at the building site and
used to offset consumption of purchased fuel or electrical energy supplies.
waste energy recovered at the building site that is used to offset consumption of purchased fuel or electrical energy
the shaft from the skylight to the ceiling.
thermal insulation applied under slab on ground construction.
semirigid insulation preformed into rectangular units having a degree of suppleness particularly related to their
geometrical dimensions.

rotary compressor having a rotor aligned eccentrically within a cylindrical housing, with one or several vanes located in
slots in the rotor or in the housing.

hygrometer of two matched thermometers, one with its bulb wetted and the other dry, capable of being whirled rapidly
on a sling to indicate the temperature differences related to relative humidity.

(1) difference between the speed of rotation of a motor and the rotational speed of the alternating current. See also
[[two-phase flow]]. (2) phenomenon of a fluid slipping past a fixed surface with a finite velocity. A no-slip condition
pertains to a boundary condition in a fluid flow problem where the slip velocity is assumed to be zero.

method of constructing transverse seams in rectangular sheet metal ducts.

elongated type of air diffuser consisting of a single or a number of slots.
freezing of produce without attempting to reduce the temperature rapidly below that of the zone of maximum
product of decomposition of oil resulting from impurities, moisture, or chemical reactions and favored by excessive
temperature. Sludge may be mushy, gummy, or hard.

effect produced by droplets of liquid refrigerant or oil, or a mixture of both, that reach the cylinder of a compressor.

suspension of a solid in a liquid. See [[ice slurry]].

small pieces of wet ice, usually wet snow ice or wet flake ice.
a factory-charged refrigerating system using less than 5 lb (2.3 kg) of refrigerant that is welded, brazed, soldered, or
otherwise joined together in such a manner as to create a sealed system typically capable of operating for 10 years
without maintenance or repair.

(1) small solid and/or liquid particles produced by incomplete combustion of organic substances, varying in size often in
the range of 0.1 to 0.3 m. (2) the airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes
pyrolysis or combustion, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.

an approved opening protection device designed to resist the passage of air or smoke that meets the requirements of UL
Standard 555S-1983, Leakage Rated Dampers for Use in Smoke Control Systems. A combination fire and smoke damper
should also meet the requirements of UL Standard 555-1990, Fire Dampers.

a predefined operational configuration of a system or device for the purpose of smoke control.
an engineered system that uses mechanical fans to produce airflows and pressure differences across barriers to limit
smoke movement.
a space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers, including the top and bottom, that is a part of a zoned smoke control
a mechanical or gravity system intended to move smoke from the smoke zone to the exterior of the building, including
smoke removal, purging, and venting systems, as well as the function of exhaust fans used to reduce the pressure in a
smoke zone.

an engineered system that includes all methods that can be used singly or in combination to modify smoke movement.

the smoke control zone in which the fire is located.

black marks on ceilings and air outlets, generally caused by dirt particles suspended in the room air. This dirt is entrained
in the mixed airstream and is deposited on the ceiling and outlet.
response of a switch to very small movements of its actuating button or lever, changing rapidly and positively from one
contact position to the other.

a connecting means for a component, such as an air-terminal device, where the installation is a hand press fit and
retaining means are by counter turned rolls of metal or counterfacing dimple punches.

longitudinal folded joint used for rectangular sheet metal duct construction in which the seam is snapped together.

when light travels from one medium into another, the incident and refracted rays lie in one plane with the normal to the
surface, are on opposite sides of the normal, and make angles with the normal whose sines have a constant ratio to one
another. Also known as Descartes laws of refraction.

a restrictor placed in a liquid or vapor line to suppress pulsating or fluctuating pressures.

deoxidized and dehydrated, seamless, soft copper tube, thoroughly annealed to ensure good bending and flaring
hot joining operation in which the melting temperature of the filler metal is lower than 800F (450C). See [[soldered
joint]], [[brazed joint]], [[welded joint]].

water free of calcium and magnesium salts.

temperature at which a solid loses rigidity or consistency in a standardized test procedure.

ratio of the solar spectrum radiant flux absorbed by a body to that incident on it.

a device designed to absorb incident solar radiation and to transfer the energy to a fluid passing through it.

part of the solar collector that receives the solar radiation energy and transforms it into thermal energy. It may possess a
surface through which energy is transmitted to the transfer fluid; however, the transfer fluid itself can be the absorber.

maximum projected area of a solar collector through which the unconcentrated solar radiant energy is admitted.

material covering the aperture to provide thermal and environmental protection.

system in which the collector fluid is allowed to drain back to storage whenever solar energy is not being collected, i.e.,
when the fluid circulating pump is not operating.

system in which the collector fluid is drained from the system under prescribed circumstances.

maximum projected area of the complete collector module including integral mounting means.

ratio of the energy removed by the transfer fluid per unit of collector area to the total solar radiation incident on the
collector per unit area (aperture or gross) during a test period for which the condition of the test corresponds to the
steady state or quasi-steady state.
heater installed within the collector loop when testing the solar domestic-water-heating system with a nonirradiated

angle between the horizontal plane and the plane of the collector aperture.

fluid that flows through a solar collector.

device that resets the control signal to account for the effect of the suns radiation on a temperature-sensing element.

the fraction of total solar radiation transmitted through the window(s) that is absorbed by a given surface or retransmitted
(lost) back out the window(s).
energy derived directly from the suns rays, both as diffuse and beam radiation (excludes indirect methods such as
photosynthesis, wind, etc.).
source of thermal, chemical, or electrical energy derived from direct conversion of incident solar radiation at the building
see [[solar distribution fraction]].
solar energy flowing into a space or structure. Units are expressed in kilowatts (Btu/h).
the ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration area to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat
gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation, which is then reradiated, conducted, or
convected into the space.
rate at which solar energy is received, per unit area. See also [[irradiance]].
fraction of total solar radiation transmitted through the window(s) that is reflected by opaque surfaces and retransmitted
back out the window(s).
instant at which the sun reaches its maximum altitude on the horizon at any given location.
the transmission of radiant energy from the sun.
a source of radiant energy simulating the solar radiation.
the time of the day as indicated by the apparent position of the sun.
spectral, radiant, or luminous transmittance, reflectance, and absorptance within the range of wavelengths characterizing
solar radiation, i.e., 300 to 3,000 nm.
a gastight joint formed by joining metal parts with alloys that melt at temperatures not exceeding 800F (426.5C) and
above 400F (204.5C).
a gastight joint formed by a process where a filler metal or alloy is heated to melting temperatures above 400F (205C)
and below 842F (450C), or, by the traditional definition that has been used in the United States, below 800F (427C) and
distributed between two or more close fitting parts by capillary action. Soldering is used as a general term for the process
of creating a soldered joint.
chemical substance that aids the flow of solder and serves to remove and prevent the formation of oxides on the pieces to
be joined.
a valve that is closed (or opened) by gravity, pressure, or spring action and opened (or closed) by the movement of a
plunger due to the magnetic action of an electrically energized coil.

one based on the expansion of a solid substance (usually bimetallic).

one of the three states or phases of matter characterized by stability of dimensions, relative incompressibility, and
molecular motion held to limited oscillation.
temperature at which a liquid substance will solidify, but not necessarily crystallize, on removal of heat (usually at standard
atmospheric pressure). Compare to [[freezing point]].

protective device using electronic solid-state materials as opposed to conventional electromechanical devices.

quantity of dissolved substance (solute) which is contained in a unit quantity of saturated solution at a given temperature
and pressure.
substance which is dissolved in another.
substance capable of dissolving another substance.
a device used to measure and display air temperature using phase difference between transmitted and received signals
across an acoustic path in the medium.
speed of a pressure wave in a fluid.

an absorbent or adsorbent medium that remains completely or substantially in a single phase during the process of
absorbing or releasing heat by means of a refrigerant. Such media include liquids and solids.

substance absorbed by or adsorbed on a sorbent.

material which extracts one or more substances present in an atmosphere or mixture of gases or liquids with which it is in
contact, due to an affinity for such substances.
general term covering both absorption and adsorption.
a physical disturbance, vibration, or frequency transmitted by a solid, liquid, or gas that is capable of being detected by the
human ear.
process in which sound energy is absorbed or otherwise diminished in intensity.

element inserted into the air-distribution system and intended to reduce the airborne noise in the system. See [[silencer]].

rate at which the sound pressure level in an enclosed space decreases after the sound source has stopped. It is measured
in decibels per second.
acoustical treatment of constructions and equipment such as fan housings, supply ducts, and space enclosures to reduce
the amplitude of the sound present by absorbing energy from the wave, or reducing the vibration amplitude by using
damping or mass or both to reduce transmitted noise.
magnitude of a sound or a noise, usually determined by measuring the amplitude of variations in the sound pressure
expressed in decibels.
see [[sound pressure level]] or [[sound power level]]. Sound power can not be measured directly.
airborne power measured in decibels. It is ten times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of a given sound power to
the reference sound power. The reference sound power is 1 picowatt (pW).

an operating mode that occurs during space cooling when either the desuperheater water pump has automatically cycled
off or the rate of heat transfer to the domestic water has become negligible. With respect to seasonal performance
calculations, this mode occurs when the water heating load is satisfied but a space-cooling load remains.

pipe or tube containing a series of holes designed to equalize the distribution of one fluid stream into another.

planar angle defined by the instrument instantaneous field of view, i.e., the resolution element.
a quantity that which a water well can produce per unit of drawdown.
enthalpy per unit mass of substance.
entropy per unit mass of a substance.
ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of any substance one degree to the quantity
required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of a standard substance one degree (usually water at 59F [15C]). The
units are expressed in Btu/lbF [J/(kgK)].

(1) ratio of the mass of water to the total mass of a moist air sample. (2) ratio of the mass of water vapor to total mass of a
moist air sample (including water vapor and dry air) in a particular volume. Specific humidity is expressed as a ratio in
units of lb of moisture/lb of dry air or grains of moisture/lb of dry air (kilograms of water vapor per kilogram of mixture).
See also [[absolute humidity]].

ratio of infiltration to leakage area; a normalized quantity that indicates the intensity of the weather relative to infiltration.

the refrigerant flow rate in lb/min (g/s) required to produce one ton (one kW) of refrigeration.

