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SECOND EDITION

ENGINEERING
PRACTICES

S. Suyambazhahan
Engineering Practices
SECOND EDITION
!"#$!%#&'$()*#$+,),-+,')./,$&'01)2'&$"!$*33$+#*2./)&$"!$)24%2))#%245

S. SUYAMBAZHAHAN
Principal
S.A. Engineering College
Chennai

New Delhi-110001
2012
` 275.00

ENGINEERING PRACTICES, Second Edition


S. Suyambazhahan

2012 by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the
publisher.
ISBN-978-81-203-4509-6

The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher.
Sixth Printing (Second Edition) January, 2012

Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus,
New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Baba Barkha Nath Printers, Bahadurgarh, Haryana-124507.
CONTENTS

Preface .................................................................................................................................................. xi

GROUP A: CIVIL AND MECHANICAL


ENGINEERING PRACTICES
1 PLUMBING............................................................................................................. 337
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Domestic Plumbing 3
1.3 Industrial Plumbing 3
1.4 Plumbing Tools 3
1.4.1 Pipe Wrench 4
1.4.2 Pipe Vice 4
1.4.3 Pipe Cutter 4
1.4.4 Hacksaw 5
1.4.5 Threading Dies and Taps 5
1.4.6 Files and Rasps 5
1.4.7 Plumb Bob 6
1.5 Pipes and Fittings 6
1.5.1 Pipes 6
1.5.2 Pipe Fittings 6
1.6 Piping Layout Symbol 8
1.7 Connection of Pipes 9
1.7.1 Types of Pipe Joints 9
1.7.2 Sewage Plumbing System 13
1.7.3 Two Lavatories in Series 13

iii
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1.8 Pumps 14
1.8.1 Centrifugal Pump 14
1.8.2 Reciprocating Pump 15
1.8.3 Types of Flow 16
1.8.4 Layout for a Delivery Line from the Pump Outlet 16
1.9 Preparation of Plumbing Line Sketches 17
1.9.1 Single Line Diagram 17
1.9.2 Double Line Diagram 18
1.10 Metal, Plastic and Flexible Pipes used in Household Appliances 18
Exercises 19

2 CARPENTRY ....................................................................................................... 3861


2.1 Introduction 38
2.2 Carpentry Tools 38
2.2.1 Marking Tools 38
2.2.2 Measuring Tools 39
2.2.3 Holding Tools 40
2.2.4 Cutting Tools 40
2.2.5 Planing Tools 41
2.2.6 Boring Tools 42
2.2.7 Striking Tools 43
2.2.8 Miscellaneous Tools 43
2.3 Carpentry Machines 44
2.3.1 Wood Turning Lathe 44
2.3.2 Circular Saw 45
2.3.3 Band Saw 45
2.4 Carpentry Processes 45
2.4.1 Marking and Measuring 45
2.4.2 Sawing 45
2.4.3 Planing 45
2.4.4 Chiselling 45
2.4.5 Mortising and Tenoning 46
2.4.6 Boring 46
2.4.7 Grooving 46
2.5 Study of Carpentry Joints in Doors, Windows and Furniture 46
2.6 Study of Joints in Door Panels and Wooden Furniture 48
Exercises 51

3 WELDING ............................................................................................................. 6289


3.1 Introduction 62
3.2 Welding Tools 62
3.3 Arc Welding 64
3.3.1 Types of Arc Welding 65
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3.4 Gas Welding 68


3.4.1 Types of Flames 70
3.4.2 Comparison of Arc Welding and Gas Welding 71
3.4.3 Comparison of DC Welding and AC Welding 71
3.5 Welding-Related Processes 71
3.5.1 Soldering 72
3.5.2 Brazing 73
3.6 Types of Welded Joints 73
3.7 Techniques of Welding 73
3.7.1 Preparation of Work 73
3.7.2 Striking an Arc 73
3.8 Defects in Welding 74
3.9 Welding Safety Rules 74
3.10 Welding Symbols 75
Exercises 77

4 BASIC MACHINING .......................................................................................... 90123


4.1 Introduction 90
4.2 Types of Lathe Machines 90
4.3 Description of Lathe Machines 90
4.4 Lathe Accessories 94
4.5 Lathe Operations 99
4.6 Drilling Machines 101
4.6.1 Types of Drills 101
4.6.2 Twist Drill Nomenclature 103
4.6.3 Drill Size 104
4.6.4 Types of Drilling Machines 104
4.6.5 Work Holding Devices 106
4.6.6 Tool Holding Devices 107
4.7 Drilling Machine Operations 108
4.8 Speed, Feed, Depth of Cut and Machining Time 110
Exercises 113

5 SHEET METAL WORK ................................................................................... 124145


5.1 Introduction 124
5.2 Specification of Sheet Metal 124
5.3 Metals Used in Sheet Metal Work 125
5.4 Tools Used in Sheet Metal Work 125
5.4.1 Cutting Tools (Chisels, Snips or Shears) 125
5.4.2 Striking Tools 125
5.4.3 Supporting Tools 126
5.4.4 Bending Tools 126
5.4.5 Layout Tools 127
5.4.6 Other Tools 127
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5.5 Sheet Metal Operations 129


5.5.1 Shearing 129
5.5.2 Bending 130
5.5.3 Drawing 130
5.5.4 Squeezing 131
5.6 Sheet Metal Joints 132
5.6.1 Hem 132
5.6.2 Seam 132
5.7 Development of Surfaces 132
5.7.1 Development of Cylinder using Parallel Line Method 133
5.7.2 Radial Line Method 133
5.7.3 Triangulation Method 134
5.8 General Procedure for Sheet Metal Work 134
Exercises 135

6 MACHINE ASSEMBLY PRACTICE ................................................................ 146158


6.1 Study of Centrifugal Pump 146
6.2 Main Components of a Centrifugal Pump 146
6.2.1 Suction Pipe 146
6.2.2 Casing 146
6.2.3 Impeller 147
6.2.4 Suction and Delivery Pipe 148
6.2.5 Gland and Shaft 148
6.2.6 Working Principle 149
6.2.7 Priming 149
6.2.8 Applications 149
6.3 Study of Refrigerators 149
6.3.1 Air Refrigerator 150
6.3.2 Vapour Compression Refrigerator 151
6.3.3 Vapour Absorption Refrigerator 152
6.4 Study of Air Conditioner 153
6.4.1 Main Parts of an Air Conditioner 154
6.5 Control Panel 156
6.6 Maintenance of Window Air Conditioner 156
6.7 Split Air Conditioner 157

7 SMITHY ............................................................................................................ 159173


7.1 Introduction 159
7.2 Equipment and Tools Used in Smithy Shop 159
7.2.1 Smith Furnace 159
7.2.2 Supporting Tools 160
7.2.3 Striking Tools (Hammers) 161
7.2.4 Holding Tools 162
7.2.5 Cutting Tools 162
7.2.6 Finishing and Shaping Tools 162
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7.3 Forging 163


7.3.1 Hand Forging 163
7.3.2 Power Forging 163
7.3.3 Hammer Forging 163
7.3.4 Press Forging 164
7.4 Smith Forging Operations 164
7.4.1 Upsetting 164
7.4.2 Drawing Down 164
7.4.3 Setting Down 164
7.4.4 Punching and Drifting 164
7.4.5 Bending 164
7.4.6 Forge Welding 165
7.4.7 Cutting Off 165
7.4.8 Fullering 165
7.5 Applications 166
Exercises 167

8 FOUNDRY ........................................................................................................ 174189


8.1 Introduction 174
8.2 Tools and Equipment Used in Foundry 174
8.2.1 Tools 175
8.3 Foundry Operation 176
8.3.1 Pattern Making and Materials 176
8.3.2 Moulding and Core Making 179
8.3.3 Melting and Pouring 181
8.3.4 Fettling 182
8.3.5 Inspection and Testing of Castings 182
8.4 Applications 182
Exercises 183

9 FITTING ............................................................................................................ 190219


9.1 Introduction 190
9.2 Fitting Tools 190
9.2.1 Marking and Measuring Tools 190
9.2.2 Work Holding Tools 194
9.2.3 Striking Tools or Hammers 195
9.2.4 Cutting Tools 196
9.2.5 Finishing Tools 198
9.2.6 Other Tools 198
9.3 Files 199
9.3.1 Parts of Files 199
9.3.2 Classification of Files 199
9.4 Fitting Process 201
9.4.1 Measuring and Marking 201
viii !"#$"#%

9.4.2 Cutting 201


9.4.3 Filing 201
9.4.4 Scraping 202
9.4.5 Chipping 202
9.4.6 Drilling 202
9.4.7 Reaming 203
9.4.8 Tapping 203
Exercises 205

GROUP B: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING PRACTICES
10 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE ..................................................... 223273
10.1 Introduction 223
10.2 Electrical Components and Measuring Instruments (Circuit Symbols) 225
10.3 SI Units and Symbols of Physical Quantities 226
10.4 Types of Electrical Supply 227
10.5 Accessories Used in Wiring 228
10.6 Tools Used in Wiring 230
10.7 BIS Regulations Pertaining to Wiring Installations 235
10.7.1 Sub-circuits 235
10.7.2 Points to be Considered while Lighting in Houses 235
10.7.3 Points to be Considered while Providing Socket Outlets 235
10.7.4 Points to be Considered while Providing Fans 236
10.7.5 Types of Circuit 236
10.8 Wiring and Equipment 238
10.8.1 Types of Wiring 239
10.8.2 Wiring Diagrams 239
10.8.3 Methods of Connection of Lamps 241
10.8.4 Basic Household Wiring 242
10.8.5 Staircase Light Wiring 243
10.8.6 Fluorescent Lamp Wiring 244
10.8.7 Measuring InstrumentsAmmeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeter 246
10.8.8 Measurement of Power Using Wattmeter 248
10.8.9 Measurement of Energy Using Single-phase Energy Meter 249
10.9 Study of Iron Box 250
10.10 Study of Ceiling Fan 251
10.10.1 Mounting a Ceiling Fan 251
10.10.2 Assembling a Ceiling Fan 252
10.10.3 Wiring Diagram for a Ceiling Fan 252
10.11 Study of Emergency Lamp 253
10.12 Preparation of Wiring Diagram 254
Exercises 255
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11 ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING PRACTICE .................................................. 274333


11.1 Introduction 274
11.2 Study of Electronic Components and Equipment 274
11.2.1 Types of Electronic Components 274
11.2.2 Basic Electronic Components 274
11.2.3 Resistor Colour Coding 276
11.2.4 CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) and Multimeters 277
11.3 Soldering of Electronic Components 279
11.3.1 Types of Soldering Iron 280
11.3.2 Steps Followed in Soldering 280
11.3.3 Procedure of Soldering 281
11.3.4 Desoldering 282
11.3.5 Safety Precautions while Soldering 282
11.3.6 Checking the Continuity for Electronic Circuits 282
11.3.7 Assembling Electronic Components on PCB 283
11.4 Characteristics of Electronic Components 285
11.4.1 Characteristics of PN and Zener Diodes 285
11.4.2 Measurement of Ripple Factor for HWR and FWR 288
11.4.3 Input and Output Characteristics of CE (Common Emitter) Transistor 290
11.4.4 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) 292
11.5 Operational Amplifier 295
11.5.1 Applications of Operational Amplifier 295
11.6 Logic Gates 298
11.6.1 OR Gate 298
11.6.2 AND Gate 298
11.6.3 NOT Gate (Invertor) 299
11.6.4 NAND Gate 299
11.6.5 NOR Gate 299
11.6.6 EX-OR Gate 300
11.7 Adder Circuits 300
11.7.1 Half Adder 300
11.7.2 Full Adder 301
11.8 Decade Counter 302
Exercises 303

Viva Questions and Answers ................................................................................ 335359


PREFACE

Engineers of all disciplines must be conversant with all of the practices of manufacturing.
However, it should not be forgotten that practice without theory is blind and theory without
practice is lame. A person interested in acquiring engineering skills must have a balanced
knowledge of theory as well as practice. Thus, engineering practice, a study and practice of the
scientific principles underlying the art of manufacture, is an important subject.
Though the book is based on the syllabus of Anna University to meet the objectives of
training courses in engineering practice for all branches of first-year engineering students, it will
be useful to the students of all the universities and institutes due to similarity of such courses.
It imparts the basic knowledge of use of various tools in different sections of manufacturing, such as:
1. Civil Engineering Practice
(a) Plumbing
(b) Carpentry
2. Mechanical Engineering Practice
(a) Welding
(b) Basic Machining
(c) Sheet Metal Work
(d) Machine Assembly Practice
(e) Smithy
(f) Foundry
(g) Fitting
3. Electrical Engineering Practice
4. Electronics Engineering Practice
I hope this book will be of immense help to the students. Any suggestions for the
improvement of the book will be gratefully acknowledged.

S. Suyambazhahan
xi
GROUP A
!
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1 PLUMBING

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Plumbing deals with the laying of a pipeline. A craftsman may be perfectly proficient with the
hammer, saw and other tools, but he faces difficulties with leaking pipes and overflowing toilets.
Many people rush to a plumber on seeing a dripping pipe, but a person with a little knowledge of
the sanitary system can control this problem easily, saving time and money with the help of few
tools.

1.2 DOMESTIC PLUMBING


The domestic plumbing employs for household appliances such as freshwater supply, wastewater
treatment supply, rainwater drain, gas supply, air conditioning, fire fighting systems, garden water
and irrigation.

1.3 INDUSTRIAL PLUMBING


The industrial plumbing is mainly used in industrial equipment such as a petrolium plant, a power
plant, etc. The fittings like gauges, indicators, regulators, valve, etc. are added in pipelines.

1.4 PLUMBING TOOLS


Plumbing tools can be classified as:
1. Pipe wrench 2. Pipe vice
3. Pipe cutter 4. Hacksaw
5. Threading dies and taps 6. Files and rasps
7. Plumb bob
3
4 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

1.4.1 Pipe Wrench


A pipe wrench is used for holding and turning the pipes, rods and machine parts. Wrenches are
broadly classified as:
1. Fixed wrenches
2. Adjustable wrenches
Fixed wrenches are specific in size and cannot be adjusted. The adjustable wrenches can be
opened or closed within the limitation of the individual wrench. The adjustable pipe wrench is
shown in Fig. 1.1. The monkey wrench, chain wrench and adjustable open end wrenches are
mostly used in practice.

Fig. 1.1 Pipe wrench.


1.4.2 Pipe Vice
A pipe vice is shown in Fig. 1.2. The pipe vice is fitted on the work bench. This has a set of jaws
to grip the pipe and prevent it from turning while cutting, threading and fitting of bends, couplings
etc. The yoke vice is the most commonly used in plumbing practice.

Fig. 1.2 Pipe vice.


1.4.3 Pipe Cutter
For occasional pipework, a hacksaw is quite satisfactory. The pipe cutter mainly consists of three
wheels which are hardened with sharp cutting edges along their periphery. Of these three wheels,
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one can be adjusted to any desired distance to accommodate different sizes of pipes. After adjusting
the cutter on a pipe, it is turned around the pipe, so that the cutter wheels cut the pipe along a circle
as shown in Fig. 1.3.

Fig. 1.3 Pipe cutter.


1.4.4 Hacksaw
A hacksaw is used for cutting metal rods, bars, pipes, etc. The hacksaw and its parts are illustrated
in Fig. 1.4. The job to be sawed is held in a vice and the blade is moved to and fro for cutting the
job. The cutting operation takes place only on the forward stroke (cutting stroke), but no cutting
action in the return stroke. Hence, the stroke is called the idle stroke.

Fig. 1.4 Hacksaw.


1.4.5 Threading Dies and Taps
Threading dies and taps (Fig. 1.5) are used for cutting external thread on pipes. Threads are produced
in various shapes and sizes which are used by fitting pipes inside a die handle. The length of the
thread depends on the size of the pipe.
1.4.6 Files and Rasps
A file and a rasp are shown in Fig. 1.6. The file surface is covered with sharp-edged teeth and it is
used for removing metal by rubbing. A rasp is used for finishing the surface of the workpiece.
6 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 1.5 Threading dies and taps.

Fig. 1.6 File and rasp.


1.4.7 Plumb Bob
A plumb bob is shown in Fig. 1.7. It is used to check the vertical line and made up of steel or brass.

Fig. 1.7 Plumb bob.

1.5 PIPES AND FITTINGS


1.5.1 Pipes
Pipes are used for transmitting fluids from one place to another and to every suitable point in a
building. Pipes are available in either black or galvanized form. Black pipes are used for transmitting
oil, gas or air. Galvanized pipes are used for water supply systems as they resist rusting and
corrosion. The materials commonly used for making pipes are steel, asbestos, cement and cast
iron. Depending upon the requirements, they are used in different sizes and specifications. According
to the material, the pipes can be classified as follows:
1. Cast iron (CI) pipe 2. Galvanized iron (GI) pipe
3. Flexible pipe
1.5.2 Pipe Fittings
Pipe fittings are made up of wrought iron. The size of pipe fit ting is designated by the size of the
pipe on which it fits. There are different types of pipe fittings available in the market. Some of the
common pipe fittings are shown in Fig. 1.8.
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Elbow Bend Coupling Tee

Closed end
Bush with threads Cap
PVC pipe fittings

Internal V threads
Coupling Tee reducer Reducer coupling

External V threads Centre part External V threads

Pipe Square end


Pipe
Nipple Union Plug

Hub with threads

Disc with holes


Flange
Fig. 1.8 Pipe fittings.
Coupling
It is a short cylindrical sleeve with internal threads throughout. A coupling is used for joining two
pipes in a straight and bend where at least one pipe can be turned.
Union
A union is used for joining two pieces of pipes, where either pipe piece can be turned or union can
be turned for tightening. The union consists of three parts, two pieces of pipes (pipe 1 and pipe 2)
and the third part (the centre part) which is used for tightening.
Nipple
A nipple is a short piece of pipe (less than 300 mm of length) with external threads at both ends.
Nipples are available in standard length. It is used to make up the required length of a pipeline.
Elbow
An elbow is to make an angle between adjacent pipes. The angle is always 90 unless another
angle is started like 45.
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Tee
A tee is a fitting that has one side outlet at a right angle to the run. It is used for a single outlet branch
pipe. The tees are two types: they are equal tees and unequal tees. It is a threaded in a T-shaped
component used for distributing the supply of water at right angles to the direction of flow.
Reducer
A threaded pipe fitting having one of its ends larger than the other one is called an increaser or
reducer. It is used to connect two different sized pipes.
Plug
A plug is used to screw on to a threaded opening, for closing it temporarily. It is a short piece with
external threads at one end and a square end on the other side.
Valves
Valves are used for regulating the flow of fluid through a pipe. These are placed on water supply
lines at desired points to shut off the flow of water. The commonly used valves (Fig. 1.9) in
plumbings are as follows:
(a) Gate valve (b) Globe valve
(c) Plug valve (d) Check valve
(e) Air relief valves (needle valve)

Fig. 1.9 Valves.

1.6 PIPING LAYOUT SYMBOL


Table 1.1 shows piping layout symbols.
Table 1.1 Piping layout symbols
Fitting Symbol

Elbow

Union
(Contd)...
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Table 1.1 (Contd.)...

Tee

Bend

Plug

Gate valve
Globe valve
Reducer
Check valve
Stop cock
Joints Symbol
Pipe joint
Flanged
Screwed
Welded

1.7 CONNECTION OF PIPES


Connection between pipes which are to be used under pressure are made with screwed couplings,
screwed unions, flanges and chalked joints in socket and spigot joints. Flexible and expansion
joints are used where movements of the pipes and of the buildings are to be considered.
1.7.1 Types of Pipe Joints
The following three types of pipe joints are used in plumbing
1. Bell and spigot joints 2. Flanged joint
3. Threaded joint
Bell and spigot joints
The straight spigot end of the one section is inserted into the flared out end of the adjoining section
as shown in Figure 1.10. These joints are used in a cast iron pipe, either water pipe or drainage
pipe. For this type of joints, a space at at least 15 cm arround the pipes and a length of about one
metre should be made available for convinient in caulking.
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Fig. 1.10 Bell and spigot joints.


Flanged joints
There are two types of flanged joints (Fig. 1.11):
1. Ring gasket flanged joint.
2. Full faced gasket flanged joint.
These joints are easy for removing and refixing by bolted and gaskets to form a watertight joint.
Also flanged joints are preferred to lay the lengthy pipe lines.

Ring Full faced


gasket gasket
Fig. 1.11 Flanged joints.
Bolted joints
The use of bolted joints is advantageous than other joints.
The bolted joint is shown in Fig. 1.12. Two workpieces can be joined by means of bolt and
nuts. Holes must be created using drilling tools in both the workpieces with the diameter equal to
the external diameter of the bolt. Two workpieces can be laped and bolted joints can be obtained
as shown in the figure. These joints are used in linkages which require lengthy links.
Bolt

Nut

Workpieces

Bolt head

Fig. 1.12 Bolted joints.


Types of threads
There are different types of threads which are shown in Fig. 1.13(a). Threaded joints require two
pipes having external threads on both ends coupling can be used to connect two pipes. Great care
required in the cutting of pipe and threads. In flange, internal threads has to be created to connect
!"#$%&' 11

the pipe with external thread at end. The external V thread should be created in plug which is used
to close the end of pipe. Nipple have external threads on both sides to connect two short pipes.
Hub with External V
threads threads
External V Square
thread end

Disc with
holes
Flange Plug Nipples
Fig. 1.13(a) Types of Threads.
Threaded joints
The threaded joints are shown in Fig. 1.13(b). They can be obtained by connection two pipes
having external threads at both ends using coupling. Grease should be applied to the external
threads of the pipes for easy connections. Lamp wick can be wrapped outside the threads to obtain
tight joints. Adequate space must be provided to facilitate and making these joints. Red lead, white
lead mixed with oil or grease can also be used for threaded joints.

Coupling Recessed or sleeve Closed nipple Short nipple


coupling

Right hand Lefthand


threaded coupling threaded coupling

First position

Second position
Fig. 1.13(b) Threaded joints.
Flexible joints
The flexible joints are used to connect two pipes in angles. For example, a washbasin and an angle
valve are connected with flexible joints as shown in Fig. 1.14. These joints are mianly used for
providing water supply to the building. For home, the pipes are laid from the main tank to the
bathroom and kitchen. Various pipe accessories have been used in bringing the plumbing for
home. The following are the main operations in plumbing at home:
1. Fixing the bracket
2. Fixing the sanitory
12 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

3. Laying of water pipes


4. Giving connections to various sanitary fitting using pipe accessories.
Flexible joints are used where movements of the pipe are to be considered.

Fig. 1.14 Flexible joints.


Swing joints
The swing joints are shown in Fig. 1.15. These joints are special purpose joints mainly used
where a long bend is required in practice. For example, the pipes are laid below the footpath. This
arrangement gives the least obstruction. Care should be taken to prevent any chances of
contamination. Air values must be placed to all high spots.

Fig. 1.15 Swing joints.


Welded and brazed joints
Welded and brazed joints are shown in Fig. 1.16. These joints are stronger and more leak-tight
than threaded and flanged joints. So, these joints are most commonly used in industries. The
advantage of these joints is that they will not increase the weight in the piping system.

Fig. 1.16 Welded and brazed joints.


!"#$%&' 13

Expansion joints
These joints are special purpose industrial oriented joints. Sample expansion joint is shown in
Fig. 1.17. These joints are used for extension of pipelines. Adequate working space must be provided
in the piping to facilitate making these connection.

Fig. 1.17 Expansion joints.

1.7.2 Sewage Plumbing System


The waste line from the bathtub, sink, toilet, bathroom, shower etc. is connected to a single outlet
pipe using pipe fittings, directly to sewage as shown in Fig. 1.18. To clean the sludge and if any
blocks occurs in the pipe line, an emergency cleaning outlet is provided.

To vent stack for delivery of


harmful gassed avoid air lock

To sink

To toilet To bathtub

To shower
To sink

Outlet for emergency cleaning

To sewage
Fig. 1.18 Sewage plumbing system.

1.7.3 Two Lavatories in Series


The connection of two lavatories in series is shown in Fig. 1.19. Here, the lavatory is coupled with
the outlet drain using, cross bends and elbows with a single pipe on both sides of the main sewage
pipe.
14 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Wall

Vent

Lavatory Lavatory

To sewage
Fig. 1.19 Two lavatories in series.
1.8 PUMPS
A pump is used to raise water from the well to the ground.
Pumps are mainly classified into two types:
1. Centrifugal pump
2. Reciprocating pump
A pump which is used to raise water from the lower level to the higher level by means of a
centrifugal force is known as a centrifugal pump. A pump converts mechanical energy into hydraulic
energy. The mechanical energy is created from the electrical energy through a motor.
1.8.1 Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal pumps are classified into the following:
(a) Mono block pump
(b) Jet pump
(c) Submersible pump
Mono block pump
A mono block pump is shown is Fig. 1.20. The delivery head depends on the horse power (HP) of
a motor (for 1 HP motor, the delivery head = 29 m approximate).

Fig. 1.20 Mono block pump.


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Jet pump
Jet pumps are commonly used to suck water from deep wells, and deliver to a shorter distance
only. A jet pump as used in practice is shown in Fig. 1.21. In a jet pump four to sixteen stage
pumps are available to suck the water and deliver to a higher head.
Submersible pump
A submersible pump (Fig. 1.22) inside the water is used to deliver water outside bore (or) ground.
It deliver fluid up to 80 to 100 feet and 160 to 180 feet respectively depending upon the number
of stages in the pump. These pumps are used in bore wells of depth more than 100 feet.
Regulating
pressure gauge
Motor
Pressure
Centrifugal pump switch

Stuffing box

Impeller Discharge

Grout seal

Return pipe

Venturi

Nozzle

Ejector

Foot valve
Screen
Well casing

Fig. 1.21 Jet pump. Fig. 1.22 Submersible pump.

1.8.2 Reciprocating Pump


A reciprocating pump is as shown in Fig. 1.23. When the crank rotates, first the piston moves in
outward direction. Due to this vacuum is created inside the cylinder and water is coming in suction
pipe and enter into the cylinder due to the preserve difference. Further the piston moves in inward
direction. Due to this the pressure of the water is increased and going out through the delivery pipe.
16 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Delivery pipe

Delivery valve

Cylinder Connecting Crank (r)


hd rod
Piston B

q
C
A

Piston
rod
D
Suction valve
L = 2r
hs Suction pipe

Sump level

Fig. 1.123 Reciprocating pump.

1.8.3 Types of Flow


1. Gravity flow
2. Suction flow
3. Delivery flow
Gravity flow
In gravity flow, water flows from a high level to a low level by means of natural gravitation pull
(g = 9.81 m/s2+).
Suction flow
A motor and pump is used to pump out the water from a lower level (foot valve) to a suction head
of a pump.
Delivery flow
Water pumped from the ground level (suction head) to the top level, (delivery head) of a pump is
called delivery flow.
1.8.4 Layout for a Delivery Line from the Pump Outlet
The pipeline fitting between the pump outlet and the extreme inlet to the tank is called delivery
line (Fig. 1.24). A delivery line consists of a flange connected with a pipe. The pipe guides
through the check valve. The purpose of a check valve is to avoid back pressure in the pipeline.
Here a gate valve is provided after the check valve to control the flow. Various pipe fittings such
as elbows and couplings are used depending upon the delivery length.
!"#$%&' 17

Delivery side

Gate valve

Check valve

Pump
Concentric Motor
reducer Coupling

Suction
side

Foot valve

Fig. 1.24 Delivery line from the pump outlet.

1.9 PREPARATION OF PLUMBING LINE SKETCHES


The purpose of plumbing line sketches is to show the size and location of pipes, fitting and valves.
In line sketches, the vertical and inclined route also will be mentioned for fabrication and erection,
There are two types of piping diagrams:
1. Single line diagram
2. Double line diagram
1.9.1 Single Line Diagram
Single line diagrams are most commonly used in plumbing diagrams. These are prepared by
orthographic projections. All power plants and bottling plant pipings are made by the single line
piping diagram. The single line diagram is shown in Fig. 1.25.
Cross plug Union Cap
Elbow Globe valve Gate valve Tee

Bend
Tee Flanged Check Reducer
joint valve

Elbow

Fig. 1.25 Single line diagram.


18 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

1.9.2 Double Line Diagram


The single line sketches will not give the clear visual appearance in piping manifold area, but
the double line diagrams are used for this purpose. They are used for catalogs and other
applications where the visual appearance is more important. The double line diagram is shown
in Fig. 1.26.

Fig. 1.26 Double line diagram.

1.10 METAL, PLASTIC AND FLEXIBLE PIPES USED IN HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES


The metal pipes, plastic pipes and flexible pipes are commonly used for plumping in houses.
Where the plastic pipes are mostly used in low pressure flow piping, metal and plastic pipes are
used as a suction pipe for pump input and also service lines.
Metal pipes
Metal pipes are mostly used in the industries for high pressure working conditions. These pipes
are manufactured in different weights and lengths. For a power plant, the steam lines are fabricated
by the metal pipes only because of more strength.
Plastic pipes
Initially the plastic pipes were used for the low pressure working condition only. But nowadays
these pipes are used for gas distribution system and utility piping systems in industries. Plastic
pipes are easily available at fairly reasonable cost also.
Types of plastic pipes
1. Polyethylene
2. Polypropylene
3. Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
4. Thermoplastic pipes
Flexible pipes
Rubber is used in tubing and pipes either as hard or soft rubber to transfer the liquids in portable
systems. It is like PVC, the corrosion resistant, easy to handle and replace.
!"#$%&' 19

EXERCISES
1. CONNECTION OF PIPELINE TO WASHBASIN (BASIC PIPE CONNECTION)
2. CONNECTION OF PIPELINE TO WATER COOLER
3. CONNECTION OF TWO GALVANIZED IRON PIPES
4. CONNECTION OF TWO PVC PIPES
5. CONNECTION OF PVC PIPE WITH ELBOW
6. CONNECTION OF TWO GI PIPES WITH COUPLING
7. CONNECTION OF TWO GI PIPES WITH ELBOW
8. CONNECTION OF PVC PIPES WITH TEE
9. LAYOUT OF SUCTION PIPE TO PUMP
20
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Fig. 1.27 Connection of pipeline to washbasin (basic pipeline connection).


!"#$%&' 21

EXERCISE 1: CONNECTION OF PIPELINE TO WASHBASIN (BASIC PIPE


CONNECTION)
Aim
To construct a plumbing for a washbasin as per the line sketch drawn (Fig. 1.27).
Tools required
1. Pipe wrench
2. Plumber vice
3. Die of required size
4. Pipe cutter
5. Measuring tape
Materials required
1. Washbasin
2. Washbasin tap
3. Tee
4. Elbow
5. Flexible pipe
6. GI pipe
Procedure
1. Collect the required length of a pipe and quantity of fittings as per the sketch.
2. Mark the location of the washbasin and fix it.
3. Fix the washbasin tap in the required position.
4. Make a tee connection in the existing pipeline to connect it to the washbasin.
5. Fix the flexible drain pipe from the washbasin to the common drain outlet.
Result
Thus, the pipeline connection to a washbasin is made.
22
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Fig. 1.28 Connection of pipeline to water cooler.


!"#$%&' 23

EXERCISE 2: CONNECTION OF PIPELINE TO WATER COOLER


Aim
To prepare a water line connection to a water cooler using the pipeline fittings (Fig. 1.28).
Tools required
1. Screwdriver
2. Hammer
3. Hacksaw
4. Pipe wrench
Materials required
1. Water cooler
2. Flow control valve
3. Tees
4. Elbows
5. Pipe
6. Flexible pipe
7. Flexible drain pipe
Procedure
1. Mark location for the water cooler.
2. Collect the pipe of required length and pipe fitting of required quantity as per sketch.
3. Make the threads of 3/4 inch length on both ends of the pipe using the die and plumber
vice.
4. Apply the thread seals on threads before it is being threaded into the fitting.
5. Connect the pipe fittings as per the line drawing and apply the finishing tightness to all
joints using a pipe wrench.
6. Fix the flexible drain pipe from the wastewater tray of the water cooler to the common
drain outlet.
7. Open the taps to cheek for its function.
Result
Thus, the pipeline connection to the water cooler is made.
24 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 1.29 Connections of two GI pipes.


