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Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 4

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 1

Question:

Find the binomial expansion of the following up to and including the terms in x 3 . State the range values of x for which these expansions are valid.

(a) ( 1 + 2x )

3

(b)

1

1 − x

(c) \

( 1 + x )

(d)

1

( 1 + 2x )

3

(e) 3 \

( 1 − 3x )

(f)

( 1 − 10x )

3

2

(g)

1 +

x

4

− 4

(h)

1

( 1 + 2x 2 )

Solution:

(a) ( 1 + 2x )

= 1 + 3

3

2x

3 × 2 × 1 × 0 ×

( 2x )

4

4 !

Use expansion with n = 3 and x replaced with 2x

+

+

3 × 2 ×

( 2x )

2

2 !

+

3 × 2 × 1 ×

( 2x )

3

3

!

+

= 1 + 6x + 12x 2 + 8x 3 + 0x 4

= 1 + 6x + 12x 2 + 8x 3

All terms after 0x 4 will also be zero

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 4

(b)

1

1 − x

Write in index form

= ( 1 − x )

1

Use expansion with n = − 1 and x replaced with − x

    = 1 +  − 1   − x    ( − 1 ) ( − 2 ) ( − 3 ) ( − x ) 3 3 ! + = 1 + 1x + 1x 2 + 1x 3 + = 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + …

+

(

− 1 )

(

− 2 )

(

x )

2

2 !

+

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | − x |

< 1

|

x |

< 1.

 (c) \ 1 + x Write in index form 1 1 = ( 1 + x ) 2 Use expansion with n = 2 and x replaced with x 1 1 2   ( 2 ) ( − ) 2 ( x )  1  = 1 +  2   x  + 2 ! +   ( 1 2 ) ( − 1 2 ) ( − 3 2 ) ( x ) 3 3 ! + … 1 1 1 = 1 + 2 x − 8 x 2 + 16 x 3 + …

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | x |

< 1.

(d)

1

( 1 + 2x )

3

Write in index form

= ( 1 + 2x )

3

Use expansion with n = − 3 and x replaced with 2x

     = 1 +  − 3  2x       ( − 3 ) ( − 4 ) ( − 5 ) ( 2x ) 3 3 ! +

= 1 − 6x + 24x 2 − 80x 3 +

+

(

− 3 )

(

− 4 )

( 2x )

2

2 !

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | 2x |

< 1

 + | x | <

1

2

.

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 3 of 4

(e) 3 \
=
( 1 − 3x )
( 1 − 3x )
1
3
1
=
1 +
− 3x
+
3
1
2 5
3
(
)
(
(
3
)
(
)
− 3x )
3
3
+
3
!
5
=
1 − x − x 2 −
x 3 +
3

Write in index form

1

3

and x replaced with − 3x

Use expansion with n =

 ( 1 3 ) ( − 2 3 ) ( − 3x ) 2 2 ! … < 1 ⇒ 3 2 ( 3 2 ) ( 1 2 ( 2 ) − 10x ) 2 ! …  − 1000x 3  + ×  …

+

1

3

.

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | − 3x |

( 1 − 10x )

3

2

| x

|

<

(f)

Use expansion with n =

and x replaced with − 10x

       3 2     = 1 +  − 10x  +       3 1 1 ( 2 ) ( ) 2 ( − 2 ) ( − 10x ) 3 3 ! + 3 1 = 1 − 15x + 8 × 100x 2 − 16 75 125 = 1 − 15x + 2 x 2 + 2 x 3 +

+

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | − 10x |

< 1

|

x |

<

1

10

.

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 4 of 4

(g)

4

x

4

1 +

= − 4

1 +

(

− 4 )

(

− 5 )

(

− 6 )

3

!

= 1 − x + 10 ×

x

2

16

Use expansion with n = − 4 and x replaced with

x

4

x

4

+

3 +

(

− 4 ) 2 !