(1) difference in specific enthalpies of a pure condensable fluid between vapor at a given temperature above saturation
and vapor at the dry saturated state at the same pressure. (2) superheat in a unit quantity of fluid.

volume of a unit mass of a material. Usually expressed in ft3/lb (m3/kg). The reciprocal of density.

statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service that indicates the procedures
for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. Note: it is desirable to express the requirements
numerically in terms of appropriate units, together with their limits.

thermal emittance based on the radiant energy emitted per unit wavelength interval (monochromatic radiant energy).

average of the sound pressure level measured in the three octave bands centered at 500, 1000, and 2000 hertz.

apparatus using centrifugal action to atomize and distribute moisture into an airstream.

continuous strip of metal helically wound and attached to a tube.

lubricating system for a compressor with the oil in the crankcase fed to all moving parts and to cylinder walls by the
splashing action of a dip or paddle integral or attached to the crankshaft ends of the connecting rod.

air-conditioning system consisting of equipment provided in more than one assembly or enclosure, usually with supply air-
distribution equipment housed separately from refrigerant-condensing equipment.

condenser comprising several heat-exchanging components operating on one or several refrigeration systems.

see [[split air-conditioning system]].

temperature of spontaneous ignition of a product in the absence of a flame, determined under standardized conditions.

piece of pipe with flanges on both ends that is inserted into a pipeline in place of a valve or instrument.

cooling the air of a limited portion of an enclosed space without the use of walls or partitions.
welding of lapped parts in which fusion is confined to a relatively small circular area. It is generally resistance welding, but
may also be gas tungsten arc, gas metal arc, or submerged-arc welding.
cooling by spraying a low-temperature liquid on the object to be cooled.
freeze-drying process during which a liquid product is sprayed frozen prior to sublimation of the ice.
orifice through which liquid is sprayed as in air washers and humidifiers.

system for lowering the temperature of water by conductive and evaporative cooling of the water in contact with outside
air. Water to be cooled is sprayed by nozzles into the air above a pond of water and allowed to fall into the pond.

liquid cooling tank whose walls are sprayed with chilled water.
an air cooler, with or without cooling surface, fitted to spray liquid continuously into the airstream.
enclosure in which water is sprayed by nozzles into the airstream to wash it.
(1) shell-and-tube evaporator in which the tubes are sprayed by liquid refrigerant. (2) starved evaporator condition when
an evaporator does not receive sufficient refrigerant.
(of an air jet in mixing air diffusion), maximum distance (dv) between two vertical planes tangent to a specified isovel and
perpendicular to a plane through the center of the core of an air jet. There may be two different spreads, not always
equal: one for the left side, the other for the right side (considered when looking at the treated space from the supply air
terminal device).
range through which the signal applied must change to produce total movement of the controlled device from one
position to another.

(general) property of a system or element by virtue of which its output will ultimately attain a steady state.

a condition in which a temperature is considered to be stabilized when three successive readings taken at intervals of 10%
of the previously elapsed duration of the test, but not less than five minute intervals, vary no more than 5F (3C).

the portion of the exhaust system downstream of the draft diverter, draft hood, or barometric draft regulator.

(1) movement of air into and out of buildings, chimneys, flue gas stacks, or other containers and is driven by buoyancy.
Buoyancy occurs due to a difference in indoor to outdoor air density resulting from temperature and moisture differences.
The result is either a positive or negative buoyancy force. The greater the thermal difference and the height of the
structure, the greater the buoyancy force, and thus the stack effect. The stack effect is also referred to as the chimney
effect, and it helps drive natural ventilation and infiltration. (2) movement of air or other gas in a vertical enclosure (e.g.,
duct, chimney, building), induced by the density difference between the air or other gas in the enclosure and the ambient
atmosphere. Note: stack effect is a significant concern in heating-system design for tall buildings in cold climates.
Sometimes referred to as chimney effect. (3) pressure difference caused by the difference in density between indoor and
outdoor air due to an indoor/outdoor temperature difference. (4) the vertical airflow within buildings caused by
temperature differences between the building's interior and exterior.
the temperature that exists at a stagnation point in a fluid flow. At a stagnation point, the speed of the fluid is zero, and all
of the kinetic energy has been converted to internal energy. In incompressible fluid flow and in isentropic compressible
flow, the stagnation temperature is equal to the total temperature at all points on the streamline leading to the stagnation

management system that performs all control functions without direction from any other unit.
air weighing 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.2 kg/m3), which approximates dry air at a temperature of 70F (21.1C) and a barometric
pressure of 29.92 in. Hg (101.3 kPa).

reference condition for the rating of equipment, usually 68F (20C).

barometric pressure of 14.696 psi, 29.92 in Hg (101.325 kPa).

(1) set of conditions for experimental measurements. To allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are often necessary to define the standard reference conditions to
express the volumes of fluids and other related physical quantities. Standard conditions are most usually defined as a
temperature of 68F (20C) and an absolute pressure at sea level of 14.696 psi or 29.92 in. Hg (101.325 kPa). (2) set of
physical, chemical, or other variables of a substance or system that define an accepted reference state or forms a basis for

ratio calculated from the capacity and power input values obtained at standard rating conditions.

the volumetric rate of flow of air that is at standard conditions.

square root of the average of the squares of the deviations from the mean (root mean square deviation); a measure of the
dispersion of any statistical data set of numbers or measurements.
capacity in energy units per unit time based on tests performed under standard conditions.

rating conditions used as the basis of comparison of performance characteristics.

refrigerating cycle as defined by standard conditions.

the temperature that exists by virtue of the internal energy of the air only. If a portion of the internal energy is converted
into kinetic energy, the static temperature will be decreased accordingly.

the common units of measurement, such as therms, cubic feet, gallons, kilowatt hours, tons, etc; may be I-P or SI units.

the condition of operation in which reduced or no energy is being utilized.

folded joint used for transverse joints in rectangular sheet metal duct construction and for apparatus-casing seams.

dimensionless number used in calculation of forced convection, equal to the heat transfer coefficient of a fluid divided by
the product of the specific heat at constant pressure, the fluid density, and the fluid velocity. Symbol St, St, or NSt. Also
known as the Margoulis number M.
(1) a device equipped with overload trip mechanisms for its protection. (2) starting a device with a load connected that
will require the device to operate outside its designed operating range.
a set of procedures to be followed in the systematic initial sequencing or energizing of components, devices, equipment,
and systems.

condition or stage in the physical being of matter or material (e.g., solid, liquid, or vapor phases of matter).

diagram representing, in a system of suitable coordinates, the thermodynamic equilibrium states of a substance.

the static pressure of a fluid at the outlet of the pumping device, expressed in terms of the height of a column of the fluid
or of the height of some manometric fluid that it would support.
static pressure relative to the atmosphere.
the pressure due to the weight of the fluid above the point of measurement. In a closed system, static head is equal on
both sides of the pump.
the actual pressure of the fluid, which is associated not with its motion but with its state. The pressure is exerted
uniformly throughout the entire fluid. The portion of the fluid pressure which exists by virtue of the degree of
compression only. If expressed as gage pressure, it may be negative or positive. In a dynamic system, static pressure is the
difference between total and velocity pressures. in. H2O (kPa).

(1) external static pressure loss for forced-air systems using packaged air-handling equipment; the static pressure loss
resulting from airflow through the supply and return ductwork and other elements external to the packaged air-handling
unit. Compare to [[internal static pressure loss]] and [[total static pressure loss]]. (2) internal static pressure loss for forced-
air systems; the static pressure loss resulting from airflow through the internal elements of the packaged air-handling unit.
These internal elements may include such items as filters, coils, dampers, mixing sections, etc. Compare to [[internal static
pressure loss]] and [[total static pressure loss]]. (3) total static pressure loss for forced-air systems; the sum of the external
static pressure loss and the internal static pressure loss. See [[internal static pressure loss]] and [[external static pressure
loss]]. The term is not applicable to an individual fan or a fan located within a builtup air-handling unit. Fans are rated by
the term fan total static pressure, which is not the same as fan total pressure. Compare to [[fan total pressure]].

method in which ducts are sized so that the regain in static pressure due to decreased velocity between two points totally
or partially compensates for the frictional resistance between the points.

the static pressure of a fluid at the inlet of the pumping device, expressed in terms of the height of a column of the fluid or
of the height of some manometric fluid that it would support. It is a positive value. See [[static suction lift]].

the static pressure of a fluid at the inlet of the pumping device, expressed in terms of the height of a column of the fluid or
of the height of some manometric fluid that it would support. It is a negative value. (See [[static suction head]]).

the temperature which exists by virtue of the internal energy of the air only. If a portion of the internal energy is converted
into kinetic energy, the static temperature is decreased accordingly.
(1) indication of a devices operating mode (ON or OFF). (2) state, position, or condition of an item.
normally open, digital, contact device in which contact closure indicates a change of status, e.g., on-off, heating-cooling,
day-night, etc.
state of a system in which movement of matter or energy phenomena are taking place when the various physical
phenomena are independent of time.
the condition existing when a uniform renewal cycle of a self-renewable air cleaner maintains essentially constant
performance. Steady state is reached when the system is operating in a uniformly repetitive manner, for example, cycling
between two resistance levels.
water in the vapor phase.
enclosed vessel in which water is converted into steam.
steam discharged from a machine or system.
(1) horizontal piping connected to a boiler steam outlet. (2) in a location out of a boiler room, where a steam main extends
into several branches located close together.

device for air removal from closed vessels in which the operating pressure is less than atmospheric pressure.

system in which high-pressure steam, supplied through a nozzle and acting to eject water vapor from the evaporator,
maintains the requisite low pressure on one side and produces a high pressure on the other by virtue of compression in a
following diffusion passage. Sometimes called an ejector cycle refrigerating system.

fraction of vapor in a mixture of liquid and vapor, expressed as a percentage by weight.

device for allowing the passage of condensate and preventing the passage of steam, or for allowing the passage of air as
well as condensate. Common steam trap types include float and thermostatic (F&T) traps, inverted-bucket traps, and
thermodynamic traps.

burner in which the firing oil is atomized by steam.

total energy radiated from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of the temperature of the body. Also known as
the fourth power law.
an incremental change in a variable, either by design or as the result of an interval between measurement; typically, an
incremental change in a control setpoint.
multiple switch assembly in which a moving element trips multiple output steps successively.

a modulating control that cycles a burner between the reduced input rate and OFF if the heating load is light. If a higher
heating load is encountered that cannot be met with the reduced input rate, the control goes into a modulating mode
where it either gradually or incrementally increases the input rate to meet the higher heating load. If, at that point, a
lower heating load is encountered, the control either gradually or incrementally decreases to the reduced input rate.

(also known as differential piston compressor), single acting compressor for compound operation, the lower stage of which
is compressed in a chamber in which the larger diameter of the stepped piston moves and the higher stage is compressed
in a chamber into the smaller diameter piston chamber.

heating foods or other materials to kill microorganisms, usually to a temperature of 212F (100C) or higher.

freezing of produce in a room without mechanical movement of air.

theoretical thermodynamic cycle comprising two isothermal processes and two isochoric processes.
having the precise mass relationship of the elements in a chemical compound, or (quantities of reacting elements or
compounds) in the same mass relationship as the theoretical combining mass of the elements involved. See
device that automatically feeds solid fuel to a boiler or furnace (used mainly with coal).

wavelength of luminescence excited by radiation is always greater than that of the exciting radiation.

