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JournalofCoastalResearch

SI

74

149-156

CoconutCreek,Florida

2016

DetectionofLowSalinityGroundwaterSeepingintotheEastern

LaizhouBay(China)withtheAidofLandsatThermalData

QianguoXing ,FedericaBraga ,LuigiTosi ,MingjingLou ,LucaZaggia ,PietroTeatini # , XueluGao ,LiangjuYu ,XiaohuWen ,andPingShi

YantaiInstituteofCoastalZoneResearch InstituteofMarineSciences

ChineseAcademyofSciences Yantai,Shandong264003,P.R. China

NationalResearchCouncilofItaly

ArsenaleTesa104,Castello2737f,

Venezia,Italy

# DeptofCivil,Environmental andArchitecturalEngineering, UniversityofPadova

ViaTrieste63,Padova,Italy

UniversityofPadova ViaTrieste63,Padova,Italy www.cerf-jcr.org www.JCRonline.org ABSTRACT

www.cerf-jcr.org

ViaTrieste63,Padova,Italy www.cerf-jcr.org www.JCRonline.org ABSTRACT

www.JCRonline.org

ABSTRACT

Xing,Q.G.;Braga,F.;Tosi,L.;Lou,M.J.;Zaggia,L.;Teatini,P.;Gao,X.L.;Yu,L.J.;Wen,X.H.,

andShi,P.,2016.DetectionoflowsalinitygroundwaterseepingintotheEasternLaizhouBay(China)with

theaidofLandsatThermalData.In : Harff,J.andZhang,H.(eds.),EnvironmentalProcessesandtheNat- uralandAnthropogenicForcingintheBohaiSea,EasternAsia. JournalofCoastalResearch,SpecialIssue,

No.74,pp.149-156.CoconutCreek(Florida),ISSN0749-0208.

No.74,pp.149-156.CoconutCreek(Florida),ISSN0749-0208.

Low-salinitygroundwaterstoragesbeneaththeseabottomandsubmarinegroundwaterdischarges(SGD)areof greatimportanceinenvironmentalmanagementandtheuseofcoastalwaterresources. Apreliminaryhydro-

morpho-geologicanalysisallowsforconsideringthepresenceoflow-salinitygroundwaterintheoffshoreofthe

LaizhouBay(SouthernBohaiSea,China).InordertodetectthepotentialSGD,theanalysisoftheSeaSur-

faceTemperature(SST)anomalieswascarriedoutusingLandsatthermalimagesacquiredintheseasonschar-

acterisedbythelargestdifferenceintemperaturebetweenseawaterandgroundwater. Atthenearshorescale, patchycoldwateranomaliesoccurapproximatelyinthesamepositionsalongtheintertidalzoneoftheSouthern bay,wheretheunconfinedaquiferdischarges,independentlyoftideconditions.Attheembaymentscale,cold wateranomaliesspreadoutintheEasternLaizhouBaywheretheconfinedaquiferislikelyexposed. Salinity andtemperaturemeasuredinsurficialwatersoftheeasternLaizhouBaysupportthehypothesisofSGD,which canbederivedfromremotesensingimages;theoccurrenceofmacroalgalbloomsmightalsobetheconsequence oftheSGD-enhancednutrientsupply.Thisworkpointedouttheneedoffutureoceanographicandgroundwater flowmodelingalongwithlong-termmonitoringofprocessesassociatedwiththesuspectedSGD.Theoutcomesof

thispreliminarystudywillbeofgreathelptodirecteffectivein-situinvestigationsaimedatquantifyingthevol-

umesofSGDandtosimulatecoupledgroundwater/surface-waterflow.

ADDITIONALINDEXWORDS : Submarinegroundwaterdischarge,seasurfacetemperature,thermalinfrared remotesensing,Landsat,theLaizhouBay,theBohaiSea.