(

− 5 )

− 20 ×

x

3

64

+

x

4

2 +

= 1 − x +

5

8

x 2

5

16

x 3 +

Expansion is infinite. Valid when

x

4

< 1

| x

|

< 4 .

x

4

(h)

1

1 + 2x 2

Write in index form

= ( 1 + 2x 2 )

=

1

Use expansion with n = − 1 and x replaced with 2x 2

+

 ( − 1 ) ( − 2 ) ( 2x 2 ) 2 2 !

< 1

 + … | x | <

1

2

.

1 +

− 1

2x 2

1 − 2x 2 +

=

Expansion is infinite. Valid when | 2x 2 |

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 2

Question:

( 1 + x )

By first writing

1 show that the cubic

( 1 − 2x ) ( 1 + x )

( 1 − 2x )

as

( 1 + x )

( 1 − 2x )

approximation to

for which this expansion is valid.

Solution:

is 1 + 3x + 6x 2 + 12x 3 . State the range of values of x

 1 + x 1 − 2x =   1 + x   ( 1 − 2x ) − 1 Expand ( 1 − 2x ) − 1 using binomial expansion         …  ( − 1 ) ( − 2 ) ( − 2x ) 2    1 +   − 2x  = 1 + x − 1 + 2 ! +       3  ( − 1 ) ( − 2 ) ( − 3 ) ( − 2x )  + 3 !  = ( 1 + x ) ( 1 + 2x + 4x 2 + 8x 3 + … ) Multiply out

= 1 + 2x + 4x 2 + 8x 3 + terms = 1 + 3x + 6x 2 + 12x 3 +

+ x + 2x 2 + 4x 3 + 8x 4 +

( 1 − 2x )

1 is only valid when |

− 2x |

< 1

So expansion of

1 + x

1 − 2x

is only valid when | x |

<

1

2

.

|

x |

<

1

2

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 2

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 3

Question:

Find the binomial expansion of \ ( 1 + 3x ) in ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x 3 . By substituting x = 0.01 in the expansion, find an approximation to \ 103. By comparing it with the exact value, comment on the accuracy of your approximation.

Solution:

1
\
( 1 + 3x )
=
( 1 + 3x )
2
1
= 1 +
  3x
+
2
1
1 3
3
(
)
(
( 3x )
2
)
(
)
2
2
+
3
!
3
9
27
= 1 +
x −
x 2 +
x 3 +
2
8
16
This expansion is valid if | 3x |
< 1
1
Substitute x = 0.01 (OK, as | x |
<
3

(

1

2

)

(

1

2

)

( 3x )

2

|

2 !

x |

<

1

3

+

) into both sides to give

\

1 + 3 × 0.01

− ~ 1 +

3

2

× 0.01 −

9

8

× 0.01 2 +

27

16

× 0.01 3

\
1.03
103
\
100
\ 103
~
10 −
~
\
103

− ~ 1 + 0.015 − 0.0001125 + 0.0000016875

− ~ 1.014889188

1.014889188

10.14889188

103
  \
100
  × 10

=

\
103
\ 103
=
\
100
10

Using a calculator

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 2

\ 103 = 10.14889157 Hence approximation correct to 6 d.p.

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 4

Question:

 1 In the expansion of ( 1 + ax ) − 2 the coefficient of x 2 is 24. Find possible values

of the constant a and the corresponding term in x 3 .

Solution:

 

 

|

 − 1 2 ) ( − 3 2 ) ( ax ) 2 2 ! … 1 < . a

x |

  (

 

ax

+

 

 

 − 1 1  ( 1 + ax ) 2 = 1 +  − 2  ( − 1 2 ) ( − 3 2 ) ( − 5 2 ) ( ax ) 3 3 ! + 1 3 = 1 − 2 ax + 8 a 2 x 2 −

This expansion is valid if | ax |

If coefficient of x 2 is 24 then

5

16

a 3 x 3 +

< 1

3

8

a 2 = 24

a 2 = 64 ± 8

a = Term in x 3 is

5

16

5

16

(

If a = 8, term in x 3 is

If a =

a 3 x 3 =

± 8 )

3 x 3 =

− 160x 3

− 8, term in x 3 is

+ 160x 3

± 160x 3

+

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 5

Question:

 + x
1 
 − x
1 

Show that if x is small, the expression \

is approximated by 1 + x +

1
x 2 .
2
Solution:
\
1
1 + x
1 (
+ x
=
)
2
1 − x
1 − x
1
1
=
( 1 + x )
( 1 − x )
Expand using the binomial expansion
2
2
1
1
2
1
(
)
(
)
( x )
=
[ 1 +
(
)
( x )
+
2
2
+
]
[ 1 +
(
2
2 !
1
3
2
(
)
(
)
(
− x )
2
2
+
]
2 !
1
1
1
3
=
( 1 +
x −
x 2 +
)
( 1 +
x +
x 2 +
)
2
8
2
8
3
1 3
=
1 (
1 +
2 x +
1 x 2 +
)
+
2 1 x ( 1 +
2 x +
x 2 +
8
8
1
3
x +
x 2 +
)
2
8
1
3
1
1
1
= 1 +
2 x +
x 2 +
2 x +
x 2 −
x 2 +
8
4
8
= 1 + x +
2 1 x 2 +
1
+ x
Hence \
− ~ 1 + x +
1
− x
1
2 x 2

)

1 )

2

1

8

(

x )

x 2 ( 1 +

+

If terms larger than or equal to x 3 are ignored.

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 1

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise A, Question 6

Question:

 3 Find the first four terms in the expansion of ( 1 − 3x ) 2 . By substituting in a suitable

value of x, find an approximation to 97

Solution:

3

2

.

(

3

2

)

(

1

2

)

(

− 3x )

2

2

 + ( 3 2 ) ( 1 2 ) ( − 1 2 ) ( − 3x ) 3 3 ! 1 3 . 27 × ( 0.01 ) 3 16 + … 3 3 3 2 97 2 97 2 = 3 = 1000

<

+

97

100

3

2

(

100 )

+

3

2

(

9x

3

2

)

( 1 − 3x )

= 1 +

1 −

(

27x 2

− 3x )

+

27x 3

16

+

< 1

+

27 ×

2 !

| x

|

( 0.01 )

8

= +

2

+

8

3

2

= 1 −

|

2

Expansion is valid if | − 3x

Substitute x = 0.01 into both sides of expansion to give

9 × 0.01

( 1 − 3 × 0.01 )

(

(

0.97 )

0.97 )

97

100

3

2

3

2

3

− ~ 1 − 0.045 + 0.0003375 + 0.000001687

− ~ 0.955339187

2

97

3

=

100

2

  − ~ 0.955339187 ,

97

3

2

1000

− ~ 0.955339187

 

× 1000

 3 97 2 − ~ 955.339187

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 1 of 8

Solutionbank

Edexcel AS and A Level Modular Mathematics

The binomial expansion

Exercise B, Question 1

Question:

Find the binomial expansions of the following in ascending powers of x as far as the term in x 3 . State the range of values of x for which the expansions are valid.

(a)
\
( 4 + 2x )
1
(b)
2 + x
1
(c)
2
( 4 − x )
(d)
\
( 9 + x )
1
(e)
\
( 2 + x )

(f)

(g)

5

3 + 2x

1 + x

2 + x

 + x
2 
(h)
\
 − x
1 
Solution:
(a) \
( 4 + 2x )
1
=
( 4 + 2x )
2
4
  1 +
= 
1
x
= 4
2
1 +
2

= 2

1 +

x

2

Write in index form.