(also known as choking flow), state at which gas flow through a pipe or a centrifugal compressor reaches conditions that
significantly impede flow.
a device used to shut off the flow.
the amount of thermal energy required to complete one charging cycle of a thermal storage device. The storage capacity
will always be a greater value than the usable discharge capacity of the thermal storage device. Compare to [[discharge
injury to produce occurring during storage. Compare to [[cold injury]].
discharge capacity divided by charge capacity.

(1) ratio of the volume occupied by the quantity of a particular product stored to the maximum that can be stored, taking
into account the requirements of that particular product. (2) reciprocal of capacity factor.

in controlled-atmosphere storage, a gas or atmosphere with carbon dioxide added.

the amount of usable cooling energy remaining in a thermal storage device at any given time.
the material in the storage device, independent of the containing structure, in which the major portion of the energy is
a closed vessel in which water is heated by the combustion of fuels, electricity, or any other source and is stored and
withdrawn for use external to the system at pressures not exceeding 160 psig (1102.4 kPa), including the apparatus by
which heat is generated and all controls and devices necessary to prevent water temperatures from exceeding 210F

heat from external or recovered heat sources that is held in reserve for later use.

factory assembled refrigerating system mounted at high level in the insulated wall of a cold store with the evaporator
inside the store and the rest of the unit outside.

see [[flow equalizer]].

a device for withholding foreign matter from a flowing liquid or gas.

division into a series of layers, as with thermal gradients across a fluid in motion or at rest.
a parameter that indicates the degree of thermal stratification in a storage device.
layers of air at different temperatures or different velocities flowing through a duct or plenum system and affect fan and/or
pump performance in the distribution system.

a region of fluid in which the density decreases monotonically in the upward direction and is stably stratified.
thermal storage vessel in which a thermocline exists.

an air-distribution system that, during the cooling operation, limits the amount of mixing in the space and instead relies on
thermal plumes to produce a stratified environment with cooler and fresher air near the floor and warmer and less fresh
air near the ceiling. Examples are underfloor air-distribution system (UFAD) and DV systems.

force applied to a structural member, component, or assembly per unit of its area. See also [[mechanical properties]],
[[pressure vessel]].

solvent with a relatively high concentration of dissolved refrigerant.

vapor or gas seal integral to the structural materials of an enclosure. See [[water vapor retarder]]; [[airflow retarder]].

insulation used as a part of the load carrying frame of a structure, such as the walls of a cold room or the body of a
refrigerated vehicle.
sound that arrives at a point of interest by propagation through a solid structure.
(1) device for use where a cable passes into a junction box or other piece of apparatus designed to render the joint
watertight. (2) packing gland surrounding a shaft, stem, or rod to prevent leakage.

part containing terminals and switches, to which a thermostat is attached. It may also contain other auxiliary components.

liquid whose temperature is lower than the condensation temperature at its given pressure.

a heat exchanger for cooling liquid refrigerant below its condensing temperature at a given pressure.

at a defined pressure, the difference between a given liquid temperature and the bubble point temperature.

total refrigerant heat rejection effect less the condensing heat rejection effect.

additional refrigeration effect made available by subcooling the refrigerant liquid in the condenser.

change of state directly from solid to gas without passing through a liquid phase.

during the sublimation process, the dividing interface within the substance between a region which is fully hydrated and
frozen and a region which is nearly completely dry.

(1) controller whose setpoint is automatically readjusted from a remote location over a predetermined range by variations
in an applied signal from a master. (2) controller whose setpoint may be automatically reset at the command of either a
conventional or master controller.

arc welding process wherein coalescence is produced by heating an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or
electrodes and the work. Note: the arc is shielded by a blanket of granular fusible material on the work. Pressure is not
used, and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and sometimes from a supplementary welding rod.

(submerged condenser), condenser in which the piping is submerged in a vessel containing cooling water.

direct measurement of a commodity sold by a utility down line from the utilitys master meter. Submetering includes only
that which is measured on the billing, i.e., it includes no distributed costs.

positive head on a pump inlet when the source of liquid supply is above the pump centerline. See also [[head]].

(1) inlet of a pump. (2) port through which gas enters.

combination of static suction lift and friction head in suction piping when the source of liquid is below the pump
(1) tube or pipe that carries the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator to the compressor inlet. (2) tube or pipe that
connects any line from a store to the suction side of a pump.
(1) fan/pump: the pressure generated on the inlet or intake side of a fan or pump. (2) refrigeration: the intake pressure
generated by the system compressor while operating. The suction pressure, along with the suction temperature, the
pressure, and the wet-bulb temperature of the discharge air, are used to determine the correct refrigerant charge in the
system. It is also called low-side pressure.

accumulator installed in the suction line between evaporator and compressor to trap liquid carryover from the evaporator
and to prevent it from reaching the compressor.

the temperature of the refrigerant vapor returning to the compressor or condensing unit.

a device installed in the suction line of a refrigerating system for the purpose of removing solid contaminants. The device
generally consists of a shell with fittings and an internal filtering element.

a suction-line-filter drier consists of a suction-line filter with the addition of desiccant for the purpose of removing
moisture and other contaminants.

solar energy flowing into a building, through both windows and structural materials.

chilling a product to a temperature very near or sometimes below its freezing point.

low-temperature thermodynamic state in which a superconductor exhibits the property of superconduction.

property of certain substances characterized by their zero DC electrical resistivity for low currents when their temperature
is sufficiently low.

temperature below which, in the absence of all external influences, a substance becomes superconducting.

(1) substance exhibiting or capable of exhibiting superconduction. (2) Type I: superconductor for which the Meissner state
and the normal state can coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. (3) Type II: superconductor capable of existing in the
mixed state.

one in which the existing temperature is lower than the saturation temperature for the given pressure.

cooling a substance below the normal freezing point without solidification.

state of fluids at pressures and temperatures above their critical values. Also used loosely, and especially for helium, for
the state of the liquid at pressures exceeding the vapor pressure.

(1) at a defined pressure, the difference between a given vapor temperature and the dew-point temperature. (2) the
difference in temperature between the saturation temperature corresponding to the measured outlet pressure and the
measured outlet temperature of the refrigerant vapor leaving the heat exchanger.

steam at a temperature higher than the atmospheric pressure boiling temperature.

vapor at a temperature greater than the saturation temperature. The pressure and temperature of superheated vapor are
independent properties, since the temperature can increase while the pressure remains constant. See [[superheat]].

(1) group of tubes in a boiler that absorb heat from the products of combustion to raise the temperature of the vapor
passing through the tubes above the temperature corresponding to its pressure or saturation temperature. (2) heat
exchanger used on flooded evaporators, where hot liquid on its way to enter the evaporator is cooled by giving up heat to
both dry and superheat the wet vapor leaving the evaporator.

humid air that contains in a unit mass of dry air a mass of water vapor greater than would be contained in saturated air at
the same temperature; the excess water may remain in the form of fog.
vapor in a metastable equilibrium at a pressure higher than the saturation pressure corresponding to its temperature. See

(1) condition of metastable equilibrium in a solution where the solute remains dissolved at a temperature lower than the
initial solidification temperature. (2) condition of metastable equilibrium in which a vapor is at a pressure higher than the
saturation pressure corresponding to its temperature.
(1) air delivered by mechanical or natural ventilation to a space, composed of any combination of outdoor air, recirculated
air, or transfer air. (2) air entering a space from an air-conditioning, heating, or ventilating apparatus for the purpose of
comfort conditioning. Supply air is generally filtered, fan forced, and either heated, cooled, humidified, or dehumidified as
necessary to maintain specified conditions. Only the quantity of outdoor air within the supply airflow may be used as
replacement air.

(1) (pneumatic) the air supply piping to all controllers or other devices requiring a main air supply. (2) pipes through which
the heating or cooling medium of a system flows from the source of heat or refrigeration to the runouts and risers leading
to the heating or cooling units. (3) source of electric power to a system.

(1) energy source to a controller or auxiliary device. (2) pressure of supply mains of a pneumatic control system.

see [[combined radiative and convective surface coefficient]].

method of cooling air or other gas by passing it over cold surfaces.

(1) air-conditioning unit designed primarily for cooling and dehumidifying air by passing the air over cooling coils that are
below the dew point of the air. (2) dehumidifier with a surface at a temperature below the dew point.

effect caused by entrainment of secondary air when an outlet discharges air directly against, or parallel to, a wall or

the reciprocal of the heat transfer film coefficient, Ri or Ro, in hft2F/Btu ([m2K]/W). (Subscripts i and o often denote
inside and outside surface film resistances and conductances, respectively.) For convection to occur, the surrounding space
must be filled with air or another fluid. If the space is evacuated, heat flow occurs by radiation only.

time rate of heat flow from a unit area of a surface to its surroundings, induced by a unit temperature difference between
the surface and the environment. Note: the environment is a fluid (liquids or gases).

the fraction of the radiant flux falling on a surface that is reflected.

forces in a liquid surface that cause it to remain continuous by the attraction between molecules.

(1) temperature-controlling device located on a surface to respond to surface temperatures and initiate control actions. (2)
automatic control device having a sensing element responsive to the temperature of the surface being controlled.

immediate outside of a thermodynamic system.

see [[specific volume (SV)]].
tool to expand or bell out the end of a tube to fit over another tube of the same diameter, or over a special fitting to
accept such a shape.
slang for evaporative cooler.
type of fitting formed by a melted filler metal alloy flowing by capillary action between the parts to be joined. See
[[soldered joint]] and [[brazed joint]].
the time rate of change of the frequency df/dt, where f is frequency and t is time.
piston displacement.

valve where the action is a disc hinged within the body of the valve, either from one side or from a two-piece center point,
to prevent reverse flow. Swing check valves are primarily used in horizontal piping, but some manufacturers allow both
vertical (upward flow only) and horizontal piping installations. See [[check valve]].

arrangement of fittings and pipe provided for expansion, contraction, or movement in pipelines that allows one or more
degrees of movement.