2013). Theyoccuratnearshore,embaymentandshelfscales

(Bratton,2010),dependingontheirgenesisandonhydro-mor-

pho-geologicsettingoftheinlandandtheseasectors. Low-

salinitypalaeo-waterbeneaththecontinentalshelfisgenerally

groundwaterofconfinedaquiferstrappedduringsealevellow-

wildlifehabitats.Thedissolvedchemicalsdischargedbythesub- stands,whilemodernwaterseepsfromtheintertidalzoneare

marinegroundwater,oftenundetected,canbepollutantsource causingeutrophicationandtriggeringnuisancealgalblooms(Rao

andCharette,2012).Itisalsofundamentalforthedevelopment

ofwelfareincoastalareaswhetheritisusedfordrinkingpurposes

orinagriculturalandindustrialactivities.Aroundtheworld,fol-

lowingthetrendofurbanization,coastalgroundwaterresources areunderincreasingpressureduetotheintensificationofhuman activities,developmentofindustrialandurbancentres,aswellas toclimatechanges.   The presence of offshore low-salinity groundwater reserves belowcontinentalshelvesisaglobaloccurrence(Postetal.,

groundwaterofunconfinedand/orsemi-confinedaquifersystems

  Groundwater plays an important role in the coastal

environment:itprovidesbaseflowinriversandestuaries,reduces salinitiesandprovidesnutrientstospecializedcoastal wetland

INTRODUCTION

extendingseaward.

  Itisimportanttoinvestigatethepotentialoccurrenceofoffshore

low-salinitygroundwaterforaseriesofreasons.Firstly,theiden-

tificationofnewstrategiclow-salinitywaterreservesbecomesfun-

damental in the expected future scenarios of water scarcity

(IPCC,2014;Jacksonetal.,2001;PlainBlue,2008). Fur- thermore,the quantification of groundwater exchanges in the coastalareasmayimproveourunderstandingofthehydrological

cycle(Moore,2009;Rapagliaetal.,2010)andhowlow-salinity

submarinegroundwaterdischarge(SGD)affectscoastalbio-geo-

DOI : 10.2112/SI74-014.1received(27January2015);acceptedinrevision(2

July2015).

Correspondingauthor:qgxing@yic.ac.cn CoastalEducationandResearchFoundation,Inc.2016

chemicalandphysicalprocesses(Moore,2006).

  Thedetectionofoffshorelow-salinitygroundwaterreservescan

beperformedbyvariousmethods.Directly,withintheframework

ofdrillingprograms,throughoffshorewellsallowingforwater

 

150

DetectionofLowSalinityGroundwaterSeepingintotheEasternLaizhouBay(China)withtheAidofLandsatThermalData

samplinganddirectaquifercharacterization. Indirectly,bygeo-

physical investigations, such as towed Continuous Electrical TomographyandAirborneElectromagnetic,atleastinrelatively

shallowwaterdepth(e.g.,Teatinietal.,2011;Tosietal.,

2011). Suchmethodsareveryexpensiveandareappropriateat

localscale.Toreducetheextensivefieldeffortsandtosimultane-

ouslygaininformationongroundwateroverlargespatialscales, manyauthorsusedthermal-infrared(TIR)sensorsmountedon

aircraftsandsatellites(Danielescuetal.,2009;Johnsonetal.

2008;Mallastetal.,2013;Shabanetal.,2005).Advancedther-

malinfraredsensorshavethepotentialtomonitorcoastalwater surface temperature (Xing et al., 2006a; 2006b; 2014). Groundwateriscommonlylessdensethanseawaterandcanform buoyantwater “plumes” or diffuse discharges. This method detectstemperaturecontrastsbetweentheinflowinggroundwater andsurficial waters (river, lake and ocean). The resulting thermalanomaliesrevealthepotentiallocationsofgroundwater dischargeoverlargespatialscales.