!"#$%&' 25

EXERCISE 3: CONNECTION OF TWO GALVANIZED IRON PIPES


Aim
To connect the given two GI pipe using the pipe fittings (Fig. 1.29).
Tools required
1. Pipe wrench
2. Spanner
3. Measuring tap
4. Hammer
Materials required
1. GI pipes
2. Socket
3. Back nut
Procedure
1. Collect the pipe of required length and pipe fittings of required quantity as per the sketch.
2. Hold the pipe using pipe wrench, make the external threads to pipes using pipe threading
dies.
3. Insert black and white lead points in the threads to make the joint sound.
4. Screw the socket D back to its full length on the pipe end.
5. Keep the pipes closer and connect.
6. Screw the socket back in such a way that it stands half on one pipe and half in the another
pipe.
7. Tighten the joints using the spanner.
8. Check the connection for leakage of water.
Result
Thus, the given two GI pipes are connected as per the sketch.
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Pipe 1

Pipe 2

d D

Coupling

d = Internal diameter of the pipe


D = External diameter of the coupling (D > d)

Pipe 1 Coupling Pipe 2

Fig. 1.30 Connection of PVC pipes.


!"#$%&' 27

EXERCISE 4: CONNECTION OF TWO PVC PIPES


Aim
To connect the two given PVC pipes. (Fig. 1.30).
Materials required
1. PVC pipes (two)
2. PVC coupling (one)
3. Solution (glue)
4. Abrasive paper
Procedure
1. Collect the two PVC pipes of suitable length and diameter.
2. Clean the outer surface of the pipes at the ends using a piece of cotton cloth or a small
piece of abrasive paper.
3. Position the pipes to the same level on a flat surface.
4. Apply glue to outer surface of both pipe ends and inner surface of the coupling at both
ends.
5. Join the two pipes using the coupling with hand pressure and hold for at least two minutes
to allow to dry so as to get a solid the solution.
Result
Thus, the given two PVC pipes are connected.
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Pipe

Elbow

Fig. 1.31 Connection of PVC pipe with elbow.


!"#$%&' 29

EXERCISE 5: CONNECTION OF PVC PIPE WITH ELBOW


Aim
To connect the given PVC pipe with the given elbow (Fig. 1.31).
Materials required
1. PVC pipe (one)
2. PVC elbow (one)
3. Solution (glue)
4. Abrasive paper
Procedure
1. First collect or purchase a PVC pipe for the required length and an elbow.
2. Clean the end of the outer surface of the pipe and inner surface (both ends) of the elbow.
3. Position both pipes and elbow in same plane.
4. Apply glue an both ends of the elbow (inner face) and an outer surface of the pipe.
5. Hold the pipe and elbow and join by applying hand pressure and wait for two minutes to
dry the solution.
Result
Thus, the PVC pipe is connected with an elbow.
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A B

Pipe 1 Pipe 2

Socket

A C B

Fig. 1.32 Connection of GI pipe with coupling.


!"#$%&' 31

EXERCISE 6: CONNECTION OF TWO GI PIPES WITH COUPLING


Aim
To connect the given two GI pipes (Fig. 1.32).
Materials required
1. GI pipes (two)
2. GI coupling (one)
3. Pipe wrench
4. Die set
5. Pipe vice
Procedure
1. Collect two GI pipes with suitable diameter and length.
2. Hold the pipes in the pipe vice one by one.
3. Make a external thread by using the die set in both pipes.
4. Apply grease in threads for easy connection.
5. Wrap lamp wick outside the threads for tight joint.
6. Connect both pipes using coupling with internal threads.
7. Tighten the pipes using pipe vice to get leak proof joint.
Result
Thus, the given two GI pipes are connected.
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Step 1

Pipe joining compound

Step 2 Elbow

Pipe wrenches

Pipe

Elbow

Step 3

Fig. 1.33 Connection of GI pipe with elbow.


!"#$%&' 33

EXERCISE 7: CONNECTION OF TWO GI PIPES WITH ELBOW


Aim
To connect the given GI pipe with an elbow (Fig. 1.33).
Materials required
1. GI pipe (two)
2. Elbow (one)
3. Thread (one ball)
4. Pipe vice (one)
5. Wrench (one)
Procedure
1. First collect or purchase a GI pipe and an elbow.
2. Clean the end of the outer surface of the pipe and inner surface (both ends) of the elbow.
3. Apply celak over the thread an both sides.
4. Rotate the coupling over the threaded GI pipe by hand and then by pipe wrench.
5. Fit the pipe in pipe vice and rotate the elbow with a wrench and tight the coupling rigidly.
Result
Thus, the GI pipe is connected with the GI elbow.
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Pipe 1 Pipe 2

Pipe 3

Tee

Fig. 1.34 Connection of PVC pipes.


!"#$%&' 35

EXERCISE 8: CONNECTION OF PVC PIPES WITH TEE


Aim
To connect PVC pipes using a Tee (Fig. 1.34)
Materials required
1. PVC pipes (three)
2. Tee
3. Solution
4. Fine sand paper
Procedure
1. Collect three PVC pipes with suitable length and diameter.
2. Rub the corner ends of the pipe using fine sand paper get a perfect joint.
3. Apply solution on the pipe and also on the Tee.
4. Insert the pipes one by one into the Tee with force.
5. Keep the pipes for at least two minutes undisturbed to get the joint.
Result
Thus, PVC pipes are connected by using Tee.
36 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Delivery
pipe

Casings

hd Delivery
Impeller valve

hs Eye of
pump Suction
pipe

Sump

Foot valve
and stainer

Fig. 1.35 Layout of suction pipe to pump.


!"#$%&' 37

EXERCISE 9: LAYOUT OF SUCTION PIPE TO PUMP


Aim
To lay a suction pipe for the given pump (Fig. 1.35).
Materials required
1. Pump
2. Spanner
3. Pipe wrench
4. Hammer
5. Flange
6. Foot valve with strainer
7. Bend
8. Coupling
9. Concentric reducer
10. Motor
Procedure
1. Collect the pipe of required diameter and length and fit the foot valve at one end.
2. Connect the other end of the suction pipe to the pump inlet.
3. Connect the delivery pipe at the outlet of the pump.
4. Connect the pump with the motor by means of flange coupling.
5. After completing the connections, pour water into the pump through the delivery pipe.
6. Operate the pump by switch ON the motor and remove the air lock.
7. Operate the motor for continuous delivery of water from the pump.
Result
Thus, the pump is connected with the accessories and tested for suction of water from the pump.
2 CARPENTRY

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Carpentry may be defined as the process of making wooden articles and components such as
roots, floors, partitions, doors and windows. Carpentry involves cutting, shaping and fastening
wood and other materials together to produce a finished product. Preparation of joints is one of
the important operations in woodwork. In this chapter, tools and works associated with joinery
are presented.
Joinery denotes connecting the wooden parts using different points such as lap joints, mortise
and teman joints, dovetail joints, bridle joints, etc.

2.2 CARPENTRY TOOLS


Carpentry tools are used to produce components to an exact size.
The types of carpentry tools are as follows:
1. Marking tools 2. Measuring tools
3. Holding tools 4. Cutting tools
5. Planing tools 6. Boring tools
7. Striking tools 8. Miscellaneous tools
The following carpentry tools are commonly used in practice.
2.2.1 Marking Tools
The mortise gauge is shown in Fig. 2.1. It is a tool used to mark lines parallel to the edge of a
wooden piece. It consists of a square wooden stem with a sliding wooden stock on it. On the stem,
a marking pin is fitted which is made up of steel. This stem is provided with a steel nail to scratch
the surface of the work. It consists of two pins; the distance between the pins is adjustable. It is
used to draw two parallel lines on the stock.
38
!"#$%&"' 39

Fig. 2.1 Mortise gauge.

2.2.2 Measuring Tools


The carpentry measuring tools (Fig. 2.2) are classified as follows:
1. Steel tape
2. Steel rule
3. Calipers
Steel tapes and steel rules are mainly used for measuring short and long lengths in millimetres,
centimetre and inches.
A try square is used for testing squareness (90) and marking of joints.
A mitre square is used for marking and measuring an angle of 45. It is madeup of steel blade
with rose wood stock.
A bevel square is used for marking and listing angles between 0 to 180. It is similar to a try
square but an adjustable divider is used for dividing and marking the length equally. The dividing
length is adjusted by a thumb screw provided on the divider.
Calipers are used for the precision measurement of cylindrical surfaces. The wings compasses
are also used for the same purpose, a nut is provided on the screwed rod to adjust the jaw operation.
Inside calipers are used for measuring outside diameter and outside calipers are used to
measure inner diameter of a pipe.

Fig. 2.2 Measuring tools.


40 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

2.2.3 Holding Tools


The carpentry holding tools are shown in Fig. 2.3.

Fig. 2.3 Holding tools.

Carpentry vice (Bench vice)


A carpentry vice is the most common work holding device. It consists of one fixed jaw and one
movable jaw. Its one jaw is fixed to the side of the table while the other is movable by means of a
screw and a handle.
Bar clamp
The bar clamp (or) sash cramps are generally used in pairs in glueing up operations at the final
assembly of joinery work. It is made up of a steel bar of T-section, wine malleable iron fittings and
a steel screw.
G-cramp
G-cramp is made up of malleable iron with acme threads of high quality steel. It can be used for
clamping small work when glueing up.
2.2.4 Cutting Tools
The cutting tools are shown in Fig. 2.4.

Fig. 2.4 Cutting tools.


!"#$%&"' 41

Saws
A saw is used to cut wood into pieces. There are different type of saws, designed to suit different
purpose. A saw is specified by the length of its tooled edge. The following saws are used in the
carpentry section.
Rip saw
The blade of rip saw is either straight or skew-backed. The teeth are so set that the cutting edge of
this saw makes a steeper angle about 60.
Cross cut saw
This is similar in shape of a rip saw. It is used to cut across the grain of the stock. The correct angle
for cross cutting is 45. The teeth are so set that the saw kerf is wider than the blade thickness. This
allows the blade to move freely in the cut without sticking.
Tenon or back saw
A tenon saw is used for fine and accurate work. It consist of a very fine blade, which is reinforced
with a rigid steel back. The teeth are shaped like those of cross cut saw.
Chisels
Chisels are used for cutting and shaping wood accurately. Wood chisels are made in various blade
widths, ranging from 3 to 50 mm. Most of the wood chisels are made into tang type, having a steel
shank which fits inside the handle.
Firmer chisels
These are general purpose chisels and are used either by hand pressure or by a mallet. The blade of
a firmer chisel is flat and their sloping face is at an angle of 15 to 52.
Mortise chisels
These are used for cutting mortises above 9 mm wide. The blades of these chisels differ from the
firmer type in which they have a thicker section and a stronger neck. By means of this chisel we
can apply more leverage to remove waste wood from the mortise.
Bevel chisels
A bevel chisel is similar in construction to the firmer chisel. Its edges are bevelled to allow access
to difficult corners. It has a blade with a bevelled back due to which it can enter sharp corners for
finishing in dovetail joints.
2.2.5 Planing Tools
In general, planes are used to produce flat surfaces on wood. The cutting blade used in a plane is
very similar to a chisel. The blade of a plane is fitted in a wood or metallic block at an angle. The
planing tool is shown in Fig. 2.5.
Jack plane which is about 35 cm long is used for general planing. A smooth plane that is
about 20 to 25 cm long is used for smoothening the stock. Being short, it can follow even the slight
depressions in the stock better than the jack plane. Smooth plane is used after using the jack plane.
A rebate plane is used for making a rebate. A rebate is a recess along the edge of a piece of
wood which to generally used for positioning glass in frames and doors. A plough plane is used to
cut grooves, which are used to fix handle in a door.
42 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 2.5 Planing tools.

2.2.6 Boring Tools


Boring tools (Fig. 2.6) are used to make holes in wood. Common types of boring tools are as
follows:
1. Bradawl 2. Gimlet
3. Brace 4. Bit and drill

Fig. 2.6 Boring tools.

A brace holds and turns the bit and boring of a hole is obtained. A brace having two jaws is
used for holding the bit in one end. It has two types, namely ratchet brace and wheel brace.
A bradawl and a gimlet are used for boring small holes. These tools are hand operated.
!"#$%&"' 43

2.2.7 Striking Tools


The following are some striking tools (Fig. 2.7).

Fig. 2.7 Striking tools.

Hammers
The cross peen hammer is mostly used for positioning small nails. The head is tightly held in the
handle with the help of iron wedges. The claw hammer is effective in removing very large nails
and also for driving the nails using the other end of the hammer.
Mallet
A mallet is used to drive the chisel, when considerable force is to be applied, which may be the
case in making deep rough cuts. A steel hammer should not be used for this purpose, as it may
damage the chisel.
Rasp file
A rasp file is shown in Fig. 2.8. A rasp is a file used for finishing the surface of wood. The rasp has
sharp cutting teeth on its surface for this purpose. The file is used for removing rasp marks end
finally the scratches left by the fix are removed with the scraper and glass paper.

Fig. 2.8 Rasp file.

Oil stone
This is an essential flat used for providing sharp edges on cutting tools. The oil stones may be
artificial or natural stones. The carborundum is the best artificial stones where as the Arkansas are
the natural stones.
2.2.8 Miscellaneous Tools
Spirit level
The spirit level is used to check the level of the wooden surface. A narrow glass tube is fitted into
a small rectangular wooden box. The glass tube contains spirit and a bubble. On placing the spirit
level if bubble stays in the middle, then the surface is flat otherwise it is having a slope.
44 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Pincers
Pincers are made up of steel with a hinged joint and are used for pulling out small nails from wood
(Fig. 2.9).
Screwdrivers
Screwdriver (Fig. 2.9) is used for driving wood screws into wood or unscrewing them. The
screwdriver used in carpentry is different form the other common types.

Fig. 2.9 Miscellaneous tools.

2.3 CARPENTRY MACHINES


Carpentry machines are used for large production of components. The commonly used carpentry
machines are described below.
2.3.1 Wood Turning Lathe
A wood turning lathe (Fig. 2.10) is the most important machines used in a carpentry shop. It is
used for producing cylindrical, spherical and tapered shape products.

Fig. 2.10 Wood turning lathe.


!"#$%&"' 45

A wood working lathe consists of a cast iron body, main motor, cone pulley system, spindle,
tool pest, head stock, live and dead centres and speed control devices. In wood working lathes, the
workpiece is held in between two centres. The tool is held in the tool post.
The workpiece is rotated in between the two centres whereas the cutting tool passes towards
the work and removes the material and produces the desired shape and size.
2.3.2 Circular Saw
A circular saw is used for ripping, cross cutting, levelling, grooving and rebating. It consists of a
cast iron table, a circular cutting blade, guide ways, saw guide, elevating hand wheel, tilting
handwheel, and a main motor.
In circular saws, the workpiece is held on the table. Then the work is moved against the
circular saw to perform the operations. The saw hand wheel is used to adjust the height of the saw
above the surface of the table.
The table can be tilted upto 45 for cutting with different angles. It is an ideal machine for
large production. The size of the saw depends upon the size of the saw blade.
2.3.3 Band Saw
A band saw is used for cross cutting, levelling, mitering, grooving and rebating. It consists of two
wheels having an equal diameter, saw guider, frame table, wheel guard, saw tension, arrangement
and steel blade having teeth on it. The saw blade travels over the rims of two wheels. The blade
width varies from 6 to 25 mm and the thickness is about 1 to 2 mm.

2.4 CARPENTRY PROCESSES


In a carpentry shop, a number of operations are performed to get the finished workpiece. The
different types of process performed in a carpentry shop can be classified as follows.
2.4.1 Marking and Measuring
It is the process of setting of dimensions on wooden pieces to obtain the required shape. This is the
first step for further carpentry operations. The marking operation is done with use of marking
tools. Before marking, one end is planed for reference.
2.4.2 Sawing
Sawing is the process of cutting wood to the required shape and size such as straight, inclined or
curved. Sawing can be done along the grains or across the grains.
In sawing, wooden work is fixed in a vice and wood is moved up to prevent vibrations during
sawing.
2.4.3 Planing
Planing is an operation of obtaining smooth, dimensionally true surface of wood by using a planer. It is
done along the grains. So, smooth surface is achieved. This process can be also called facing or edging.
2.4.4 Chiselling
It is the process of cutting a small stock of wood to produce required shapes.
46 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

2.4.5 Mortising and Tenoning


Mortising is the process of producing a mortise, i.e. a rectangular or square holes and recesses in
wooden pieces. A tenon is a projected piece of wood that fits into the corresponding mortise. This
process is done by using mortise chisels and a mallet.
2.4.6 Boring
Boring is the process of producing through holes or blind holes in wooden piece. This process can
be done straight or inclined according to the type of work. The small holes are produced by using
bradawl and gimlet, whereas large holes are produced by using braces, drills.
2.4.7 Grooving
Grooving is the process of making grooves whereas tonguing is the process of producing
corresponding projections of wood for fitting into grooves. Grooving and tonguing operation can
be seen in drawing boards, floor boards and partitions. Grooving is done with a plough plane tool,
and tonguing is done with a moulding plane tool.

2.5 STUDY OF CARPENTRY JOINTS IN DOORS, WINDOWS AND FURNITURE


A joint is the fitting form of two or more surfaces in carpentry. The term joinery is the art of
making joint. According to the method of joints it is mainly classified into plain or butt joint, and
lap joint. The various carpentry joints are shown in Fig. 2.11.
Plain or Butt joints
In a butt joint, one end of workpiece is placed against the other end. Butt joints can be classified as
(a) straight joint, (b) corner joint, (c) dowel pin joint, (d) feather or tongue joint. A butt joint is used
for joining two pieces.
Lap joint
In a lap joint the two wooden pieces cross each other and at the same time, they are in the same
plane. So, an even surface is obtained. The different types of lap joints are as follows:
Tee halving or Middle lap joint
Middle lap joints are commonly used in many types of frames. This joint is used to secure the
corners and intersections of framing.
Cross lap joint
It is the widely used lap joint. This joint is used where two wooden pieces cross each other and at
the same time they are in the same plane.
Mortise and tenon joint
It consists of a rectangular peg/tenon and fitting into a rectangular hole (mortise) as shown in the
figure. This is the widely used joint in many constructions. It is the strongest joint compared with
other joints due to the reinforcement by means of dowels.
Mitre joint
A mitre joint is used in light works. This joint is formed by cutting and joining the ends of wooden
particles at an angle by using screws and dowels.
!"#$%&"' 47

Fig. 2.11 Various carpentry joints.


48 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Dovetail joint
A dovetail joint is the strongest corner joint and gives high strength and durability. Generally, it is
used for making drawers, small boxes.
Bridle joint
A bridle joint is used to connect a rafter to the tie beam. This joint is used where the joining
surfaces are of square section.

2.6 STUDY OF JOINTS IN DOOR PANELS AND WOODEN FURNITURE


Study of joints in door panels
A door may be defined as an openable barrier secured in a wall opening. The types of doors are
shown in Fig. 2.12. Basically a door consists of two parts.
(i) Door frame
(ii) Door shutter
The door frame is fixed to the wall opening with the help of hold fasts. The door shutters held
in position by the door frames by means of suitable hinges. The main purpose of providing doors
in a building is to connect the various internal parts of the building.

Fig. 2.12 Types of doors.

Technical terms used in doors


The following are the technical terms applied to doors and windows.
Frame: This consists of an assembly of horizontal and vertical member which are placed along
the top, sides and the bottom of an opening so as to form an enclosure and support for a door or a
window.
Style: This is outside vertical member of the shutter. This may have variety of the thickness and
carpentry designed work.
Top rail: This is the top most horizontal member of the shutter.
Bottom rail: This is the lower most horizontal member of the shutter.
!"#$%&"' 49

Panel: This is the area enclosed between the rails. The area is according to the design of the
door.
Hold fast: The hold fast is generally in the form of a mild steel flat bar of section 30 mm 6 mm
and length 200 mm. Three or four numbers of such hold fasts are provided on each side of the
window or door frame. They keep the frame in position.
Horn: The horn is a horizontal projection of head beyond the face of the frame. It is usually
15 cm or so.
Shutters: These are the openable parts of a door or window. It is an assembly of styles, panels
and rails, etc.
Mullion: It is vertical member of a frame which is employed to subdivide a window or a door
opening vertically.
Transom: This is a horizontal member of a frame, which is employed to sub-divide a window
opening horizontally.
Joints in panelled doors
The following are the most commonly used joints in door panels.
1. Mortise and tenon joints
2. Dowelled joints
3. Twin-tenon joints
Mortise and tenon joints consist of a rectangular peg (tenon) fitting into a rectangular hole
(mortise). The two tools used for marking mortise and tenon joints are a mortise gauge and a
mortise chisel.
In general, the farmework dimensions, i.e. the width of the mortise is about one third of the
thickness of the material to be mortised and the length should not exceed six times the width.
The aim of providing the step in the wooden works is to increase the strength of the tenon
(rectangular pin). This joint is used in construction of doors.
Joints in wooden furniture
The types of joints in wooden furniture is shown in Fig. 2.13.

Fig. 2.13 Types of joints in wooden furniture.


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The following joints are the most commonly used joints in wooden furniture.
1. Mortise and tenon joints
2. Half lap joints.
The open mortise and tenon joint cannot be wedged together. Here also the aim of the mortise
and tenon joints are to increase the strength of the tenon. This joint is used in wooden funiture like
tables, stools and wooden chairs.
Half lap joints are used to secure the corners and intersections of the framing. Middle lap
joints are employed in many types of frames and timber construction.
!"#$%&"' 51

EXERCISES
1. SIMPLE PLANING
2. MIDDLE LAP JOINT
3. CROSS LAP JOINT
4. DOVETAIL JOINT
5. T-JOINT
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All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 2.14 Simple planing.
!"#$%&"' 53

EXERCISE 1: SIMPLE PLANING


Aim
To plane the given job to get the required size and shape (Fig. 2.14).
Tools required
1. Jack plane
2. Try square
3. Rip saw
4. Marking gauge
5. Steel rule
Material required
Soft wood of size 50 50 200 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the job to ensure its correct size.
2. Clamp the workpiece in carpentry vice and plane two adjacent faces using jack plane to
get a right angle.
3. Check the perpendicularity of faces using the try square.
4. Mark for the required dimensions on the remaining two faces using the marking gauge.
5. Verify the measurements using the steel rule.
Result
Thus, the finished workpiece of required dimensions is obtained using the carpentry tools.
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All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 2.15 Middle lap joint.
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EXERCISE 2: MIDDLE LAP JOINT


Aim
To prepare a middle lap joint (Fig. 2.15) from the given workpiece.
Tools required
1. Jack plane
2. Try square
3. Firmer chisel
4. Mortise chisel
5. Mallet
6. Rip saw
7. Marking gauge
Material required
Soft wood of size 50 50 200 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the job to ensure its correct size.
2. Clamp the work piece in the carpentry vice and plane two adjacent faces using the jack
plane to get a right angle.
3. Check the perpendicularity of faces using the try square.
4. Mark for the required dimensions on the remaining two faces using the marking gauge
and mortise gauge.
5. Remove the unwanted portions in one half of the workpiece, using the tenon saw and
firmer chisel.
6. Verify the measurements using the steel rule.
Result
The middle lap joint of required dimension is obtained.
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All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 2.16 Cross lap joint.
!"#$%&"' 57

EXERCISE 3: CROSS LAP JOINT


Aim
To prepare a cross lap joint (Fig. 2.16) from the given workpiece.
Tools required
1. Jack plane
2. Try square
3. Firmer chisel
4. Mortise chisel
5. Mallet
6. Rip saw
7. Marking gauge
8. Mortise gauge
Material required
Soft wood of size 50 50 200 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the job to ensure its correct size.
2. Clamp the workpiece in carpentry vice and plane two adjacent faces using jack plane to
get a right angle.
3. Check the perpendicularity of faces using the try square. Cut the workpiece into two
halves using the rip saw.
4. Make a slot in one half, having correct dimensions using the firmer and mortise chisels.
Make the same on the other half, so as to fit correctly with one another.
5. Check dimensions and accuracy using the steel rule and try square.
Result
Thus, the cross lap joint of required dimension is obtained.
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All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 2.17 Dovetail joint.
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EXERCISE 4: DOVETAIL JOINT


Aim
To prepare a dovetail joint (Fig. 2.17) from the given workpiece.
Tools required
1. Jack plane
2. Try square
3. Firmer chisel
4. Mortise chisel
5. Mallet
6. Mortise gauge
Material required
Soft wood of size 50 50 200 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the job to ensure its correct size.
2. Clamp the workpiece in carpentry vice and plane two adjacent faces using the jack plane
to get a right angle.
3. Check the perpendicularity of faces using the try square. Cut the workpiece into two
halves using the rip saw.
4. Mark the dimensions for the dovetail joint on the two pieces using the steel rule and
marking gauge.
5. Remove the unwanted portions as per the drawing and assemble to check proper fitting.
Result
Thus, the desired dovetail joint is obtained.
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40
40
20
20
40

0 0
40 12 20

40
Fig. 2.18 T-joint.
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EXERCISE 5: T-JOINT
Aim
To make the T-joint (Fig. 2.18) to the required dimensions from the given workpiece.
Tools required
1. Jack plane
2. Carpentry vice
3. Try square
4. Marking gauge
5. Steel rule
6. Tenon saw
7. Rip saw
8. Firmer chisel
9. Mallet
Material required
Soft wood of size 200 40 40 mm and 120 40 40 mm.
Procedure
1. Fix the given workpiece in vice and plane any two adjacent surfaces smooth to get right
angles.
2. Check the right angles of the planed faces with a try square.
3. Also make the other two surfaces plane by using the same procedure as above.
4. Cut the workpiece by using a rip saw.
5. Remove the unwanted portion by using a tenon saw and a firmer chisel.
7. Assemble the workpieces together to get the T-joint.
Result
Thus, the required T-Joint is obtained.
3 WELDING

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Welding is the process of joining similar metals by the application of heat, with or without the
application of pressure or filler metal, in such a way that the joint is equivalent in composition and
characteristics of the metals joined.
It may be also defined as a metallurgical bond accomplished by the attracting forces between
atoms.

3.2 WELDING TOOLS


1. Welding transformers
2. Electrodes
3. Electrode holder
4. Welding cables
5. Safety and cleaning accessories.
The various welding tools and safety accessories (Fig. 3.1) required for arc welding are
described as follows.
Welding machine
The welding machine used for arc welding can be completely either an AC or DC welding machine.
The AC welding machine consists of a welding transformer set, whereas the DC welding machine
consists of an AC motor-generator set of diesel engine-generator welding set or a transformer
rectifier welding set.
Both direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) welding machines are used for arc
welding, but the DC welding machine is preferred.
62
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Fig. 3.1 Welding tools and safety accessories.


The DC welding machines get their power from a DC generator or from a solid state rectifier.
The capacity of DC machines can be up to 600 amperes and open circuit voltage ranges from 50 to
90 volts. When welding is carried out on a closed circuit, voltage ranges from 18 to 25 volts. The
workpiece as anode (+ve) and the electrode as cathode (ve) constitute a straight polarity (DCSP)
welding. The electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal of the arc with straight
polarity and strike the workpiece faster than the electrode. This helps in welding huge workpieces.
For AC welding machines, the current is drawn from the main supply or through an AC
generator set. It consists of a transformer which steps down the voltage of 220440 volts to the
normal open circuit voltage of 50 to 90 volts. The AC welding machines may have air cooling or
oil cooling, depending upon the ampere rating. Bigger size transformers are noramlly oil-cooled.
An AC welding machine gives smoother arc at higher arc-currents and there is no arc blow. Once
the arc is established, it can be controlled and maintained easily, that is why it is suitable for
welding thicker plates. The melting rate of the electrode cannot be controlled because of the heat
generated at the workpiece and at the electrode end is the same.
Electrodes
The filler rods used in arc welding are called electrodes. The electrodes are made of metallic wire
also known as core wire. The size of the electrode selected depends upon the weld size required.
Electrodes are uniformly coated with flux. There are two types of electrode. One is a consumable
electrode and the other one is a non-consumable electrode.
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Electrode holder
It is used for holding the electrode and also conducts the current to the electrode. It is connected to
the end of the welding cable. The jaws of the holder are insulated to avoid any electric shock.
Ground clamp
It is connected with the workpiece to be welded.
Cables and connectors
They are used to conduct electricity from the welding machine to the end off the electrode and to
the workpiece. Cables are highly insulated by a rubber cover. Connectors are the devices used for
connecting the ends of cables.
Chipping hammer
It is used to remove the slag after the metal weld has solidified. It is chisel-shaped and is pointed
on one end.
Wire brush
It is used to remove small slag particles from the workpiece after welding.
Face shield or screen
It is used to protect the eyes and face of the welder from the dangerous effect of ultraviolet and
infrared radiations of the arc during welding.
Flux-coated electrodes
They produce better welds as compared to the bare metal electrodes. The flux prevents the formation
of undesirable oxides by forming a gas shield around the arc and covering the weld metal with
protective slag during welding.
Protective clothing
Hand gloves are used to protect the hands of the welder from electric shock, hot sparks and hot
molten slags. Aprons protect from heat and spark not to injure the body of the welder.

3.3 ARC WELDING


In the arc welding process, the welding temperature is produced by an electric arc, established
between an electrode and the metal being welded. The temperature of the arc is 7000oC. The arc
welding set-up is shown in Fig. 3.2 and Fig. 3.3 shows an electrode holder.
The welding set-up uses either AC or DC transformer for striking the arc between the electrode
and the workpiece. If one terminal is connected to the electrode and the other to the end of the
workpiece, then the circuit is completed through an air gap between the electrode and the workpiece.
An air gap generally ranges from 3 mm to 6 mm. The proper gap should be maintained for
the good result.
Combustion of acetylene at the nozzle tip takes place according to the following reaction:
2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O
Complete combustion of acetylene requires 2 1/2 parts of oxygen but different processes require
different proportions of gases.
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Fig. 3.2 Arc welding set-up. Fig. 3.3 Electrode holder.


3.3.1 Types of Arc Welding
The commonly used arc welding processes are:
1. Carbon arc welding
2. Metal arc welding
3. Submerged arc welding
4. Inert gas welding
(a) TIG welding
(b) MIG welding
5. Plasma arc welding
6. Electro slag welding
Carbon arc welding
In the carbon arc welding process, the arc is obtained between the carbon electrode and the workpiece or
between two carbon electrodes. This welding is suitable for welding of steel sheets, copper, alloys, etc.
Metal arc welding
This is also called shield metal arc welding (SMAW). The metal arc welding set-up is shown in
Fig. 3.4. Heat required for the welding is obtained from the arc spark between the coated electrode
and the workpiece. The material droplets are transferred from the electrode to the workpiece through
the arc and deposit along the joint to be welded.

Fig. 3.4 Metal arc welding set-up.


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Submerged arc welding


The setup for submerged arc welding is shown in Fig. 3.5. This process is so named because of
metal arc is shielded by a blanket of flux. In this process, instead of a flux-covered electrode,
granular flux and a bare electrode is used. Flux is deposited continuously in front of the electrode
and the flux feeder and the electrode feeder together move as the welding proceeds. The flux is
filled in sufficient depth to submerge completely the arc column so that there is no smoke or
splatter and the weld is shielded from the effect of all atmospheric gases.

Fig. 3.5 Submerged arc welding.