2x

4

1

2

Take out a factor of 4

1

  Remember to put the 4 to the power

2

1 1

2

4

2

= 2

1

2

Use the binomial expansion with n =

1

2

and x =

x

2

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 2 of 8

     1    = 2  1 + x   2   2    ( 1 2 ) ( − 1 2 ) ( − 3 2 ) ( x 2 ) 3 3 ! x x 2 x 3 = 2  1 +  − 4 32 + 128 x x 2 x 3 = 2 + 2 − 16 + 64 Valid if   x 2   < 1 ⇒

+

+

+

| x

1
1
x
2
(
)
(
)
(
)
2
2
2
+
2 !
Multiply by the 2
|
< 2

(b)

1

2 + x

Write in index form

=

( 2 + x )

1

=

2

= 2 1

  1 +

  1 +

x

2

x

2

Take out a factor of 2

1

Remember to put 2 to the power − 1

1

,

2 1 =

1

2

. Use the binomial expansion with

n =

− 1 and x =

x

2

        1 +  − 1       

− 2 )

(

− 3 )

x

2

1

2

(

=

(

− 1 )

3

!

x

2

3 +

+

 ( ( − 2 )     

− 1 ) 2 !

x

2

2 +

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 3 of 8

=

=

1

2

1

2

Valid if

1 −

x

4

+

x

2

x

2

+

x

2

4

x

2

8

< 1

x

3

16

x

3

8

 + …   Multiply by the | x | < 2

1

2

(c)

1

( 4 − x )

2

Write in index form

= ( 4 − x )

=

2

x

4

4

1 −

Take 4 out as a factor

− 2

= 4 2

2 ,

1 −

x

4

4 2 =

1

16

. Use the binomial expansion with

n =

− 2 and x =

x

4

 1  =  1 + 16  ( − 2 ) ( − 3 ) ( − 4 ) 3 ! 1  1 + x = 16  2 1 x = + +

16

32

− 2

  3 +

3x 2

16

x

4

+

x

3

16

+

+

x 3

256

+

3x 2

256

x

4

+

(

− 2 ) 2 !

(

− 3 )

  2 +

1

16

x

4

Multiply by

Valid for
(d) \ 9 +
x

x

4

< 1

| x

|

< 4

Write in index form

x =

 1 = ( 9 + x ) 2    1 + =  9 9 1  1 + x = 2  9 x 9

x

9

Take 9 out as a factor

1

2

,

1

2

 1 9 2 = 3. Use binomial expansion with n =

1

2

and

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 4 of 8

     1    = 3  1 + x +   2   9    1 1 3 ( 2 ) ( − 2 ) ( − 2 )  x  3 !   9   3 +   1 + x x 2 x 3 = 3 18 − 648 + 11664 x x 2 x 3 = 3 + 6 − 216 + 3888 Valid for  x   < 1 ⇒  9

| x

 1 1 ( 2 ) ( − 2 ) 2 !    …      + …  | < 9

x

9

2 +

Multiply by 3

1

(e)

Write in index form
\ 2 + x
1
=
( 2 + x )
2
Take out a factor of 2
1
x
=
2
1 +
2
2
1
1
1
x
1
= 2 −
2
1 +
2
,
2 −
2
=
2
1

1 x

2

and x =

1

2

2

x

2

+

(

2 2

1

2

=

)

(

1

2

3

2

)

. Use binomial

expansion with n = −

=

1

2

1 +

x

2

2 +

2 !

Heinemann Solutionbank: Core Maths 4 C4

Page 5 of 8

 1 3 5 ( − 2 ) ( − 2 ) ( − 2 )  x 3 !  2 1  1 − x 3x 2 = √ 2  4 + 32 − 1 x 3x 2 = √ + 2 − 4 √ 2 32 √ 2 − √ 2 √ 2x 3 √ 2x 2 = − 2 Valid if   x 2 8 + 64   ⇒ < 1

3 +

5x 3

128

+

5x 3

128 2

52x 3

256

| x

|

+

< 2

Multiply by

1

2

Rationalise surds

(f)

5

3 + 2x

Write in index form

= 5 ( 3 + 2x )

= 5

1

Take out a factor of 3

− 1

1

,

3 1 =

2x

3

2x

3

2x

3

3

1 +

= 5 × 3 1

− 1 and x =

1

3

. Use binomial expansion with

1 +

2x

3

n =

 5  =  1 + 3  ( − 1 ) ( − 2 ) ( − 3 ) 3 ! 5   1 − 2x = 3 3 5 10x = 3 − 9 + Valid if 2x  3 

− 1

+

4x 2

9

20x 2

 