  WithintheDragon3Programme,acooperationbetweenEuro-

peanSpaceAgencyandMinistryofScienceandTechnologyofthe P.R. China,theProjectEPHESUS“EcologicalandPhysical EffectsoftheSurficialandgroundwaterexchangesbetweenland andSea”aimstodevelopanintegratedmonitoringapproachby satelliteproducts,insitumeasurementsandhydrologicalmodels foranunderstandingofhydro-morpho-geologicalprocesseson

coastalareas(Bragaetal.,2013b).Theproposedapproachwas

testedintheLaizhouBayanditscoastland(SouthernBohaiSea, China)(Figure1). Inthisarea,thegroundwaterflowiscon-

trolledbyvariousgeologicalfactorssuchassubsoilarchitecture,

faultpresence,geomorphology,paleogeography,climateandhy-

drology. Groundwater properties are characterized by complex variationsinboththeplanaranddepthextensions(Wenetal., 2012). Manyresearchesfocusedtheirworkonthesaltwaterin-

trusioninthemainland(e.g.,Bragaetal.,2013a;Hanetal.,

2011;Xueetal.,2000),butpoorinformationisstillavailable

ontheinputoffreshwaterintotheseabySGD.

  Inordertodriveeffectiveinsituhydrogeologicsurveys,apre-

liminaryinvestigationhasbeenperformedbyremotesensingmeth-

odsthroughtheanalysisofthermaldataacquiredbytheLandsat

constellation.SuitabletothisinvestigationistheanalysisofSea SurfaceTemperature(SST)anomalies. Thegoalofthisstudyis toevaluatethecapabilityofremotesensingmethodstodetect

thermalanomaliesrelatedtoSGDasapossibleindexofthepres-

enceofoffshorelow-salinitygroundwaterstorage. Ourbasicidea

istosearchforSGDwherethehydraulic,morphologic,andgeo-

logicconditionssuggestthepotentialforgroundwaterleakagefrom

theseabed(Bratton,2010).

STUDYAREA

  TheBohaiSeaisanepicontinentalseawithanaveragedepthof 18mandmaximumdepthofabout30matthecenter. The

LaizhouBay(Figure1),whichformthesouthernpartoftheBo-

haiSeabetweentheShandongPeninsulaandtheYellowRiver

Delta,ischaracterizedbyaninnerzonelessthan12mdeep,and

anouterzonegentlyslopingtoa16mdepth.Fromthegeological

pointofview,theLaizhouBayistheresultofthehigh-amplitude

glacio-eustaticsea-levelrisethatfollowedtheLastGlacialMaxi- MeanLowTide(MLT)is1.01m.Seaconditionsintheareaare

usuallydominatedbywindwaves,strongandnormalwavedirec-

regressivesystemintheepicontinentalBohaishelf. Therefore,

isabout6∶22hoursandthedurationofebbisabout6∶06

duringtheLGM,whenthesealevelwasabout120mbelowthe

presentposition,mostoftheBohaiSeawasanalluvialplain. Consequently,Pleistocenefreshwaterhasbeenprobablytrapped intoaquifersbeneaththecontinentalshelfandcoveredbythe Holocenelayers. DuetotheprogradationoftheYellowriver delta,theHolocenedepositionoftheLaizhouBayisthickerin

thewesternside,morethan20m,anditthinstoabout10m,

eastwardandnorth-westward.Thetectonicsoftheareaisdomina-

tedbytheTanlufaultsystem,thelargestactivestructureinthe easternregionofChina. Thisstructurecomprisesarightlateral

strike-slipmovementwithdip-slipcomponentintheQuaternary andacomplexfracturalsystemconsistingofrelatedfoldsand manysmallnormalfaultsinthecentralBohaiSeaandtheLaizhou bay(Lietal.,2010). Thereisalsoagoodcorrespondencebe- tweenthedistributionofearthquakesandthepatternofsubfaults

intheLaizhouBayandthecentralBohaiSea(Lietal.,2010).

intheLaizhouBayandthecentralBohaiSea(Li etal. ,2010). Figure1.ThestudyareaintheLaizhouBay(BohaiSea,NEChinainthe

Figure1.ThestudyareaintheLaizhouBay(BohaiSea,NEChinainthe

inset). Theareasrepresentedinthereportedfiguresareindicatedinthe highlightedboxes

  IntheeasternLaizhouBay,thetidalcharacteristicscanbere- gardedasirregularsemidiurnaltide.Theaveragedurationoftide

hours. ThedifferencebetweenMeanHighTide(MHL) and

mum(LGM),whichpromotedtheformationofatransgressive-

JournalofCoastalResearch,SpecialIssueNo.74,2016

Xingetal.