(1) rotating movement produced in a flowing mass of fluid (e.g., when the fluid enters an impeller without any tangential
velocity component). (2) vortex caused by suction at the bottom of a shallow fluid tank.

device for making, breaking, or changing the connections in an electrical or pneumatic circuit.
a synthesized material, often derived from petroleum compounds but containing no petroleum oil fractions, that can act
as a lubricant.
a combination of equipment and auxiliary devices (e.g., controls, accessories, interconnecting means, and terminal
elements) by which energy is transformed so it performs a specific function such as HVAC, service water heating, or

a phenomenon that occurs in fluid systems (fans, pumps, and distribution systems) that can create undesired conditions
that cause reduced capacities in all or part of a system. System effect cannot be measured directly, but estimated
calculations can be made.
conditions in a distribution system that affect fan and pump performance and related testing, adjusting, and balancing
subfunction of equipment (hardware) and programming (software) that implements direct and/or indirect load
management, coordinated with other functions of energy management system.

parameters under which the building or systems operator can adjust components of the system to satisfy occupant
comfort or process requirements and the strategy for optimum energy use and minimum maintenance.

an error that persists and cannot be considered as due entirely to chance. Systematic error can be corrected through
an uncertainty that persists and cannot be considered as due entirely to chance. Systematic errors can be corrected by

rate of heat removal by the refrigerant in the evaporator of a refrigerating system.

a system-focused composite document that includes the operation manual, maintenance manual, and additional
information of use to the owner during the occupancy and operations phase.
see [[testing, adjusting, and balancing]].
the person who measures and adjusts the system.
receptacle, open or closed, for holding, transporting, or storing fluids.
a heat exchanger for indirect heating of water, typically for domestic use, which is designed to be used without a water
storage tank. See [[instantaneous heater]].

manually operated device on the end of a pipe in a fluid supply system to enable drawing off quantities of the fluid.

any space-conditioning system that allows occupants to individually control the thermal environment in the localized zone
of their workspace while still maintaining acceptable environmental conditions in the surrounding ambient spaces.

see [[temperature difference]].

measurement of warmth or coldness with respect to an arbitrary zero or to the absolute zero. Temperatures are indicated
on defined scales, such as Kelvin and Rankine for absolute temperatures, and Celsius and Fahrenheit for ordinary
device that responds directly or indirectly to deviation from a desired temperature by actuating a control or initiating a
control sequence.

difference between the temperatures of two substances, surfaces, or environments involving transfer of heat.

procedure used in design and system analysis to calculate flow (of air, water, or steam) from load or to determine load
when flow and temperature differential are known.

the difference between the average test zone temperature (tac) and the average supply air temperature (tdc).

a sensor system composed of two temperature sensors that is capable of providing a signal that is related to the
temperature differential of the two sensors.

largest value of the difference between the measured air temperatures within the occupied zone.

see [[glide]].
temperature variation per unit distance or time along the heat flow path.

percentage of people predicted to be dissatisfied due to a difference in air temperature between ankle and head.

see [[temperature index coefficient of thermal performance]].

ratio of the difference in temperature between the inside surface and the exterior ambient to the difference in
temperature between the inside ambient and the exterior ambient across a component of the building envelope. The
coefficient can be used to estimate the apparent thermal resistance of the component.

the mixed mean-stream temperature at a station perpendicular to the flow direction.

graph representing the distribution of temperatures in a plane section of a body or a space, or over a period of time.

a sensor located in the fluid that is capable of producing a signal (output) that is related to the temperature.

see [[dry-bulb temperature]].

see [[wet-bulb temperature]].

interior surfaces whose temperature is controlled or monitored for heating and cooling purposes.

the part of the expansion valve that senses the temperature at the superheat control point, normally located at the outlet
of the evaporator. This element may be remote or integral to the expansion valve body.

an environment in which the characteristics, quantity, and location of smoke are limited or otherwise restricted to allow
for ready evacuation through the space. Maintenance of a tenable environment in the smoke zone is not within the
capability of zoned smoke control.

a device by which energy from a system is finally delivered, e.g., registers, diffusers, lighting fixtures, faucets, etc.

amount of air in ft/min (L/s at standard conditions) escaping from the terminal at a given inlet pressure with only the
outlet(s) blocked and with the damper/valve fully opened.

amount of air in ft/min (L/s at standard conditions) passing through a fully closed damper/valve at a given inlet pressure.

see [[terminal damper leakage]] and [[terminal casing leakage]].

a device that regulates the volumetric flow rate and/or the temperature of the controlled medium.
system of terms belonging to, or peculiar to, a science, art, or specialized subject.

(1) the recorded group of readings of required test data taken while equilibrium is maintained and used in the
computation of results; those observed or recorded during a sufficient period to indicate that equilibrium was attained
prior to the actual test. (2) the recorded group of readings of required test data taken while equilibrium is maintained and
used in the computation of results; those recorded during the period of the test. (3) a series of determinations for various
points of operation.

the air that flows through the device being tested. During the test, test air should be at the temperature, humidity,
pressure, and atmospheric dust concentration prevailing at the time of the test. Test air for arrestance and dust-holding
capacity measurement may be indoor ambient air.
the designated person, company, or agent who specifies the test requirements.
the maximum permissible variation between the average of a measured quantity and the desired test condition specified
in the standard.
definitive procedure that produces a test result. Note: appropriate functions of a test method are identification,
measurement, or evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of a material, product, system, or
the maximum amount that a designated measured quantity shall vary (i.e., maximumminimum) during the entire or a
specified interval of a test.

any sensible heating or cooling panel that is used in testing for performance and/or rating purposes.

the time over which quasi-steady-state conditions are maintained for each measured point.
pressure, usually higher than the design working pressure, to which a piece of equipment is subjected for testing
according to specified procedures.
differential in total pressure between the inlet and the outlet sections of a test duct or across a test fitting. For test fittings,
the fitting is assumed to have zero length. For multiflow fittings, the total pressure loss shall be determined for each
stream separately.
the two environmental chambers where all components of the combined appliance are installed and tested; one chamber
is used to maintain specified indoor ambient conditions, while the second chamber is used to maintain specified outdoor
ambient conditions.
the use of specialized and calibrated instruments to measure conditions such as temperatures, pressures, rotational
speeds, electrical characteristics, velocities, fluid flows, etc., used in HVAC&R.

standard that sets forth methods of measuring capacity, or other aspects of operation, of a specific unit or system of a
given class of equipment, together with a specification of instrumentation, procedure, and calculations. See [[MOT]].

a systematic process or service applied to heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems and other
environmental systems to achieve and document air and hydronic flow rates. The adjustment of fluid flow rates through
distribution systems by manually adjusting the position of dampers, valves, etc., or by using automatic control devices to
control the position of dampers, actuators, valves, etc.

changing the solid phase of water, or frozen moisture within a substance, to the liquid phase by the application of heat.

the sum of the products of masses and heat capacities of all components (including the transfer fluid) contained within the
insulating envelope of the thermal storage device.
quantity of heat equivalent to 100,000 Btu.
ratio of the radiant flux absorbed by a physical surface to that incident on it.
device that relies on the cooling effect of the airflow to change the temperature of a heated body in proportion to the air
speed. Types include hot-wire anemometer, heated-bulb thermometer, heated-thermocouple anemometer, and heated-
thermistor anemometer.
heat loss characteristics of a physical condition or structure that are not in accordance with intended design or calculated
(also known as thermal contact resistance), ratio of temperature difference to heat flux across the boundary between two
distinct media (solid/solid or solid/fluid).

nonconducting physical structure, such as a frame around a door or window acting to retard heat flow.

low thermal resistance path connecting two surfaces.

the condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the surrounding thermal environment and is assessed by
subjective evaluation. Thermal comfort is affected by heat conduction, convection, radiation, evaporative heat loss, and
relative air motion.
(C-factor), thermal conductivity is the heat flux through a flat body induced by a unit temperature difference between the
surfaces of that body. Units are Btu/hft2F (W/[m2K]).

(k-factor), time rate of steady-state heat flow through unit thickness of unit area of a homogeneous material, induced by a
unit temperature gradient in a direction perpendicular to the isothermal planes of that unit. Units of k are in Btuin/
(hft2F), Btuft/(hft2F), or W/(mK). Thermal conductivity must be evaluated for a specific mean temperature, thickness,
age, and moisture content. See also [[thermal conductance]].

material that transmits heat by conduction.

transfer of heat by a fluid moving by natural variations in density (in the absence of conduction and radiation).

time period between the energization of a heat-producing device and the measurable effect of the heat produced until
equilibrium conditions are reached.
phenomenon in which a temperature gradient in a mixture of fluids gives rise to a flow of one constituent relative to the
whole mixture.
physical quantity that determines the rate of heat propagation in transient state processes. Thermal conductivity divided
by the product of density and specific heat. Units are ft2/s or m2/s.
energy output as a percentage of the energy input of a machine or process.
radiation property of a material, evaluated with its surface optically smooth and clean, and of sufficient thickness to be
a surface property of a material governing the emission of thermal radiation relative to that emitted by a perfect emitter,
or black body, at the same surface temperature.

energy possessed by a system caused by the motion of the molecules and/or intermolecular forces; i.e., heat.
see [[Btu meter]] or [[watt meter]].

(1) thermal energy storage may refer to a number of technologies that stores energy in a thermal reservoir for later reuse.
They can be employed to balance energy demand between day time and night time. The thermal reservoir may be
maintained at a temperature above (hotter) or below (colder) than that of the ambient environment. The principal
application today is the production of ice, chilled water, or eutectic solution at night, which is then used to cool
environments during the day. (2) thermal energy storage technologies store heat, usually from active solar collectors in an
insulated repository for later use in space heating, domestic or process hot water, or to generate electricity. Most practical
active solar heating systems have storage for a few hours to a day's worth of heat collected. There are also a small but
growing number of seasonal thermal stores used to store summer heat for space heating during winter.

elements of a structure that enclose conditioned spaces and that control transmission of heat, air, and water vapor
between the conditioned spaces and the exterior. See also [[building thermal envelope]].

the surrounding atmosphere characterized by parameters such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, dew-point
temperature, water vapor pressure, total atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and specific humidity.

equilibrium obtained in a system when the temperatures are nonvarying.

increase in one or more of the dimensions of a solid body or a liquid volume, caused by a temperature rise.

response of a thermal system to a periodic thermal excitation expressed as a function of frequency. Note: thermal
frequency response usually is displayed by polar plot of amplitude attenuation and time lag versus frequency.

ability of a material, depending on its density and specific heat, to store heat and to resist temperature change.

heating or cooling effect delivered to a product or space.

material or assembly of materials used to provide resistance to heat flow. Also see [[blanket thermal insulation]].

insulation in granular, nodular, fibrous, powdery, or similar form designed for installation by pouring, blowing, or hand
placement. Examples are mineral or glass fiber, cellulosic fiber, diatomaceous silica, perlite, silica aerogel, and vermiculite.

delay in action of the sensing element of a control device due to the time required for the sensing element to reach
equilibrium with the property being controlled or measured.
thermal requirement of a system under specified conditions.

the indoor thermal index value corresponding with a mean vote of neutral on the thermal sensation scale.

heating or cooling effect put out by a source or removed from a storage device.

airflow created by a convective heat source that rises due to natural thermal buoyancy. Plume formation and growth are
dependent on the intensity of the heat source and on the degree of stratification of the ambient air.

rate of radiant emission through unit solid angle over unit projected area of a source in a stated angular direction from the
surface (usually the normal). Units are watts per square metre.
rate of radiant energy emitted from unit area of a surface in all radial directions of the overspreading hemisphere. See also
[[radiant flux density]].
transmission of energy by means of electromagnetic waves emitted due to temperature. Radiant energy of any
wavelength when absorbed may become thermal energy that increases the temperature of the absorbing body. See also
[[heat transfer radiation coefficient]].

fraction of the incident radiation on a surface that is reflected from that surface. Note: for an opaque surface, the sum of
reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance is unity at any wavelength of radiation.

the fraction of distribution system losses (gains for cooling) that are returned to the conditioned space.