Inert gas welding
In conventional arc welding, the fluxes are used to shield the atmosphere around the molten metal.
But in inert gas welding, inert gases such as argon, helium, carbon dioxide are used for surrounding
the electric arc and thus keeping the atmospheric air and other contaminations away from the
molten metal pool. The following two mothods are employed in inert gas welding.
(a) TungstenInert Gas welding (TIG)
(b) MetalInert Gas welding (MIG)
Tungsten-inert gas welding (TIG): It uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode mounted at the
centre of the torch (Fig. 3.6). The inert gas is supplied to the welding zone through the angular
path surrounding the tungsten electrode. Welding operation is done by stricking the arc between
the workpiece and the tungsten electrode in the atmosphere of inert gas.

Fig. 3.6 TIG welding.


!"#$%& 67

Metal-inert gas welding (MIG): The metal-inert gas welding set-up is shown in Fig. 3.7. In this
process, the tungsten electrode is replaced with a consumable electrode. The electrode is continously
feed to the arc at the rate at which it is consumed and transfered to the base metal. Arc is shielded
by an inert gas, which flows from the nozzle through which the electrode also passes.

Fig. 3.7 MIG welding.


Plasma arc welding
The plasma arc welding (Fig. 3.8) is an electric arc welding process which employs a high
temperature constricted arc or plasma jet to obtain the melting and join of metals. In this process,
a gas (argon or hydrogen) is passed through an electric arc, where the gas gets ionized. This
process uses two inert gases, one forms the plasma and the second shields the arc plasma.

Fig. 3.8 Plasma arc welding.


Electro slag welding
The electro slag welding set-up is shown in Fig. 3.9. In electro slag welding, the workpieces to be
welded are positioned vertically with necessary gap between them. The copper shoes (water cooled)
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slides on either side of the gap form a well in which flux is deposited. The electric arc is struck
between the electrode and the joint bottom with the help of piece of steel wool. The arc melts
electrode and flux that forms the molten slag. The heated metal collects in the pool beneath, the
slag slowly solidifies thereby forming the weld head joint of the two workpieces.

Fig. 3.9 Electro slag welding.

3.4 GAS WELDING


Gas welding is a fusion welding process. It joints metals using the heat of combustion of an
oxygen/air and fuel/gas (acetylene, hydrogen, butane) mixture. The flame thus produced melts
and fuses together the edges of the parts to be welded, with the addition of a filler metal. The oxy-
acetylene gas welding is commonly used in practice. The set-up for oxy-acetylene welding is
shown in Fig. 3.10.
Oxy-acetylene is used to weld almost all metals and alloys. Acetylene is mixed with oxygen
in correct proportions in the welding torch and ignition. The flame resulting at the tip of the torch
is sufficiently hot to melt and join the parent metal. The flame reaches a temperature of about
3000C. A filler rod is generally added to the molten metal pool to build up the seam slightly for
greater strength.
Oxygen cylinder
Oxygen is filled in the cylinder at a pressure of 150 kg/cm2. This cylinder is made up of steel and
it is black in colour.
Acetylene cylinder
Acetylene is dissolved in acetone in a cylinder containing porous calcium silicate filler. These
cylinders are usually filled to pressure of 16 kg/cm2.
!"#$%& 69

Fig. 3.10 Set-up for oxy-acetylene gas welding.


Welding torch
The welding torch (Fig. 3.11) is used to mix the gases in the right proportions to control the
volume of gases at the welding tip and to direct the flow. It has a handle to carry it and two inlet
connections for gases at one end. Each inlet has a valve to control the volume of oxygen or other
gases. The two gases mix up in a mixer and flame is produced by ignition.

Fig. 3.11 Welding torch.


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Pressure regulator
It is located on the top of the gas cylinder. Its function is to reduce the pressure from the cylinder
and to maintain it at constant value.
Hose and hose fittings
The hose is a rubber tube which permits the flow of the gas. There are two hoses required to carry
oxygen and acetylene separately. They connect the regulator mounted on cylinders to the torch.
Generally, a green colour hose is adopted for oxygen and a red colour hose for acetylene.
Goggles
Goggles fitted with coloured lenses should be provided to protect the eyes from harmful heat and
ultravoilet and infrared rays.
Gloves
These are used to protect hands from heat and the metal splashes during welding.
Wire brush
It is the function is to clean the surfaces of joints before and after welding.
3.4.1 Types of Flames
The types of flames are shown in Fig. 3.12. The correct adjustment of the flame is important for
the production of satisfactory weld.

Fig. 3.12 Types of flames.


Welding flames can be classified into the following three categories.
1. Neutral or balanced flame
2. Reducing or corburising flame
3. Oxydizing flame
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Combustion of acetylene at the nozzle tip takes place according to the following reaction.
2 C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O
Complete combustion of acetylene requires 2 1/2 parts of oxygen but different processes
require different proportions of gases.
3.4.2 Comparison of Arc Welding and Gas Welding
Arc welding Gas welding
1. Electrode acts as a filler rod. 1. Separate filler rod is supplied.
2. Electric arc is the source of heat. 2. Gas is the source of heat.
3. Brazing soldering cannot be done using electric 3. Brazing and soldering can be done by gas.
arc. 4. The gas temperature is about 3200C.
4. The arc temperature is about 4000C. 5. Comparatively less strength.
5. It has high strength. 6. This is also a non-pressure fusion welding
6. This is a non-pressure fusion welding method. method.
7. Risk due to electric shock. 7. Risk due to gas pressure.
8. Filler metal should be an alloy of parent 8. Filler metal need not be the same as parent
metal. metal.

3.4.3 Comparison of DC Welding and AC Welding


AC welding DC welding
1. It is not suitable for welding non-ferrous metals. 1. It is suitable for welding both ferrous and non-
ferrous metals.
2. Maintenance cost is less. 2. Maintenance cost is high.
3. It is cheaper and simple welding. 3. It is costlier and complicated.
4. It is not suitable for welding sheet metals, since 4. It is suitable for all types of weld as starting the
starting the arc is difficult. arc is easy.
5. It consumes less power and also produces less 5. It consumes more power and also produces
noise. more noise.
6. Bare electrodes cannot be used. 6. Both coated and bare electrodes can be used.
7. AC is more dangerous. 7. DC is comparatively less dangerous.
8. Arc is never stable. 8. Arc is stable.
9. It can be used at a large distance from power 9. It can be used only at a short distance from the
supply due to less voltage drop. power supply since the voltage drop is higher.

3.5 WELDING-RELATED PROCESSES


The metals are joined by different processes similar to welding. Soldering and brazing are the
examples of welding-related processes.
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3.5.1 Soldering

It is the process of joining similar or dissimilar metals by means of a fusible filler metal (or alloy)
called solder which is applied in the molten stage.
The soldering process is classified into two types: soft soldering and hard soldering
Soft soldering: It is used to join thin metals like sheet metals. It require lower heating temperature
below 150oC. Soft solder is any alloy of lead and tin. It is also used to join small wires. The
strength of soldering is low.
Hard soldering: It has high melting temperature, which ranges from 600oC to 900oC. Solder is
made of copper, silver, tin, lead and their alloys. Usually, silver soldering is preferred over hard
soldering. The strength of hard soldering is more than that of soft soldering.
The melting temperature of the soft solder is about 350C to 370C and that of the hard
solder is about 600C to 900C. But the melting temperature of the solder is always lower than the
melting temperature of joining metals.
Soldering accessories

The following are the soldering accessories:


Solder: It is the filler metal used for joining process in soldering. It is made up of an alloy of lead
and tin. It contains about 45% to 60% of tin. The tin gives greater strength and corrosion resistant.
Soldering iron: It is the equipment used in soldering process for heating the workpiece to just
above the melting temperature of solder.
It is a steel rod containing wooden handle at one end and tapered copper tip at the other end.
Copper has the property of absorbing and distributing the heat. The soldering iron is heated by
electric current or a heating source like furnace.
Flux: It is used to prevent the formation of oxides. Also the flux improves the quality of soldering.
Zinc chloride is the most common flux used in the soldering process. The flux is spread on the
joint by using a soldering iron. Some of the other fluxes are rosin, rosin plus, alcohol and ammonium
chloride.
Soldering process

First of all the joining surfaces are cleaned thoroughly. Then the joining portions of the metals
are positioned to get the required type of joint. The flux is then applied over the joining
portions, and the soldering portion of surface is heated to a temperature just above the melting
temperature of solder.
When the solder carrying the electric power supply is touched on the heated surface, the
solder melts and flows into the cavities of the joining surfaces completely and gets solidified.
Hence the required soldering is done (Fig. 3.13).
Solder (Filler rod)
Solder iron

Work

Fig. 3.13 Soldering


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3.5.2 Brazing
It is the process of joining two thin metals. Fig. 3.14 shows the brazing process. It is used for
joining two similar or dissimilar metals by means of hard non-ferrous metal called shelter, but the
workpiece is not melted. Brazing is used for joining pipes and fittings, carbide tip on tools, etc. A
spelter is a harder filler rod, having temperature below the melting temperature of base metal. It is
commonly made of copper base and silver alloys. The molten spelter flows into the small cavities
of the joining surfaces completely and it is solidified. The heat required for brazing tool is obtained
from gas or electric current.

Job
Torch

Filler rod

Fig. 3.14 Brazing.

3.6 TYPES OF WELDED JOINTS


In fusion welding, the following five basic types of joints are used.
1. Butt joint
2. Lap joint
3. T-Joint
4. Corner joint
5. Edge joint

3.7 TECHNIQUES OF WELDING


3.7.1 Preparation of Work
Before welding, the workpieces must be thoroughly cleaned from rust, scale and other foreign
material. Thin pieces of metal are generally welded without bevelling the edges. However, thick
pieces should be bevelled or veed out to ensure adequate penetration and fusion of all parts of the
weld.
3.7.2 Striking an Arc
Select an electrode of suitable kind and size for the work and set the welding current at a
proper value.
Fasten the ground clamp to either the work or welding table. Wear the safety goggles and
gloves.
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Start or strike the arc by either of the stroke and withdraw method or the touch and withdraw
method.
As soon as the arc is stuck, move the electrode along, slowly from the left to right keeping
at 15 to 25 from vertical and in the direction of welding.
While welding, maintain proper length of arc. Arc length is the distance from the arc tip
of the electrode to the bottom of the crater.
As the end of the electrode melts off, lower it continuously to maintain the same length of
arc about 3 to 6 mm gap.
Break the arc at the end of the weld.

3.8 DEFECTS IN WELDING


A weld may have the following defects.
1. Porosity
2. Cracks
3. Lack of fusion
4. Over penetration
5. Slag inclusion
Porosity
Porosity is caused by the presence of gases released in the welding process entraped during the
solodification.
Cracks
Welding cracks may be hot cracks and cold cracks. Hot cracks occur at elevated temperature just
after the molten metal starts to solidify. Cold cracks may be due to the formation of moisture in the
metal is very hard as a result of rapid cooling.
Lack of fusion
This defect is due to insufficient temperature rise of the base metal, failure to remove oxide films.
Overpenetration
This defect is due to excessive current in arc welding.
Slag inclusions
Slag is formed by the reaction with fluxes and floats on the top of the weld pool. Due to the arc
force, the slag goes into the weld pool and solidifies inside the fusion zone and forms slag inclusion.

3.9 WELDING SAFETY RULES


1. In a welding area every one should wear glasses or shields of recommended shades
during welding operations.
2. A screen shall be erected around the welding area to protect other persons in the shop
from injury.
3. During arc welding, make sure the work and work table are properly grounded.
4. Do not allow to make arc weld in a wet area.
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5. Keep suitable fire extinguishing equipment nearby and know how to operate it.
6. Check the ventilation system before starting to weld and periodically thereafter to insure
adequate performance.
7. Welding fumes should not be allowed to get into the rest of the shop working area.
8. Switch off the welding machine whenever the welding process is over.

3.10 WELDING SYMBOLS


Welding symbols are used to represent the type and positioning of the welding. Figure 3.14 shows
the representation of weld symbols.
Types of weld Sectional view Symbol
Square butt
Single V butt

Double V butt
Spot butt

Single bevel butt

Double bevel butt

Single U butt
Double U butt

Bead (Edge or Seal)

Stud

Seam weld

Fig. 3.14 Types of welded joints and symbols in welding (Contd.)...


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Types of weld Sectional view Symbol

Corner joint

Lap joint

Plug

Fillet

Fig. 3.14 Types of welded joints and symbols in welding.


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EXERCISES
1. SINGLE V-BUTT JOINT
2. DOUBLE V-BUTT JOINT
3. LAP JOINT
4. T-FILLET JOINT
5. CORNER JOINT OR L JOINT
6. GAS WELDING PRACTICE
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All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 3.15 Single V-butt joint.
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EXERCISE 1: SINGLE V-BUTT JOINT


Aim
To make the single V-butt joint (Fig. 3.15) between the given workpieces by arc welding.
Tools required
1. Arc welding transformer
2. Welding electrodes
3. Gloves and goggles
4. Tongs and wire brush
5. Chipping hammer
Material required
Mild steel plate of size 100 50 8 mm (two pieces).
Procedure
1. Clean the given workpieces using the wire brush to remove the rust, scale and other
impurites.
2. Make a single V on the workpieces as shown in the figure. Set the arc welding transformer
and connect the welding cables.
3. Fix the welding electrode (3.15 mm dia) to the electrode holder, and the ground clamp to
the welding table.
4. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the workpieces.
5. When the current is passed, arc is produced between the electrode and workpieces.
6. Now set the two workpieces in correct position as shown in the figure and maintain the
gap 3 mm. Then carry out the welding throughout the length.
7. As soon as the welding process is finished, switch off the current supply and drop the
workpiece into water for cooling using tongs.
8. Finally take the workpiece and remove the slags using the wire brush.
Result
Thus, the desired butt joint is obtained.
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All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 3.16 Double V-butt joint.
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EXERCISE 2: DOUBLE V-BUTT JOINT


Aim
To make the double V-butt joint (Fig. 3.16) by arc welding on the given workpieces.
Tools required
1. Power supply (AC or DC)
2. Welding torch
3. Electrodes
4. Tongs
5. Chipping hammer
6. Wire brush
7. Gloves
8. Apron
9. Shield
10. Safety goggles
11. Earthing clamps
Material required
Mild steel plate of size 100 50 8 mm (two pieces).
Procedure
1. Clean the given workpieces using the wire brush to remove the rust, scale and other
impurities.
2. Make a double V on the workpieces as shown in Fig. 3.16. Set the arc welding transformer
and connect the welding cables.
3. Fix the welding electrode (3.15 mm dia) to the electrode holder, and the ground clamp to
the welding table.
4. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the workpieces.
5. When the current is passed, arc is produced between the electrode and workpieces.
6. Now set the two workpieces in correct position as shown in the figure and maintain 3 mm
gap, and then the welding is to be carried out throughout the length.
7. As soon as the welding process is finished, switch off the current supply and drop the
workpiece into water for cooling using tongs.
8. Finally, take the workpiece and remove the slags using the wire brush.
Result
Thus, the double V-butt joint is prepared.
82 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 3.17 Lap joint.
!"#$%& 83

EXERCISE 3: LAP JOINT


Aim
To make the lap joint (Fig. 3.17) between the given two workpieces by arc welding.
Tools required
1. Arc welding transfermer
2. Welding electrode set-up
3. Gloves and goggles
4. Tongs and wire brush
5. Chipping hammer
Material used
Mild steel plate of size 100 60 6 mm
Procedure
1. Clean the given workpieces, using the wire brush to remove the rust, scale and other
impurities.
2. Set the work pieces as shown in Fig. 3.17. Set the arc welding transformer and connect
the welding cables.
3. Fix the welding electrode (3.15 mm dia) to the electrode holder, and the ground clamp to
the welding table.
4. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the workpieces.
5. When the current is passed, arc is produced between the electrode and workpieces.
6. Now set the two workpieces in correct position as shown in the figure and maintain the
gap 3 mm, and then the welding is to be carried out throughout the length.
7. As soon as the welding process is finished, switch off the current supply and drop the
workpiece into water for cooling using tongs.
8. Finally take the workpiece and remove the slags using the wire brush.
Result
Thus, the desired lap joint is obtained.
84 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 3.18 T-fillet joint.
!"#$%& 85

EXERCISE 4: T-FILLET JOINT


Aim
To prepare a T-fillet joint (Fig. 3.18) on the given workpieces by arc welding.
Tools required
1. Work pieces
2. Welding electrodes
3. Welding machine
4. Tongs
5. Wire brush
6. Chipping hammer
7. Welding table
8. Gloves
9. Goggles
Procedure
1. Clean the given workpieces, using the wire brush to remove the rust, scale and other
impurities.
2. Set the work pieces as shown in Fig. 3.18. Set the arc welding transformer and connect
the welding cables.
3. Fix the welding electrode (3.15 mm dia) to the electrode holder, and the ground clamp to
the welding table.
4. Appropriate power supply should be given to the electrode and the workpieces.
5. When the current is passed, arc is produced between the electrode and workpieces.
6. Now set the two workpieces in correct position as shown in the figure and maintain the
gap 3 mm, and then the welding is to be carried out throughout the length.
7. As soon as the welding process is finished, switch off the current supply and drop the
workpiece into water for cooling using tongs.
8. Finally take the workpiece and remove the slags using the wire brush.
Result
Thus, the T-fillet joint is prepared on the given workpieces.
86 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

0
10

50
50

0
10

Weld

50

8 50

Fig. 3.19 Corner joint


!"#$%& 87

EXERCISE 5: CORNER JOINT OR L JOINT


Aim
To make, corner joint between the two given workpieces using arc welding (Fig. 3.19).
Tools required
1. Welding power supply (generator and transformer)
2. Welding rod
3. Electrode holder
4. Gloves and apron
5. Shield and goggles
6. Flat file
7. Chipping hammer
8. Wire brush
9. Earthing clamp
Material required
Mild steel plate of size 100 50 8 mm (two pieces).
Procedure
l. Clean the workpiece for rust and scales.
2. Fix the electrode in electrode holder and clamp the welding plates.
3. The workpieces are positioned on the table for getting a corner joint.
4. The tag weld is done on both the ends of joining plates.
5. The welding is carried throughout the length of the workpieces on both sides by
maintaining 3 mm gap between the plate and the welding rod.
6. Remove the slag by using a chip remover.
7. The weld joint portions are allowed for air cooling after the slages are removed and,
finally, clean the workpiece with a wire brush.
Result
Thus, the required corner joint is made.
88 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Welding Oxygen hose


torch connection

Tip Acetylene hose


Working connection
pressure Cylinder
pressure gauge Working
gauge pressure gauge
Cylinder
Oxygen pressure gauge
regulator
Acetylene
Oxygen valve wrench
hose
Acetylene
Sparklighter regulator

Acetylene
hose
Apparatus
wrench Acetylene
cylinder
Oxygen
Twin
cylinder
hose

Fig. 3.20 Set-up for gas welding.


!"#$%& 89

EXERCISE 6: GAS WELDING PRACTICE


Aim
To make a joint between the given two workpieces by gas welding (Fig. 3.20).
Tools required
1. Oxygen and acetylene gas cylinder with the equipment (pressure gauge, regulators)
2. Welding torch
3. Safety goggles and gloves
4. Chipping hammer
5. Wire brush
Material required
Mild steel plate of size 100 50 8 mm (two pieces).
Procedure
1. Clean the workpiece thoroughly using wire brush.
2. Position the workpieces on the work table for welding.
3. Supply acetylene and oxygen gas with proper proposition and then open the acetylene
torch valve.
4. Light the tip of the torch using a lighter.
5. Adjust oxygen and acetylene torch valves for required flame.
6. Move the welding torch and filler rod along the line of weld and then welding is done.
Result
Thus, the required welding joint obtained.
4 BASIC MACHINING

4.1 INTRODUCTION
Machining is a process of shaping the given workpiece into required size and shape with the help
of a machine tool. The most widely used machine tool is a Lathe.
Lathe is a machine tool which shapes a product by removing extra material from it in the
form of chips by rotating the work against a single point tool. The work is clamped either in a
chuck or in between the centres. The most common type of surface produced is cylindrical in
shape.

4.2 TYPES OF LATHE MACHINES


There are various types of lathes which differ in size, design, purpose, method of drive, etc.
(i) Speed lathe
(ii) Engine lathe
(iii) Bench lathe
(iv) Tool room lathe
(v) Capstan and turret lathe
(vi) Special purpose lathe

4.3 DESCRIPTION OF LATHE MACHINES


Centre lathe
The principal parts of a centre lathe are labelled and shown in Fig. 4.1. A brief description of these
parts is described as follows:
90
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 91

Fig. 4.1 Centre lathe.


Bed
The lathe bed forms the base of the machine. It is made of cast-iron or alloy steel. It consists of flat
or inverted V-shaped inner and outer guideways to guide the carriage, headstock and tailstock. The
height of the lathe bed should be appropriate to enable the technician to do his job easily and
comfortably. Many lathes are made with a gap in the bed. This gap is used to swing extra large
diameter pieces.
Headstock
The headstock is fixed at the left-hand side of the lathe bed on the inner guideways. It supports the
spindle. The spindle is driven through the gearbox which is housed within the headstock. The
function of the gearbox is to provide a number of speeds to the spindle. The spindle is always
hollow to feed the barstock through that hole for continuous production. The nose of the spindle is
threaded to mount the chuck or face plate.
Tailstock
The tailstock is illustrated in Fig. 4.2. It is located on the inner guideways at the right-hand side
of the operator. The main purpose of the tailstock is to support the free end of the workpiece
when it is machined between centres. It is also used to hold tools for operations such as drilling,
reaming, tapping, etc. To accommodate different lengths of work, the body of the tailstock can
be adjusted along the guideways by sliding it to the required position and can be clamped by the
bolt and plate. The body is bored to act as a barrel which carries quill that moves in and out of
the barrel. The movement of the quill is achieved by means of a hand wheel and a screw which
are engaged with a nut fixed in the quill. The hole in the open side of the quill is tapered to
mount lathe centres or other tools like twist drills or boring bars. The upper body of the tailstock
can be moved towards or away from the operator by means of the adjustment screws to offset the
tailstock for taper turning.
92 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 4.2 Tailstock.


Carriage
The lathe carriage is shown in Fig. 4.3. It has several parts that support, move and control the
cutting tool. It consists of the following parts:
(a) saddle (b) cross-slide
(c) compound rest (d) tool post
(e) apron

Fig. 4.3 Lathe carriage.


Saddle: The saddle is an H-shaped casting that fits over the bed and slides along the guideways.
It carries the cross-slide and tool post.
Cross-slide: The cross-slide carries the compound rest and tool post. It is used to give depth of a
cut.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 93

Compound rest: It has a circular base with graduations and mounted on the cross-slide. It is
used for turning short tapers and angular cuts.
Tool post: This is located on the top of the compound rest to hold the tool and to enable it to be
adjusted to a convenient working position. The various types of tool posts used in a lathe are
shown in Fig. 4.4.

Fig. 4.4 Tool posts used in turning.


Single screw tool post: This consists of a round bar with a slotted hole in the centre for fixing the
tool by means of a set screw. The tool post with a concave ring and convex rocker slides in a T-slot
on the top of the compound rest. The height of the tool point can be adjusted by tilting the rocker
and clamping in position by means of a set screw.
Four-way tool post: In this type of tool post, four sides are open to accommodate four tools at a time.
Quick change tool post: Modern lathes are provided with this type of tool posts. Instead of
changing the tools, the tool holder is changed in which the tool is fixed. This is expensive and
requires a number of tool holders. But it has the advantage of ease setting of centre height and
rigidity of the tool.
Apron: The apron is fastened to the saddle and hangs over the front of the bed. It contains gears,
clutches for transmitting motion from feed rod to the carriage and also contains a split nut which
engages with a lead screw while thread-cutting.
Lead screw
The lead screw is a long screw with ACME threads. It is used for transmitting power for automatic
feed or feed for thread cutting operation.
Specifications of lathe
A lathe can be completely specified by the following factors:
(i) Height of the centres.
(ii) The swing over the bed: Largest diameter of work that will rotate without touching the
bed. It is generally twice of height of centres.
(iii) The length between centres: It is the greatest length of the work that can be held between
the headstock and tailstock centres.
(iv) Type of bed: It may be staight or gap bed.
(v) Spindle speed range: Number of speeds.
(vi) Width of the bed.
94 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

(vii) Metric thread pitches.


(viii) Cross feed and longitudinal feeds.
(ix) Cross-slide travel.
(x) Tailstock sleeve travel.
(xi) Horsepower of the main motor and RPM.
(xii) Chipping Dimensions: Length Height Width Weight.
Some types of lathe machines are described as follows:
Speed lathe
The speed lathe is the simplest of all lathes. It has only a few parts like headstock, tailstock, and
tool post mounted on a light bed. It has no gear box, leadscrew and carriage. These lathes are used
for wood turning, metal spinning and polishing.
Engine lathe
It derives its name from the early lathes that were driven by steam engines. An engine lathe has the
compound rest, carriage, leadscrew, feed rod, and the gear box in addition to the headstock, tailstock
and the bed. It may be a belt driven lathe, or motor driven lathe. The lead screw is used in cutting
threads, whereas the feed rod is used in automatic feed of the carriage or the tool.
Bench lathe
A bench lathe is a small lathe mounted on a bench. It performs all operations of an engine lathe. It
is used mainly for small precision work, only difference is in size.
Tool room lathe
A tool room lathe is similar in appearance to a centre lathe, but it is built more accurately and has
a wide range of speeds and is equipped with many extra accessories and attachments. It is mostly
used for precision work on tools, jigs, dies, etc.
The capstan and turret lathe
These are the development of the engine lathe and are used for production work. The main features
of this type of lathe is that the tailstock of an engine lathe is replaced by a hexagonal turret. A
numer of identical parts can be produced in the minimum time.
Special purpose lathe
The special purpose lathe machines are specially designed for carrying out various operations that
cannot be done by an ordinary lathe. The lathe which is especially desigend for turning crankshafts
is known as a crankshaft lathe. The lathe which is powerful, massive and capable of turning axles
is known as axle lathe or wheel lathe. Lathes which are used for duplicating profiles are known as
duplicating lathes. The lathe in which various movements to the slides are given by electric motors
which are controlled by the codes punched on tape is known as Numerical Control (NC) lathe. The
NC lathe can do all operations which can be done on an ordinary lathe. The cutting tools are preset
to the positions specified by the NC programmer.

4.4 LATHE ACCESSORIES


The devices used for holding and supporting the work and the tool on the lathe are called accessories.
These include chucks, catch plates and carriers, collets, face plate centres, mandrels, jigs and
fixtures, etc.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 95

Chucks
Chucks are used for holding the workpiece on a lathe during the operation. The commonly used
chucks are as follows:
(a) Three-jaw universal chuck
(b) Four-jaw independent chuck
(c) Combination chuck
(d) Magnetic chuck
(e) Collet chuck
(f) Air or hydraulic operated chuck
(g) Drill chuck
Three-jaw universal chuck: In a three-jaw universal chuck or self centering chuck (Fig. 4.5) all
three jaws move together in equal amounts to clamp the work. Therefore the job is automatically
centred. The movement is achieved by rotating the chuck key in any one of the three pinions which
meshes with the teeth cut on the under side of the scroll disc. The scroll disc having a spiral groove
cut on the top face meshes with the teeth of jaws. The chuck is used for holding cylindrical or
hexagonal shaped workpieces.

Fig. 4.5 Three-jaw universal chuck.


Four-jaw independent chuck: In a four-jaw independent chuck (Fig. 4.6), each jaw is moves
independently by rotating the screw which meshes with the teeth cut on the underside of the jaw.
These chuks are used for holding square, octagonal or large irregular components.

Fig. 4.6 Four-jaw independent chuck.


96 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Combination chuck: A combination chuck carries the combination of both the above principles.
It is provided with four jaws which can be operated either by the scroll disc or individually by
separate screws.
Magnetic chuck: These chucks are used to hold steel workpieces that are too thin to be held in
an ordinary chuck. The face of the chuck is magnetized by permanent magnets contained within
the chuck.
Collet chuck: This chuck provides a quick means of holding the bar stock. Draw-in type collets
are in common use. Their front portion is splitted which provides a spring action and hence the
grip.
Air or hydraulic operated chuck: Air or hydraulic pressure is used to press the jaws against the
job in this chuck. The pressure is provided by a cylinder and piston mechanism mounted at the
back of the headstock and controlled by a valve by an operator.
Drill chuck: A drill chuck is used for holding straight shank drill, reamer or tap for drilling,
reaming or tapping operations. This may be held either in the headstock or tailstock. This has
self-centering jaws and is operated by a key.
Face plate
A face plate is a large circular disc having a threaded hole at the centre so that it can be screwed to
the nose of the lathe spindle. It contains open slots or T-slots in its face. The workpiece is mounted
on it with the help of bolts, T-nuts and other means of clamping. It is used for holding workpieces
that cannot be conveniently held by chucks.
Angle plate
A angle plate is used for holding a workpiece in conjunction with a face plate. If mounting of the
workpiece directly on the face plate is not possible, the angle plate is used for that purpose.
Lathe centres
Lathe centres are hardened steel devices used for holding and locating the work to be turned. The
centre that is fitted in the headstock spindle is called live centre. The centre that is used in the
tailstock is called dead centre. The various forms of lathe centres are shown in Fig. 4.7.

Fig. 4.7 Lathe centres.


!"#$%&!$'#(#() 97

Ordinary centre: This is used for most general works.


Ball centre: This has a ball shape at the end to minimise the wear and strain. This is particularly
suitable for taper turning.
Tipped centre: In the tipped centre, a hard alloy tip is brazed into a steel shank. The hard tip is
wear resistant.
Half centre: The half centre is similar to an ordinary centre except that a little less than half of
the centre has been ground away. This feature facilitates facing of the bar ends without removal of
the centre.
Revolving centre: The ball and roller bearings are fitted into the housing to reduce friction and to
take up end thrust. This is used in the tailstock for supporting heavy work revolving at a high speed.
Pipe centre: This is used for supporting pipes, shells and hollow end jobs.
Lathe cutting tools
Cutting tools used for machining are classified into two groups:
(a) Single point cutting tool (b) Multipoint cutting tool
Single point cutting tools have only one cutting edge, while multipoint cutting tools have
several cutting edges (drill, milling cutter). Single point cutting tools are used on lathes.
Classification
Single point lathes tools are classifoed in many ways. The main classification is as follows:
According to the direction of feed: The tools may be right-hand and left-hand threaded tools. In a
right-hand tool, the cutting edge is on the left-hand side of the operator, the right-hand tool cuts from
right to left, i.e. tool is feed from the tailstock to the headstock. In a left-hand tool, the cutting edge is
on the right-side of the operator. The left-hand tool cuts from left to right as shown in Fig. 4.8.

Fig. 4.8 Right-hand and left-hand tools.


According to method of manufacturing the tool: These tools may be
(a) Solid tool
(b) Brazed tool
(c) Inserted or bit tool
A solid tool is made of either high speed steel or carbide bar and the cutting edge is formed
by grinding one end of the bar. In a braze tool, the carbide tip is brazed to a shank of low grade
98 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

material. In an inserted bit tool, the carbide or ceramic bit or a square or rectangular shape is held
mechanically in a tool holder.
According to the method of using the tool: Single point tools (Fig. 4.9) are classified as turning,
facing, cutting off, boring, grooving, etc.
Tool nomenclature
The cutting tool nomenclature comprises the various parts of a tool and various tool angles. The
complete nomenclature of a single point cutting tool is shown in Fig. 4.9 (a) and (b).
Face : It is the surface over which the chip flows.
Flank : It is the surface below the cutting edge.
Nose : The nose is the junction of the side and end cutting edge.
Side cutting edge : It is formed by the intersection of the flank and the side flank.
It does the main work in cutting.
End or Auxiliary cutting edge : It is the intersection of face end flank.
Tool angles : In a single point tool, there are various angles, each of them
has a definite purpose.
Back rake angle: It measures the downward slope of the top surface of the tool from the nose to
the rear along the longitudinal axis. Its purpose is to guide the direction of chip flow. The size of
the angle depends upon the material to be machined.