151

tionsarebothNNE.Statistically,themeanwaveheightis1.3m

withtheaveragedperiodof4.9s,andthemaxwaveheightis

3.9m.

DATAANDMETHODS

  The hydrogeologic, geomorphologic and geologic features, whichcanpotentiallytriggerSGD,wereanalyzedanddefinedon

thebasisofinformationobtainedfromtheliteratureandopenac-

cessdataset.SRTM(Jarvisetal.,2008)andbathymetricdata

(availablefromhttp:∥fvcom.smast.umassd.edu)wereusedto

developthemorphologicmodelofthestudyarea.Subsoilcharac-

teristics(Chengetal.,2004;Chenetal.,2014;LiandWang,

1991;Liuetal.,2009)andwateranalysis(e.g. Hanetal.,

2011;Hanetal.,2012;Maetal.,2007;Wenetal.,2012)

wereusedtodefinethehydro-stratigraphicsetting.Informationon thepresenceoftectoniclineswasobtainedfromWangetal.

bottom.Thiswasachievedbydevelopingaconceptualmodelof thehydro-morpho-geologicsettingoftheLaizhouBayandits coastland. All the available information, i. e. morpho- bathymetric,watertableandsubsoildatawereanalyzed.

e. morpho- bathymetric,watertableandsubsoildatawereanalyzed. abovemeansealevel);(C)hydro-morpho-geologicconceptualmodela-

abovemeansealevel);(C)hydro-morpho-geologicconceptualmodela-

longthecrosssectiona-b

(2006)andLiuetal.(2009).

  Several Landsat ETM + band6.2 (high gain) data and

Landsat8OLIband10(10.9μm)data,coveringtheperiods

from2000to2003andfrom2013to2014(cloudcover<15%)

respectively,wereanalyzed.Alldatawereprovidedwithaspatial

resolution of 30 m and resampled using cubic convolution

(USGS,2011).

  Thefirststepintheprocessingofremotely-sensedimagerywas theradiometriccorrection,whichconvertsthedigitalnumbers (DN)toTopOfAtmosphere(TOA)Radiance,followingthe methodpresentedbyChanderetal. (2009). Thefurtherstep wastheconversionofTOAradiancetosurfaceradiancevalues throughatmosphericcorrectionaccordingtoColletal. (2010).

Appropriatelocalvaluesofatmospherictransmissivity,upwelling

anddownwellingradianceswereobtainedfromtheNASAweb-

basedAtmosphericCorrectionTool(http:∥atmcorr.gsfc.nasa.

gov),thatisbasedonMODTRANalgorithm(Barsietal.,2003;

2005). Inthenextstepradiancevalueswereconvertedinto

brightnesstemperatureinKelvinandtheninCelsiusdegree,ap-

plyingtheinverseofthePlanckfunction.Lastly,toexcludeland

pixels,thenormaliseddifferencewaterindex(NDWI)wascalcu-

latedusingtheequation(B green -B NIR )/(B green +B NIR ),where

B green andB NIR arethereflectanceofgreenandNIRbands,re- spectively.OntheresultingNDWIimage,athresholdequalto

0.3wasappliedtodistinguishvaluesrepresentingwaterfeatures

(McFeeters,1996).

Figure2. Hydro-geomorphologicalsettingoftheSouthernandEastern LaizhouBay:(A) digitalelevationmodel;(B) watertablelevel(m,

  TheSSTdata,finallyobtainedfromtheimages,representthe

skintemperatureofthewater,i.e.,thetemperatureoftheupper-

mostlayer(~1mmthick)oftheseasurface(Fairalletal.,

1996). Thislayertendstobeabout0.1Kcolderthanlower watermassesduetoevaporativeheatloss,sensibleheatflux,and

longwaveradiation(Donlonetal.,2002;Wloczyketal.,2006).