(1) relay activated by change in temperature. (2) relay in which the displacement of the moving contact member is
produced by heating of a part of the relay under the action of electric currents.
(R-value), the reciprocal of the time rate of heat flow through a unit area induced by a unit temperature difference
between two defined surfaces of material or construction under steady-state conditions. Units of thermal resistance are
hft2F/Btu (m2K/W). Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of the thermal conductance.

a conscious feeling commonly graded into the categories cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral, slightly warm, warm, and hot; it
requires subjective evaluation.

(1) accumulation of energy in a body or system in the form of sensible heat (temperature rise) or latent heat (change of
phase). (2) full storage: thermal storage system having capacity to meet all on-peak cooling or heating requirements by
being charged off peak, and without energy added on peak. (3) fully charged condition: the state of a thermal storage
device at which, according to the design, no more heat is to be removed from the thermal storage device. This state is
generally reached when the control system stops the charge cycle as part of its normal control sequence. (4) fully
discharged condition: the state of a thermal storage device at which no more usable cooling energy can be recovered from
the storage device. (5) normally interchangeable term with cool storage or ice storage when addressing air-conditioning
thermal storage systems. (6) technology or systems of accumulating cooling or heating capacity for subsequent use. (7)
temporary storage of high or low-temperature energy for later use.

to supply cooling or heating to storage.

(also known as cycle figure of merit), ratio of the integrated discharge capacity to the hypothetical maximum available
capacity for a single cycle of operation.

charging a thermal storage system at a constant rate during a complete cycle.

substance in which cooling or heating energy is stored.

insulation of very high thermal resistance. Usually refers to that used in cryoengineering.

(1) phase difference in hours between the exterior and interior surface temperatures when the exterior surface is
subjected to a sine wave temperature change having a 24 h period. (2) time interval by which the peak thermal response
falls behind (lags) the peak thermal excitation in a thermal system.

(also known as U-factor), heat transmission in unit time through unit area of a material or construction and the boundary
air films, induced by unit temperature difference between the environments on each side. Note: this heat transmission
rate is also called the overall coefficient of heat transfer. U, in Btu/hft2F (W/[m2K]). Thermal transmittance is sometimes
called the overall coefficient of heat transfer or U-factor. Thermal transmittance includes surface film conductance.

quantity or rate of heat energy or equivalent in work or electrical energy.

thermoelectrical element in which the electrical resistance falls appreciably with a rise in temperature; often used as a
temperature sensor.
junction of two wires of dissimilar materials, not necessarily metal, with the property of generating an emf related to the
temperature of their junction. Compare to [[thermopile]].

equilibrium in a system when the physical variables have uniform values that do not change in time. Furthermore, if the
system is not an isolated one, these variables should have the same values for both the system and its surroundings.

those data needed to calculate the equilibrium relations among pressure, volume, and temperature along with the
enthalpy and entropy of the fluid in the liquid and vapor states.

implosive impact in liquid, caused by sudden condensation of vapor into its subcooled liquid. This phenomenon can occur
when the liquid is about 60F to 85F (33C to 47C) cooler than the saturation temperature of the contact vapor. It creates
a loud sound and can cause severe local pressure stresses in the container or piping system.

in thermodynamics, a region in space or a quantity of matter bounded by a closed surface in which thermal actions occur.
The surroundings include everything external to the system, and the system is separated from the surroundings by the
system boundaries. These boundaries can be either movable or fixed, either real or imaginary.
steam (disk) trap constructed with a cap containing a steel disc, which fits against a flat seat. Condensate, discharging at
close to saturation temperature, increases in velocity and draws the disc down toward the seat, due to the lower pressure
caused by the increased velocity (Bernoulli effect). Condensate discharging from high to low pressure flashes off and
creates the closing pressure above the disc within the cap. As this flash steam condenses, pressure is dissipated, and the
cycle repeats. The trap has limited air venting capabilities.

mechanism that transfers energy from one system to another without accompanying transfer of entropy. Units of
thermodynamic work are Btu (Wh).
science of the relation of heat to other forms of energy.

law of conservation of energy, which can be expressed as follows: heat and work are mutually convertible; or because
energy can neither be created nor destroyed, the total energy associated with an energy conversion remains constant.

method for cooling by the Peltier effect.

photograph or two dimensional record of an image that maps the apparent temperature of a scene as sensed by an
infrared imaging system.
process of generating a thermogram by using an infrared imaging system, usually with some means of temperature
instrument for measuring temperature.

a temperature measuring and display instrument in which an electric resistance varies as a function of temperature.

part of applied physics relating to the measurement of temperature.

those data needed to calculate heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the fluid. Thermophysical properties include
both thermodynamic (equilibrium) and transport properties.
study of physical phenomena related to heat.

a number of thermocouples wired consistently in series or parallel to measure small or average temperature differences.

circulation by the forces induced by the differences in densities of cooler and warmer fluids.
a tube, or coils with interconnecting piping, placed in supply and exhaust airstreams and filled with a refrigerant heat
transfer fluid.
an automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable setpoint.

device that adds heat within a thermostat in anticipation of overshoot.

in a gas charged thermostat, a device that compensates for fluctuations caused by temperatures, in certain parts of the
power system; different from the temperature of the bulb.
difference between the cut in point and the scale setting.

trap installed on the discharge side of a heating unit and designed to pass air freely on start-up and condensate at a
subcooled temperature, but to prevent steam vapor passing into the return. It can have a bellows or encapsulated metallic
diaphragm containing a small quantity of volatile liquid. At the bottom of the diaphragm or bellows is attached a
hardened, self centering valve head operating on the pressure side of the valve seat. At ordinary temperatures and
atmospheric pressure, the valve is fully open to permit free passage of air and cold condensate. The trap discharges at a
fixed temperature below that of steam saturation temperature and closely follows the steam pressure/temperature curve.

trap installed where low-temperature discharge is required. It incorporates a bimetallic element that, when heated,
deflects and causes a downstream valve head to be drawn up, closing the orifice. It discharges air and cold condensate
freely on start-up.

an automatic control device or system used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable setpoint.

a device for controlling superheat by regulating the mass flow of refrigerant to a refrigeration load, actuated by changes in
equalizer pressure and temperature sensing element temperature.

evaporator pressure regulator that is sensitive to temperature.

device within an electric controller for completing or interrupting an electrical circuit in response to a temperature change.
the sound pressure level at all frequencies contained within a 1/3 octave band filter.

(1) electrical service of a three-phase power form. (2) electrical service supplied to the user by the utility company.

multipiping arrangement in which each unit is fitted with two supply pipes (hot and chilled water) and a single return pipe
common to the central heater and refrigerating system.
valve having either a single inlet and two outlets (diverting) or two inlets and a single outlet (mixing), in which either one
or the other is open. Can also be a service valve for dual-mounted safety relief valves. See also diverting valve; [[mixing

refers to airborne concentrations of substances and represents conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers
may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse health effects. Because of the wide variation in individual
susceptibility, however, a small percentage of workers may experience discomfort from some substances at concentrations
at or below the threshold limit; a smaller percentage may be affected more seriously by aggravation of a preexisting
condition or by development of an occupational illness. Smoking of tobacco is harmful for several reasons. Smoking may
act to enhance the biological effects of chemicals encountered in the workplace and may reduce the bodys defense
mechanisms against toxic substances. Individuals may also be hypersusceptible or otherwise unusually responsive to some
industrial chemicals because of genetic factors, age, personal habits (smoking, use of alcohol or other drugs), medication,
or previous exposure. Such workers may not be adequately protected from adverse health effects from certain chemicals
at concentrations at or below the threshold limits. An occupational physician should evaluate the extent to which such
workers require additional protection. Threshold limit values (TLVs) are based on the best available information from
industrial experience, from experimental human and animal studies, and, when possible, from a combination of the three.
The basis on which the values are established may differ from substance to substance; protection against impairment of
health may be a guiding factor for some, whereas reasonable freedom from irritation, narcosis, nuisance, or other forms of
stress may form the basis for others. (This definition reprinted by permission of the American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists [ACGIH].)

(1) the time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8 hworkday and a 40 h workweek, to which nearly all workers
may be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect. (2) the refrigerant concentration in air for a normal 8 h
workday and a 40 h workweek to which repeated exposure, day after day, will not cause an adverse effect in most persons.

expansion (via flow restriction) across any orifice during which no mechanical work is transferred by the fluid to the

change in controlled variable required to move the actuator or valve from one of its extreme limits of travel to the other.

valve used to restrict (throttle) the flow of fluid.

see [[packaged terminal air conditioner (PTAC)]].

the distance, in ft (m), from the center of the air device outlet to a point in the mixed airstream where the highest
sustained velocity of the mixed airstream has been reduced to a specified level.
angle between the horizontal plane and the plane of the collector aperture.
defrosting process automatically and intermittently operated for a predetermined period.

(1) time interval between the manifestation of a signal at one point and the manifestation or detection of the same signal
at another point. Note: generally, the term time delay is used to describe a process whereby an output signal has the
same form as the input signal causing it, but is delayed in time; that is, the amplification of all frequency components of
the output are related by a single constant to those of corresponding input frequency components, but each output
component lags behind the corresponding input component by a phase angle proportional to the frequency of the
component. (2) time interval between when a command is given and when it is executed.

(as applied to fenestration) bronze, green, blue, or gray coloring that is integral with the glazing material. Tinting does not
include surface applied films such as reflective coatings, applied either in the field or during the manufacturing process.
the chemical TiCl4 that generates white visible fumes used in preliminary testing in laboratory fume hoods. (Caution:
Titanium tetrachloride is corrosive and irritating; skin contact or inhalation should be avoided.)

action of a switch to change to an alternate contact position as in a flip flop.

difference between upper and lower limits of size for a given nominal dimension or value.

heat removed by a ton of refrigeration operating for a day, 288,000 Btu (approximately 84.3 kWh).

time rate of cooling equal to 12,000 Btu/h (approximately 3517 W). It is a quantity approximately equal to the latent heat
of fusion or melting of 1 ton (2000 lb) of ice, from and at 32F (0C).
metric ton of 1000 kg. Equivalent to 1.10225 short ton (2000 lb).
as applied to a fan, a type of excitation in which the external force is applied through the hub in the form of torque
combination of primary air and secondary air at a specific point.
(1) amount of sensible and latent heat removed from the conditioned space. (2) difference between the total enthalpy of
the dry air and the water-vapor mixture entering and leaving the cooler.
sum of static head and velocity head.
see [[enthalpy]].
see [[heat rejection]].
the quantity of radiant energy incident upon a surface over all wavelengths.
the pressure which exists by virtue of the degree of compression and the rate of motion. It is the algebraic sum of the
velocity pressure and the static pressure at a point. Thus, if the fluid is at rest, the total pressure will equal the static
total pump head pressure is composed of four primary components: lift, column friction, surface requirements, and
injection head.

total useful capacity of a refrigerant condenser for removing heat from the refrigerant circulated through it.