Fig. 4.9 Single point cutting tool nomenclature.


A back rake angle may be positive, neutral or negative. The angle is positive if the face
slopes downwards from the tip towards the shank. It is used to cut low tensile strength and non-
ferrous materials. The angle is negative if the face slopes upwards. It is used to cut high tensile
strength materials for heavy feed and interrupted cuts.
Side rake angle: It measures the slope of the top surface of the tool to the side in a direction
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. It also guides the direction of the chip away from the job.
Side relief angle: It is the angle made by the flank of the tool and a plane perpendicular to the
base just under the side cutting edge. This angle permits the tool to be fed sideways into the job, so
that it can cut without rubbing.
End relief angle: It is the secondary relief angle between a plane perpendicular to the base and
the end flank.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 99

Side cutting edge angle: It is the angle between the side cutting edge and the longitudinal axis of
the tool.
Nose radius: It is the curve formed by joining the side cutting and end cutting edges. The angle
so formed between cutting edges is called nose angle and the radius of the curve is called nose
radius.

4.5 LATHE OPERATIONS


The operations that can be performed on a lathe are known as turning operations. These are grouped
into the following categories.
1. Operations performed in a lathe when holding the workpiece between centres:
(a) Plain turning (b) Taper turning
(c) Threading (d) Grooving
(e) Knurling.
2. Operations performed in a lathe when workpiece is held by the chuck or face plate:
(a) Drilling (b) Reaming
(c) Borning.
3. Operations performed by using special attachment:
(a) Grinding (b) Milling.
Some of the typical operations that can be done in a lathe are illustrated in Fig. 4.10.
Turning
Figures 4.10 (a) and (b) show the turning operation. It is also called simple or plain turning. In this
opepration, excess material is removed from the workpice to produce a cylindrical surface. It may
be rough turning or finish turning according to the depth of cut given.
Facing operation
Figure 4.10 (c) shows the facing operation in which the work is rotated and the tool is fed in a
direction perpendicular to the axis of the work. This is used to cut the work to the required length
and to provide flat surface with the axis of the work.
Parting-off
The parting-off operation is illustrated in Fig. 4.10 (d). It is also called cutting-off operation. It is
used for cutting away the required length from the barstock. The tool used in this operation is
called a parting-off tool.
Taper turning
The taper turning by the swivelling compound rest method is shown in Fig. 4.11. In a lathe, taper
turning means to produce a conical surface by gradual reduction in diameter from a cylindrical
workpiece. A taper may be turned by any one of the following methods:
(a) Swiveling the compound rest method
(b) Tailstock set over method
(c) Using a taper-turning attachment
(d) Using a form tool
(e) By combination of longitudinal and cross feed.
100 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 4.10 Lathe operations.

Fig. 4.11 Taper turning by swivelling compound rest.


!"#$%&!$'#(#() 101

Taper turning by swivelling of the compound rest method is carried out as follows:
tan ( D  d )
2 2L
= Half of the taper angle
2
D = bigger end diameter
d = smaller end diameter
= tapper angle
L = length of workpiece
In this method, the workpiece is held in the chuck or between centres. The compound rest
carrying the tool is swivelled to the desired angle (half of the taper angle) with respect to the
workpiece. The tool is fed manually by rotating the handwheel of the compound rest. Thus the
tapper is produced in the workpiece.
Advantages:
(i) Easy setting.
(ii) Steep tapers can be produced.
(iii) Internal and external tapers can be made.
Grinding by attachment
Both internal and external surfaces of the workpiece may be ground by using grinding attachment
mounted on the cross-slide.

4.6 DRILLING MACHINES


Drilling machine is one of the most important machine tools used in a workshop to produce holes
in solid objects. The process of making a hole is called drilling. In drilling operation, work is
clamped to the table and the rotating cutting tool called drill is fed into it.
4.6.1 Types of Drills
Drills are manufactured in a wide variety of types and sizes. The following types of drills are most
widely used.
1. Flat drill
2. Straight-fluted drill
3. Twist drill
4. Oil hole drill
5. Centre drill
Flat drill
Flat drill is shown in Fig. 4.12. It is a simple drill used to produce holes in softer materials like
wood and plastic. It is made of tool steel. It has two cutting edges with a cutting angle varies from
900 to 1200 and relief angle at the cutting edge is 30 to 80. The disadvantage of this type of drill
is that its diameter is reduced as a result of sharpening the edges. The chips will not come out of
the hole automatically.
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Fig. 4.12 Flat drill.


Straight fluted drill
Straight fluted drill is shown in Fig. 4.13. It has grooves or flutes running parallel to the drill axis.
So chips can come out from the hole automatically. It is used for drilling brass and non-ferrous
materials.

Fig. 4.13 Straight fluted drill.


Twist drill
Twist drill is the most widely used tool in modern drilling practice. It consists of a cylindrical body
or drill. Twist drills are usually made of high speed steel. The twist drill consists of two main parts
called shank and body. The shank is the part held in a drilling machine for driving (rotating) the
drill. The body is the cutting unit with flutes, cutting edges and drill point. The twist drill bits are
classified into two types:
(i) Parallel shank twist drill
(ii) Taper shank twist drill
Parallel shank twist drill: Parallel shank drills are held in a drill chuck. Depending upon the
length of the drill, these are subdivided into three series:
1. Short series (jobber) twist drill
2. Stub series twist drill
3. Long series twist drill
In a jobber drill, the diameter ranges from 0.2 mm to 16 mm. The long series with a diameter
rangning from 1.5 mm to 26 mm and the stub series diameter ranging from 0.5 mm to 40 mm are
used for special jobs.
Taper shank twist drill: These drills fit into the internal taper of the drilling machine spindle.
The shank for these drills confirms to morse tapers (Fig. 4.14).

Fig. 4.14 Taper shank twist drill.


Oil hole drill
It is used for drilling deep holes. It has holes through the body of the drill from the shank to the
point to carry oil directly to the cutting edges. Cutting fluid or compressed air is forced through the
holes to the cutting point of the drill to remove the chips, cool the cutting edge and lubricate the
machined surface (Fig. 4.15).
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 103

Fig. 4.15 Oil hole drill.


Centre drill
A centre drill is a two-fluted twist drill with a straight shank. It is used to make the centre holes on
the end of the shaft (Fig. 4.16).

Fig. 4.16 Centre drill.


4.6.2 Twist Drill Nomenclature
Drill nomenclature consists of various parts and geometric parameters as shown in Fig. 4.17.

Fig. 4.17 Twist drill nomenclature.


Body : The fluted portion of a drill.
Shank : It is the part held in the holding device.
Flutes : The helical grooves cut or formed in the body of the drill to provide cutting edges
and permit removal of chips and allow the cutting fluid to reach the cutting edges.
Dead centre : The dead centre or chisel edge of the drill is the sharp edge at the extreme tip end
of the drill.
Helix angle : The angle between the drill axis and the leading edge of the land.
Rake angle : The angle between the face and line parallel to the drill axis and is equal to the
helix angle at the periphery.
104 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Lip relief angle : The included angle of a cone formed by lips.


Recommended values of various angles of a drill are shown in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Drill angles
Material Point angle Helix angle Lip relief angle
Aluminium 90140 2448 812
Brass 111 027 815
Copper 100118 2840 815
Cast Iron 118 2440 812
Steel 125135 2432 1012

4.6.3 Drill Size


The size of a standard twist drill is specified by four ways:
(a) Fractional sizes (b) Number sizes
(c) Letter sizes (d) Metric sizes
Fractional sizes: These are also called inch drills. The size ranges from 1/64 to 5 diameter.
Each successive drill is 1/64, longer up to 13/4. The diameter of successive drill gradually increases.
Number sizes: The drill sizes range from No. 1 to No. 80. Number 80 is the smallest having a
diameter equal to 0.0135 inch and the number 1 is the largest drill having diameter equal to
0.228 inch.
Letter sizes: This series of drills is designed by letters from A to Z. A represents the smallest
size and Z the largest size.
Metric sizes: The drills are available from 0.20 mm to 100 mm in steps of 0.02 mm up to 1 mm,
0.05 mm steps up to 3 mm, and afterwards in gradually rising steps.
4.6.4 Types of Drilling Machines
Drilling machines are manufactured in types and sizes to suit the different type of work. The
different types of drilling machines are as follows:
(a) Hand drill (b) Portable drilling machine
(c) Sensitive drilling machine (d) Pillar drilling machine
(e) Radial drilling machine (f) Gang drilling machine
(g) Multi-spindle drilling machine (h) Numerically controlled drilling machine
Hand drill
A hand drill is used for drilling small holes (Fig. 4.18). The handle of the hand drill is held in the
left hand while the right hand turns the crank, which in turn causes the drill to rotate.
Portable drilling machine
A portable drilling machine is a small and compact machine (Fig. 4.19). It is used for drilling holes
in any position which is not possible with the vertical drilling machines. These machines are used
for drilling holes up to 18 mm diameter.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 105

Fig. 4.18 Hand drill. Fig. 4.19 Portable drilling machine.


Sensitive drilling machine
It is a small drilling machine designed for drilling small holes (Fig. 4.20). The base of the machine
is mounted on a bench. The drive mechanism of a sensitive drilling machine consists of V-belt
drive from the motor shaft to the drill spindle. A three or four-stepped cone pulley is provided to
give a required speed range. No gears are used in the drive. The handle through a rack and pinion
arrangement gives vertical movement to the spindle.

Fig. 4.20 Sensitive drilling machine.


106 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

4.6.5 Work Holding Devices


Components to be drilled should be secured firmly on the drilling machine table. The following
devices are used for holding the work.
(a) Drill vice
(b) Parallel bars
(c) Step block
(d) V-Block
(e) Clamps and T-bolts
(f) Drill jig
Drill vice
The drill vice is shown in Fig. 4.21. It is a work-holding device in which the work is clamped
between a fixed jaw and a movable jaw. The vice is fastened to the table by means of T-bolts.

Fig. 4.21 Drill vice.


Parallel bars
Parallel bars are placed below the work so that the drilling is carried out without damaging the vice.
Step block
A step block is used along with clamps and bolts for holding the work directly on the table. It
provides support for the other end of the clamp. The different steps of the step block are used for
holding workpieces of different heights.
V-block
The V-block is used for holding round workpieces.
Clamps and T-bolts
Clamps and T-bolts are used for clamping the work. Various types of clamps used are shown in
Figs. 4.22 (a) and (b).
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 107

Fig. 4.22 (a) Use of set block, T-bolt and clamp and (b) types of clamps.
Drill jig
A drill jig (Fig. 4.23) locates the workpiece in proper position and holds it. It also guides the drill
so that holes are drilled in the same location on all the parts.

Fig. 4.23 Drill jig.


4.6.6 Tool Holding Devices
The following devices are used for holding the drills:
(a) Drill chuck
(b) Sleeve
(c) Drilling machine spindle
(d) Socket
108 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Drill chuck
The drill check is shown in Fig. 4.24 (a). It is designed to hold straight shank drills of different
sizes. The jaws of the chuck are tightened around the drill by means of a chuck key.
Sleeve
The drill sleeve is shown in Fig. 4.24 (b). It is used to hold taper shank drills whose taper is less
than the hole of the spindle. The outer taper of the sleeve matches with the spindle hole taper.
Drilling machine spindles
All general purpose drilling machines have the spindle bored to a morse standard taper which is
approximately 1:20. The drill may be removed by driving the drift as shown in Fig. 4.24 (c).
Socket
The drill socket is shown in Fig. 4.24 (d). It is used for the drills whose taper is larger than the
sleeve.

Fig. 4.24 Drill holding devices.

4.7 DRILLING MACHINE OPERATIONS


A drilling machine is capable of performing various operations by using suitable tools. The following
operations are generally performed on a drilling machine (Fig. 4.25).
1. Drilling
2. Reaming
3. Boring
4. Counter boring
5. Counter sinking
6. Spot facing
7. Taping
8. Trepanning or circle cutting
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 109

Fig. 4.25 Drilling machine operations.


Drilling
Drilling is the process of making holes by rotating the cutting tool called a drill [Fig. 4.25(a)]. For
accurate location of the hole before drilling should be marked out and centre punched. For mass
production work, a drill jig is used which eliminates the marking operation.
Reaming
Reaming is an accurate way of sizing and finishing a hole, which has been already drilled
[Fig. 4.25(b)]. Material allowance left in the hole for hand reaming is usually 0.05 to 0.1 mm and
for machine reaming, it ranges from 0.13 to 0.65 mm.
Boring
Boring is generally adopted for producting non-standard holes for which drills are not commercially
available (enlarging a hole). See Fig. 4.25(c).
Counter boring
Counter boring [Fig. 4.25(d)] is the operation of enlarging the hole for part of its depth. The
enlarged hole forms a square shoulder with the original hole. This is necessary to accommodate
the heads of bolts, studs and pins.
Counter sinking
It is the operation of making a conical shaped enlagement at the top of the hole [Fig. 4.25(e)]. This
is do not provide seat for a flat head of screw or countersink rivet fitted into the hole.
Spot facing
It is the operation of smoothing and squaring the surface around a hole for the seat for the nut or
the head of the screw [Fig. 4.25(f)].
Tapping
Tapping is the operation of cutting internal threads by using the tool called tap [Fig. 4.25(g)].
Trepanning or circle cutting
Trepanning or circle cutting is the process in which a large hole in a sheet or plate is made with the
panning tool [Fig. 4.25(h)]. In this process a central hole can be drilled. It receives the pilot of the
110 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

tool, thus prevents the lateral displacement of the tool. On rotation of the tool, a circle is cut from
the plate. The advantage of this process is that the central portion of the plate is removed as a solid
mass, whereas in drilling, the central portion is removed in the form of chips.

4.8 SPEED, FEED, DEPTH OF CUT AND MACHINING TIME


Speed
The cutting speed of a drill is defined as the peripheral speed of a drill surface, which is in contact
with the work. It is expressed in metres/min. It depends on a number of factors such as work
material, tool material, depth of hole, use of coolant, etc.
DN
Cutting speed V=
1000
m/min
where D = workpiece diameter in mm
N = rotational speed of drill in rpm
The cutting speeds with high speed drills are shown in Table 4.2.
Table 4.2 Cutting speed in drilling
Material Speed Range (m/mm)
Mild steel 2535
Steel 2025
Soft cast iron 3045
Medium cast iron 2130
Aluminium and alloys 6090
Brass and bronze 6090
Copper 1830

Feed
Feed is the distance the drill enters the work for each revolution of the drill spindle. It is expressed
in millimetres per revolution.
The feed per min may be calculated as:
fm = fr N mm/revolution
where fm = Feed per minute
fr = Feed per revolution
N = rpm of the drill
Depth of cut
The depth of a cut is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to the uncut
surface of workpiece.
Depth of a cut = D  d
2
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 111

where D = diameter of workpiece before machining


d = diameter of workpiece after machining
Machining time
L
Time for drilling =
fr N
where N = rpm of drill
fr = feed per rev in mm
L=l+a
where L = thickness of workpiece
a = approach of drill = 0.3d
d = diameter of drill
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 113

EXERCISES
1. FACING AND TAPER TURNING
2. SIMPLE TAPER TURNING
3. DRILLING AND TAPPING
4. STEP TURNING, KNURLING AND CHAMFERING
5. THREAD CUTTING
114 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

100 Facing operation


5

f 50
Taper turning operation

60
30

f 40
f 20

f 30 f 20
All dimensions are in mm
Fig. 4.26 Facing and taper turning.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 115

EXERCISE 1: FACING AND TAPER TURNING


Aim
To perform facing, turning and chamfering on a cylindrical workpiece (Fig. 4.26).
Tools required
1. Lathe
2. Three-jaw chuck
3. Chuck key
4. Vernier caliper
5. Single-point cutting tool
Procedure
1. First loosen the jaws in the chuck using the chuck key to position the workpiece, and then
tighten the jaws.
2. Fix the cutting tool in the toolpost.
3. Switch on the lathe and move the carriage near to the workpiece. Give it a small cross
feed, then move the carriage longitudinally to the required length slowly.
4. Bring the carriage to the original position, give a small cross feed and move the carriage
longitudinally. Repeat this step until the required diameter is obtained. It is a good practice
to check the diameter of the workpiece regularly using a vernier caliper.
5. To get smooth surface, give a very small feed when the diameter is nearing the required
value.
6. To face the end surface of the workpiece, move the carriage to make the tool touch the
end surface of the workpiece.
7. Give a small feed in longitudinal direction, and then move the tool towards the axis of the
workpiece using the cross-slide to complete facing.
8. Set the cross slied to the required angle and give a feed in longitudinal direction and then
move the tool using cross slide to get taper for the length of 30 mm.

Result
Thus, the given workpiece is turned to the given diameter, faced and chamfered.
116 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Taper angle = D d/2L


D: Larger diameter of tape
d: Smaller diameter of tape
L: Tapered length
All dimensions are in mm
Not to scale
Fig. 4.27 Taper turning.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 117

EXERCISE 2: SIMPLE TAPER TURNING


Aim
To perform a taper turning in a given cylindrical workpiece (Fig. 4.27).
Tools required
1. Lathe
2. Three-jaw chuck
3. Chuck key
4. Vernier caliper
5. Single-point cutting tool
Procedure
1. First loosen the jaws in the chuck using the chuck key to position the workpiece, and then
tighten the jaws.
2. Fix the cutting tool in the toolpost.
3. Switch on the lathe and move the carriage near to the workpiece. Give it a small cross
feed, and then move the carriage longitudinally to the required length slowly.
4. Bring the carriage to the original position, give a small cross feed and move the carriage
longitudinally. Repeat this step until the required diameter is obtained. It is a good practice
to check the diameter of the workpiece regularly using a vernier caliper.
5. Give a small feed to get smooth surface, when the diameter is nearing the required value.
6. Move the carriage to make the tool touch the end surface of the workpiece, to face the
end surface of the workpiece.
7. Give a small feed in longitudinal direction, and then move the tool towards the axis of the
workpiece using the cross-slide to complete facing.
8. Set the cross-slide to the required angle and give a small feed in longitudinal direction
and then move the tool using the cross-slide. Repeat this step by giving more feed and
complete the taper rate to taper the end.
Result
Thus, the given workpiece is turned to the given diameter, faced and tapered.
118 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

f 10 tapped holed (four)

15

20

15

50
Marking and punching Drilling and tapping
Fig. 4.28 Drilling and tapping.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 119

EXERCISE 3: DRILLING AND TAPPING


Aim
To drill the holes of required size and tap the drilled hole (Fig. 4.28).
Tools required
1. Bench vice
2. Machine vice
3. Steel rule
4. Standard set of filing tools
5. Try square
6. Surface plate
7. Vernier height guage
8. Scriber
9. Dot punch
10. Drill bit
11. Drilling machine
12. Tap set with die holder
Material required
Mild steel plate of size 50 50 5 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the raw material size (50 50 5 mm) using a steel rule.
2. Clamp the given workpiece in a vice and file any two surface to get a right angle.
3. Apply chalk on the surface of the workpieces uniformly.
4. Mark the given dimensions as shown in the figure, where to be drilled.
5. Punch the mid-point of the required holes by using a dot punch.
6. Drill the punched dots by a drilling machine.
7. Tap the holes after drilling by using a tap set.
Result
Thus, the given workpiece is drilled and tapped to the required dimensions.
120 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

120

f 40

Step turning operation

40
40
40

Feed f 20

f 100 f 90

Final workpiece Knurled area


Chamfered area
45

Step turned area


All dimensions are in mm
Fig. 4.29 Step turning, knurling and chamfering.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 121

EXERCISE 4: STEP TURNING, KNURLING AND CHAMFERING


Aim
To get a required shape and size from a given workpiece by step turning, knurling and chamfering
operations in a lathe (Fig. 4.29).
Tools required
1. Single point cutting tool
2. Lathe
3. Vernier caliper
4. Try square
5. Scriber
6. Toolpost key
7. Chuck key
8. Knurling tool
9. Steel rule
10. Wire brush
Material required
Mild steel rods of diameter 100 mm and 120 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the dimension of the workpiece using a steel rule.
2. The workpiece is held in the lathe chuck properly.
3. Fix the cutting tool on the toolpost.
4. The facing operation is done with the cutting tool on both sides of the workpiece to get
the required length.
5. The turning operation is done with the cutting tool to reduce the diameter up to the
required dimension for the two steps of various diameters.
6. The chamfering is done at the end of the workpiece by tilting the tool at 45o to the axis
and against the rotating workpiece.
7. The knurling tool is held in the toolpost and the knurling operation is done to the required
depth.
8. Set the cross-slide to the required angle and give a small feed in longitudinal direction
and then move the tool using the cross-slide to chamfer the end. Repeat this step by
giving more feed and complete chamfering.
9. Remove the workpiece from check and check the dimensions of workpiece.
10. Clean the workpiece using a wire brush.
Result
Thus, the required shape and size of the workpiece is obtained.
122 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

100 mm

f 40

Spindle
Workpiece

Idler
30 Feed
Leader screw

f 30

60
40

All dimensions are mm


Fig. 4.30 Thread cutting.
!"#$%&!$'#(#() 123

EXERCISE 5: THREAD CUTTING


Aim
To get a required shape and size from a given workpiece by facing, turning, thread cutting operations
in the lathe (Fig. 4.30).
Tools required
1. Lathe
2. Vernier caliper
3. Try square
4. Scriber
5. Singlepoint cutting tool
6. Thread cutting tool
7. Wire brush
Material required
Mild steel rods of diameter 40 mm and 120 mm.
Procedure
1. Check the dimension of the workpiece using a steal rule.
2. The workpiece is held in the lathe chuck properly.
3. Fix the cutting tool on the toolpost.
4. The facing operation is done with the cutting tool on both sides of the workpiece to get
the required length.
5. The turning operation is done with the cutting tool to reduce the diameter up to the
required dimension.
6. Feed the workpiece against the thread cutting tool to get the thread in required length.
7. Remove the workpiece from check and check the dimension.
8. Clean the workpiece using wire brush.
Result
Thus, the thread cutting operation is done.
5 SHEET METAL WORK

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Sheet metal work deals with working on the metal of 1630 gauge, with hand tools and simple
machines. It is one of the major applications in engineering industry. It has its own significance as
useful trade in engineering work. It involves with various operations like measuring, marking,
layingout, shearing, edge forming, bending, wiring, joint making, piercing, blanking and nibbling
for forming into shape and joining.
Generally, all the sheet metal work patterns are based on the development of the surfaces of
a number of geometrical models like prisms, cylinders, pyramid and cones. Besides development
of surfaces, geometrical projections are also used for sheet metal work.
Sheet metal work is used for making hoppers, funnels, various ducts, chimneys, ventilating
pipes, machine tool guards, boilers, etc. It is also extensively used in major industries like aircraft
manufacturing, ship building, automobile body building and fabrication of ducts in air conditioning
equipment, etc.

5.2 SPECIFICATION OF SHEET METAL


The sheets are specified by standard gauge numbers. Each gauge designates a definite thickness.
The gauge number can be identified by Standard Wire Gauge or SWG.
Table 5.1 shows gauge numbers, and their corresponding thickness of sheet. The larger is the
gauge number, the lesser is the thickness and vice versa.
Table 5.1 Gauge numbers and corresponding thickness
SWG 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 30
Thickness (ram) 3.2 2.6 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.3

124
!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 125

5.3 METALS USED IN SHEET METAL WORK


The most commonly used sheet metals are:
(a) Black iron (b) Galvanized iron
(c) Stainless steel (d) Copper
(e) Aluminium (f) Tin plate
(g) Lead, etc.
Selection of these metals is based upon the type of process carried out during sheet metal work.

5.4 TOOLS USED IN SHEET METAL WORK


The various types of tools used in sheet metal work are explained below.
5.4.1 Cutting Tools (Chisels, Snips or Shears)
Chisels: Chisels (Fig. 5.1) are used in sheet metal work for cutting sheets, rivets, bolts and chipping
operations. Though there are many types of chisels available, round nose chisels and flat chisels
are mostly used for sheet metal work.

Fig. 5.1 Chisels.


Snips or Shears: Snips (Fig. 5.2) are hand shears, varying in length from 200 mm to 600 mm but
200 mm and 250 mm length is most commonly used. In sheet metal work, straight and curved
snips are mostly used.
Straight snips are used for cutting along outside curves and straight lines. Curved snips or
bent snips are used for trimming along inside curves.

Fig. 5.2 Snips.

5.4.2 Striking Tools


(a) Hammers (b) Punches
Hammers: Hammers (Fig. 5.3) are used in sheet metal work for hollowing, stretching, levelling,
riveting, strengthening of sheet metal joints, etc. The following hammers are mostly used in sheet
metal work:
(i) Ball peen hammer (ii) Riveting hammer
(iii) Straight peen hammer (iv) Mallet
126 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Punches: In sheet metal work, punches are used for marking out work locating centres, etc. The
following two types of punches are widely used (Fig. 5.4).
(i) Dot punch (ii) Centre punch

Fig. 5.3 Hammers.

Fig. 5.4 Punches.


5.4.3 Supporting Tools
Stakes: Stakes are nothing but sheet metal workers anvils used for bending, hemming, seaming,
forming, etc. using hammers or mallets. Figure 5.5 shows different shapes and sizes of stakes.

Fig. 5.5 Stakes.


5.4.4 Bending Tools
Pliers: Pliers (Fig. 5.6) are mainly used for bending sheet metal to the required shape. It is also
used for holding and cutting the sheet metal. Flat nose pliers and round nose pliers are used in
sheet metal work for forming and holding work.

Fig. 5.6 Pliers.


!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 127

5.4.5 Layout Tools


Steel rule: A steel rule (Fig. 5.7) is used for measuring and laying out small work. It can measure
with an accuracy of up to 0.5 mm.

Fig. 5.7 Steel rule.


Scriber: A scriber (Fig. 5.8) is a long wire of steel with its one end sharply pointed and hardened
to scratch line on sheet metal for laying out patterns.
Dividers: Dividers (Fig. 5.9) are used for drawing circles or arcs on sheet metal. They are used to
mark a desired distance between two points and to divide lines into equai parts.

Fig. 5.8 Scriber. Fig. 5.9 Divider.


Trammel: A trammel (Fig. 5.10) is used for marking of arcs and circles. The maximum size of
the arc that can be scribed depends on the length of the beam in a scriber.

Fig. 5.10 Trammel.


5.4.6 Other Tools
Groover
Grooving: In order to join sheet metal jobs, their ends are grooved with the help of grooving
tools (Fig. 5.11). This process is called grooving.
It is a most widely useful tool made up of hardened and tempered carbon steel.
128 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Groovers are used for making locked joints in sheet metal work such as wired edges,
slots, etc.
Groovers are available in different sizes.

Fig. 5.11 Groover.


Bench plate
A bench plate is special type of plate made of carbon steel.
Different sizes of holes, squares, rectangles are made in this plate.
Types of bench plate: Figure 5.12 shows the types of bench plates:
(i) Fixed bench plate (ii) Revolving bench plate

Fig. 5.12 Bench plates.


Hand dolly
A hand dolly (Fig. 5.13) is a steel block, rectangular in shape and is fitted with a handle in
the bottom of the block.
It is used for beating the joints made of sheets and to remove the dents, etc.

Fig. 5.13 Hand dolly.


!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 129

5.5 SHEET METAL OPERATIONS


The following are the sheet metal operations:
1. Shearing
2. Bending
3. Drawing
4. Squeezing
5.5.1 Shearing
Table 5.2 describes the basic shearing operations.
Table 5.2 Basic shearing operations
Shearing operation Description Figure
Cutting off This means severing a piece from a strip
with a cut along a single line.

Parting It signifies that the scrap is removed


between the two pieces to part them.

Blanking It means cutting a whole piece from


sheet metal.

Punching It is the operation of producing circular


holes on a sheet metal by a punch and
die.

Notching This is a process of removing metal to


the deceived shape from the side or edge
of a sheet.

Slitting When a shearing is conducted between


rotary blades, it is called cutting.

(Contd.)...
130 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

(Contd.)...
Shearing operation Description Figure
Lancing It cuts the sheet metal lengthwise.

Nibbling This is the operation of cutting any shape


from sheet metal by a nibbling machine.

Trimming It is the operation of cutting away excess


metal in a flange or flash from a piece.

5.5.2 Bending
Bending (Fig. 5.14) means that a metal is stressed beyond the elastic limit, so that the metal is bent
into a right angle and forming occurs when complete items or parts are shaped. It incorporates
angle bending, roll bending, roll forming and seaming.

Fig. 5.14 Bending.


5.5.3 Drawing
Drawing (Fig. 5.15) is the operation of producing cup-shaped components from sheet metal by
many numbers of punching strokes. It is performed by placing a metal blank over a stationary die
and exerting a calculated pressure from a punch against the blank.

Fig. 5.15 Drawing.


!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 131

5.5.4 Squeezing
Squeezing is the one of the methods of forming ductile material. Riveting, cold heading and rotary
swaging are very common processes of squeezing.
Riveting
Rivets are used to join two or more sheets of metal together.
Round rivets, conical rivets, flat rivets and countersunk rivets are commonly used in the
sheet metal work.
Less number of sheets can be fastened by punching operation whereas more number of
sheets can be fastened by drilling operation.
Figure 5.16 shows the various types of rivets.

Fig. 5.16 Types of rivets.


Factors to be considered in riveting operation
(i) Thickness of plate
(ii) Diameter of rivet
(iii) Distance between edge of the punch (or drilled hole) and edge of the plate
(iv) length of the shank
Design of rivet for sheet metal application
Diameter of rivet = Length of the shank = 1.2 thickness of the sheet metal
Distance between edge of the punch and edge of the plate = 1.5 Diameter of rivet
Punches and hammers are used for riveting operation. Figure 5.17 shows the basic riveting
operation in sheet metal work.

Fig. 5.17 Riveting.


132 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

5.6 SHEET METAL JOINTS


Sheet metal working incorporates a wide variety of hems and seams.
5.6.1 Hem
A hem is an edge or border made by folding. Figure 5.18 shows different types of hem.
Single hem: It is made by folding the edges of the sheet metal over to make it smooth and stiff.
Double hem: It is made by folding the edges over twice to make it stiff and smooth.
Wired edge: Edge of the sheet metal is rolled to some distance. It is smooth and very strong.

Fig. 5.18 Different types of hems.

5.6.2 Seam
A seam is a joining made by fastening two edges together. Figure 5.19 shows the various types of
seam.
Single seam: It is used to join a bottom to vertical bodies of various shapes.
Double seam: It is similar to a single seam but its formed edge is bent upwards against the body.
Grooved seam: It is made by holding two single hems together and locking them by a groover.

Fig. 5.19 Types of seam.

5.7 DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES


In order to fabricate an object using sheet metal, it is necessary to know the exact shape and size of
the sheet metal required. A pattern which is the flat outline of the object should be prepared to
fabricate an object.
The objects like cylinder, cone, prism, pyramids, etc. are developed from the development of
surfaces.
!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 133

The following methods are used to make the pattern in the sheet metal.
1. Parallel line method
2. Radial line method
3. Triangulation method
5.7.1 Development of Cylinder Using Parallel Line Method
A cylinder is wrapped around by paper (Fig. 5.20). When the paper is opened, it is rectangular in
shape.

Fig. 5.20 Development of cylinder parallel line method.

5.7.2 Radial Line Method


It is used for the development of cones and pyramids in which the apex is taken as centre and its
slant edge or generator as the radius for its development (Fig. 5.21).

Fig. 5.21 Development of cone using radial line method.


134 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

5.7.3 Triangulation Method


The triangulation method is used to draw the development of transition pieces (Fig. 5.22). The
triangulation method consists of merely in dividing the surfaces into suitable triangles and laying
them out side by side after finding the true lengths of each side of the triangle according to principles
for its development.

Fig. 5.22 Triangulation method.


A solid with bottom and top bases of dissimilar and different shapes is called transition
piece. Transition pieces are used extensively in air conditioning, heating, ventilating and similar
constructions.