  OnOctober,2014,fieldinvestigationswerecarriedoutalong

theshorelineoftheeasternLaizhouBaywiththeaimofexamining

thepotentialSGDfromthesurficiallayer.Watersalinityandtem- presenceofthehillsandamoderatelyflatmorphologyofthesea-

floor.Figure2Bshowsthemapofthewatertablereferencedto

the mean sea level. Regarding the groundwater level, unfortunatelythedataavailableforthisstudyarelimitedtoa smallsectorofthestudyarea.Howeveritwaspossibletomapthe watertableandbringtolightthepresenceofapiezometrichigh whichcanpotentiallydrivethegroundwaterflowbeneaththesea.

  Mergingtheseinformationwiththoseonsubsoilarchitectureal-

Conceptualmodelofthehydro-morpho-geologicsetting

  Figure2Areportsthemorphologicmodel(DigitalElevation

Model)obtainedbymosaicingbathymetricandgroundelevation

data.Itclearlypointsoutahighslopeofthemainlandduetothe

peratureweremeasuredinsurfacewatersampleswithaportable

salinitymeter(ThermoScientific).

RESULTSANDDISCUSSION

  Thefirststepofthisworkwastoidentifythestructureswhich could potentially host low-salinity aquifers beneath the sea

JournalofCoastalResearch,SpecialIssueNo.74,2016

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DetectionofLowSalinityGroundwaterSeepingintotheEasternLaizhouBay(China)withtheAidofLandsatThermalData

lowedto outline a conceptual model of the hydro- morpho- geologicsettingoftheLaizhouBay(Figure2C). Thesketch

showsthatgroundwatercandischargefromtheseabedatthenear-

shoreandembaymentscalebecauseofthepiezometricgradient

andthesubsoilarchitectureoftheQuaternaryUnits.Low-salinity

groundwatercanseepalongsubsoildiscontinuitiessuchasincised

valley,paleochannelsandtectonicsfaults,i.e.,theactiveTan-

Lufaultzone(Liuetal.,2009;Wangetal.,2006).Thislatter

hasbeenactiveduringthelateQuaternaryanditisstillthedomi-

nanttectonicstructureintheLaizhouBay(Wangetal.,2006).

Wecanthereforehypothesizetheseepageofgroundwaterfromthe

deepaquiferalongtheshearzoneofthisfault.

Remotesensinginvestigation

  Thisstudyfocusestheinvestigationonthepresenceofthermal anomaliesintwostudyareas:SouthernandEasternLaizhouBay, wheregroundwaterdischargescanmostlikelybeexpected,as suggestedbytheirhydro-geologicalsetting. SSTmapsderived fromsatellitemulti-temporaldatasetswereanalyzedtoidentify

variationsofthepatternandspatialextentofthegroundwaterdis-

chargesinrelationtoseasonalandinterannualhydrologicaltrend,

otherwisedifficulttodetectbyinsitumeasurements. Withthe aimofdetectingdifferenttypesofwater,satelliteimageshave beenselected for different seasons, i.e. when seawater and

groundwaterarecharacterisedbythelargestdifferenceintempera-

ture.

  In the Southern Laizhou Bay,TIR images allowed to map severalthermalanomaliesrelatedtooutflowsoffreshwaterplumes withtemperatureslowerthantheminimumvaluesrecordedinthe seawaterofthearea. Figure3Ashowsthatsomepatchycold wateranomalies,whichcouldberelatedtoashalloworterrestrial

emergence,occurindifferentdaysalonga5-kmwideshore

strip. Thepresenceofsomegeomorphologicalfeaturesinthein-

tertidalshorecouldfavourtheobservedanomaliesandthen,po-

tentially,thegroundwatersubsurfaceefflux,(i.e. erosionchan- nelsofanupstreamlocatedterrestrialspring). Thisismoreevi-

dentinverylowtideconditions,whensuchgeomorphologicalfea-

turesareemergedandvisibleinthetruecolorsatelliteimage

(Figure3B).