(water or brine cooler), product of the mass rate of refrigerant flow and the difference in enthalpy of the entering and
leaving refrigerant fluid, expressed in heat units per unit of time.
the product of the mass flow rate of refrigerant and the difference in enthalpy between the leaving and entering
refrigerant, expressed in energy units per unit of time.

see [[static pressure loss]].

mass of particulates suspended in a unit volume of air as collected by an air sampler.

emittance that is an integrated average for all wavelengths of radiant energy emitted.

total heat load expressed in tons of cooling; the sum of the sensible tons (dry tons) and the latent tons (wet tons).

in a turbocompressor, the ratio of the variation of enthalpy of an isentropically compressed vapor to the work to be
effectively supplied to the compressor (the enthalpy relating to the total pressure of the fluid at inlet and the static
pressure at outlet).

(also known as stagnation efficiency), in a turbocompressor, the ratio of the variation of enthalpy of the vapor
isentropically compressed from the total pressure at inlet to the total pressure at outlet to the work effectively supplied to
the compressor.
vertical vessel filled with plates or suitable packing, through which scrubbing fluid flows upward through the liquid,
separating entrained liquids or solids from the gas.

the ability of a substance to be harmful or lethal due to acute or chronic exposure by contact, inhalation, or ingestion. The
effects of concern include, but are not limited to, those of carcinogens, poisons, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives,
sensitizers, hepatoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents that act on the hematopoietic system, and agents that damage
the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.
the ability of a refrigerant to be harmful or lethal due to acute or chronic exposure by contact, inhalation, or ingestion. The
effects of concern include, but are not limited to, those of carcinogens, poisons, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives,
sensitizers, hepatoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents that act on the hematopoietic system, and agents that damage
the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.

a written document that details the expectations, schedule, budget, and deliverables of commissioning process activities
related to training of project operating and maintenance personnel, users, and occupants.

(1) a device designed to receive energy from one system and supply energy, of either the same or of a different kind, to
another system in such a manner that the desired characteristics of the input energy appear at the output. (2) a device
that changes one form of physical quantity into another. In the measurement field, transducers are generally used to sense
a variety of measurands, such as line voltage, current, power, pressure, and temperature, and to convert these to a
common output signal for use with a controlling or recording instrument.

air transferred from one room to another through openings in the room envelope, whether it is transferred intentionally
or not. The driving force for transfer air is generally a small pressure differential between the rooms, although one or more
fans may be used.
the fluid that carries energy between two heat transfer devices.
see [[duct fitting]], [[pipe fittings]].
a piece of electrical equipment used to convert electric power from one voltage to another voltage.
pulse or other temporary phenomenon occurring in a system that is not in a steady-state condition.
the state in which the system undergoes a normal change in operation, such as thermostat cycling or actuation of a defrost
at a stated pressure, the temperature (or at a stated temperature, the pressure) at which two phases exist in equilibrium;
that is, an allotropic transformation temperature (or pressure).

transport of substances, energy, or indicated values from one place to another with or without impedances.

reduction in magnitude of some characteristic of a power or a signal between two stated points in a system.

portion of thermal radiation incident on a physical surface that is transmitted through that surface. Compare to [[thermal
transmittance]]. Note: thermal transmittance usually is used for heat flow through walls, but transmittance (or
transmissivity) is more often referred to as a radiation property.
cooling produced by evaporation of fluid lost by a body or material.
properties that describe the capability of a fluid to transfer heat and momentum, typically thermal conductivity and
dynamic or kinematic viscosity.
transverse (girth) joint used to assemble duct and fittings.

device for preventing passage of one type of fluid, often while allowing other fluids to proceed. Compare to [[steam trap]].

method of measuring air and fluid volumetric flow in ductwork and piping systems.

record of events taken on a regular schedule or equal time intervals or by change of state or value.

particular temperature and pressure at which three different phases of one substance can coexist in equilibrium. Water is
an example of a substance that has a well known triple point.
(also known as luminaire), electric lighting fixture that may be equipped with a means to provide for air supply, air return,
and/or heat extraction.

wall that is sun facing and built from material that can act as a thermal mass (such as stone, metal, concrete, adobe, or
water tanks). A highmass wall that stores heat from solar gain during the day and slowly radiates the heat.

local standard time adjusted by the equation of time (determined from an astronomical almanac) and the longitude
correction (four times the difference between the standard longitude of the observers time zone and the observers
actual longitude). A time reference used to compute the apparent position of the sun.
tubular conduit for transport of fluids or finely divided solids; also, a hollow structural member; a hollow product of round
or other cross section. A tube may be helical welded, lap welded, spiral welded, butt welded, or seamless. A tube is
designated by its exact outside diameter and its exact wall thickness, which may be described in gage numbers or other
units. As an example, copper tube is commonly used in the piping and plumbing industry and the normal wall thickness is
0.125 in. (3.2 cm). When describing the outside diameter, it is referred to as copper tube. When describing the nominal
pipe size, it is referring to the inside diameter. Tube or tubing identifies the outside diameter. Pipe or piping identifies the
inside diameter.

(1) axial fan whose blades revolve in a cylindrical casing. The term ducted fan is used when the casing is of substantial
length. (2) propeller or disc-type wheel within a cylinder, and including driving-mechanism supports for either belt drive or
direct connection.

(plate evaporator), evaporator constructed from a pair of plates assembled to form a shallow compartment containing a
coil through which refrigerant flows, with the fluid to be cooled circulating in the compartment.

condenser consisting of a tube inserted in a second tube in a helical coil, serpentine coil, or parallel tubes.

(plate coil), type of extended surface evaporator consisting of one or several metal sheets with a coil through which
refrigerant flows, brazed to one face.
formation over a surface of scattered, knob-like mounds of localized corrosion products.
(also referred to as an in-line fan) a centrifugal impeller located within a cylindrical or rectangular housing, discharging in
an axial direction. Its performance is similar to that of a centrifugal blower except its capacity and pressure are lower due
to the less efficient fan arrangement.

chilled, elongated space for cooling foodstuffs on a movable transport system by rapid circulation of cold air.

elongated enclosure provided with rapid cold air circulation for the freezing of foodstuffs. Also called a freezing tunnel or
blast freeze tunnel.

fluid-energized acceleration machine for generating rotary mechanical power from the energy in a fluid stream.

turbine-driven compressor, usually a centrifugal compressor.

phenomenon of instability that may occur in centrifugal or axial flow compressors, characterized by aerodynamic blockage
or the breakaway of the flow from certain sections of the passage between the blades.

in cold air or gas refrigeration cycles, a turbine in which the compressed gas expands and produces mechanical energy.

flow-enhancing device to increase coil heat transfer efficiency.

fluid flow in which the velocity varies in magnitude and direction in an irregular manner throughout the mass. Turbulent
flow exists when the Reynolds Number exceeds a value of 2000 to 4000.

a series of single thickness or airfoil radius sheet metal guides placed within a rectangular duct elbow to reduce
turbulence and associated pressure drop within the elbow and to direct air around the bend.

simultaneous flow of two phases of a fluid, usually gas liquid flows.

piping system in which the fluid withdrawn from the supply passes through a heating or cooling unit to a separate return

a modulating control that both cycles a controlling device between two preset conditions, could be between OPEN and
CLOSED, or between ON and OFF, or between two stages or levels of capacity control.

(1) single temperature controller designed to control temperature at two distinct setpoints. (2) thermostat that handles
two separate circuits in sequence.

valve having a single inlet and single outlet. Uses of two way valves could be for throttling, isolation, or shutoff.

a hood designed to capture smoke and/or grease-laden vapor produced by a cooking process, incorporating listed grease
removal devices and fire suppression equipment. Type I hoods fall into two categories: listed and nonlisted. Listed hoods
have been tested in accordance with UL Standard 710.1. Conventional, or nonlisted hoods are hoods that meet the design,
construction, and performance criteria of the applicable national and local codes.
a hood designed to capture heat, odors, products of combustion, and/or moisture where smoke or grease laden vapor is
not present. A Type II hood may or may not have filters or baffles and does not have a fire suppression system.

the stress at which rupture occurs.

range of electromagnetic radiation wavelengths from about 400 nm, just beyond the violet in the visible spectrum, to
about 4 nm, on the border of the x-ray region. UV photons have enough energy to initiate some chemical reactions, to
degrade most plastics, and to kill microorganisms.
space within a building that is not conditioned space.

an air-distribution system that uses an underfloor plenum (open space between the structural concrete slab and the
underside of a raised-floor system) to deliver conditioned air into the space, typically through floor diffusers. Air is
returned at a level above the occupied zone (typically at the ceiling level). Under cooling operation, UFAD systems produce
a stratified environment, similar in principle to that of displacement systems. The primary difference between these
systems is that UFAD outlets deliver air at higher velocity, producing greater mixing in the area near the outlet discharge.

condition where voltage is lower than rated.

a solar collector in which the absorbing surface is directly exposed to the atmosphere.

compressor in which the suction gas passes through the piston.

a smooth, straight line motion of a gas or a liquid across the area of flow.
location where one or more accessory panels are grouped to serve a single remote system. Contains both accessory
devices and local loop controls.
(1) an assembly of cooling coils with drain pan, fan, and enclosure. (2) direct cooling, factory made encased assembly
including an air-cooling coil, refrigerating compressor and condenser, fan and motor (usually), and directional outlet,
including the necessary automatic controls.

heater consisting of a fan for circulating air over a heat exchange surface, all enclosed in a common casing.

fan coil unit package devised for applications in which the use of outdoor and return air mixing is intended to satisfy
tempering requirements and ventilation needs.
one or more factory-made assemblies that normally include an evaporator or cooling coil and a compressor and
condenser combination.

tubing that is unenclosed and therefore exposed to crushing, abrasion, puncture, or similar damage after installation.

open impeller with the blades left uncovered. Caution should be used in placing access for servicing requirements.

state of a system when the various physical quantities at any location vary randomly.

piping arrangement for a heating, air-conditioning, or refrigerating system in which heat transfer fluid is circulated through
supply mains that are below the levels of heating or cooling units they serve.