5.8 GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR SHEET METAL WORK


1. In general, sheet metal products should be designed in such a way that the wastage of
metals is avoided.
2. During the sheet metal development, cutting lines are scribed by thick lines and folding
lines are scribed by thin lines in order to avoid mistakes while cutting the material.
3. Flaps are to be cut off at 45 to avoid sharp corners.
4. To avoid accidents, the top edge should be folded and overlapped with safe edge.
5. When cutting larger sheets, allow the right part to bend down out of the edge of work
piece and pull the left part up to leave space for your hand to separate the snip.
6. Heavy metal can be cut by clamping the sheet between two pieces of angle cross and
shearing it with a cold chisel.
!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 135

EXERCISES
1. SQUARE TRAY
2. RECTANGULAR TRAY
3. CONE MAKING
4. CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER
5. MAKING OF A CONE FUNNEL
136 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Step 8

Detail x
x

Developed detail y
120

y Formed detail y (top)


All dimensions are in mm
Fig. 5.23 Square tray.
!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 137

EXERCISE 1: SQUARE TRAY


Aim
To make a square tray from the given sheet metal.
Tools required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet
3. Scriber
4. Divider
5. Protractor
6. Straight snips
7. Groover
Material required
22 gauge galvanized iron (GI) sheet
Procedure
1. Mark and cut the sheet to a size of 300 300 mm after checking and levelling of the sheet
metal.
2. Mark a square of 150 150 mm on the centre of the sheet to indicate the bend lines for
the bottom portion of the sheet.
3. Mark bending lines for hemming 4 mm and 6 mm respectively around the square sheet as
shown in the figure.
4. Join the diagonal of the square sheet. Then mark 15 from the corners of the inner square
(150 150) by marking 7.5 either side of the diagonals.
5. From the intersection of 15 with the bending line which is marked 10 mm from the edge
of the square sheet 300 300, mark a line inclined at 60 to the bending line. Repeat the
same procedure for all the corners.
6. From the intersection of 60 line in the bending line which is marked 4 mm from the edge
of 300 300 mm square, mark 172.5 to the bending line. Repeat the same marking
procedure for the other corners.
7. Remove the corner portions as shown in the figure.
8. Then all the the sides of the tray are folded without waviness.
9. Now the seaming process must be carried out in all the corners using a groover.
10. All the corners are checked throughly to ensure leak proof seaming.
Result
Thus, the desired square tray is obtained from the given sheet metal.
138 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 5.24 Rectangular tray.


!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 139

EXERCISE 2: RECTANGULAR TRAY


Aim
To make a rectangular tray from the given sheet metal.
Tools required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet
3. Scriber
4. Divider
5. Protractor
6. Snips
7. Stakes
8. Rivet set
9. Ball peen hammer
Material required
22 gauge galvanized iron (GI) sheet.
Procedure
1. The size of the given sheet is checked for its dimensions using a steel rule.
2. Then the sheet is levelled on the levelling plate using a mallet.
3. The developement procedure is followed the same as the square taper tray.
4. The dimensions are marked as shown in Fig. 5.24.
5. The sheet is cut as per the marked dimensions by straight snips.
6. Then a single hemming is made on the four sides of the tray as shown in the figure.
7. The four sides of the tray are bent to 90 using the stakes anvil.
8. Finally ail the corners of the tray are joined by riveting.
Result
Thus, the desired rectangular tray is made from the given sheet metal.
140 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

q = 360 R
L
= 360 50
112

12
q = 161

=1
2
0
+5

100
2
0
10
L=

R = 50
10

10
45
45 45
10

Developed view
Fig. 5.25 Cone making.
!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 141

EXERCISE 3: CONE MAKING


Aim
To make a cone from the given sheet metal.
Tools required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet
3. Scriber
4. Divider
5. Protractor
6. White paper
7. Snips
8. Stakes
9. Groover
10. Bali peen hammer.
Material required
22 gauge galvanized iron (GI) sheet.
Procedure
1. The given metal sheet is checked for its dimensions using a steel rule.
2. The required shape is first produced in paper which is used for reproducing the exact size
on the sheet metal (Fig. 5.25).
3. The slanting angle of the sector is calculated by using the formula 360 (R/L), where, R
is a base circle radius and L is a slant height.
4. The required shape is cut from the paper.
5. Then the exact shape of the paper cut is placed on the GI sheet, so that the same size can
be reproduced on the sheet metal using the scriber.
6. Then the sheet is folded using the funnel stake to make a cone shape.
7. Then edges of the folded portion are joined together by seaming process using a groover.
Result
Thus, the cone of the required dimensions is made from the given sheet metal.
142 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 5.26 Cylindrical container.


!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 143

EXERCISE 4: CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER


Aim
To make a cylindrical container from the given sheet metal.
Tools required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet
3. Scriber
4. Straight snip
5. Stakes
6. Groover
7. Solder
Material required
22 gauge galvanized iron (GI) sheet.
Procedure
1. The given sheet metal is checked for its dimensions using a steel rule.
2. Then the sheet is levelled on the levelling plate using a mallet.
3. Any suitable dimensions are chosen for D, H and markout development of the sheet by
the parallel line development as per dimensions.
4. Remove the unwanted material using straight snips.
5. Then the folding is done in such a way that to get the cylinder shape (Fig. 5.26).
6. Both the closing edges are joined together by the seaming process.
7. Finally, the bottom of the cylinder is closed with round portion of the sheet metal and
soldering is done on the outer periphery of the round portion with the cylinder.
Result
Thus, the cylindrical container is made from the given sheet metal.
144 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

100

Hemmed
edge

Part A
Locked grooved

90
joint

f8

Soldered joint
Part B
Butt joint
25

f5

3
4 2

5 1

6 0
2 4 6
1 8 10
0 12
2
54
28.5
10

3
11

6
1
0

4 5
164
5
76.5

19
6

8
12 9
5 10
11
Developed view of Part A Developed view of Part B
Fig. 5.27 Making of a funnel.
!""#$%"#&'$()*+ 145

EXERCISE 5: MAKING OF A CONE FUNNEL


Aim
To make a funnel (Fig. 5.27) from the given sheet metal.
Tools required
1. Steel rule
2. Mallet
3. Ball peen hammer
4. Scriber
5. White paper
6. Straight snips
7. Groover
8. Solder
Material required
22 gauge galvanized iron (GI) sheet.
Procedure
1. The size of the given sheet metal is checked for its dimensions using a steel rule.
2. The required development of surface is being made on the white paper which is overlapped
on the sheet metal.
3. The marking is done on the sheet metal as per the development being done on the paper.
4. Now using straight snips, unwanted materials are removed.
5. Now fold and bend the workpiece to make the funnel shape and joint is made on the
workpieces.
6. Then using a groover, a locked grooved joint is made for about 5 mm. Also, hemming is
done in the bottom of the funnel.
7. In between top face and bottom face, a butt joint is made using a solder.
8. Finally, trimming and finishing operations are carried out.
Result
Thus, the funnel of the required dimensions is made from the given sheet metal.
6 MACHINE ASSEMBLY
PRACTICE

6.1 STUDY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


The centrifugal pump is a hydraulic machine which converts mechanical energy into pressure
energy by means of centrifugal force. This is the simplest kind of pump to handle water or any
other fluid.

6.2 MAIN COMPONENTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP


A centrifugal pump has the following main componants.
(i) Suction pipe
(ii) Casing
(iii) Impeller
(iv) Suction and delivery pipe
(v) Gland and shaft
6.2.1 Suction Pipe
A pipe whose one end is connected to the inlet flange of the pump and the other end dips into the
water sump is known as a suction pipe. In the suction pipeline the foot valve and the check valve
(or) non-return valve is fitted at the lower end of the suction pipe. Nearby the suction line flange,
the strainer and control valve is also fitted for filtering and for flow control.
6.2.2 Casing
Casing is an air-tight passage surrounding the impeller. Casings are generally of three types:
(i) Volute casing
(ii) Vortex casing
(iii) Diffuser casing
146
!"#$%&'!((& )*+',-!".$"& 147

Volute casing
The volute casing is a spiral type in which area of flow increases gradually. The increase in area of
flow causes decrease in the velocity of the flow. The volute reduces the speed of the liquid and
increases its pressure. Volute casing helps in balancing the hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the
pump. The impeller is fitted inside the casing.
Vortex casing
The vortex casing is shown in Fig. 6.1. The circular chamber is introduced in between the casing
and the impeller. The vortex casing reduces formation of eddies and results in reduction in loss of
energy. Thus the efficiency of the pump with voltex casing is more than the efficiency with volute
casing.

Fig. 6.1 Vortex casing.


Diffuser casing
The diffuser casing is shown in Fig. 6.2. In this case, the impeller is surrounded by a diffuser. The
diffuser having a series of guide vanes, and vanes are designed in such a way that the water from
the impeller enters the guide vanes without stock, increasing the area of guide the pressure also
increasing by reducing the velocity.

Fig. 6.2 Diffuser casing.

6.2.3 Impeller
The impeller (Fig. 6.3) is the rotating part of the centrifugal pump that provides the centrifugal
acceleration to the fluid. Impellers are often classified in may ways. Based on major direction of
flow in reference to the axis of rotation, the impellers are classified as
(i) Radial flow impeller
(ii) Axial flow impeller
(iii) Mixed flow impeller
148 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 6.3 Impeller.

6.2.4 Suction and Delivery Pipe


The suction and delivery pipe is shown in Fig. 6.4. In a suction pipe, one end is submerged into
water and the other end is connected to inlet of the pump flange.

Fig. 6.4 Sunction and delivery pipe.


In a delivery pipe, one end is connected to the outlet of the pump flange and the other end
delivers the water at the required level. The discharge nozzle is located at the top of the case
perpendicular to the shaft.
6.2.5 Gland and Shaft
The gland is a very important part of the seal chamber. It gives the packing or the mechanical seal
the desired fit on the shaft sleeve. It can be easily adjusted in the axial direction.
The basic purpose of a shaft is to transmit torques encountered and to support the impeller
and other rotating parts.
!"#$%&'!((& )*+',-!".$"& 149

6.2.6 Working Principle


The centrifugal pump (Fig. 6.5) works on the principle of forced vortex flow which means that
water or a fluid enters the suction eye (enter) of a revolving device known as impeller, and the rise
in pressure head of the rotating liquid takes place.
The rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is proportional to the square of
the tangential velocity of the liquid at that point. Thus at the outlet of the impeller where the radius
is more, the rise in pressure head will be more. Due to this pressure head, the liquid can be lifted to
a high level.

Fig. 6.5 Centrifugal pump.

6.2.7 Priming
Air from a suction pipe, casing and portion of the delivery pipe, i.e. up to the valve is replaced by
water before starting the pump. The process of replacing the air with water in the pump is called
priming.
The priming is necessary before starting the centrifugal pump, otherwise the pump will not
deliver the water.
6.2.8 Applications
1. In the agricultural sector, a centrifugal pump is used to deliver water from the well.
2. In industries, power plants use the centrifugal pump for cooling water circulation.
3. In chemical industries and boilers feed water pumps, the centrifugal pumps are used for
pumping the water to a required level.

6.3 STUDY OF REFRIGERATORS


Refrigerators are classified into three types:
1. Air refrigerator
2. Vapour compression refrigerator
3. Vapour absorption refrigerator
150 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

6.3.1 Air Refrigerator


The operating principles of a simple air cycle refrigeration system are shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 6.6(a). The various processes involved in the cycle are represented in the T-S diagram in
Fig. 6.6(b). The main components of this system are: an air-to-air heat exchanger or cooler and a
cooling turbine.
Power Min
turbine compressor
To Ambient
atmosphere T C Rammed
air air

Heat
exchanger
Combustion
chamber
Cooling
turbine

Exhaust
To cabin
fan
Fig. 6.6(a) Simple cooling cycle.

Compressor pressure
discharge line Rammed air
pressure line
c Cabin air
Temperature (T)

pressure line
d
b Ambient air
pressure line

a
e

Entropy (S)
Fig. 6.6(b) TS diagram.
The ambient air at a velocity equal to the plane speed in which the unit is installed enters the
inlet section which is designed as a diffuser. The air is slowed down and a part of the kinetic
energy of the air stream is converted into pressure. This type of compression is called ram
compression. This increase in pressure by this ramming action is shown by line a b on the TS
diagram. Further compression of air to the desired pressure takes place in the main compressor
C and the process is shown by bc in Fig. 6.6(b). Now, a part of this high pressure air is taken off
for refrigeration system as shown in Fig. 6.6(a). This high pressure and high temperature air is
first cooled in the heat exchanger or cooler (process cd) where cooling medium is the rammed
air. Further, cooling of air takes place in the cooling turbine by the process of expansion with
work extraction; to the desired cabin pressure and temperature as shown by the line de. The
!"#$%&'!((& )*+',-!".$"& 151

work obtained from the cooling turbine is utilized to drive the exhaust fan which draws rammed
air over the heat exchanger.
6.3.2 Vapour Compression Refrigerator
The layout of a vapour compression refrigeration system is shown in Fig. 6.7. The vapour
compression refrigerator system is most commonly used in air conditioning system which is
explained below. A refrigerant is a gas which is used in refrigerators and air conditioners. R-22 is
a commonly used refrigerant in domestic air conditioners. There are following four plates in the
vapour compression system:
1. Compression
2. Condensation
3. Expansion
4. Evaporation
Refrigeration cycle
Receiver

Evaporator

Suction line

Discharge line

Expansion valve
Condenser

Compressor
Fig. 6.7 Vapour compression refrigeration system.
1. Compression: In the compressor, the refrigerant (in vapour form) is compressed to
increase the pressure of the refrigerant that comes out of the evaporator to the condenser
through the discharge line.
2. Condensation: In the condenser, the high pressure and high temperature refrigerant
vapour rejects heat to the cooling medium that comes out of the evaporator to the condenser
through the discharge line.
3. Expansion: After condensation, the liquid refrigerant is stored in the liquid receiver
until needed. From the receiver, it passes though an expansion valve where the pressure
is reduced sufficiently to allow vapourization at a low temperature of about 10oC.
4. Evaporation: The low pressure refrigerant vapour after expansion in the expansion
valve, enters the evaporator or refrigerated space, where a considerable amount of heat is
absorbed by it and refrigeration is furnished.
152 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Applications
1. To make cinema theaters, restaurants, hospitals and residential buildings air conditioned
for comfort.
2. To manufacture and pressure the advanced medicines. These medicines are manufactured
and preserved only in special atmospheric conditions.
3. To preserve food produces.
Domestic refrigerator
It is one of the vapour compression refrigeration system.
Figure 6.8 shows the basic components of a vapour compression system used in common
domestic refrigerators. In modern domestic refrigerators, we use a capillary tube in place of the
conventional expansion valve. It is small bore tube which carries refrigerant from the condenser to
the low temperature coils of the evaporator. The tube in contact with the suction line serves a dual
purpose of reducing the pressure of the refrigerant by throttling action and sub-cooling it by giving
its heat to the vapour going to the suction of the compressor. The accumulator (not shown in the
figure) works as a storage tank which receives liquid refrigerant from the evaporator and prevents
it from flowing into the suction line. It allows only dry vapour to enter the compressor.
Evaporator

Capiliary Condenser
tube

Suction
line

Compressor Discharge
and motor line
Fig. 6.8 Schematic diagram of a domestic refrigerator.

6.3.3 Vapour Absorption Refrigerator


If the compressor in a vapour compression system is replaced with a generator absorber assembly,
then a simple absorption system is obtained (Fig. 6.9).
!"#$%&'!((& )*+',-!".$"& 153

Refrigerant vapour
Condenser Generator

Liquid Concentrated Driving heat


refrigerant solution source

Absorber

Cooling water
Chilled water

Evaporator

Absorbent pump
Fig. 6.9 Vapour absorption refrigerator.
In this case, the low pressure refrigerant vapour (ammonia) coming from the evaporator is
absorbed in the absorber by the weak solution of refrigerant in water. Absorption of ammonia
lowers the pressure in the absorber which, in turn, draws more ammonia vapour from the evaporator.
Some form of cooling arrangement, usually water cooling, is employed in the absorber to remove
the heat of solution evolved there. This is necessary to increase the absorption capacity of water
because at high temperature, water absorbs less ammonia. The solution from the absorber builds
up a pressure up to 10 bar and forces the strong solution in the generator.
In the generator, the strong solution of ammonia is heated by some external source such a
gas or steam. In the heating process, the ammonia vapour is driven out of the solution as a high
pressure vapour leaving behind in the generator a weak solution. The weak solution flows back to
the absorber through a restriction which maintains the pressure differential between the high and
low sides of the system. From the generator, the refrigerant vapour is conducted to the condenser
where it is condensed. Then the high pressure liquid ammonia is passed through a throttle valve to
the evaporator where it absorbs its latent heat, thus, producing cold.

6.4 STUDY OF AIR CONDITIONER


An air conditioner is defind as an assembly of different parts of the system used for refrigeration.
It is the process by which the temperature of a given space is lowered below that of the atmospheric
or surroundings. The room air conditioner is shown in Fig. 6.10.
154 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 6.10 Room air conditioner.

6.4.1 Main Parts of an Air Conditioner


The followings are the main parts of an air conditioner:
(a) Compressor (b) Condenser
(c) Expansion valve (d) Evaporator
(e) Receiver tank
Compressor: The compressor unit is shown in Fig. 6.11. The function of the compressor is to
draw refrigerant vapour from the evaporator and then raise its temperature and pressure to such a
point so that it may be easily condensed with normally available condensing media.
It also maintains continous flow of the refrigerant through the system.

Fig. 6.11 Compressor unit.


!"#$%&'!((& )*+',-!".$"& 155

Condenser: The condenser unit is shown in Fig. 6.12. The function of the condenser is to provide
a heat transfer surface through which heat passes from the refrigerant to the condensing medium
which is either water or air.

Fig. 6.12 Condenser unit.


Expansion valve: Its function is to supply a proper amount of refrigerant to the evaporator after
reducing its pressure considerably so that the refrigerant may take sufficient amount of heat from
the refrigerating space during evaporation.
Evaporator: The evaporator unit is shown in Fig. 6.13. Its function is to provide a heat transfer
surface though which heat can pass from the refrigerated space into the vaporising refrigerant.

Fig. 6.13 Evaporator unit.


Receiver tank: It acts as a reservoir which stores the liquid refrigerant coming from the condenser
and supplies it to the evaporators according to the requirement.
156 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

6.5 CONTROL PANEL


The window AC control panel is shown in Fig. 6.14. It contains a selection switch for selecting the
operations such as off, fan, low cool. medium cool and high cool.
Thermostat: A thermostat bulb is provided at the front of the air intake. The thermostat
knowb maintains the air intake for cooling. The thermostat will stop by switching off the compressor
at 78o F.
Vent door control: It is used to close, partially open or fully open the vent door.
Exhaust door control: It is used to control the exhaust door operation to emit the heat outside.
Air sweep motor switch: It is provided to let the cold air swing or oscillate inside the room.
Vent door Exhaust door
control control

Close Open Close Open

Vent Exhaust

Colder Low cool


6 7 On
5 8 Med cool
4
Fan
9
High
3 10 Off cool
2
1
Thermostat Off

Air sweep Selector


motor switch switch
Fig. 6.14 AC control panel.

6.6 MAINTENANCE OF WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER


The air filter in a window air conditioner requires the regular attention of the user (Fig. 6.15). It
gets clogged with dust particles over a period of time, decreasing the air flow through it and,
hence, reducing the cooling efficiency. It is therefore necessary to clean the air filter regularly (at
least once in 15 days if the air conditioner runs a minimum 8 hrs per day). This can easily be done
by the users themselves by first removing the front grill and then taking out the filter for cleaning.
In some models, the filter can be taken out without removing the grill. Besides this, the regular
maintenance is needed to be carried out by the user. However, after a prolonged period of shutdown
as may happen in winter, the air conditioner should be serviced annually by a qualified technician
before the AC is put into service. This is done by removing the AC from its housing to clean with
water the evaporator coil, condenser coil, compressor, fan motor and all the sheet metal parts. The
cabinet or the housing may be painted if found necessary.
!"#$%&'!((& )*+',-!".$"& 157

Air in Air out

Condenser
Fan

Motor Compressor
blower motor

Cooling coil
Filter

Cooled room air Warm room air


Fig. 6.15 Window air conditioner.
If there are oil holes at both ends of the fan motor near the bush bearing, then the bearing
should be oiled and all bolts and nuts should be tightened using a torque wrench.

6.7 SPLIT AIR CONDITIONER


Introduction
Now-a-days, split type air conditioner is being increasingly used because it is more efficient and
less noisy. The noise making components like compressor and condenser are mounted outside or
away from the room. Thus, there is no need for large hole in the wall or opening in the window that
is required for window room air conditioner.
Split type air conditioning system has two main components.
1. Outdoor unit
2. Indoor unit
The outdoor unit consists of compressor and condenser. The indoor unit consists of power cables,
refrigerant tube, expansion valve and an evaporator mounted inside the room, enclosed in a space
saving cabinet.
Working principle
Split air conditioner (Fig. 6.16) employs the working principle same as that of window type room
air conditioer. The basic components also are the same as those of window air conditioner. Split
air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior of the room to the warm outside.
A compressor is used to compress the refrigerant. The refrigerant is allowed to move between
the evaporator and the condenser through the circuit of tubing the fins in the coils. The evaporator
and condenser usually are made of coil of copper tubes and surrounded by aluminium fins. The
liquid refrigerant coming from the condenser evaporates in the indoor evaporator coil. During this
process, the heat is removed from the indoor air and thus, the room is cooled. Air return grid takes
in the indoor air. Water dehumidified out of air is drained through drain pipe.
The hot refrigerant vapour is passed to the compressor and then to the condenser where it
becomes liquid. Thus, the cycle is repeated.
158 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Indoor unit Temperature indicator


Air return grid Air filter

Air
Left/right air flow
outlet Indoor unit
direction adjusting flap

Up/down air flow


Refrigeration
direction adjusting flap
piping connection
(Copper tube
Drain tube
properly insulated)

Outdoor unit

Air inlet at side Air discharge


and rear surface vent

Outdoor unit
(a) Shows the layout diagram of a (b) Shows a prototype indoor unit and outdoor
split room air conditioner unit of a split type air conditioner.
Figure 6.16 Split type room air conditioner.
In earlier years, all air conditioners used chloro fluorocarbons (CFCs) as refrigerant. But
these chemicals were affecting the earths ozone layer. The use of CFC as refrigerant was stopped
in the year 1995. Now, all the air conditioning systems use Halogenated Chloro Fluorocarbons
(HCFCs) as refrigerant.
A thermostat is used to keep the room at a constant, comfortable temperature avoiding frequent
turning on and off.
Uses of split type air conditioner: Split type air conditioner is used in houses, stores, offices,
small restaurants, computer centres, coffee shops, beauty parlours, etc.
Advantages of split air conditioner
1. Split air conditioner is compact.
2. Upto four indoor air handling units may be connected to one outdoor unit.
3. It has flexibility for zoning.
4. Split air conditioning is energy and money saving.
5. Duct is not used.
6. Split air conditioner is easier to install than any other air conditioning system.
7. Split air conditioner is noiseless, because rotary compressor is used in the outdoor unit.
8. Split air conditioner is more efficient and powerful in cooling at the lowest noise level.
Note: In zoning, a single outdoor unit serves more than one indoor unit.
Disadvantages of split air conditioner
1. Initial cost is higher than that of window type air conditioning system.
2. Skilled technician is required for installation.
3. Each zone or room requires thermostat to control the air cooling.
7 SMITHY

7.1 INTRODUCTION
Smithy or forging is one of the manufacturing processes to give desired shape to any job or metal
by heating or cooling it by applying mechanical force.
Blacksmithing or hand forging is an ancient trade. It consists of heating a metal stock till it
acquires sufficient plasticity, followed by hand forging, involving hammering, anealing, pressing, etc.
till the desired shape is attained.

7.2 EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS USED IN SMITHY SHOP


7.2.1 Smith Furnace
A piece of equipment called smith furnace used in smithy to heat the workpiece is shown in
Fig. 7.1. It is used to heat the metal to be shaped. Hearths are used for heating small jobs to be
forged by hand. Gas, oil and coal fining may be used for the purpose. The required air for the fire
is supplied under pressure by a blower through the tuyere in the hearth.
Heat the metal to proper temperature. It is essential as excessive temperature may result in
fruiting of the metal that may destroy cohesion between atoms. Table 7.1 shows the forging
temperature of ferrous metals.
Table 7.1 Forging temperature
Metal Forging temperature
Mild Steel 7501300C
Wrought Iron 9001300C
Medium Carbon Steel 750125C
High Carbon Steel 8001150C
159
160 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Exhaust

Hood

Tuyere

Valve Water
tank

Compressed air

Fig. 7.1 Smith furnace.

Tools used in smithy are broadly classified as follows:


Supporting tools
Striking tools
Holding tools
Cutting tools
Finishing and shaping tools
7.2.2 Supporting Tools
Anvil
The anvil is shown in Fig. 7.2. It provides the necessary support during forging by resisting the
heavy blows rendered to the job. It is also useful for such operations as bending, swaging, etc. Its
body is generally made of cast steel, wrought iron or mild steel, with a hardened top layer of about
20 to 25 mm thickness.

Fig. 7.2 Anvil.


!"#$% 161

The beak is used for bending metal to round shapes. The hole which is square is used to hold
square shank tools like handles, sweage and fullers.
Swage block
A swage block (Fig. 7.3) has a number of slots of different shapes and sizes along its four side
faces and through holes of different shapes and sizes, running from its top to bottom faces. It is
generally made up of cast iron or cast steel.

Fig. 7.3 Swage block.

7.2.3 Striking Tools (Hammers)


The hammers are used by a smith in order to giver the required shape to the heated metal piece.
Types of hammers
The following are the types of hammers:
(i) Ball peen hammer (ii) Cross peen hammer
(iii) Straight peen hammer (iv) Set hammer
(v) Sledge hammer
The hammers (Fig. 7.4) weight varies from 0.5 kg to 2 kg and the sledge hammer weight
varies from 3 to 10 kg. The hammer heads are made up of cast steel and ends are hardened and
tempered. Except the sledge hammer, all are used for riveting, bending, straitening, etc. The sledge
hammers are heavier than others and these are used where heavy flows are required on the job.

Fig. 7.4 Hammers.


162 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

7.2.4 Holding Tools


Generally tongs (Fig. 7.5) are used for holding pompose. It is made up of mild steel. The following
are the types of holding tools:
(i) Flat tong
(ii) Square bit tong
(iii) Round bit tong
(iv) Pick up tong

Fig. 7.5 Holding tools.

7.2.5 Cutting Tools


Cutting tools are used for cutting and necking metals prior to breaking. The chisels are used for
cutting or necking. Hot and cold chisels are also used. A cold chisel is made up of tool steel and its
cutting angle of about 600, where a hot chisel is made up of low carbon stool and it has a cutting
angle of 300.
7.2.6 Finishing and Shaping Tools
The following are tools used to give the desired forms and shapes to a workpiece.
Swages: The swages are shown in Fig. 7.6. They are used to reduce and finish the job to the
correct size and shape. The shape may be rounded hexagonal. Swages are made up of high carbon
steel.

Fig. 7.6 Swages.


!"#$% 163

Fullers: Fullers (Fig. 7.7) are a set of tools (top and bottom). The top is provided with a handle
and the bottom fits into the hole of an anvil. They are used to form grooves and spread the metal
and reduce the thickness of the workpiece.

Fig. 7.7 Fullers.

Flatters: A flatter is used after the job has been forged into shape with a hammer and the hammer
marks can be seen on the job surface. It gives smoothness and accuracy to the workpieces.
Punch: A punch is used for making holes in the heated workpiece.
Drift: A drift can be used to enlarge a hole to a particular shape and size, which is already made
by a punch.

7.3 FORGING
Forging is the process of shaping the workpiece by means of heatings the workpiece and hammering
operation.
Based on the machining used for operation, forging is classified into four major types:
1. Hand forging
2. Power forging
3. Hammer forging
4. Press forging
7.3.1 Hand Forging
Smith forging is known as hand forging. It is used to produce a small number of light forgings.
7.3.2 Power Forging
Long components cannot be forged by hand. Machines which work on forging by blow are called
hammers, while those working by pressure are called presses.
7.3.3 Hammer Forging
In hammer forging, the hammer is lifted up to a certain level, and then it is allowed to fall by
granite.
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7.3.4 Press Forging


In press forging, the metal is shaped not by means of blows as in drop forging, but by means of
continous squeezing action of a press applied to the forging that gradually increases and penetrates
deep into the metal. There are two types of press used for this purpose.
1. Hydraulic press
2. Mechanical press

7.4 SMITH FORGING OPERATIONS


For getting desired shapes to products, the following operations are used.
(a) Upsetting
(b) Drawing down
(c) Setting down
(d) Punching and drifting
(e) Bending
(f) Forge welding
(g) Cutting off
(h) Fullering
7.4.1 Upsetting
Upsetting is the process of increasing the thickness of a bar with the corresponding reduction in
length by applying the end pressure. The pressure is applied at the end of the bar against the angle
clamped in position and then hammering against it.
7.4.2 Drawing Down
Drawing down is used to reduce the thickness of the bar to increase its length. For this process, the
force is applied in a dircetion of the axis.
7.4.3 Setting Down
It is the process of local thinning down of the workpiece by hammering.
7.4.4 Punching and Drifting
Punching operation is used to make holes in the workpiece during forging, A punch is forced about
half way through the work by striking it slightly with a hard or sledge hammer. The punch is
removed, the work is affixed over and the punch driven into the metal by a sledge hammer, and
thus the hole is made.
After punching, hole can be enlarged by hammering a tappered drift into the hole until the
required bore size is reached.
7.4.5 Bending
Bending is very common forging operation. It is done at the edge of the anvil face, over the anvil
horn or by inserting the end in the hole and bending the bar with hong.
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7.4.6 Forge Welding


It is one of the method of joining the metals or bars.
A forge weld is made by hammering together the ends of the two heated bars. In the lap
weld, ends of the pieces to be joined must be upset and shaped slightly convex, so that when put
together the junction takes place first at the centre and extends to the edges. Wrought iron and
mild steel can be satisfactory forge welded.
7.4.7 Cutting Off
Cutting-off is a form of chiselling to cut a long workpiece of stock into several pieces of specified
lengths. For hot chiselling, the workpiece must be heated in a blacksmiths furnace.
7.4.8 Fullering
It is the process of spreading the metal along the length of the bar of the workpiece by hammering
and in which the workpiece is kept between fullers.
Figure 7.8 illustrates the typical smith forging operations.

Fig. 7.8 Typical smith forging operations.