  Extendingfromthenearshoretotheembaymentscale,cold- wateranomaliesarespreadintheEasternLaizhouBaywhere theremaybeaconsiderableoverallSGDinput(Figure4). Cold watercouldderivefromdiffusegroundwaterdischargesasshown byhydrogeologicalinvestigation.ThehighSSTinsummermakes thetemperaturedifferencemoremarked,thusfacilitatingthetrace ofthegroundwaterseepagepattern. Theseepagesdonothavea directconnectiontothecoast,whichsuggestsadeepersubmarine emergence.

  Figure5showsaremarkableSSTcoldspotdetectedinMay

2013alongtheeasternLaizhouBay,afewkilometresoff-shoreat

awaterdepthof6-8m.Avisualqualitycontrolofthisimageas-

sessedthatthisanomalousfeatureisnotduetothepresenceof

cloudsand/ortheirshadows,neithertodefectivepixels.TheSST

coldspothasnodirectconnectiontothecoast;thereforeitsorigin

isprobablysubmarineasgroundwaterlikelyseepsfromthesea

bottomwheretheconfinedaquiferislocallyexposed.Theslightly

smallerSSTvaluesaretheeffectofverticalmixingandheatex-

changebetweentheseawaterandthedischargingandascending

groundwater.

groundwater. Figure3.(A)Temperatureanomaliesareidentifiedalonga5-kmwide
groundwater. Figure3.(A)Temperatureanomaliesareidentifiedalonga5-kmwide

Figure3.(A)Temperatureanomaliesareidentifiedalonga5-kmwide

shorestripintheSouthernLaizhouBay.Redarrowsindicatethelocationof

coldanomalies.(B)Real-colourimagesofthecoastalstripwiththesame

redarrowsasinthethermalimage

redarrowsasinthethermalimage Figure4.ColdwaterpatchesobservedattheeasternLaizhouBayinsum-

Figure4.ColdwaterpatchesobservedattheeasternLaizhouBayinsum-

mer2001

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153

Xing etal . 153 Figure5.AnomalyinSSTattheeasternLaizhouBayshowingapossible SGDasacoldspringinsummer  

Figure5.AnomalyinSSTattheeasternLaizhouBayshowingapossible

SGDasacoldspringinsummer

  AsshowninFigure6,theextensiveanthropogenicpressureon

thenearshoreareahassignificantlychangedthehydro-geomorpho-

logicsettingsofEasternLaizhouBayoverthelast10years.Land-

usebyurbanizationandoccupationofthecoastlinebyhumanac-

tivities and constructions has likely impacted groundwater resourcesanddischargepathways. Urbandevelopmentandaqua- culturealso cause a significant reduction of groundwater re-

sources.

cause a significant reduction of groundwater re- sources. Figure6.Land-coverchangeintheSouthernLaizhoubayfromyear2000

Figure6.Land-coverchangeintheSouthernLaizhoubayfromyear2000

(left)toyear2013(right)

  Figure7showsthepresenceoffloatingiceintheEastern

LaizhouBay.Severeweatherconditionsoccurredwithsnowinthe

landandiceincoastalwaters. Theiceformationonthecoastis facilitated by freshwater of Yellow River, which drifts into LaizhouBay(Zhangetal.,2013). Thefreshwatercontribution

fromgroundwaterdischargecouldalsocontributetotheiceforma-

tioninthispartofthebay. TheSSTmap,obtainedbythe

thermalbandoftheLandsatimageacquiredon12January,2003

(Figure7),clearlyshowsthepotentialcoastalinputsofgroundw-

ater,markedbyarelativelywarmertemperatureintheEastern LaizhouBay. Infact,itisreasonabletoassumethatinwinter, SGDisrelativelywarmerthanseawateratinput. Thesepatterns areconsistentwiththelocationofthecoldSSTanomaliesdetected insummer.

In-situinvestigation

  Figure8andTable1showtheresultsofawatersalinitysurvey

carriedoutalongtheLaizhoushorelineinthemiddleOctober,2014.

carriedoutalongtheLaizhoushorelineinthemiddleOctober,2014.