total amount of cooling discharged from a thermal storage device, at or below the maximum usable discharge
temperature, for a particular storage cycle.
percent capacity realized over a period of time that a system is operated.
rate at which heat is removed by the primary refrigerant, or by the secondary refrigerant, between two specified points,
taking into account the conditions of use.

the meter used to calculate a monthly energy and/or demand charge at a specific utility/customer connection; more than
one may be installed per customer and per site due to different supply voltages, capacity requirements, physical
separation distances, installation periods, or for specific customer requirements or utility programs.

see [[use factor]].

state in which the fluid, usually gas, pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.

a device that allows an increase in the pressure in an enclosure under vacuum by admitting gas (air).
cooling by vaporization under vacuum of part of the water contained in the material to be cooled.

pump in which the motion of a gas is induced by its diffusion into the vapor phase of a working fluid in the pump.

freezing of a substance by lowering pressure to induce vaporization of a part of the solvent (usually water).

gage for measuring pressures below atmospheric pressure.

pump for exhausting a system; pump designed to produce a vacuum in a closed system or vessel.

vacuum pump operated via the ionization of gases, the produced ions being transported by an electrical or magnetic field.

test to check the gas tightness of an uncharged system or component by drawing a vacuum on it.
device to regulate or stop the flow of fluid in a pipe or a duct by throttling.
area encountered by a fluid flowing through a valve.
shell or housing of a valve into which the mechanism for regulating flow is fitted.
device for holding and locating a valve disc, poppet, etc., in relation to a valve seat.
removable part that allows access to the valve mechanism.
disc or button fixed to the end of a valve stem and which meets the valve seat on closure.

uncontrolled oscillation of a compressor valve on its seat during opening or closing.

part that limits or controls the opening of a valve.

vertical distance through which a valve is raised to allow the passage of a fluid.
that part of a valve that closes off or stops fluid flow.
plate on which the valves of a reciprocating or rotary compressor are located.
(1) a movable part that provides a variable restriction in a port. (2) generic name for that part of a valve which mates with
the seat to control or shut off flow.
opening for passage of a fluid in a valve.

stationary portion of the valve which, when in contact with the movable portion, stops flow completely.

spindle movable towards or away from a valve seat for guiding the valve head during closing or opening.

internal parts (stem, plug, disc, seat, etc.) of a valve.

if the temperature of interacting substances in equilibrium is raised, the equilibrium concentrations of the reaction are
changed, so that the products of that reaction that absorb heat are increased in quantity, or if the temperature for such an
equilibrium is lowered, the products that evolve heat in their formation are increased in amounts.

(1) in air-distributing devices, the ratio of the depth of vane to shortest opening width between two adjacent bars in a
grille. (2) ratio of the chord length to the vane pitch.

fan that moves air in the general direction of the axis about which it rotates, parallel to the shaft, and flow through the
centrifugal fan wheel, impeller, or propeller is substantially radial. The fan is typically mounted in a round duct or tube to
improve pressure characteristics and has vane-type straighteners to remove much of the swirl or spin of the air created by
the fan wheel to improve fan efficiency. Fans can be either direct drive or belt driven.

(1) gas, particularly one near equilibrium with its liquid phase and one that does not follow the gas laws. The term is
usually used instead of gas to refer to a refrigerant, or in general, to any gas below the critical temperature. (2) substance
in the gaseous state that can also exist as a liquid or solid at normal atmospheric conditions. Compare to [[gas]].

use vapor retarder. See [[water vapor retarder]].

(also known as absolute humidity or water vapor density number), in a mixture of water vapor and dry air, the mass of
water vapor in a specific volume of the mixture. Compare to [[relative humidity]].
ratio of the amount of vapor present compared to the amount present at saturated conditions.
(1) control device with a vapor charged power element. (2) method of control using the expansion and contraction forces
of a contained vapor.
refrigerating cycle using an ejector to compress the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator to the condenser. The term
steam jet is used when water is the refrigerant.
formation of vapor in a liquid line that reduces mass flow compared to the flow of the total liquid at the same pressure

orifice capillary tube, or other device having a restricted passage of fixed size for liquid refrigerant. It restricts flow of vapor
of that same liquid to a lower rate of flow with the same pressure difference.

see [[vapor quality]].

usually located at the bottom of large absorber tube bundles.

the pressure exerted by a vapor. If a vapor is kept in confinement over its liquid so that the vapor can accumulate above
the liquid with the temperature constant, the vapor pressure reaches a maximum called the saturated vapor pressure.

ratio of the mass of vapor to the total mass when a substance exists as part liquid and part vapor at the saturation
temperature. Note: quality has meaning only when the substance is in a saturated state, i.e., at saturation pressure and

system using a condensable vapor as the refrigerant.

material or construction that adequately impedes the transmission of water vapor under specified conditions. Compare to
[[structural barrier]].
change of phase from liquid to vapor.
burner designed to utilize the temperature of the heated combustion chamber to vaporize the liquid fuel fed into such

one based on pressure built up by the vapor evolved by liquid in a sealed container.

throttling control of water during a cooling or heating process.

for each element of a control system, a physical quantity whose changes are governed ultimately by the functioning of the

combination of varying both airflow and temperature in response to space load, for the purpose of resetting temperature
to maintain greater low-load airflow to the space than in a true variable volume system.

heating and cooling equipment that operates in stages of different capacity depending on building load, e.g., electric
furnaces with several separate heater elements.

electronic device that varies its output frequency to vary the rotating speed of a motor, given a fixed input frequency. Used
with fans or pumps to vary the flow in the system as a function of a maintained pressure.

a method of controlling airflow produced by a fan by means of adjusting the speed or revolutions per minute (rpm) of the
see [[variable-frequency drive]].
variable-air volume terminal device
a measurement of the distance traveled per unit of time. This quantity is defined by its magnitude and direction at any
point of the flow.
ratio of the actual velocity of gas emerging from a nozzle to the velocity calculated under ideal conditions; it is less than
one because of friction losses.
ratio of the rate of change of the input command signal to the steady-state error, in a control system where these two
quantities are proportional.
see [[velocity pressure]].

(1) in a moving fluid, the pressure that would induce an equivalent velocity if applied to move the same fluid through an
orifice, so that all pressure energy is converted into kinetic energy. Velocity pressure is always a positive value, in. H 2O
(kPa). (2) the difference between the total pressure and static pressure (relative to the same datum).

graph that represents, in a plane section, the velocity distribution in a flowing fluid.

method in which ducts are sized so that selected velocities occur in specific duct lengths.

smallest area of a fluid stream leaving an orifice.

a connection in any system or enclosure that may be open to atmosphere or to a lower pressure, space, or vessel and is
intended for the transfer of any fluid. A vent can be used for either intake or relief purposes.

the portion of the venting system that connects the gas appliance or its draft hood to the chimney or vent terminal.

a device intended for installation in the venting system of an individual, automatically operated, fossil-fuel-fired appliance
in the outlet or downstream of the appliance draft control device, which is designed to automatically open the venting
system when the appliance is in operation and to automatically close off the venting system when the appliance is in a
standby or shutdown condition.

see [[flue gas]].

a device that limits the flow of air from the atmospheric diaphragm chamber of a gas pressure regulator to the
atmosphere. A vent limiter may be a limiting orifice or other limiting device.

a device that is located on the outside of a building and may be connected to a furnace or boiler by a system of conduits. It
is composed of an air intake terminal through which the air for combustion is taken from the outside atmosphere and an
exhaust terminal from which flue gases are discharged.

(1) discharge piping connected to a safety or relief valve. (2) passages and conduits in a direct vent or direct exhaust
system through which gases pass from the combustion chamber to the outdoor air.
(1) opening in a tank, duct, or other piece of equipment, sealed to prevent escape of material within normal pressures, but
arranged to open automatically to relieve excessive pressure. (2) relief opening in a pressure regulator, normally open to
the atmosphere.

a crawlspace with an open vent area 1/150th of its floor area with vents distributed over all exterior surfaces.

(1) the process of supplying air to or removing air from a space for the purpose of controlling air contaminant levels,
humidity, or temperature within the space. (2) the process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to
or from any space. Such air is not required to have been conditioned.

the minimum amount of outdoor air required for the purpose of controlling air contaminant levels in buildings.

(1) (Ev), evaluation of air delivery, regardless of the effectiveness of contaminant removal. (2) (Ev), fraction of the outdoor
air that reaches the occupied zone of the destined space.

measure of the relationship between the pollutant concentration in the exhaust air and the pollutant concentration in the
specified zone.

contraction in a pipeline or duct that increases the fluid velocity to lower its static pressure, followed by a gradual
expansion to allow recovery of static pressure. Used for metering and other purposes that involve change in pressure.

(1) specially shaped construction inserted in a pipe to measure the rate of flow from induced changes in pressure in the
constricted section. (2) specially shaped construction that creates a vacuum in a steam/water refrigeration system.

the process by which specific documents, components, equipment, assemblies, systems, and interfaces among systems
are confirmed to comply with the criteria described in the Owners Project Requirements.

an axis of measurement perpendicular to the horizontal and axial axes of measurement of a piece of equipment but not
necessarily in the horizontal plane.
climates that have more than 9000 annual heating degree-days base 65F-day (5000 annual heating degree-days base

container or structural envelope in which materials are processed, treated, or stored. Compare to [[tank]].

an oscillation wherein the quantity is a parameter that defines the motion of a mechanical (physical) system. The term is
usually used to mean an objectionable movement.
in any rotating equipment where the isolation of its vibration is by devices external to the unit. Note: examples: flex duct
connections, pipe flex connections, and spring isolators.
the magnitude of the vibration expressed in engineering units (usually velocity [mm/s]). Note: vibration severity values
may represent either the overall value or a value obtained from a frequency analysis. It is extremely important to denote
which choice was made. It is also necessary to denote whether the value is zero-to-peak, peak-to-peak, or root mean
square (rms).

instrument for measuring viscosity.

(1) property of a fluid to resist flow or change of shape. (2) property of semifluids, fluids, and gases by which they resist an
instantaneous change of shape or arrangements of parts. It causes fluid friction whenever adjacent layers of fluid move
with relation to each other.

force per unit area required to produce unit relative viscosity between two parallel areas of fluid unit distance apart.

(1) characteristic of lubricating oil that indicates the change in viscosity with temperature; i.e., a high VI oil has less change
in viscosity with temperature change than a lower VI oil. (2) empirical number evaluated by comparing the viscosity of a
substance with that of a standard substance.
pressure gage which uses the variations of viscosity of a gas with pressure (in vacuum techniques).
filter in which the medium is made from materials which have been impregnated with a viscous oil.