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7.5 APPLICATIONS
1. Smith forging is used to fabricate components like bolts, nuts, keys, tongs, springs, etc.
2. The agricultural tool, and links are fabricated by the smithy forging mechanism.
3. The smithy components have high strength and give great resistance to impact and fatigue
loads.
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EXERCISES
1. MAKING A ROUND ROD INTO A HEXAGONAL HEADED BOLT
2. A ROUND ROD TO A SQUARE ROD
3. MAKING A HOOK
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f10
V1

0
lr
=8

Fig. 7.9 Making a round rod into a hexagonal headed bolt.

f1
0

9
50
f10

f10
V1

50

4
5 3
6 2 60
h = 8.66

1
d = 10
60 60

9
t
Vh

h = height of the bolt head


t = thinckness of bolt head
d = diameter of the bolt
V1 = volume of the raw material
Vh = volume of the hexagonal bolt head
lr = length of the round rod
Fig. 7.10 Hexagonal headed bolt.
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EXERCISE 1: MAKING A ROUND ROD INTO A HEXAGONAL HEADED BOLT


Aim
To make a hexagonal headed bolt (Figs. 7.9 and 7.10) of a given size on one end of the round rod.
Tools required
1. Blacksmith furnace 2. Tongs
3. Anvil 4. Swage block (Hexagonal bottom)
5. Sledge hammer 6. Ball peen hammer
7. Flatters
Material required
Mild steel round rod of 10 mm diameter and 80 mm length.
Procedure
1. The following sequence of operations to be followed to make the job.
(a) Heating (b) Flattening
(c) Forming the shape (d) Cooling
2. First the length of the given workpiece is calculated and it is selected for operation.
lr : Length of the rod
lb : Length of the bolt
3. Then the workpiece is heated to a red hot temperature by keeping the workpiece in the
heating furnace.
4. Using the tongs and anvil, the workpiece is formed to six faces by hammering process.
5. Once again it is heated and the process is continued to make a hexagonal bolt.
6. Finally the workpiece is made perfect by the swage block and cooled in water to attain
the maximum handness.
Result
Thus, the hexagonal headed bolt is made from the given round rod.
Calculation of rod length :
h
tan 60 = 5
h = 8.666 mm
Hexagonal area = 6 triangular area
= 6 1 (10)(8.66) 260 mm 2
2
Volume of hexagonal bolt head Vh = Area thinckness
260 9 = 2340 (Q t = 0.9)
Volume of matric thread (volume except bolt head) Vm = 10 2 50 3927 mm 3
4
Volume of raw material (V1) = 4 10 2 lr 78.54 lr
V1 = Vh + Vm
78.54 lr = 2340 + 3927
lr = 80 mm (approx)
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0
10
l 0=

f
10 10

Where
lo = Original length
lc = ? lc = Change in length
2
p/4 a 2 lo = a lc
2 2
p/4 10 100 = 10 lc

lc = 78.5 mm

Fig. 7.11 A round rod to a square rod.


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EXERCISE 2: A ROUND ROD TO A SQUARE ROD


Aim
To make a square rod from the given round rod.
Tools required
1. Blacksmith furnace
2. Anvil
3. Tongs
4. Swage block
5. Sledge hammer
Material required
Mild steel round rod of diameter 10 mm with a calculated length
Procedure
1. Collect the workpiece with the required dimensions.
2. Heat the workpiece in the furnace to the required temperature.
3. Deform the workpice using a sledge hammer to the required size and shape.
4. Apply a force uniformly till getting the required shape.
5. After finishing the work, the final workpiece should be cooled for getting hardness. Here,
the process is completed.
Result
Thus, the required square rod is made from the given round rod.
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0m
f
10 20

Fig. 7.12 Making a hook.


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EXERCISE 3: MAKING A HOOK


Aim
To make a hook bend from the given round rod.
Tools required
1. Blacksmith furnace
2. Anvil
3. Tongs
4. Swage block
5. Slede hammer
6. Measuring tape
Material required
Mild steel round rod of length 200 mm and diameter 10 mm.
Procedure
1. Collect the workpiece with the required dimensions.
2. Heat the workpiece in a furnace and stretch to the required length.
3. Again heat one end of the workpiece to red hot condition.
4. Then place the workpiece in u-clamp and hammered uniformly to get the hook.
5. Further, heat the other end of the workpiece and sharpen it by hammering.
6. Finally, clean the workpiece and cool for getting the hardness. Here, the process is
completed.
Result
Thus, the required hook bend is made from the given round rod.
8 FOUNDRY

8.1 INTRODUCTION
Foundry is the most ancient industry which deals with the manufacturing of metal castings of
desired shape and size. Metal casting is the process of pouring a material in a liquid form into a
mould and allowing it to solidify to produce the desired product. Sand casting is a very old technique,
but improved methods such as shell moulding, investment casting, die casting, centrifugal casting,
etc. are finding wider applications.
Pattern: It is the model used to get required casting.
Moulding sand: It is a mixture of sand and additives such as water, bentonite, inoculant, sodium
silicate, etc. used to create the mould cavity.

8.2 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN FOUNDRY


The following tools and equipment (Fig. 8.1) are needed for moulding.
(i) Moulding board (ii) Moulding husks (Boxes)
(iii) Bellows (iv) Shovel
(v) Riddle (vi) Rammer
(vii) Strike edge or Strike-off bar (viii) Sprue pin
(ix) Trowel (x) Spike or Draw pin
(xi) Slick (xii) Lifters
(xiii) Vent rod (xiv) Gate cutter and Swab
174
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Fig. 8.1 Tools and equipment.


8.2.1 Tools
Shovel: It is a big tool used for mixing and transfering moulding sand. It is also used for carrying
the moulding sand from the sand pit to the moulding box. It has a broad metal blade with long
wooden handle.
Riddle: It is a metal sieve used for removing foreign materials such as stones, nails, etc. from the
moulding sand. It has a circular or square wooden frame with a wire mesh at the bottom. The
spacing between two consequent wires determines the fineness of sand particles.
Rammer: A rammer is a tool made of wood or cast iron used for packing or ramming the moulding
sand in the moulding box. It has got two ends. One end is wedge shaped and it is known as peen.
The other end is cylindrical in shape and known as butt end.
Trowel: A trowel is a metal blade usually rectangular and has a round or square end used for
smoothening the surfaces of a mould. It is also used to repair the damaged portions of a mould.
Slick: A slick is a double-ended tool used for repairing and finishing surfaces and to round
corners of the mould.
Lifter: It is used to lift the openings of deep moulds. It is also used to repair broken surfaces of
the mould. It is made of steel of various widths and lengths.
Strike-off bar: It is made of wood. It has a straight edge. It is used to remove excessive sand
from the mould after ramming.
Sprue pin: It is a tapered cylindrical wooden piece. It is used for making a sprue hole in the
mould to facilitate pouring of metal. The size of the sprue pin depends upon the size of the mould.
Bellows: Bellows are used to blow off loose sand particles from the mould and pattern.
Swab: A swab is a small brush. This is used for applying small amount of water around the
pattern before removing it from the mould.
Gate cutter: It is used for cutting gates and runners in the mould.
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Draw spike: It is a pointed steel rod with a loop at one end. It is used to remove the pattern from
the mould.
Vent rod: This rod is used for making vent holes in the sand mould so that the molten gases
released during pouring of molten metal, can easily escape from mould.
A generalized process flow diagram of a typical sand casting process is shown in Fig. 8.2.

Fig. 8.2 Flow chart of sand casting process.

8.3 FOUNDRY OPERATION


Steps involved in casting are as follows:
1. Pattern making 2. Moulding and core making
3. Melting and pouring 4. Fettling
5. Inspection and testing
8.3.1 Pattern Making and Materials
Pattern is the full size model of the casting to be made. It gives the shape to the mould cavity where
the molten metal solidifies to the desired shape and size. The process of making a pattern is known
as pattern making.
The following materials are generally used for making patterns:
(a) Wood (b) Metals
(c) Plastics (d) Wax
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Wood patterns: The most common material used for making patterns is wood only. Commonly
the following kinds of wood can be used to make the patterns.
(i) Pine wood (ii) Teak wood
(iii) Mahogany (iv) Deodar
Advantages
(a) It is very cheap and easy of availability.
(b) Light in weight and easy to shape.
(c) Wood can be cut and fabricated into many forms.
Disadvantages
(a) It swells or shrinks because it is affected by moisture.
(b) Its strength is low and tends to break on rough usage.
Metal patterns: Wherever the mass production of castings, the following metals are used for
making patterns.
(a) Steel (b) Cast iron
(c) Aluminium (d) Plaster patterns (Gypsum cement)
Advantages
(i) It is very strong and durable.
(ii) Wears resistance and maintains dimensional statility.
Disadvantages
(i) Compaing wood metal patterns, they are heavy in weight.
(ii) Liable to rust.
Plastic patterns: Thermosetting resins, e.g. phenolic resin and epoxy resin have the desired
properties of a pattern material.
Advantages
(i) Durable and light weight.
(ii) Better adhesive qualities and moisture resistant.
(iii) Wear and corrosion resistant.
Disadvantages
(i) Because of light sections may need metal reinforcements.
(ii) May not work when subject to shocks.
Wax patterns: Wax patterns provide high degree of surface finish and dimensional accuracy to
castings. The most commonly used waxes are:
(i) Paraffin wax (ii) Carnauba wax
(iii) Shellac wax (iv) Bees wax, etc.
After being moulded, the wax pattem is not taken out of the mould like other patterns. Rather
the mould is inverted and heated, the molten wax comes out of the mould. Thus, there is no chance
of the mould cavity getting damaged while removing the pattern.
Wax pattern is excellent for the investment casting process.
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Pattern allowances
A pattern differs from the casting in certain dismensions. When the pattern is prepared, the
allowances are given on the sizes of casting. These are known as pattern allowances. The pattern
allowances are as follows:
(i) Shrinkage (or) contraction allowance
(ii) Draft (or) taper allowance
(iii) Finishing (or) machining allowance
(iv) Shaking (or) rapping allowance
(v) Distortion (or) chamber allowance
Types of pattern
According to the design of casting, complexity of shape, moulding process and accuracy, the
pattern types (Fig. 8.3) are as follows:
(a) Solid pattern (Single piece) (b) Split pattern
(c) Loose piece pattern (d) Cope and drag pattern
(e) Match plate pattern (f) Gated pattern

Fig. 8.3 Types of pattern.


Solid pattern
It is the simplest type of pattern.
It is made from one piece and does not contain loose piece or joints.
It is inexpensive.
It is used for making a few large size simple casting.
One piece pattern is usually made up of wood or metal depending upon the quantity of
castings to be produced.
Stuffing box of steam engine may be cast with the help of one piece pattern.
Split pattern
Patterns of intricate (complicated shape) castings cannot be made in one piece because of
the inherent difficulties associated with the moulding operations. Such patterns are then
made as split or two piece patterns.
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The upper and the lower parts of the split pattern are accommodated in the cope and drag
portions of the mould respectively.
Dowel pins are used for keeping the alignment between the two parts of the pattern.
Taps and water stop-cocks are produced with the help of split pattern.
Loose piece pattern
Certain patterns cannot be withdrawn once they are embedded in the moulding sand, such
patterns are usually made with one or more loose pieces for facilitating their removal
from the moulding box and are known as loose piece patterns.
Loose parts or pieces remain attached with the main body of the pattern with the help of
dowel pins.
Match plate pattern
When split patterns are mounted with one half on one side of a plate and the other half
directly opposite on the other side of the plate, such pattern is called match plate pattern.
The match plate with the help of locator holes can be clamped with the drag.
The match plate has a runner and gates also attached to it.
After the cope and drag have been rammed with the moulding sand, the match plate
pattern is removed.
Cope and drag are then assembled and this completes the mould.
Piston rings of IC engines are produced with the help of match plate pattern.
8.3.2 Moulding and Core Making
Figure 8.4 shows the sample mould preparation process.

Fig. 8.4 Mould preparation process.


Moulding sand
Moulding sand is one of the most important materials in production of sand casting. The properties
of moulding sand are as follows:
Porosity or permeability: It is the property of moulding sand by which the sand allows the steam
and gases to pass through it. When molten metal is poured into the mould, steam and gases will be
formed. If the gases are not removed, casting defects such as blow holes will occur. This property
by which moulding sand allows other gases to go outside is called porosity or permeability.
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Plasticity: This is the property by which the moulding sand gets the shape of the pattern and
retains the shape. Only due to this property the moulding sand gets the shape of the pattern in the
mould.
Adhesiveness: This is the property by which the sand particles stick or adhere to another body.
The moulding sand sticks to the side of the moulding boxes by this property. The moulding sand
does not fall out of the box because of adhesiveness.
Cohesiveness: It is the property by which sand particles stick together. It is called strength of
sand. Because of this property, mould remains strong and does not break when molten metal is
poured.
Refractoriness: This is the property of moulding sand to resist high temperature of molten metal.
By this property, the moulding sand withstands high temperature and does not melt.
The moulding processes are classified as follows according to the method of use.
(a) Bench moulding
(b) Floor moulding
(c) Machine moulding
Bench moulding: It is carried on a bench at a convenient height. It is used for preparing small
moulds. In this moulding, the green sand and dry sand may be used.
Floor moulding: It is used for preparing medium and lange size castings. The mould is made in
the foundry floor.
Machine moulding: Moulding by hand is a slow and laborious process and also does not yield
good results as it does not impart uniform hardness to the mould. In the machine moulding,
production becomes quick and labour is minimized. It is used for batch and mass production.
Core making
Figure 8.5 shows a core, core-print and a core box.

Fig. 8.5 Core, core-print and core box.


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Core: It is a sand mass used to make cavities or holes in a casting. The shape of the core is
similar to the required hole in the casting. The core is made by core sand in core boxes.
Core-print: It is the projection pattern. It forms a seat in the mould. The core is supported in the
seat formed by the core-print.
Core box: A core box is a pattern made of either wood or metal, into which sand is packed to
form the core. Wooden boxes are commonly used for making a core box but metal boxes are used
when cores are to be made in large numbers.
Core making procedure
Core making is done in the following steps:
1. Moulding a green sand core
2. Baking
3. Finishing
4. Coating
Step 1: Moulding a green sand core

Core sand is mixed thoroughly with binders, additives and water. Core is moulded by hand or a
machine. Large cores are reinforced with rods for strength. Then the core sand is placed in a core
box and ramming process is done. After ramming, the core box is separated. In this stage, the core
is called green sand core.
Step 2: Baking

The green sand cores are heated in core baking ovens at temperatures varying from 200C to
300C. During heating, moisture is removed. The core becomes very strong.
Step 3: Finishing

After baking, the rough surfaces of core and unwanted projections are removed by filling. If the
core is made of two pieces, they are pasted together.
Step 4: Coating

This finished cores are given a surface coating. Coating gives a smooth surface to the castings.
Coating will prevent metal leaking into the core. The coating material generally used is powdered
graphite or silica or mica. Coating is applied by brushing and spraying.
8.3.3 Melting and Pouring
After making the mould, molten metal is poured into the mould to get the casting. Various types of
melting furnaces are available for the melting purpose. The selection of the furnace depends on the
amount of alloy being melted.
Most commonly the cupola furnace is used for melting cast iron.
Pouring molten metal: The molten metal is poured into the mould through the gating system
like patterning line gate, bottom gate and top gate.
Runner: The runner is a common passage for molten metal to flow into the mould cavity from
the sprue.
Riser: The riser is a hole cut in the cope to permit the molten metal to rise above the highest point.
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8.3.4 Fettling
Fettling includes
(a) Removal of cores
(b) Removal of gates, risers and runners
(c) Cleaning of the surfaces
The castings as obtained from the moulds are not fit for immediate use for work in the
machine shop as they carry unwanted metal attached in the form of gates, risers, etc. Sand particles
also tend to adhere to the surface of the castings. The castings are therefore sent to the fettling
section where the projections are cut off, the adhering sand is removed and the entire surface is
made clean and uniform by sand blasting process.
8.3.5 Inspection and Testing of Castings
The aim of inspection is to reject. The castings which do not meet with the specifications are
rejected. Inspection also involves in determining the location and magnitude of various defects in
the casting.
The testing of castings is done by destructive testing and non-destructive testing.
Destructive testing includes tensile, compressive and shear testing, where as the non-destrutive
testing consists of visual inspection, penetrant test, ultrasonic test and radiographic test.

8.4 APPLICATIONS
Foundry process has wide application:
1. Foundary process is suitable for both ferrous and non-ferrous metal casting.
So in industries components are made mostly by foundry process only.
2. Both small precision castings and large castings of up to 1 tons are produced.
3. Can achieve very close tolerances if uniform compaction is achieved.
4. The relative simplicity of the process makes it ideally suited to mechanisation.
5. Handles a more diverse range of products.
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EXERCISES
1. GEAR
2. V-GROOVED PULLEY
3. STEPPED CONE PULLEY
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Sprue pin Riser pin

Cope

Pattern

Moulding board

Pouring basin
Riser hole

Cope

Moulding
sand

Gear
Fig. 8.6 Gear.
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EXERICSE 1: GEAR
Aim
To prepare a green sand mould for the given gear pattern (Fig. 8.6).
Tools required
1. Split pattern 2. Shovel
3. Riddle 4. Rammer
5. Trowel 6. Slick
7. Lifter 8. Strike-off bar
9. Sprue pin 10. Bellows
11. Swab 12. Gate cutter
13. Draw spike 14. Moulding board
15. Moulding box
Procedure
1. The drag is placed over the moulding board and one half of the pattern is placed centrally
in the drag.
2. A thin layer of parting sand is filled around the pattern to prevent the mould sand to stick
to the board surface.
3. Green sand is filled around the pattern with a trowel and ramming is done uniformly
using a hand rammer.
4. The process of adding the green sand and ramming is continued until the sand completely
fills the drag box.
5. The excess sand is leveled off with a strike-off bar and vent holes are provided using vent
wires.
6. The drag box is now rolled over exposing the pattern.
7. The surface of the sand is first smoothened with a trowel and then covered with dry
parting sand.
8. The cope is placed exactly over the drag using the dowel pins. The other half of the
pattern is placed over the first half with dowel pins. The sprue and the riser pins are
placed in position.
9. Filling the green sand, uniform ramming, and leveling are done similar to that in the
drag.
10. The sprue and riser pins are withdrawn and the cope is rolled over to horizontal position.
11. Any loose sand is brushed and water from a swab is sprinkled on the sand around the
pattern.
12. A draw spike is driven into both the halves and rapped lightly to loosen the pattern. Now
the patterns are withdrawn by lifting the draw spike.
13. The gate is cut into the drag using the gate cutter and the cope is placed in correct position.
14. The green sand mould of the split pattern is ready for pouring the molten metal.
Result
The green sand mould is prepared for the given split pattern.
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Fig. 8.7 V-grooved pulley.


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EXERCISE 2: V-GROOVED PULLEY


Aim
To prepare a green sand mould for the given V-grooved pulley (Fig. 8.7).
Tools required
1. Step cone pulley pattern 2. Shovel
3. Riddle 4. Rammer
5. Trowel 6. Slick
7. Lifter 8. Strike-off bar
9. Sprue pin 10. Bellows
11. Swab 12. Gate cutter
13. Draw spike 14. Moulding board
15. Moulding box
Procedure
1. The drag is placed over the moulding board and one half of the pattern is placed centrally
in the drag.
2. A thin layer of parting sand is filled around the pattern to prevent the mould sand to stick
to the board surface.
3. Green sand is filled around the pattern with a trowel and ramming is done uniformly
using a hand rammer.
4. The process of adding the green sand and ramming is continued until the sand completely
fills the drag box.
5. The excess sand is leveled off with a strike-off bar and vent holes are provided using vent
wires.
6. The drag box is now rolled over exposing the pattern.
7. The surface of the sand is first smoothened with a trowel and then covered with dry
parting sand.
8. The cope is placed exactly over the drag using the dowel pins. The other half of the
pattern is placed over the first half with dowel pins. The sprue and the riser pins are
placed in position.
9. Filling the green sand, uniform ramming, and leveling are done similar to that in the drag.
10. The sprue and riser pins are withdrawn and the cope is rolled over to horizontal position.
11. Any loose sand is brushed and water from a swab is sprinkled on the sand around the
pattern.
12. A draw spike is driven into both the halves and rapped lightly to loosen the pattern. Now
the patterns are withdrawn by lifting the draw spike.
13. The gate is cut into the drag using the gate cutter and the cope is placed in correct position.
14. A dry sand core is placed vertically at the centre to have the hole at the centre of the pulley.
More cores are placed on the mould to have the step cone pulley in the pulley peripheral.
15. The green sand mould of the split pattern is ready for pouring the molten metal.
Result
The green sand mould is prepared for the given step cone pulley and dry sand cores are used for
producing intricate shapes in castings.
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Fig. 8.8 Stepped cone pulley.


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EXERCISE 3: STEPPED CONE PULLEY


Aim
To make the mould for the given stepped cone pulley (Fig. 8.8).
Tools required
1. Moulding board 2. Moulding box
3. Green sand (required quantity) 4. Trowel
5. Riddle 6. Gate cutter
7. Vent rod 8. Riser pin
9. Sprue pin 10. Rammer
11. Lifter 12. Draw spike
13. Bellow 14. Other moulding tools
Procedure
1. Place the moulding board on a horizontal surface.
2. A suitable core is prepared with the help of the core box.
3. The drag box is placed above the moulding board. Now the pattern is kept at the centre of
the drag as shown in Figure 8.4.
4. Now parting sand in sprinkled before we keep the pattern.
5. Facing sand is sprinkled over the pattern to a depth of 5 mm. Then green sand is filled
over it.
6. Proper ramming is done on the green sand to get a air-tight packing.
7. Excess sand is removed by the strike-off bar.
8. The drag box is inverted upside down.
9. The cope box is placed over the drag box and locked.
10. The riser pin and sprue pin are placed in right position and green sand is filled over the
pattern.
11. Proper ramming is done on the green sand to get air-tight packing. With the strike-off bar
leveling is done.
12. Now the riser pin and sprue pin get removed from the green sand mould. The pattern is
removed by the draw spike tool.
13. The gate is prepared using the gate cutter and the core is placed vertically inside the
cavity.
14. The vent holes are made with the vent rod on the cope.
Result
Thus, the mould is created for the given stepped cone pulley.
9 FITTING

9.1 INTRODUCTION
Fitting is the process of assembling parts to get the necessary fit. Some operations do not require
the use of machines, e.g. filing, stamping, chipping and sawing operations.
The shop where these operations are carried out is called the fitting shop. An operator who
does the fitting work is called fitter. There are various groups of fitters such as bench fitter, assemble
fitter and errection fitter, etc. To perform fitting operation, various tools are needed.

9.2 FITTING TOOLS


The tools used in the fitting shop are classified as follows:
1. Marking and measuring tools
2. Work holding tools
3. Striking tools
4. Cutting tools
5. Finishing tools
6. Other tools
9.2.1 Marking and Measuring Tools
A work that has to be marked and measured is carried out by the following tools. Some of the
marking and measuring tools and their uses are discussed below.
Steel rule: It is a linear measuring tool usually available at lengths of 150 mm and 300 mm
graduated both in millimetres and inches (Fig. 9.1). It is made up of tempered rust-free steel or
stainless steel. The least count of a steel rule is 1 mm.
190
!""!#$ 191

Fig. 9.1 Steel rule.


Callipers: Callipers are used for measuring curved surfaces. There are two types of calipers,
namely inside callipers and outside callipers.
An inside callipers (Fig. 9.2) are used to measure the outer diameter of pipe. An outside
callipers (Fig. 9.2) are used to measure the inner diameter of a pipe.

Fig. 9.2 Callipers.


Vernier callipers: Vernier callipers are made of steel having graduations both on the bar and on
the sliding jaw (Fig. 9.3). They are used for measuring the inside, outside diameters and depth of
a workpiece. The least count of vernier callipers is 0.02 mm.

Fig. 9.3 Vernier callipers.


Vernier height gauge: It is made of steel having an upright steel bar fixed to a steel base (Fig. 9.4).
A movable jaw is fitted with an upright bar with the help of the screw. It is used to mark the work
to the required size of machining and also to check the height of the work. The least count of a
vernier height gauge is 0.02 mm.
Scribers: Scribers made of carbon steel and have a sharp-pointed edge (Fig. 9.5). They are used
to scribe the workpiece.
192 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 9.4 Vernier height gauge. Fig. 9.5 Scribers.


Dividers: Dividers (Fig. 9.6) are used for dividing, and marking length equally. They have both
points sharpened like needle points. The dividing length may be adjusted by a thumb screw provided
on the dividers.
Try square: A try square (Fig. 9.7) is used for marking and testing right angles. It consists of a
steel blade riveted at a right angle to the edge of the machined stock. The blade length varies from
150 to 300 mm.

Fig. 9.6 Dividers. Fig. 9.7 Try square.


Dot punch: It has conical points with an angle 60 (Fig. 9.8). It is used to make dots along a
marked line on the workpiece.
!""!#$ 193

Centre punch: The point of the punch is made to 90. It is used to mark a drill point on the work
for setting the drill bit for drilling operation (Fig. 9.9).
Depth gauge: It is used to measure the depth of grooves and height of shoulders in a hole
(Fig. 9.10).
Surface gauge: It consists of a steel base, rotating clamps and steel spindle (Fig. 9.11). It is used
to centre the work in machine tools and testing the accuracy of planed surfaces.

Fig. 9.8 Dot punch. Fig. 9.9 Centre punch.

Fig. 9.10 Depth gauge. Fig. 9.11 Surface gauge.


Surface plate: A surface plate is made of grey cast iron (Fig. 9.12). It is used for testing the
flatness of a workpiece. It also supports a vernier height gauge, and a surface gauge while
measuring.
Angle plate: An angle plate (Fig. 9.13) is made of grey cast iron. It has two plane surfaces at
right angles to each other. It is used in conjunction with the surface plate for supporting the workpiece
in a perpendicular position.
194 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 9.12 Surface plate. Fig. 9.13 Angle plate.

9.2.2 Work Holding Tools


The holding tools are used to hold the workpiece during fitting operations. The different types of
holding tools are discussed below.
Bench vice: A bench vice (Fig. 9.14) is used to hold a workpiece during cutting, drilling, threading
and other such related operations. It consists of a fixed jaw and a movable jaw with a screw handle
for adjusting these jaws. The width of jaws varies from 80 to 180 mm.
Hand vice: A hand vice consists of two jaws. The jaws are hinged and pivoted to the opposite
ends. The work is held between the jaws. It is used for holding light works only.
Pipe vice: Pipes to be cut or threaded must be held steadily and prevented from rotation by
holding them. A pipe vice (Fig. 9.15) is specially designed to hold cylindrical objects.

Fig. 9.14 Bench vice. Fig. 9.15 Pipe vice.


C clamp: The C clamp (Fig. 9.16) is used to hold a workpiece against an angle plate. It is made
up of malleable iron.
V block: The V block (Fig. 9.17) is used to hold a cylindrical workpiece. The workpiece is
tightened by a square nut. It is used for holding round bars for marking, centre drilling and drilling
holes.
!""!#$ 195

Fig. 9.16 C clamp.

Fig. 9.17 V block.

9.2.3 Striking Tools or Hammers


Hammers are made of high carbon steel. They are used for striking nails, rivets, punches, chisels,
etc. A hammer consists of a head, peen, striking face and a handle. According to the shape and
weight of hammers, they are classified into the following types.
Ball peen hammer: One side of the ball peen hammer (Fig. 9.18) is flat and the other side is
spherical in shape. It is used for rounding off rivets, making ground and concave indentations
and also for flattening surfaces.
Cross peen hammer: It has a flat face on one end and a peen at right angles to the handle
(Fig. 9.19). The flat face is for striking and the cross peen is used for making grooves on workpieces.
Straight peen hammer: One head is flat and the other end has an edge parallel to the handle
(Fig. 9.20). It is used for making grooves and straight indentations on workpieces.
Sledge hammer: A sledge hammer is a heavy hammer, mostly used in smithy shops and used by
stone breakers (Fig. 9.21).
Soft face hammer: It is made of soft metals like copper, aluminium or lead. This hammer is used
for hammering finished jobs.
Claw hammer: It has a cut in the centre and named claw (Fig. 9.22). It has a bend with a sharp
curve. The claw helps to pull out nails from walls and wooden pieces.
196 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Mallet: A mallet (Fig. 9.23) is a wooden hammer. It is used in for driving a workpiece to give a
tight fit. It is also used in sheet metalworks for bending thin sheets.

Fig. 9.18 Ball peen hammer. Fig. 9.19 Cross peen hammer.

Fig. 9.20 Straight peen hammer. Fig. 9.21 Sledge hammer.

Fig. 9.22 Claw hammer. Fig. 9.23 Mallet.

9.2.4 Cutting Tools


The operations such as chiselling, sawing, chipping, filing and scraping are carried out using
cutting tools. Some of the cutting tools are described below.
Chisels
A chisel is made of high carbon steel. It has a sharp wedge-shaped cutting edge. The cutting action
is done by hitting its head with a hammer. The cutting edge is sharpened and hardened. The chisels
are classified according to the shape, length, width and. cutting edge.
!""!#$ 197

Types of chisels: The following are types of chisels.


Cold chisel: It is a commonly used chisel in a fitting shop (Fig. 9.24). It is used for cutting cold
metals. The cutting edge is slightly curved shape and its cutting angle is 60. The width of the
cutting edge varies from 20 to 25 mm and its length varies from 100 to 400 mm.

Fig. 9.24 Types of chisels.


Cape chisel or cross cut chisel: A cape chisel (Fig. 9.24) has a long tapered cutting point. It is
used for cutting narrow grooves, key-ways, slots and channels. The length of the chisel varies
from 100 to 400 mm and its width depends on the proportionate length.
Round nose chisel: This type of chisel (Fig. 9.24) is used for cutting grooves in pulleys and in
shafts. The cutting edge is semicircular. The length of the chisel is about 150250 mm and the
width is around 616 mm.
Diamond point chisel: It is squared and bevelled to make a diamond shape cutting edge (Fig. 9.24).
It is used for cutting cast iron pipes, cutting grooves and square corners edges.
Hacksaw
A hacksaw (Fig. 9.25) is a hand tool used by the fitter for cutting operations. It has two parts,
namely a frame and a blade. One end of the frame is fixed type and the other is an adjustable type.
Between the frame grooves the blade is locked.

Fig. 9.25 Hacksaw.


Hacksaw blade: A hacksaw blade (Fig. 9.26) is a cutting tool having a number of teeth set in
proper order. It has two holes at its ends for fixing it with the frame. The hacksaw blade is made of
high carbon steel, low tungsten alloy and is used for cutting mild steel, brass, copper, aluminium,
soft alloys, plastics, etc.
198 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

High speed steel blades are used for cutting high carbon steel, alloy steels, etc.

Fig. 9.26 Hacksaw blade.


Setting of teeth: The teeth of blades are set in a particular way so that the saw cut becomes wider
than the thickness of the blade to avoid jamming of the blade. The teeth are set to give clearance
for the blade to move forwards, backwards and also to avoid noise when cutting. The blades are
available in various shape, size and quality.
Types of blade according to size:
1. Coarse blade: 14 teeth per inch (for soft metal)
2. Medium blade: 22 teeth per inch (for medium hard metal)
3. Fine blade: 35 teeth per inch (for hard metal).
Types of blade according to hardening:
1. Fully hardened blades
2. Flexible blades
3. High speed steel blades
9.2.5 Finishing Tools
Finishing tools are used to remove burrs and clean the outer surface of the workpiece. The best
examples for finishing tools are files and abrasive paper.
9.2.6 Other Tools
Ball peen hammer
Hammers are named, depending on their shape and material and specified by their weight.
Hammers are used for striking punches, cold chisels to make letters and figures on the
surface of the workpiece (Fig. 9.27).
It is also used for forging hot metal, riveting, bending, straightening and stretching, etc.
Screwdriver
It is a hand tool that is designed to turn screws (Fig. 9.27).
The handle is made of wood or plastic.

Fig. 9.27 Ball peen hammer and screwdrivers.


!""!#$ 199

9.3 FILES
A file is a widely used finishing tool in a fitting shop. Files are made of hardened steel having
paralled rows of teeth throughout their surface.
9.3.1 Parts of File
Figure 9.28 shows different parts of file.
Up cut Shoulder Handle
Tang

80 45
Face Heel
Point 75
Edge
Over cut
Single cut Double cut
Length
Fig. 9.28 Parts of a file.
Tang: It is a pointed part fixed on a wooden handle.
Point: It is the opposite edge to the tang.
Heel: It is the face of the file that comes next to the tang.
9.3.2 Classification of Files
Files are classified as follows:
According to shape and cross-sectional view
1. Flat file 2. Square file
3. Round file 4. Half-round file
5. Triangular file 6. Knife edge file
These are shown in Fig. 9.29.

