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Names: Date Started: April 21, 2016

1. Araquil, Ma Andel Date Finished: April 21, 2016


2. Gerolaga, Winston Jake
3. Seduco, Rhett Adrian

EXPERIMENT 8
Electrochemistry

I. Introduction

Electrochemistry is the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical


reactions. It includes the study of both spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes. It is
also the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. This movement of
electrons is called electricity, which can be generated by movements of electrons from
one element to another in a reaction known as an oxidation-reduction ("redox") reaction.

In this experiment, we would be able to demonstrate how a galvanic cell produces


electricity and calculate the cell potential of a given redox reaction.

II. Data and Results

For cell: Fe | 0.10M FeSO4 0.10M CuSO4 | Cu Voltage Reading: 25

III. Discussion

In 1793, Alessandro Volta discovered that electricity could be produced by placing


different metals on the opposite sides of a wet paper or cloth. He made his first battery by placing
Ag and Zn on the opposite sides of a moistened cloth with salt or weak acid solution. Therefore,
these batteries acquired the name voltaic cells.

The energy released in a spontaneous redox reaction can be used to perform electrical
work. This task is accomplished through a voltaic (or galvanic) cell, a device in which
the transfer of electrons takes place through an external pathway rather than directly between
reactants present in the same reaction vessel.

Voltaic (galvanic) cells are electrochemical cells that contain a spontaneous reaction, and
always have a positive voltage. The electrical energy released during the reaction can be used to
do work. A voltaic cell consists of two compartments called half-cells. The half-cell where
oxidation occurs is called the anode. The other half-cell, where reduction occurs, is called the
cathode. The electrons in voltaic cells flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode
from anode to cathode (see Illustration 8.1). (Note: the electrodes are the sites of the oxidation
and reduction reactions). The following acronym is useful in keeping this information straight:

Red Cat and An Ox

Reduction Cathode and Anode Oxidation


For an oxidation-reduction reaction to occur, the two substances in each respective half-
cell are connected by a closed circuit such that electrons can flow from the reducing agent to the
oxidizing agent. A salt bridge is also required to maintain electrical neutrality and allow the
reaction to continue.

Figure 1.1 shows that Zn(s) is continuously oxidized, producing aqueous Zn2+:

Zn(s)Zn2+(aq)+2e

Conversely, in the cathode, Cu2+ is reduced and continuously deposits onto the copper
bar:

Cu2+(aq)+2eCu(s)

As a result, the solution containing Zn(s) becomes more positively charged as the
solution containing Cu(s) becomes more negatively charged. For the voltaic cell to work, the
solutions in the two half-cells must remain electrically neutral. Therefore, a salt bridge
containing KNO3 is added to keep the solutions neutral by adding NO3-, an anion, into the anode
solution and K+, a cation, into the cathode solution. As oxidation and reduction proceed, ions
from the salt bridge migrate to prevent charge buildup in the cell compartments.

The cell diagram is a shorthand notation to represent the redox reactions of an electrical
cell. For the cell described, the cell diagram is as follows:

Zn(s)|Zn2+(aq)||Cu2+(aq)|Cu(s)

IV. Conclusion

At the end of this experiment, we were able to demonstrate how a galvanic cell produces
electricity and also, we learned how to calculate the cell potential of a given redox reaction.

V. References
1. Electrochemical Cell Potentials (n.d.) Retrieved from
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/howtosolveit/Electrochem/Electrochemical_
Cell_Potentials.htm
2. Electrochemistry Basics - Chemwiki (n.d.) Retrieved from
http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Core/Analytical_Chemistry/Electrochemistry/Basics
_of_Electrochemistry
3. Electrochemistry and Galvanic Cells | Top Marks Education (n.d.). Retrieved
from http://www.topmarksed.com/blog/2015/11/13/electrochemistry-and-
galvanic-cells/
4. SparkNotes: Galvanic Cells: Galvanic Cells (n.d.) Retrieved from
http://www.sparknotes.com/chemistry/electrochemistry/galvanic/section2.rhtml
5. Brown, T.; Lemay, E.; Bursten, B.; and Burdge, J. Chemistry: The Central
Science. Pearson Education, Inc; USA;

VI. Appendices

A. Determining Standard State Cell Potentials


Eocell = Eoreduction + Eooxidation

B. Determining Non-standard State Cell Potentials


Ecell = Eocell - (RT/nF) ln Q , where:

Ecell = cell potential at non-standard state conditions


Eocell = standard state cell potential
R = constant (8.31 J/mole K)
T = absolute temperature (Kelvin scale)
F = Faraday's constant (96,485 C/mole e-)
n = number of moles of electrons transferred in the balanced equation
for the reaction occurring in the cell
Q = reaction quotient for the reaction. aA + bB cC + dD,
*Illustration 8.1: A Simple Galvanic Cell

*Illustration 8.2: Diagram of a Galvanic Cell

*Illustration 8.3: Diagram of a Galvanic Cell Showing Direction of Electron Flow