(1) laminar flow or streamline flow. (2) type of gas flow in which the average free path of gas molecules is much smaller
than the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the pipe conveying the substance.

liquid that evaporates readily at atmospheric pressure and room temperatures.

organic compounds in the vapor state present in an indoor atmosphere.

a refrigerant that changes from the liquid to the vapor state in the process of absorbing heat.
a device for measuring voltage, or the resistance of an electrical circuit. Some models also measure current flow through
components in electrical circuits.
electric potential or potential difference expressed in volts.
a decrease in voltage caused by losses in the lines connecting the power source to the load.
(1) device that is voltage sensitive with the ability to sense between two or more voltage levels to operate a set of
contacts. (2) relay that responds to a predetermined voltage.
unit of voltampere reactive power. For a two wire circuit, the product of the voltage times the current times the sine of the
angular phase difference by which the voltage leads or lags the current. VARs and watts combine in a quadrature to form

device mounted in a duct or opening used to vary the volume of air flowing through.

ratio of the total to the apparent volumetric efficiency. Also called real or no-clearance volumetric efficiency.

the change in heat stored in unit volume of material for unit change of temperature.

the change in stored moisture per unit volume of porous material and per unit moisture potential change.

ratio of the actual volume of gas moved by the compressor or pump to actual displacement of the compressor or pump.

cross section of wall, or a drawing of it, arranged to reveal thermal and moisture migration characteristics.

opening in a wall having a shroud insert to accept a pipe, duct, or equipment installed in or through the wall.

see [[canopy hood]].

those portions of the building envelope that are vertical or tilted at an angle of 30 degrees or less from the vertical plane.
Above gradeall the exterior walls of any given story if 50% or more of the gross exterior wall area of the story is exposed
to outside air. Below gradeall the exterior walls of any given story if more than 50% of the gross exterior wall area of the
story is below grade. Mass walla wall constructed of concrete, concrete masonry, insulating concrete form (ICF),
masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), earth (adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth), and solid timber or
(1) increase in space temperature to occupied setpoint after a period of shutdown or setback. Also referred to as morning
warm up. (2) period of time required for a space to return to normal temperature after a period of shutdown or setback.

addition to the capacity of a heating system (as calculated for heat loss) to provide quick warm up in the morning.

any useful energy source which otherwise would be unused or left to the environment.

(1) heat rejected from the building (or process) because its temperature is too low for economical recovery or direct use.
(2) unused heat rejected from a system, usually a heat engine or combustion furnace, to its surroundings.

transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid; a compound of hydrogen and oxygen (H2O), containing 11.188% hydrogen and
88.812% oxygen by mass; freezing at 32F (0C); boiling near 212F (100C).
(1) tubular column located at the steam and water space of a boiler to which protective devices, such as gage cocks, water
gage, and level alarms are attached. (2) unit of pressure.

substance introduced into potable water thus creating a health hazard. Compare to [[water pollutant]].

see [[cooling tower]].

defrosting in which water is sprayed or poured over the frosted surface.
a system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass
transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.
(1) designation that water is the fluid in a manometer. (2) gage glass with attached fittings which indicates water level
within a vessel. (3) unit of pressure (I-P units). See [[water column (wc)]].
see [[hydraulic shock]].
closed vessel in which water is heated by the combustion of fuels, electricity, or any other source and is withdrawn for use
external to the system at pressures not exceeding 160 psig [1100 kPa (gage)], including the apparatus by which heat is
generated, and all controls and devices necessary to prevent water temperatures from exceeding 210F (99C). See also

hot-water boiler having a volume not exceeding 120 gal (450 L), or a heat input not exceeding 200,000 Btu/h (60 kW), or
an operating temperature not exceeding 250F (120C), to provide hot water to a system.

water-to-air heat pump using liquid circulating in a common piping loop functioning as a heat source/heat sink.

water connection wherein one pipe communicates with several other lateral outlets through a common housing or fitting.

substance introduced into potable water, thus creating an objectionable condition, but not creating a health hazard.
Compare to [[water contaminant]].

efficiency of a weather louver at any air velocity under test conditions.

(public water system), system operated as a public utility that supplies potable water to the service connection of the
consumers water system. It is the primary component of a public water system.
process that alters supply water so that it can be used for process or HVAC purposes without creating undue corrosion or
scaling to the piping systems and other deleterious effects.
boiler in which tubes contain water and steam, with heat applied to their outside surfaces.

uses a vacuum to boil water at the temperature desired; one in which evaporating water vapor is the refrigerant.

water in the vapor or gas phase.

in a gas, the mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air.

water vapor is lighter or less dense than dry air. At equivalent temperatures it is buoyant with respect to dry air.

time rate of water vapor transfer through a unit area, mv, in lbm/ft2s [kgm/(m2K)]. Vapor flux is a vector.

(vapor transfer, vapor transmission), transmission of water vapor through insulating or other material resulting from the
difference in partial pressures on both sides.
steady vapor pressure difference that induces unit time rate of vapor flow through unit area and unit thickness of a flat
material (or construction that acts like a homogeneous body) for specific conditions of temperature and relative humidity
at each surface. Vapor resistivity is the reciprocal of vapor permeability.

material or construction that adequately impedes the transmission of water vapor under specified conditions. Water
vapor retarders have a water vapor permeance of less than 1.0 perm when tested in accordance with ASTM E 96.

steady-state vapor flow in unit time through unit area of a body, normal to specified parallel surfaces, under specific
conditions of temperature and humidity at each surface.

any accumulation of insoluble material derived from water or formed by the reaction with water on surfaces in contact
with it.

during a drying process, the ability of a substance to retain water.

a heat exchanger that uses the condenser water side of the system for cooling without requiring the operation of the
chiller. Also a coil on the air entering side of a heat pump or HVAC unit that uses condenser water flow to precondition the
entering air when conditions are favorable. See also [[cooling]].

economizer process that uses cooling tower-water directly or indirectly in the cooling coils, permitting the chiller to be
shut down when the outside wet-bulb temperature is sufficiently low.
ability of an externally mounted air transfer device to resist water penetration.
metering system capable of measuring the energy added to or extracted from an electric or fluid stream. Also called
thermal energy meter, heat meter, or thermal meter. Compare to [[Btu meter]].

in petroleum oils, a material, usually a solid hydrocarbon, that may separate on cooling of an oil refrigerant mixture.

see [[water column (wc)]].

see [[workplace environmental exposure level]].
(1) drip from frozen foods. (2) in buildings, a small opening that allows water to drain from within an assembly. They are
located at the bottom of the object to allow for drainage. The weep hole must be sized adequately to allow for surface
a gastight joint obtained by the joining of metal parts in the plastic or molten state.
ventilation rated to sustain life and safety.
system of refrigeration in which some liquid refrigerant is mixed with vapor entering the compressor to cause the
discharge vapor from the compressor to be saturated, rather than superheated.

(1) in a refrigeration system, where the connections between the evaporator outlets and the low pressure receiver
through which the mixture of vapor and overfeed liquid is drawn. (2) in a steam system, where a return pipe carries
condensate, the pipe is usually located below the level of the waterline in the boiler.

steam at the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure and containing water particles in suspension. Compare
to [[dry saturated steam]].

latent heating or cooling load. See [[ton of refrigeration]].

(1) opaque ice in which air or salts present in the raw water are trapped. (2) saturated vapor containing liquid droplets in
the difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures at the same location.

the temperature indicated when a thermometer bulb is covered with a water saturated wick over which air is caused to
flow at approximately 4.5 m/s (900 ft/min) to reach the equilibrium temperature of water evaporating into the air when
the heat of vaporization is supplied by the sensible heat of the air.

U-factor converted into electrical terms for calculations in electric heating. The amount of heat flow, in watts per square
foot per degree Fahrenheit temperature difference (W/ft2F) between air on the inside and air on the outside of the
building section (wall, floor, roof, or ceiling). For conversion, W = 0.293U.

generated noise having uniform sound pressure at all frequences, generally between 125 and 4000 Hertz
see [[cleanroom]].

when the temperature of a radiating blackbody increases, the wavelength corresponding to maximum energy decreases in
such a way that the product of the absolute temperature and the wavelength is constant.

intensity of radiation emitted by a blackbody per unit wavelength, at that wavelength at which this intensity reaches a
maximum, is proportional to the fifth power of the temperature.

the apparent temperature felt on exposed skin due to wind. The degree of this phenomenon depends on both air
temperature and wind speed. The wind chill temperature (often popularly called the wind chill factor) is always lower than
the air temperature for values where the wind chill formula is valid. In cases where the apparent temperature is higher
than the air temperature, the heat index is used instead. Wind chill is always expressed as a temperature. Compare to
[[chill factor]], which is always expressed as time.

total force exerted on a structure by wind. See [[velocity pressure]].

room air conditioner designed for mounting in window.

erosion of a valve plug or seat due to very high fluid velocity, usually caused by prolonged operation in a nearly closed
number which indicates interchangeability of fuel gases, obtained by dividing the heating value of a gas by the square root
of its specific gravity.
(1) compare to [[energy]], which is work per unit time. (2) mechanical work: the amount of energy transferred by a force.
Units of mechanical work are ftlb (J).
medium evolving within a thermodynamic cycle.

the range of pressures the system is expected to experience during normal operation.

an occupational exposure limit set by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

stress at which a material exceeds its elastic limit. Below this stress, the material will recover its original size. Above this
stress, it will not.

group of aluminosilicates containing very loosely held cations, used in molecular sieves and ion exchangers.

blend comprising multiple components of different volatilities that, when used in refrigeration cycles, change volumetric
composition and saturation temperatures as they evaporate (boil) or condense at constant pressure.

refers to blends comprising multiple components of different volatility that, when used in refrigeration cycles, change
volumetric composition and saturation temperatures as they evaporate (boil) or condense at constant pressure. The word
is derived from the Greek words zein (to boil) and tropos (to change).

a zeotropic refrigerant contains two or more components whose equilibrium vapor phase and liquid phase compositions
differ. The temperature of a zeotropic refrigerant changes as it evaporates or condenses at constant pressure (Compare to
[[azeotropic refrigerant]]).
the dead band between control setpoints, such as between heating and cooling, where the lowest amount of mechanical
energy is being utilized. Contrast [[dead band]].
residual energy of a system at absolute zero.

if two systems are both in thermal equilibrium with a third one, they are in mutual thermal equilibrium.

(1) a separately controlled heated or cooled space. (2) one occupied space or several occupied spaces with similar
occupancy category, occupant density, zone air distribution effectiveness, and zone primary airflow per unit area. (3) space
or group of spaces within a building for which the heating, cooling, or lighting requirements are sufficiently similar that
desired conditions can be maintained throughout by a single controlling device.

valve that modulates water flow to a thermal zone in response to a downstream temperature signal.

a smoke control system that includes smoke exhaust for the smoke zone and pressurization for all contiguous smoke
control zones. The remaining smoke control zones in the building also may be pressurized.
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