Flat file Square file Small square file Round file

Half-round file Triangular file Small triangular file Knife edge file
Fig. 9.29 Various shapes of files as per cross-section.
200 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

1. Flat file: The teeth of the file is double cut and is used for rough filing works. It is
rectangular in cross-section.
2. Square file: It has a square cross-section and has double cut teeth on all faces. It is
used for filing square corners and for enlarging square holes.
3. Round file: It has a circular cross-section which is tapered one third of its length. It is
used for enlarging round holes and for finishing internal round corners.
4. Half-round file: This type of file has one flat side and the other is a curved side. The
curved side is single cut and the flat, i.e. is double cut. Half-round files are used for filing
curved surfaces, i.e. to form convex surfaces.
5. Triangular file: It has a triangular cross-section. All the faces have a double cut tooth.
It is used for rectangular cuts and filing corners less than 90o.
6. Knife edge file: It has a wedge-shaped cross-section. The sides of the file are double
cut. Knife edge files are generally used for filing grooves, corners and narrow slots in
various machine parts.
According to cutting of tooth
Files are also classified according to the cutting of tooth as:
1. Single cut file
2. Double cut file
3. Rough cut file
These are shown in Fig. 9.30.

Single cut file Double cut file Rough cut file


Fig. 9.30 Files with different cuts.
Table 9.1 Classification of files based on grades of teeth
Types of cut No. of teeth/cm Arrangement of teeth
Rough cut 8
Bastard cut 12
Second cut 16
Smooth cut 24
Dead smooth cut 40
!""!#$ 201

1. Single cut file: The teeth are cut parallel across the file at an angle of 60 to the centre
of file. The row of teeth is one direction across their wide surface. It is used for filing soft
materials like wood, soft brass and to produce a good surface finish.
2. Double cut file: Double cut files are having two sets of teeth, one is overcut and the
other is upcut. Overcut teeth have cut at about 60o and the upcut at about 70o to the centre
line. These files are used for filing hard materials like steel, mild steel. etc.
3. Rough cut file: A rough cut file has eight teeth per centimetre. It is used for removing
excess metal fastly.
9.4 FITTING PROCESS
The following operations are performed in a fitting shop to get required size and shape:
1. Measuring and marking 2. Cutting
3. Filing 4. Scraping
5. Chipping 6. Drilling
7. Reaming 8. Tapping
9.4.1 Measuring and Marking
Measure the workpiece with the help of a steel rule and using a surface gauge.
9.4.2 Cutting
It is the process of cutting the workpiece to the required dimensions using a hacksaw or power
saw.
In the sawing operation:
1. The handle of hacksaw should be in the right hand.
2. The teeth of the hacksaw blade should be in the direction of the cut and away from the
handle.
3. The blade should be held straight and correctly tensioned.
4. Little downward pressure is needed in a forward stroke and there is no pressure needed
during a reverse stroke.
9.4.3 Filing
The following are the types of filing methods:
Longitudinal filing
1. The type of surface to be filed.
2. The type of surface texture needed.
3. The amount of material to be removed.
Using this method (Fig. 9.31), the workpiece is finished to the required size in a longitudinal
direction. The file is moved parallel to the longer side of the work. This is the most commonly
used filing method.
Transverse filing
The stroke of the file is at right angles to the longer side of the workpiece. Using this process
(Fig. 9.32), the material is brought close to the final finishing state.
202 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Cut

Workpiece

Fig. 9.31 Longitudinal filing. Fig. 9.32 Transverse filing.


Diagonal filing
The stroke applied on the workpiece is at an angle of 45. The diagonal filing process (Fig. 9.33)
is used to reduce heavy material from the workpiece.

Fig. 9.33 Diagonal filing.


9.4.4 Scraping
It is the process of removing very little amount of metal by using a scraper. It is used to get
accurate surface finish and also to remove convex spot from surfaces.
9.4.5 Chipping
It is the process of removing metal with the help of a chisel. For chipping process, the following
conditions are to be followed:
1. The angle of cutting must be the same throughout the operation.
2. The hammer head should be properly secured.
3. The oil particles from the face of the hammer should be removed.
4. The workpiece should be gripped properly.
5. Proper cutting angle should be used for chipping.

9.4.6 Drilling
It is the process of making cylindrical holes in the workpiece with the help of drill bit using a
drilling machine (Fig. 9.34). The drilling is performed using a hand drilling machine or bench
drilling machine.
!""!#$ 203

Belt Pulley
Feed handle
Motor

Head

Spindle
Jaw Table clamp
Table

Base

Fig. 9.34 Bench drilling machine.


9.4.7 Reaming
It is the process of enlarging and finishing drilled holes with the help of a reamer tool (Fig. 9.35).

Reamer

Workpiece

Fig. 9.35 Reaming.


9.4.8 Tapping
It is the process of making an internal threading on the drilled hole using a tap. The tap has a
cutting edge in the shape of threads. Then the tap is screwed into the hole. It removes metal and
cuts internal thread as shown in Fig. 9.36.

Rough tap Fine tap


Fig. 9.36 Tapping.
1. A rough tap helps to cut internal thread rough.
2. A fine tap is used to remove burrs from rough tap cut to make it fine thread in the workpiece.
!""!#$ 205

EXERCISES
1. SQUARE FILING
2. SQUARE JOINT
3. V-JOINT
4. HEXAGONAL JOINT
5. HALF ROUND JOINT
6. DOVETAIL JOINT
7. DRILLING AND TAPPING
206 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

52

52

Step 1: Given workpiece

6 50

50

Step 2: Finished workpiece


All dimensions are in mm
Not to scale
Fig. 9.37 Square filing.
!""!#$ 207

EXERCISE 1: SQUARE FILING


Aim
To get the required shape and size (Fig. 9.37) of the given workpiece by square filing.
Tools required
1. Bench vice
2. Surface plate
3. Surface gauge
4. Files
5. Hacksaw
6. Steel rule
7. Try square
8. Angle plate
9. Dot punch
10. Hammer
11. Chalk
Material required
Mild steel square plate of 52 52 6 mm (one).
Procedure
1. The burrs are removed and the size of the raw material is initially checked.
2. The workpiece is fixed rigidly in the bench vice.
3. Using a flat file, the two adjacent sides are filed to get right angles.
4. The right angles are checked by using a try square.
5. Chalk is applied on the workpiece and the dimensions are marked by using the vernier
height gauge.
6. Using the hacksaw, the marked lines are cut.
7. The job is fitted again in the vice and the other two sldes are filed.
8. The required shape is filed repeatedly by filing using the flat file to the required dimension.
Result
Thus, the required shape and size of the workpiece is obtained by square filing.
208 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

60

60

60

35

15 20
60

All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 9.38 Square joint.
!""!#$ 209

EXERCISE 2: SQUARE JOINT


Aim
To make a square joint (Fig. 9.38) on the given workpieces.
Tools required
1. Bench vice
2. Surface plate
3. Surface gauge
4. Files
5. Hacksaw
6. Steel rule
7. Try square
8. Angle plate
9. Dot punch
10. Hammer
Material required
Mild steel plate of 60 6 mm (two).
Procedure
1. Collect the raw material.
2. Cut the raw material into the required size of the workpiece (two).
3. Check the dimension by using a steel rule.
4. Mark the dimension using a surface gauge.
5. Create dots using a dot punch over the marking line in the workpiece.
6. Fix the workpieces in the bench vice.
7. Remove the unwanted portions using the hacksaw.
8. Perform above operations in another workpiece also.
9. File both workpieces using the round file and triangular file to get the finished and
required size of fit.
10. Measure the final dimension flatness and squareness using a steel rule and a try torque.
11. Finally, assemble the finished workpieces for the required claps of fit.
Result
Thus, the required square joint is obtained from the given workpieces.
210 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

60

60

50

5 105

60

50

All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 9.39 V-joint.
!""!#$ 211

EXERCISE 3: V-JOINT
Aim
To make a V-joint (Fig. 9.39) from the given workpieces.
Tools required
1. Scriber
2. Surface plate
3. Bench vice
4. Files
5. Hacksaw
6. Steel rule
7. Try square
8. Angle plate
9. Dot punch
10. Hammer
Material required
Mild steel plate of 60 50 6 mm (two).
Procedure
l. Collect the raw material.
2. Cut the raw material into two halves with respect to the dimensions.
3. Check the dimensions by using a steel rule.
4. Mark the dimension using a surface gauage.
5. Apply chalk uniformly throughout the surface of the workpiece.
6. Creat dots using a dot punch over the marking line on the workpiece.
7. Fix half of the workpiece in the bench vice.
8. File each side of the workpiece with the help of flat file.
9. Remove the unwanted portions using the hacksaw.
10. Perform above operations in another workpiece also.
11. File the cutting edges of both workpieces using a half round and a triangular files to get
finished and required size of fit.
12. Measure the final dimension of flatness and squareness using a steel rule and try square.
13. Finally, check the assembly for the required class of fit.
Result
Thus, the required V-joint is obtained.
212 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

60

60

60

60
60
40
40

15

55

55

All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 9.40 Hexagonal joint.
!""!#$ 213

EXERCISE 4: HEXAGONAL JOINT


Aim
To make a hexagonal joint (Fig. 9.40) on the given the workpieces.
Tools required
1. Scriber
2. Surface gauge
3. Bench vice
4. Files
5. Hacksaw
6. Steel rule
7. Try square
8. Angle piate
9. Dot punch
10. Hammer
Material required
Mild steel plate of 60 50 6 mm (two).
Procedure
l. Collect the raw material.
2. Cut the raw material into two pieces with respect to the dimensions. Apply chalk throughout
the surface of the workpiece.
3. Mark the dimension using a surface gauge.
4. Create dots using a dot punch over the marking line on the workpiece.
5. Fix the first workpiece in the bench vice.
6. Remove the unwanted portions using the hacksaw.
7. Perform above operations in another workpiece also.
8. File the cutting edges of both workpieces using a triangular and half round file to get
finished and required size of fit.
9. Measure the final dimension flatness and squareness using a steel rule and a try square.
10. Finally, join two workpieces to get the required hexagonal joint.
Result
Thus, the required hexagonal joint is obtained from the given workpieces.
214 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

60

60

60

60
40

15

40

15

Fig. 9.41 Half-round joint.


!""!#$ 215

EXERCISE 5: HALF ROUND JOINT


Aim
To make a half-round joint (Fig. 9.41) on the given the workpieces.
Tools required
1. Try square
2. Steel rule
3. Surface plate
4. Vernier height gauge
5. Bench vice
6. Set of files
7. Dividers
8. Dot punch
9. Hacksaw
Material required
Mild steel plate of 600 50 6 mm (two).
Procedure
l. Collect the raw material.
2. Cut the raw material into the required size of the workpiece (two).
3. Check the dimension of both workpieces for the required size.
4. Apply chalk over the entire surface of the workpiece.
5. Mark the dimension using surface gauage.
6. Create dots using a dot punch over the marking line on the workpiece.
7. Remove the unwanted portions using the hacksaw.
8. Perform above operations in another workpiece also.
9. File both workpieces with suitable file to get finished and required size of fit.
10. Measure the dimension, flatness and squareness using a steel rule and a try square.
11. Finally join the workpieces to get the required joint.
Result
Thus, the required half-round joint is obtained.
216 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

50

60

90

60

50

All dimensions are in mm


Fig. 9.42 Dovetail joint.
!""!#$ 217

EXERCISE 6: DOVETAIL JOINT


Aim
To make a dovetail joint (Fig. 9.42) with the given workpieces.
Tools required
1. Surface plate
2. Surface gauge
3. Files
4. Bench vice
5. Hacksaw
6. Steel rule
7. Try square
8. Angle plate
9. Dot punch
10. Hammer
Material required
Mild steel plate of 60 50 6 mm (two).
Procedure
1. Check the dimension of the given material using a steel rule.
2. Fix the workpiece in the bench vice.
3. Cut the raw material into two halves of required size.
4. Apply chalk over the entire surface of the workpiece.
5. Mark the dimension using a surface gauge.
6. Create dots using a dot punch over the marking line on the workpiece.
7. Remove the unwanted portions using the hacksaw.
8. Perform above operations in another workpiece also.
9. File the cutting of edges both workpiece using half round and a triangular file to get the
finished and required size of fit.
10. Measure the final dimension flatness and squareness using a steel rule and a try square.
11. Finally, join two workpieces to get a required dovetail joint.
Result
Thus, the required dovetail joint is obtained.
218 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Marking and punching Drilling and tapping


f 10 Tapped holes (four)

15

20

15

50

Tapped hole

All dimensions are in mm


Not to scale
Fig. 9.43 Drilling and tapping.
!""!#$ 219

EXERCISE 7: DRILLING AND TAPPING


Aim
To drill the holes of required size and tap the drilled hole (Fig. 9.43).
Tools required
1. Bench vice
2. Machine vice
3. Steel rule
4. Standard set of filing tools
5. Try square
6. Surface plate
7. Vernier height gauge
8. Scriber
9. Dot punch
10. Drill bit
11. Drilling machine
12. Tap set with die holder
Material required
50 50 5 mm mild steel plate (one).
Procedure
1. The raw material is checked for its size 50 50 5 mm using a steel rule.
2. The given workpiece is clamped in a vice and any two surfaces are filed to get a right
angle.
3. Chalk is applied uniformly on the surfaces of the workpieces.
4. With the help of the vernier height gauge, surface plate, angle plate, steel rule, and the
scriber, the given dimensions are marked.
5. The mid point of the required holes is punched by using a dot punch.
6. The punched dots are drilled by a drilling machine.
7. After drilling the holes, they are tapped by using tap set.
8. Finally, the dimensions are again checked.
Result
Thus, the given workpiece is drilled and tapped to the required dimensions.
GROUP B
!
!"#$%"& &'(! !"#$)'%"*
'+%'!!$%'+!"$&"#%"!*
10 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
PRACTICE

10.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with electricity and various methods of wiring used in household appliances
such as tube lights, staircase lights, fans and iron boxes, etc. Electricity is defined as the flow of
electrons. Electricity is one of the essential and useful sources of energy. It is used in domestic
appliances as well as industrial equipment. Electric current is measured in amperes.
An electric conductor is a material that allows flow of electric current. The following are
examples of good conductors of electricity:
1. Silver 2. Copper
3. Gold 4. Aluminium and other metals
Semiconductor: The most commonly used semiconductors are silicon, germanium, etc. with
the addition of certain impurities.
Basic definitions
Table 10.1 illustrates the various terms and their units, symbols and definitions.
Table 10.1 Various terms and their units, symbols and definitions
S. No. Term Unit Symbol Definition
1. Current ampere A The flow of electrons is called current.
2. Resistance ohm W It is the property of a substance which
opposes the flow of electricity.
3. Conductance mho J It is the reciprocal of resistance.
4. Power watt W It is defined as the rate of doing work.
5. Electrical energy joule J It can be defined as the product of power
and time.
(Contd.)

223
224 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Table 10.1 (Contd.)...


S. No. Term Unit Symbol Definition
6. Length metre m In terms of a number of wavelength of
a particular light radiation.
7. Mass kilogram kg The mass of a platinum iridium standard
at BC International Bureau of weights
and measures.
8. Force newton N The force which when applied to a body
having a mass of one kilogram gives it
an acceleration of one metre per sec.
9. Frequency hertz Hz The frequency of a periodical function
of which the periodic time is one second.
10. Charge coloumb C The quantity of electricity transported
in one second by a current of one ampere.
11. Magnetic flux weber Wb The magnetic flux which linking a flux
circuit of one turn produces in it an emf
of one volt as it is reduced to zero at a
uniform rate of one second.
12. Inductance henry H The inductance of a closed circuit in
which an emf of one volt is produced
when the electric current in the circuit
varies uniformly at the rate of one ampere
per second.
13. Potential difference volt V The difference of potential between two
difference points of a conductor
carrying a constant current of one
ampere, when the power dissipated
between these points is one watt.

Phase: It is the pressure of flow of current in a conductor. It is indicated by the symbol P.


Neutral: The wire that conducts the power back to the source and completes the circuit. The
neutral wire is usually covered with yellow, white colour insulation.
Earthing: It prevents you from getting a shock. Always connect green or black wire to the earth.
When you connect a light, power plugs or power points connect with earth.
Insulator: A material such a rubber, glass or ceramic that does not readily conduct electricity is
called insulator.
Load: It is a component in a circuit that converts electricity into light, heat or mechanical motion.
Examples of loads are bulbs, home appliances like air conditioner, iron boxes, fans, mixers, grinders,
etc.
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Voltage: Volt is the unit for voltage. Voltage is the amount of electric power in an electric
circuit. For domestic usage voltage is always 230 volts and for industrial purpose the voltage is
440 volts. It is indicated by the symbol V.
Ampere: Ampere is a unit to measure the strength of electrical current in a circuit.
Kirchhoffs law: The current flows towards the junction is equal to the current flow away from
the junction (Fig. 10.1).
I1 + I2 + I3 + I4 = I5 + I6

I1 I6
I2
I5
I3
I4

Fig. 10.1 Kirchhoffs law.

10.2 ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


(CIRCUIT SYMBOLS)
Table 10.2 shows various electrical components and their circuit symbol.
Table 10.2 Electrical components and their circuit symbols
S. No. Component Symbol S. No. Component Symbol
1. Direct current
9. Metre
2. Alternate current
10. Lamp
3. Resistor
11. Single tubelight
4. Inductor
5. Capacitor 12. Earth
6. Variable capacitor
13. Heater
7. Fuse
14. Fire alarm bell
8. Main switch (Light)
(Contd.)
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Table 10.2 (Contd.)...


S. No. Component Symbol S. No. Component Symbol
15. Generator 20. DC Ampere meter

16. Motor 21. Wattmeter

17. Alternator 22. Ohmmeter

18. AC motor 23. Energy meter

19. DC Voltmeter 24. Fuse


25. Lamp

10.3 SI UNITS AND SYMBOLS OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES


Table 10.3 lists symbols and units of physical quantities.
Table 10.3 Symbols and SI units of physical quantities
Quantity Symbol SI unit
Length L metre (m)
Area A metre square (m2)
Volume V metre cube (m3)
Quantity Q litre (l)
Mass M kilogram (kg)
Force F newton (N)
Time t second (s)
Plain angle degree (o)
Speed N revolution/second (r/s)
Velocity v metre/second (m/s)
Angular velocity ! radian/second (rad/s)
Frequency f hertz (Hz)
Temperature T kelvin (K); Centigrade (oC)
Heat H calorie (Cal)
Torque T newton-metre (N-m)
Energy W joule (J)
Power P watt (W)
Electric charge Q coulomb (C)
Electric flux density D coulomb/metre square (C/m2)
Electric current I ampere (A)
Current density " ampere/meter square (A/m2)
Potential drop V volt (V)
Conductivity # mho-metre (J-m)
(Contd.)
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Table 10.3 (Contd.)


Quantity Symbol SI unit
Resistance R ohm (W)
Electric capacitance C farad (F)
Magnetic field m tesla (T)
Magnetic flux weber (Wb)
Magnetic flux density B weber/metre square (Wb/m2)

10.4 TYPES OF ELECTRICAL SUPPLY


There are two types of electrical supply in use for various technical requirements.
(a) Direct current (DC)
(b) Alternative current (AC)
DC supply: The DC supply is represented by the symbol . This type of supply is used in
batteries, motors, generators, etc. The voltage remains constant throughout the cycle with time
variations. In this type of supply, the direction of flow of current is from the positive terminal of
source to the negative terminal. Figure 10.2 shows the circuit with DC supply and the graph.
Direction of current (I)
y
Voltage (V)

+
DC source Resistance

x
Time
Fig. 10.2 DC supply.

AC supply: The AC supply is represented by the symbol~. This type of supply differs from that
of DC supply. Here the voltage charges at regular intervals. The terminals are represented as
phase/line and neutral. Figure 10.3 shows the circuit with AC supply and graph showing the change
of voltage with respect to time. The source of AC supply is an AC generator.
Direction of current (I)

Peak
voltage
L
Load
N Time

Fig. 10.3 AC supply.


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Table 10.4 shows the symbols used for various types of current.
Table 10.4 Types of current and their symbols
Symbol Type of current
Direct current (DC)
Alternating current (AC)
Direct and Alternating current

Importance of the polarity in DC supply: Direct current supply has fixed polarity, positive and
negative marked as + and .
The positive terminal of the electric device must be connected to the positive terminal of the
source and the negative terminal to the negative of the source.
If the polarity is not observed correctly, then the device will not function properly and it may
be damaged.

10.5 ACCESSORIES USED IN WIRING


Figure 10.4 shows accessories used in wiring.
Switch: It is used to open or short (close) a circuit. There are two types of switches: one is a
single-way switch and the other is a three-way switch.
Three pin plug: Make sure you connect the earth at the right terminal. For phase and neutral line
it does not matter which pin you use, but earth to the right pin as shown in Fig. 10.4.
Single power point: It consists of a socket with a switch. It comes moulded as a single piece as
shown in Fig. 10.4.
Fuse: From the main switch power comes out and is distributed to other fuses. Usually the light
is secured with an 8-ampere fuse and the power point with a 15-ampere fuse. The purpose of the
fuse is to break the electric circuit if it gets over loaded, make sure that the electric circuit has the
correct fuse rating.
Bulb with batten holder: A batten holder is used to support and hold bulbs and also to connect
electrical wire inside. It is made up of brass or plastic. A bulb helps to convert electrical energy to
light energy by resistance.
Ceiling rose: A ceiling rose is used on roofs and wall-mounted fittings. It supports the batten
holder.
Connector: It helps to connect two wire ends with each other. A simple connector is as shown in
Fig. 10.4.
Cable clip: It is used to tag wire in a path and guide wire from one place to another. It is as shown
in the figure.
Fluorescent light: It consists of a mercury lamp (tube), a choke and a starter. Joined together, it
is called fluorescent light.
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Fig. 10.4 Accessories used in wiring.


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Types of holders
Holders (Fig. 10.5) are mainly classified as per their applications:
(i) Roof-mounted type
(a) Batten holder
(ii) Wall-mounted type
(a) Angle holder,
(b) Angle wall bracket holder, and
(c) Batten holder
(iii) Hanging type
(a) Pendent holder and
(b) Bracket holder

Fig. 10.5 Types of holders.

10.6 TOOLS USED IN WIRING


There are various types of tools used in wiring. These tools are classified depending upon the
purposes. They are as follows.
Cutting pliers: Cutting pliers (Fig. 10.6) are available with a pipe grip, side cutter and an insulated
handle. They are used for cutting, twisting and holding wires.

Fig. 10.6 Cutting pliers.

Flat nose pliers: Flat nose pliers (Fig. 10.7) are used for holding flat objects like thin plates.

Fig. 10.7 Flat nose pliers.


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Screwdriver: A screwdriver (Fig. 10.8) has a plastic handle. Various sizes of screwdrivers with
different lengths are available. They are used for tightening screws in switchboards.

Fig. 10.8 Screwdrivers.

Neon tester: A neon tester (Fig. 10.9) consists of a glass tube with neon gas and an electrode at
the end. It is used to check the presence of supply which is indicated by the glow of the lamp with
the tip of the tester on the live supply and the brass contact on the other end of the tester by hand.

Fig. 10.9 Neon tester.

Electrician knife: An electrician knife (Fig. 10.10) is used for cutting, shaving insulation cables
and cleaning wire surface.

Fig. 10.10 Electrician knife.

Try square: A try square (Fig. 10.11) is used to check whether the object is plane, perpendicular
and at a right angle. The two types of try-square are:
(i) Bevelled edge with stock
(ii) Flat edge without stock
Chisel: A chisel (Fig. 10.12) has a wooden handle and cast steel blade. It is used for chipping,
scraping and grooving in wood for making switchboards.
Tenon-saw: A tenon-saw (Fig. 10.13) has a length of 250 or 300 mm and has 812 teeth per
25.4 mm with a blade of 10 cm. It is used for cutting thin, wooden accessories like wooden batten,
casing capping, boards and round blocks.
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Wood rasp file: A wood rasp file (Fig. 10.14) is used for filling wooden articles where finish is
not important. Wood rasp files are of half round shape and it has sharp coarse single cut teeth.

Fig. 10.11 Try square. Fig. 10.12 Chisel.

Fig. 10.13 Tenon-saw. Fig. 10.14 Wood rasp file.

Gimlet: A gimlet (Fig. 10.15) is used for boring small holes in wooden articles. It has a wooden
handle and a boring screwed edge.

Fig. 10.15 Gimlet.

Centre punch: A centre punch (Fig. 10.16) is used for marking and punching pilot holes in
metals.

Fig. 10.16 Centre punch.


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Hand drill: A hand drilling machine (Fig. 10.17) is used for making holes in thin metal sheets or
wooden articles.

Fig. 10.17 Hand drill.

Spanner: Various types of spanners (Figs. 10.18 and 10.19) are used for loosening and tightening
of nuts and bolts. Spanners in various sizes and shapes are available.

Fig. 10.18 Double-ended open jaw spanner. Fig. 10.19 Adjustable spanner.

Portable drilling machine: A portable drilling machine (Fig. 10.20) is used for drilling holes in
walls for fitting switchboards and also for making wiring.

Fig. 10.20 Portable electric drilling machine.


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Measuring steel tape: A measuring steel tape (Fig. 10.21) is made of thin steel blade having
dimensions marked on it. It is used for measuring dimensions of wiring installation and for general
measurements.

Fig. 10.21 Measuring steel tape.

Hacksaw: A hacksaw (Fig. 10.22) is made of sturdy nickel plated steel frame. The frame can be
adjusted in the range of 250 to 300 mm. It is used for cutting pipes.

Fig. 10.22 Hacksaw.

Ring spanner set: A ring spanner (Fig. 10.23) is used in places where the space is restricted. It is
used for tightening and loosening nuts and bolts.

Fig. 10.23 Ring spanner.

Hammer: A hammer (Fig. 10.24) is made of special steel. The handle is made of hard wood. It
is used for striking nails and for bending works.

Fig. 10.24 Hammer.


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10.7 BIS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO WIRING INSTALLATIONS


Residential building wiring: The following types of wiring are used in residential buildings:
1. Tough rubber sheathed (TRS) or PVC sheathed or batten wiring.
2. Metal sheathed wiring system.
3. Conduct wiring system:
(a) Rigid steel conduit wiring
(b) Rigid non-metallic conduit wiring (PVC)
(c) PVC casing and capping.
10.7.1 Sub-circuits
The types of sub-circuits are as follows:
(i) Light and fan sub-circuit
(ii) Power sub-circuit
Light and fan sub-circuit: Lights and fans may be wired on a common circuit. Each sub-circuit
should not have more than a total of ten points of lights, fans and 6A socket-outlets.
The load on each sub-circuit should be restricted to 800 watts.
Power sub-circuit: The load on each power sub-circuit should normally be restricted to 3000 watts.
There should not be more than two outlets on each sub-circuit.
10.7.2 Points to be Considered while Lighting in Houses
1. Lighting in houses is an important aspect of interior decoration.
2. A switch shall be provided adjacent to the normal entrance to any area for controlling the
general lighting in that area.
3. The switches should be fixed on a usable wall space and should not be obstructed by a
door or window in its fully open position.
4. A two-way switching is recommended for halls and staircases.
5. In bedrooms, it is recommended that lighting should be controlled from the bed location.
6. For bathrooms, it is recommended to use ceiling lighting with the switch located outside
the bathroom.
7. Waterproof lighting fittings should be used for outdoor lighting.
10.7.3 Points to be Considered while Providing Socket Outlets
1. All plugs and socket-outlets shall be of 3-pin type, the appropriate pin of the socket being
connected permanently to the earthing system.
2. An adequate number of socket-outlets shall be placed suitably in all rooms to avoid
lengthy flexible cords.
3. Only 3-pin, 6A socket-outlets shall be used in all lights and fan sub-circuits.
4. In situations, where a socket-outlet is accessible to children, it is recommended to use
shuttered or interlocked socket outlets.
5. It is recommended that 3-pin, 6A socket outlets may be provided near the shelves, book
cases, clock position, probable bed positions, etc.
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A recommended schedule of socket-outlets for a residential building is given in Table 10.5:


Table 10.5 Socket-outlets for a residential building
Location Number of 6A outlet
Living room 3
Bedroom 3
Kitchen 1
Dining room 2
Verandah 1
Bathroom 2
Garage 2

10.7.4 Points to be Considered while Providing Fans

1. Ceiling fans shall be wired to ceiling roes or to special connector boxes.


2. Ceiling fans should be provided with switches besides its regulators.
3. Fans should be suspended from hooks or shackles.
10.7.5 Types of Circuit

There are mainly three types of circuit:


(i) Open circuit
(ii) Closed circuit
(iii) Short circuit
Open circuit: If the switch used in the circuit is in off position, then the circuit is said to be the
open circuit (Fig. 10.25). There will not be any flow of current in an open circuit.

Fig. 10.25 Open circuit.

Closed circuit: If the switch used in the circuit is in on position, then the circuit is said to be the
closed circuit (Fig. 10.26). There will be normal flow of current in a closed circuit.
Short circuit: A short circuit (Fig. 10.27) is an accidental path of low resistance which passes an
abnormally high amount of current. A short circuit exists whenever the resistance of a path in a
circuit drops in the value to almost zero ohms. A short often occurs as a result of improper wiring
or broken insulation.
! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 237

Fig. 10.26 Closed circuit.

Fig. 10.27 Short circuit.

Simple electric circuit: A simple electrical circuit is one in which the current flows from the
source to a load and reaches back to the source to complete the path (Fig. 10.28). An electrical
circuit should consist of the following:
1. An energy source is used to provide the voltage needed to force the current through the
circuit.
2. A conductor is used through which the current can flow.
3. A load (resistor) is used to control the amount of current and to convert electrical energy
into other forms.
4. A control device (switch) is used to start or stop the flow of current.
R

Load of resistance

Conductor
Switch

V
+

Cell
Source
Fig. 10.28 Simple electric circuit.
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Typical lighting circuit: House-wiring is as simple as one lamp is controlled by one switch or
may be a special requirement of controlling one lamp from two or more number of places.
Such types of circuits are used for staircase, bedroom and corridor lighting systems. The
basic principle involved in bedroom lighting circuit and the requirement of additional special
accessories are discussed below:
Bedroom lighting: A bedroom requires one lamp at the dressing table controlled by a switch and
one lamp just above the bed which may require dual control by two 2-way switches, one provided
near the entrance (door) and the other provided above the bed. The circuit which describes the
lighting in bedroom is shown in Fig. 10.29.

Fig. 10.29 Bedroom lighting.

10.8 WIRING AND EQUIPMENT


A circuit is a path along which electric current flows from the negative side of the power source to
the positive side. There are three types of electrical circuit.
(i) Series circuit
(ii) Parallel circuit
(iii) Combination of series and parallel circuit
Series circuit: The series circuit provides a single, continuous path through which current flows.
In this the devices are connected one after another and the current flows through them until it
returns to the power source. Hence, even when one device breaks down the remaining devices will
not operate, because the circuit is broken. The circuit is shown in Fig. 10.30.
! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 239

B1 B2 B3

S1

Fig. 10.30 Series circuit.

Parallel circuit: In a parallel circuit the devices are connected side by side so that current flows
in a number of parallel paths. The parallel circuit is shown in Fig. 10.31.

B1 B2 B3

S1

Fig. 10.31 Parallel circuit.

In this type of circuit each device is connected across the power source so that even if one device
breaks down, the other devices continue to operate. Hence, this type of circuit is used in home wiring.
10.8.1 Types of Wiring
Based on the electrical installation the wiring system is classified into five types. These types of
wiring system are used in residential buildings, commercial buildings, etc. The following are the
five types of wiring.
1. Wooden casing wiring system
2. Clear wiring system
3. Lead sheathed wiring system
4. Cabtyre sheathed wiring system
5. Conduit pipe wiring system.
10.8.2 Wiring Diagrams
A wiring diagram shows the connection of installation or part of installation such as connection of
a lamp, fan and switches with supply. It exactly shows how the connections are made and it gives
the layout of wiring.
Figure 10.32 shows a simple wiring diagram. It is a wiring diagram of two lamps which are
controlled by two individual switches and also one fan which is controlled by one switch and a fan
regulator. For easy understanding, the circuit diagram is also given for the above connection of
a switch, a fan and lamps with the supply.
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Fig. 10.32 Wiring diagram.