Figure7.Landsatimageacquiredinwinter:thepresenceoffloatingiceis

evidentontheRGBcombination(left);relativelywarmerwatersnearthe

coastmightbeduetoSGDinwinterintheEasternLaizhouBayasshown

intheSSTmap(right)

intheSSTmap(right)

Figure8.Resultsofthein-situinvestigationonthewatersalinitycarried

outalongtheLaizhouBayinOctober2014. Thedottedarrowsshowthe outletsitesofunnamedsmallstreams

Salinityatthestudyarea(stations#s2,s3,s8,s9ands10)is

relativelylowerthaninthenearbyregions(#s1,s4,s5,s6,s7

ands11).ThecoastfromDiaolongzu(s11)toHutouai(s4)is

characterizedbysandybeaches,whichfavourthedischargeof

freshwatersintheshallowbay.Asshownatstation#s3,salinity

JournalofCoastalResearch,SpecialIssueNo.74,2016

154

DetectionofLowSalinityGroundwaterSeepingintotheEasternLaizhouBay(China)withtheAidofLandsatThermalData

ofseawatercanbeaslowas18‰atthelowtidallevel(Figure

9A);thissalinityvalueismuchlowerthanthatmeasuredatmax-

imumhightide(27‰),consistentlywithapossiblesmallerSGD

whenasmallerpressure(thatisasmallerwaterlevel)occurs. Thevariationsinsalinitywithwaterlevelareinagreementwith

themodellingresultsonSGDintheregion(Buetal.,2013).

Surficialfreshwaterdischargesfromriversorstreamsmayalso contributetothelowtemperatureandlowsalinity;however,this isnotlikelytheprimaryreason. Forexample,largerdischarges fromlargerrivers(theShaRiverandtheWangRiver)didn’t causelowersalinitythantheunnamedverysmallstreamswith

smallerdischarges(seeFigure8);and,surficialriverdischarge

doesnotlikelycauseanoffshorespotwithlowtemperature(see Figure5). Wangetal. (2015) reportedsignificantsignalof hugeSGDintheLaizhouBaywhichisclosetotheYellowRiver

runoff(Figure1).

Table1.In-situmeasuredwatertemperatureandsanility

Date

(HH∶MM) T, Sali., Tidallevel,

Time

st.

(YYYYMMDD)

m

s1

20141016

11∶00

17.90

30.56

0.5

s2

20141016

12∶00

16.60

28.21

0.6

s3

20141016

14∶30

22.40

27.00

0.9

s3’

20141017

10∶30

16.90

17.91

0.5

s4

20141016

15∶56

23.30 30.65∗

1.6

s5

20141016

16∶23

21.20

30.26

1.7

s6

20141016

16∶45

20.20

31.55

1.7

s7

20141016

16∶50

17.60

33.27

1.8

s8

20141017

10∶00

13.80

29.28

0.6

s9

20141017

11∶10

13.90

29.27

0.5

s10

20141017

12∶10

19.60

28.60

0.5

s11

20141017

14∶15

16.90

30.20

0.7

  ∗Thewatersalinityinwellsis27‰.

  Piezometricdatainawellatstation#s4locatedonarocky

coast(Figure9B)revealedthatsealevelisgenerallyhigherthan

localwater table. As shown in Figure8, aquaculture ponds

(AP)inthisareausedpumpedseawater,andthesalinityinaq-

uaculturepondswerethesameasthecoastalwater. So,lowsa- linityofseawateranditsvariationswithtidecannotbecausedby thedischargeofAPs.Wethenspeculatethatthelowtemperature

observedfromsatelliteimages(Figure4and5)wasassociated

withthedischargeofsubsurfacefreshwater.

withthedischargeofsubsurfacefreshwater.

Figure9.In-situphoto:(A)tidalflatatlowtide(site#s3’);(B)wells

atshoreline(indicatedbyarrows)

  During the field surveys,aggregations of green macroalgae

(green tides) (Figure 10) were observed at the sites characterizedbythedischargesofgroundwater.Theoccurrenceof

macroalgalbloomsinthisstudyareamightbealsoabiologicalin-

dextotheenhancednutrientinputbygroundwaterdischarge,

whichalthoughwasnotfullyconsideredinthewaterqualitymoni-

toringandmanagementinthepastinChina(Xingetal.,2015a,

b;XingandHu,2016).

etal. ,2015a, b;XingandHu,2016).

Figure10.Macroalgalbloomsobservedduringfieldsurveysalongthenorth

coastofShandongPeninsulain2014:(A)theeasternLaizhouBay;(B)

theGoldSandBay

SUMMARYANDCONCLUSIONS

  Many researches focused on the saltwater intrusion in the LaizhouBay coastland,but poor informationis still available abouttheinputoffreshwaterintotheseabySGD.

  Inthisstudy,weobservedSSTanomaliesintheSouthernand EasternLaizhouBayduringsummerandwinterseasons. Thein-

terpretationofthesefeatures,alsoconsideringthemorpho-hydro-

geologicsettingoftheareaswheretheyoccur,showedthatSSTa-

nomalies are not related to long-shore circulation or river dischargeandthereforemaybeassociatedtolocalSGD.

  OurresultssuggestthattheanalysisofTIRimagescanconven-

ientlyaddresshydrogeologicalfieldinvestigationspermittingto

mapfeatures,bothlocalizedanddiffuse,suchasgradientsanda-

nomaliesassociatedtosubmarinegroundwaterseepage.

  Inaddition,thesatellitemulti-temporaldatasetsallowedtoi- dentifyvariationsofthepatternandspatialextentoftheSGDin relationtoseasonalandinterannualhydrologicaltrends,otherwise difficulttodetectbyinsitumeasurements.

  Althoughtheuseofremotesensingcannotreplacedirectinves- tigations,itisanefficienttoolfordrivingfieldactivities,like samplings and geophysical surveys for a detailed SGD investigation. Once a general overview of the area and a conceptualmodelareacquired,otherspecificinvestigationsinthe areasofinterestcanbeperformedtocalibratetheremotesensing outcomesandvalidatetheSGDoccurrences:forexampleRadon

andRadiumisotopeassessmentandgeophysicalsurveys.

  Ourresearchshowsthatcombininghydro-morphologicalinvesti-

gationsandremotesensingdatapermitstodescribetherelation-

shipsbetweenlandandcoastalhydrologyandtoidentifymedium-

to-smallscalefeatures.

  Thisapproachcanbehelpfultoaddressstudiesontransport

andstorageinthecoastalarea.Possiblefuturewaterscarcitydue

tooverexploitation,pollution,andclimaticchangeswillrequire

theidentificationofatleasttemporaryalternativefreshorlow-sa-

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Xingetal.

155

linitywatersupplies. ForitsintrinsiccomplexityLaizhouBayis clearlyakeysitetotestappropriatemethodologiesforthisaim. Couplingandinteractionbetweengroundwaterandsurfacewater

Cheng,J.;Chen,C.,andJi,M.,2004.Determinationofaquifer

inon-shoreandoff-shorecoastalzonesisbecomingevenmoreev- roofextendingundertheseafromvariable-densityflowmodel-

ident. Forthisreasonwepointouttheneedoffutureoceano-

graphicandgroundwaterflowmodellingalongwithlong-termmo-

nitoringofprocessesassociatedwiththesuspectedSGDinthe

LaizhouBay.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  ThisworkwassupportedbytheStrategicPriorityResearchPro- gram of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA11020305), the External Cooperation Program of the

ChineseAcademyofSciences(GrantNo.GJHZ1207),andthe

YIC-CAS(China)andISMAR-CNR(Italy)jointresearchpro-

gramme.LandsatETMandOLIsatellitedataareprovidedunder theframeworkofESA-NRSCCdragon-3program. SRTMdata

V4,theUSGS/NASA,areprovidedfromtheInternationalCentre

forTropicalAgriculture(CIAT).

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