Figure 10.33 clearly shows the electrical circuit of the wiring diagram. It is for easy
understanding of the operation of an electric circuit. It is simple and clear as possible. Figure 10.34
shows the single-line wiring diagram.
N

L1 L2

S1 S2 S3

Ph
Fig. 10.33 Electrical circuit. Fig. 10.34 Single line wiring diagram.

Explanation
1. The number of wires is represented by an equal number of short thin slanting lines marked
over the single line.
2. If the number of wires running together is more than three, it is sufficient to draw only one
slanting line over the single line and indicate by means of a figure the number of wires as 4.
3. Single line diagram gives enough information to a wireman: What materials are required
and how to carryout the installation, etc.
4. Two lamps are controlled from two switches of supply, which have been taken direct
from switchboards. This is not economical because more wires are consumed.
5. If there are two lamps in the same room, then each lamp is to be controlled by a separate
switch.
6. It is better to use same wires for connecting more than one lamp to the switchboard,
instead of using separate wires for each appliance (Fig. 10.35).

Fig. 10.35 Wiring system.


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10.8.3 Methods of Connection of Lamps


1. Two lamps are connected in series and controlled by two switches (Fig. 10.36).

L
S1 L1 S2 L2

N
Fig. 10.36 Two lamps connected in series.

In this case closing a switch will short circuit the corresponding lamp which will not light up
at all. This method of connection is indeed most undesirable because should both the switches S1
and S2 be closed, the full supply voltage of 240 would be short circuited, thus endangering the
installation.
2. Connections of two lamps in series, each having a switch in parallel (Fig. 10.37).
L1 L2

L
S1 S2
N

Fig. 10.37 Two lamps in series with parallel switch.

Series connected lamps are used for decoration lighting at festivals and marriage parties to
light a large number of lamps of small voltage rating connected in series. All the lamps are controlled
by a single switch connected in series with the lamps.
3. Decoration lighting is shown in Fig. 10.38.

Fig. 10.38 Decoration lights.

This type of connections is generally employed for lighting making use of parallel
connections (Fig. 10.38). In this case the lamps are all connected in parallel across the supply
but without bringing separate wires for each lamp from the distribution board. It is important to
note that all the controlling switches and the fuse should be connected in the live wire and never
in the neutral.
Examples on Light and Fan Circuits
Explanation: The phase wire is shown by a normal black line and neutral is distinguished by a
dotted line (Fig. 10.39). Showing neutral wires as a dotted line is not a conventional symbol. This
is only done to give clear understanding to students about electrical circuiting.
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Fig. 10.39 Light and fan circuits.

10.8.4 Basic Household Wiring


Figure 10.40 shows the typical wiring system used in houses. Conductors, switches and other
accessories should be of proper sizes and capable of carrying the maximum current which will
flow through them. Conductors should be of copper or aluminium. In a power circuit, wiring
should be designed for the load which is supposed to carry. Power sub-circuits should be kept
separate from lighting and fan sub-circuits. Wiring should be done on the distribution system with
main and branch distribution boards at convenient centres. Wiring should look neat with good
appearance. Wires should pass through a pipe or box, and should not twist or cross.
The conductor is carried in a rigid steel conduit conforming to standards or in a porcelain
tube.

P L1
P
Sub-circuit 3

L1
F
F
L2
L2
L3

Two-way Sub-circuit 1
Sub-circuit 2
Fuse

switch L1

L2

L3
Main switch
Main supply

Meter
F

Neutral
link
Fuse
Fig. 10.40 Typical wiring system in a house.
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10.8.5 Staircase Light Wiring


Staircase wiring using one lamp and two switches: The staircase wiring circuit is shown in
Fig. 10.41. In this wiring, a single lamp is controlled from two places. For this purpose two numbers
of two-way switches are used. The application of this type of wiring is in staircase lighting.

N L

P 1 1
C C
S1 S2

2 2
Fig. 10.41 Staircase light wiring.

The function of the given wiring circuit, can be understood from Table 10.6.
Table 10.6 Positions and conditions of switches in staircase wiring
Position of switch Position of switch Condition of lamp
(S1) (S2) (L)
1 1 ON
1 2 OFF
2 1 OFF
2 2 ON
Staircase wiring from three places: One light point is to be switched on and off by any of the
three switches placed at three different positions. This is similar to a staircase lighting but there are
three controlling switches in this case.
In cases where one lamp is to be controlled by three switches, one of the switches is called an
intermediate switch, such as switch S2 with two contact positions as shown in Fig. 10.42.

Fig. 10.42 Staircase wiring with switching.


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10.8.6 Fluorescent Lamp Wiring


Flourescent lamp wiring (Fig. 10.43) has a low pressure mercury lamp and a long evacuated tube.
It contains a small amount of mercury and argon gas at 2.5 mm pressure. At the time of switching
in the tube, mercury is in the form of small drops. Therefore, to start the tube filling up of argon gas
is necessary. So, in the beginning, argon gas starts burning at the ends of the tube; the mercury is
heated and controls the current and the tube starts giving light. At each end of the tube, there is a
tungsten electrode which is coated with fast electron emiting material. The inside of the tube is
coated with phosphorus according to the type of light.

Fig. 10.43 Flourescent lamp wiring.

The tube light wiring is shown in Fig. 10.44. A starter helps to start the tube and break the
circuit. Mainly the glow type starter is in household wiring.

Fig. 10.44 Tube light wiring.

Glow type: In this type of starter, there are two bimetal (made of two different metals) strips.
These strips are enclosed in an evacuated glass tube which contains helium at low pressure. In the
beginning, the two strips are separated apart. If the connections are made, the full voltage is applied
across the strips, the helium gas inside it starts glowing. Because of this glow, the strips are heated
and joined together. As there is a complete series circuit, the gas does not glow and the strips get
cooled and are thus separated apart. The tube starts working and the current flows now through the
mercury electrons inside the tube. A condenser is connected across the strips so that there is no
interference in radio sets at the time of opening and joining these strips.
Choke coil: It is also called blast. It has a laminated core over which enameled wire is wound. The
function of the choke is to increase the voltage to almost 1000 V at the time of switching on the tube
and when the tube starts working, it reduces the voltage across the tube and keeps the current constant.
The electrons keep on colliding with atoms, thus producing more electrons. More electrons
mean more current flow. If the increase in the electrons is not checked, the current can increase to
a high value. The choke keeps the current flow uniform. When current increases, the voltage
! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 245

across choke terminals will be less which will reduce the current. This reduction in current will
decrease the voltage across the choke which will increase the voltage across the tube terminals.
This in turn will again increase the current. This cycle is repeated. Because of quick repetition of
this cycle, the light emitted by the tube remains uniform.
Connection to the tubelight: Figure 10.45 shows the tube light connection. Open the ceilling
rose fitted near it. Pass the tube connection wires through the cover of the ceiling rose and then
make a knot in the wires. After this remove insulation from a portion of the wires and connect
these to the screws in the base of the ceiling rose. See that the eye of wire is in the same direction
in which the screw is tightened. The screw is always tightened in the right-hand direction. After
connecting both the wires, fix the cover of the ceiling rose. The tube will now give light after
switching on. If not, then slightly turn the tube so that proper contact is made.

Fig. 10.45 Tube light connection.

The wiring diagram of the following tube circuits controlled by their respective switches and
the function of various components of the fluorescent tube depicted in Fig. 10.46.
(a) Fluorescent tube circuit using glow starter
(b) Fluorescent tube circuit using thermal starter
(c) Two 20-watt tubes with one 40-watt choke
(d) Two 40-watt tubes with two 40-watt chokes

Fig. 10.46 Circuits (Contd.)...


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Fig. 10.46 Circuits.

Explanation
1. The electrodes of the starter which are enclosed in a gas bulb filled with argon gas cause
discharge in the argon gas with consequent heating.
2. Due to heating, the bimetallic strip bends and causes contacts in the starter to close. After this,
the choke and the filaments (tube ends) to the tube and starter become connected in series.
3. When current flows through the tube end filaments, the heat is produced. During the process,
the discharge in the starter tube disappears and the contacts in the starter move apart.
4. When a sudden break in the circuit occurs due to moving apart of starter terminals, this
causes a high value of emf to be induced in the choke.
5. According to Lenss law, the direction of induced emf in the choke will try to oppose the
fall of current in the circuit.
6. The voltage thus acting across the tube ends will be high enough to cause a discharge to
occur in the gas inside the tube. The tube thus starts giving light.
10.8.7 Measuring InstrumentsAmmeter, Voltmeter and Ohmmeter
The following are the measuring instruments used to measure current, voltage and resistance.
1. Ammeter
2. Voltmeter
3. Ohmmeter
Ammeter: An ammeter (Fig. 10.47) is an instrument which is used to measure the current in a
circuit. As an ammeter measures the flow of current in amperes, it should be connected in series
with the resistance as shown in the figure. The unit of current is ampere (A).
Electromotive force: The difference in the distribution of electrons between the two terminals
(positive and negative terminals of the sources of electrical energy) is called emf. This emf is
commonly referred as voltage.
! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 247

Fig. 10.47 Ammeter.

Voltmeter: A volmeter (Fig. 10.48) is an instrument which is used to measure the electrical
voltage. In order to measure the voltage of a source, the terminals of the volmeter must be connected
to the terminals of the source as shown in the following figure. The unit of the electromotive force
(emf) is volt (V).

Fig. 10.48 Voltmeter.

Ohmmeter: It is an instrument which is used to measure the resistance of a material (Fig. 10.49).
Resistance is the property of a conductor to oppose the free flow of current. It is measured by
the ohmmeter and the unit of resistance is ohm (W).

Fig. 10.49 Ohmmeter.


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10.8.8 Measurement of Power Using Wattmeter


Electric power is measured by means of a wattmeter. This instrument is of the electrodynamics
type. It consists of a pair of fixed coils known as current coils, and a movable coil known as
the potential coil. The fixed coils are made up of a few turns of a comparatively large conductor.
The potential coil consists of many turns of fine wire. It is mounted on a shaft, carried in
jewelled bearings, so that it may turn inside the stationary coils. The movable coil carries a
needle which moves over a suitable marked scale. Spiral coil springs hold the needle to a zero
position.
A simplified electrodynamics wattmeter circuit is shown in Fig. 10.50. The current coil
(stationary coil) of the wattmeter is connected in series with the circuit (load), and the potential
coil (movable coil) is connected across the line. When line current flows through the current coil
of a wattmeter, a field is set up around the coil. The strength of this field is proportional to the line
current and in phase with it. The potential coil of the wattmeter generally has a high resistance
resistor connected in series with it. This is for the purpose of making the potential coil circuit of the
meter as purely resistive as possible. As a result, current in the potential circuit is in phase with line
voltage. Therefore, when voltage is applied to the potential circuit, current is proportional to and in
phase with the line voltage.

Fig. 10.50 Wattmeter.

The activating force of a wattmeter comes from the field of its current coil and the field of its
potential coil. The force acting on the movable coil at any instant is proportional to the instantaneous
values of line current and voltage.
The wattmeter consists of two circuits, either of which will be damaged if too much current
is passed through them. This fact is to be especially emphasized in the case of wattmeters, because
the reading of the instrument does not serve to tell the user that the coils are being overheated, if an
ammeter or voltmeter is overloaded. The points will be indicating beyond the upper limit of its
scale. In the wattmeter, both the current and potential circuits may carry such an overload that their
insulation may burn, and yet the pointer may be only past way up the scale. This is because the
position of the pointer depends upon the power factor of the circuit as well as upon the voltage and
current. Thus, a low power factor circuit gives a very low reading on the wattmeter even when the
current and potential circuits are loaded to the maximum safe limit. This safe rating is generally
given on the face of the instrument. A wattmeter is always distinctly rated, not in watts but in volts
and amperes.
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10.8.9 Measurement of Energy Using Single-phase Energy Meter


The construction of an energy meter varies from one manufacturers product to another. However
the differences are very minor in nature.
These are four main parts of the operating mechanism.
(i) Driving system
(ii) Moving system
(iii) Breaking system
(iv) Registering system
The construction of a single-phase induction type energy meter is shown in Fig. 10.51.
Pressure coil

fq
V

Shading
I bands
O
Aluminium
disc
fD
Fig. 10.51 Single-phase energy meter.

Driving system: The driving system of the meter consists of two electromagnets. The core of
these electromagnets is made up of silicon steel laminations. The coil of one of the electromagnets
is excited by the load current. This coil is called the current coil.
The coil of second electromagnet is connected across the supply and, therefore, carries a
current proportional to the supply voltage. This coil is called the pressure coil. Consequently, the
two electromagnets are known as series and shunt magnets respectively.
Copper shading bands are provided on the central limb. The position of these bands is
adjustable. The function of these bands is to bring the flux produced by the shunt magnet exactly
in quadrate with the applied voltage.
Moving system: This consist of an aluminum disc mounted on a light alloy shaft. This disc is
positioned in the air gap between series and shunt magnets. The upper bearing of the rotor is a steel
pin located in a hole in the bearing cap fixed to the top of the shaft. The rotor runs on a hardened
steel pivot, screwed to the foot of the shaft. The pivot is supported by a jewel bearing. A pinion
engages the shaft with the counting or registering mechanism.
A unique design for the suspension of the disc is used in the floating-shaft energy meter.
Here the rotating shaft has a small magnet at each end, where the upper magnet of the shaft is
attracted to a magnet in the upper bearing and the lower magnet of the shaft is attracted to a magnet
in the lower bearing. The moving system thus floats without touching either bearing surface, and
the only contact with the movement is that of the gear connecting the shaft with the gear of the
train, thus the friction is drastically reduced.
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Breaking system: A permanent magnet positioned near the edge of the aluminum disc forms the
breaking system. The aluminium disc moves in the field of this magnet and thus provides a breaking
torque. The position of the permanent magnet is adjustable, and therefore, breaking torque can be
adjusted by shifting the permanent magnet to different radial positions as explained earlier.
Registering (counting) system: The function of a registering or counting mechanism is to record
continuously a number which is proportional to the revolutions made by the moving system. By a
suitable system, a train of reduction gears the pinion on the rotor shaft that drives a series of five or
size pointers. These rotate on round dials which are marked with ten equal divisions.

10.9 STUDY OF IRON BOX


A iron box is used for ironing clotes. It converts the electrical energy into heat energy by means of
resistance. There are mainly two types of iron box:
1. Ordinary electric iron box
2. Automatic iron box
The main parts for an iron box is explained below.
Sole plate: It is a cast iron plate where the bottom side is attached to a nickel plate. These are
bonded together as one.
Pressure plate: It helps to keep the heating element against the sole plate. The bottom surface of
the pressure plate and top surface of the sole plate must be smooth. If the surface is not smooth, it
will lead to termination of power supply.
Heating element or Heating coil: In heating element the nichrome wire is wounded to a mica
sheet. This heating element is placed above the sole plate. By means of conduction heat transfer
takes place.
Power cord: A power cord is a current conducting device where the P, N power is connected to
a heating element and earth wire to the body of the iron box.
Figure 10.52 shows wiring of an automatic iron box.

Fig. 10.52 Automatic iron box.


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10.10 STUDY OF CEILING FAN


As known the outline structure of a ceiling fan is a simple one. Here the number of blades only
gets differ. The main parts of the fan (Fig. 10.53) are as follows:
(i) Stator (ii) Rotor
(iii) Regulator (iv) Capacitor
(v) Blade (vi) Bearing
(vii) Top canopy (viii) Bottom canopy
(ix) Hanging rod (x) U-clamp

Fig. 10.53 External parts of a fan.

10.10.1 Mounting a Ceiling Fan


Step 1: Turn off the powerStart your installation by turning off the power or pull the fuse out
of the circuit.
Step 2: Mounting the fan to the beamed ceiling (Fig. 10.54), using a bolt, nut and a specially
designed rubber bush.

Fig. 10.54 Mounting for beam ceiling.


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Step 3: By using a suitable spanner it gets tightened up.


Step 4: Connector screws are loosened with a screwdriver or tester and the outer sleeve of the
electric wire is cutted using a wire cutter.
Step 5: Wires are inserted to the right terminals on the connector and the loosened screws are
tightened.
Step 6: The fan should be electrically grounded to both the metal box and the fan; power is
switched ON then.
10.10.2 Assembling a Ceiling Fan
There are different models of fan available. Let us see a standard model of a ceiling fan and how to
assemble it. If the fan blades are more than 2 feet length away from the ceiling, it may be best to
install the blades after the fan gets mounted.
Step 1: Install the hanger pipe. The hanger pipe is usually placed into its hole on top of the
motor. The wires are then drawn up in the centre. A set-screw is tightened securely to make sure
the pipe stays in place after it is threaded down.
Step 2: If a fan has a decorative ceiling cover (Fig. 10.55), it is installed after the fan has been
hung on the ceiling.
Tip: Tighten the screws well.

Fig. 10.55 Ceiling cover.

Step 3: To attach the fan blades, set the motor unit down where it will be stable.
Step 4: Most fan blades have a two-pronged attachment, using screws that come through holes
in the blades and into the flanges. These need to be drawn up securely.
10.10.3 Wiring Diagram for a Ceiling Fan
There are two main parts in a ceiling fan with reference to wiring: one is a stator and the other is a
rotor. Here the stator is the rotating part and the rotor is the stationary part.
The current comes out of the switch and flows through the regulator. A regulator resists the
flow of current using a rheostat. From here required current is sent to the capacitor (2 or 2.5 mfd)
and to the winding of the fan. A simple wiring diagram of a ceiling fan is as shown in Fig. 10.56.
! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 253

Fig. 10.56 Wiring diagram for a ceiling fan.

10.11 STUDY OF EMERGENCY LAMP


An emergency lamp is a battery-backed lighting device that turns ON when there is a power cut.
Various parts of an emergency lamp are as follows: Body, Transformer 230 V/12 V, Rectifier,
Battery, Relay switch, Fluorescent lamp, Indicator lamp, Switch, Wire with Plug.
The connection for an emergency lamp is as shown in Fig. 10.57. Here a stepdown transformer
is used. This helps to step down the voltage to 12V AC. The supply line goes to a bridge rectifier,
where AC voltage is converted to DC voltage and stored in the battery. When power cut occurs,
the charged current from the battery is supplied to the lamp by means of switching an ON/OFF
switch in the circuit.
Relay: A relay acts as an ON/OFF switch. If the voltage in a circuit increases, it de-energizes the
crurrent in the circuit.

Fig. 10.57 Wiring diagram of an emergency lamp.


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10.12 PREPARATION OF WIRING DIAGRAM


Wiring is the method of drawing or laying wires or cables, connecting accessories and fittings for
the purpose of distributing electrical power to the various points or equipment from the main.
Durability: Any wiring system must be able to withstand wear and tear due to weather. The
atmospheric action should not affect the wiring system.
Safety: Safety is the most important point to be considered in the selection of any wiring system.
The wiring should be perfectly leak proof. Selection of the wire should be according to the ISI
standard and the wire sheet be of such a capacity that it can withstand the total load of the whole
installation.
Mechanical protection: The wiring should be mechanically sound. It should be properly protected
from damages of physical nature.
Appearance: The appearance of the wiring has an important bearing on the architectural beauty
from the aesthetic point of view. Normally conduit wiring embedded under plaster is the proper
choice for improving the appearance of a wiring system.
Environmental conditions: In places where corrosive acids and alkalis are to come in contact
with wiring systems, they have to be protected against fumes and dampness.
Accessibility: Facility for extension and renewal should be provided. The wiring system adopted
should be economical and should suit the individual.
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EXERCISES
1. STAIRCASE WIRING
2. FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING
3. PREPARE AND MARK THE RESIDENTIAL HOUSE WIRING
4. CALIBRATION OF AMMETER
5. CALIBRATION OF VOLTMETER
6. MEASUREMENT OF POWER USING WATTMETER
7. MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY USING SINGLEPHASE ENERGY METER
8. MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES LIKE VOLTAGE, CURRENT,
POWER AND POWER FACTOR
9. MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO EARTH BY USING TRANSFORMER
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Fig. 10.58 Staircase wiring.


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EXERCISE 1: STAIRCASE WIRING


Aim
To construct staircase wiring in which one lamp is controlled by two-way switches (Fig. 10.58).
Tools required
1. Wiremans tool kit
2. Tester
3. Nose pliers
4. Hammer
Materials required
1. Bulb holder
2. Bulb
3. Two-way switch
4. Wires (Red and Black)
5. Joint clip
6. Switchboard
Procedure
1. Mark the location of the switch and bulb on the given wooden board.
2. Mark lines for wiring on the wooden board.
3. The required length of the PVC pipe can be fixed along the lines with the help of clips.
4. The wires of required length and colour was chosen and the wiring is being made through
the PVC pipe.
5. The bulb holder and switches are fixed in the corresponding location.
6. Use the red colour wire for phase line to the bulb through the two-way switch.
7. The another point of the bulb is connected to the neutral line using black wire.
8. The red and black wire terminals are connected to the main switch.
9. The supply is given to the circuit.
10. The bulb is made to glow by operating the switches.
Result
Thus, the wiring for the bulb was prepared and tested.
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Fig. 10.59 Fluorescent lamp (tube) wiring.


! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 259

EXERCISE 2: FLUORESCENT LAMP WIRING


Aim
To check and assemble the accessories of a tube light (fluorescent lamp).
Tools required
1. Wiremans tool kit
2. Nose pliers
3. Hand drilling machine with a 6.3 mm drill bit
4. Hammer
Materials required
1. Fluorescent tube light fitting
2. Connector (two-way)
3. PVC copper cable
4. Raw plug No. 10
5. Wood screws
6. Test lamp
7. BC lamp
8. Switchboard
Procedure
1. Check the choke for its short and open with a test lamp as shown in Fig. 10.59, and
record the results.
2. To test the starter, connect the starter with a series test lamp.
3. Observe the flickering of the lamp which indicates the good condition of the starter.
4. If there is no flickering in the test lamp, the starter is defective.
5. To test the filament on both sides of the fluorescent tube for its continuity, make the
connections. If the tube is in good condition, the lamp will glow normally. If the filament
is not glowing, the tube is burnt out.
6. Discard the fluorescent tube, if there is an open or fused filament in either side of the
tube.
7. Assembling of a fluorescent tube:
(i) Assemble the fluorescent tube accessories like a starter holder, a holder for the tube
and a choke in the fitting base with the help of screws.
(ii) Finally the tube is fixed in the tube holder to light.
Result
Thus, the checking and assembling of the accessories of a fluorescent lamp is done.
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Fig. 10.60 Prepare and mark the residential house wiring.


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EXERCISE 3: PREPARE AND MARK THE RESIDENTIAL HOUSE WIRING


Aim
To prepare and mark the wiring layout for residential house (Fig. 10.60).
Tools required
1. Plumb-bob with thread
2. Try square
3. Steel measuring tape
4. Ladder
Materials required
1. Coloured chalk powder
2. Cotton cloth
Procedure
1. Study the given building plan carefully and draw a plan of the bedroom separately to a
larger scale.
2. In the plan of a bedroom, mark the location of the entry and exit points of the supply.
3. Locate points for fixing electrical appliances and accessories by using BIS symbols.
4. Find out the main route cables in the layout. Also determine the route for connecting
cables and main cable, and consider economic and labour aspects.
5. Draw the cable runs in the bedroom layout.
6. Locate the ceiling, vertical, horizontal and straight runs of the cables.
HHorizontal
VVertical run
V upUpward vertical run
V dnDownward vertical run
CCeiling run
Result
Thus, the required wiring layout for residential is prepared.
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Fig. 10.61 Calibration of ammeter.


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EXERCISE 4: CALIBRATION OF AMMETER


Aim
To calibrate the given ammeter using a DC potentiometer.
Tools required
1. DC potentiometer
2. Rheostat
3. Ammeter
4. Lamp loads
5. DPST switch
6. Fuse (5 amp)
Theory
This is an instrument by which two emfs (or potential differences) are compared. If one of them is
known, then the other can be found by comparing with the former. This is of high accuracy and no
power consumption from the circuit containing the unknown emf when it is balanced. This may
also be used to measure current.
Precautions
1. The potentiometer connections must be made with proper polarities.
2. All the lamp loads are kept in OFF position initially.
3. The low voltage DC source to the potentiometer should be kept in OFF position.
Procedure
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 10.61).
2. The lamp load is switched ON.
3. Then the volt and millivolt knobs of the potentiometer are adjusted and the voltage drop
across the terminals of the standard resistance is measured. All the meter readings are
noted.
4. The actual current value is calculated by using the potentiometer reading and the standard
resistor value.
5. The load is increased in steps and the corresponding meter readings are noted.
Formulae used
1. Current calculated from potentiometer
Actual current = Potentiometer dial reading
Standard resistance
2. Percentage error is calculated using
Current measure from ammeter Actual current reading
% Error = 100
Actual current reading
Result
Thus with the DC potentiometer the given ammeter was calibrated and the % error curves were
plotted.
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Fig. 10.62 Calibration of voltmeter.


Observation
S. No. Ammeter reading (A) Potentiometer reading (A) Actual current (A) % Error
! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 265

EXERCISE 5: CALIBRATION OF VOLTMETER


Aim
To calibrate the given voltmeter using a DC potentiometer.
Tools required
1. DC potentiometer
2. Rheostat (3600 Ohms)
3. Voltmeter (0300 V)
4. Volt ratio box
5. DPST switch
6. Fuse (1 amp)
Precautions
1. The potentiometer connections must be made with proper polarities.
2. All the lamp loads are kept in OFF position initially.
3. The low voltage DC source to the potentiometer should be kept in OFF position.
4. The potential divider should be kept at a minimum potential position at the time of starting
while calibrating the voltmeter.
5. While giving the connection the polarities of the volt ratio box are properly checked.
8. Measurement of power using a watt meter.
Procedure
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 10.62).
2. The potential divider is adjusted in steps and in each step (as the approximate value of the
test voltage is known, a proper range is selected on the potentiometer by using the range
selector) with the test button pressed, the volt and millivolt knobs are adjusted till the
galvanometer reads zero.
3. All the meter readings are noted.
4. The actual value of the applied voltage is calculated by using the potentiometer reading.
5. The above procedure is repeated for each adjustment of the potential divider (up to 230 V).
Formulae used
1. Voltage calculated from potentiometer
Actual voltage = Potentiometer dial reading Voltbox ratio
2. Percentage error is calculated using
Current measure from voltmeter Actual current reading
% Error = 100
Actual voltage
Result
Thus with the DC potentiometer the given voltmeter was calibrated and the error curves were
plotted.
266 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

600 V, Resistive load


(020)A 20 A UPF
Fuse Rin Ro
N A
C
S1
15 A
R

V (0600 V)
N
415 V Y B
50 Hz Y Fuse C Yin Yo
AC supply
S2
15 A

Fuse C Bin Bo
B
S3
15 A 600 V, 15 kW, 415 V, 25 A
Switch 3f variac 20 A UPF
load 3f energy meter

R A
V 3f
3f wattmeter 3f energy
Y resistive
meter
B load

N
Fig. 10.63 Measurement of power using wattmeter.

Observation
S. No. Load Load Power Total power Power factor
W1 W2
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EXERCISE 6: MEASUREMENT OF POWER USING WATTMETER


Aim
To determine the power and power factor using two wattmeter methods.
Tools required
1. Wattmeter (600 V, 20 A UPF)
2. Voltmeter (0600 V)
3. Ammeter (030 A)
4. Variac (0415 V)/415 V, 20 A
5. Inductive load 440 V, 5 kW, 20 A
Precautions
Before switch ON the supply
1. Load rheostat should be kept at off conduction.
2. The wattmeter reading should be checked for proper value.
Formulae used
VL = V ; I L = I
Actual power = 3 VL IL cos
Power factor = Power
3 VL I L
1 W2  W1
tan 3
W1  W2
Procedure
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 10.63).
2. Observing the precautions of 3 AC supply is switched on.
3. 3 variac is adjusted for bringing it to rated voltage.
4. 3 % star connected load is varied gradually in each step. The voltmeter and wattmeter
readings are tabulated and power is calculated.
Result
Thus, the value of input power and power factor of three phase load using two wattmeter method
was determined.
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Fig. 10.64 Measurement of energy using single-phase energy meter.


! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 269

EXERCISE 7: MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY USING SINGLEPHASE ENERGY


METER
Aim
To measure the energy using a single-phase energy meter at UPF load condition.
Tools required
1. Voltmeter (0600 V)
2. Ammeter (05 A)
3. Stop clock
4. Energy meter
5. Wattmeter (300 V, 5 A, UPF)
6. Lamp load
Precautions
1. There should be no load at the time of beginning.
2. The connections must be made properly for UPF.
Procedure
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 10.64).
2. The DPST switch is closed and the supply is effected and the load is adjusted to full load
value.
3. The time taken for 10 revolutions of the aluminium disc in the energy meter is noted.
4. The error is calculated, if it is more than + 3%. The brake magnet is adjusted such that the
error is within + 3%.
5. The load is reduced in steps and for each step the step 3 is repeated and the % error is
calculated.
Formulae used
Energy meter specification = 1200 rev/kWh
1200 rev = 1 kWh
1 kWh 3600 1000
1 rev = 3000 W s
1200 1200
For UPF conditions:
Power calculated from energy meter reading = 3000
time for 10 rev
(Power calculated from energy meter reading)  (Wattmeter reading)
% Error = 100
Wattmeter reading
Result
Thus, the given single-phase energy meter was measured and the error curve was plotted.
270
!"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 10.65 Measurement of electrical quantities.


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EXERCISE 8: MEASUREMENT OF ELECTRICAL QUANTITIES LIKE VOLTAGE,


CURRENT, POWER AND POWER FACTOR
Aim
To measure the electrical quantities like voltage, current, power, power factor using RLC circuit.
Tools required
S. No. Component Type/Range Quantity
1 Auto-transformers 270 V, 15 A 1
2 Fuse 15 A 1
3 Voltmeter 0300 V, 15 A MI 4
4 Ammeter 030 A MI 1
5 Wattmeter 250 W, 15 A 1
6 PF meter 250 V, 15 A 1
7 Resistor 400 W 1
8 Indicator 40 W 1
9 Capacitor 2 MF 1
Formulae used
Apparent power (AP) = VI
W
Power factor = cos =
VI
Procedure
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 10.65).
2. DPST (switch) is set to OFF first.
3. DPST switch is switched ON and then auto-transformer is also switched ON.
4. The output is gradually increased to 100 V by adjusting the handle of the auto-transformer.
voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter and PF meter readings are tabulated.
5. The transformer is switched OFF.
6. Calculations are done using the formula.
Apparent power value (AP) = VI.
7. Power factor is also calculated as
cos = True power/Apparent power.
8. Compare the calculated power cos with power factor meter reading.
Result
Thus, the electrical quantities like voltage, current, power and power factor are calculated using
RLC circuit.
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Fig. 10.66 Measurement of resistance.


! "#$%"&!' ()%( $%()'*$&"#%" 273

EXERCISE 9: MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE TO EARTH BY USING


TRANSFORMER
Aim
To measure resistance to earth using a given electrical transformer.
Tools required
S. No. Components Type/Range Quantity
1 Transform 250 V, 50 Hz AC supply 1
2 Megger 250 V/700 V 1
3 Fuse 15 A 2

Procedure
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 10.66).
2. Now the transformer is attached as shown in the figure.
3. DPST (switch) is set to ON.
4. Earth is given from the transformer output as in the circuit diagram.
5. A hand Megger is attached to the other side and by rotating the Megger, the voltage is
generated and given to the transformer.
6. The readings are calculated from the Megger and tabulated.
Result
Thus, the earth resistance for the given electrical transformer is calculated.
11 ELECTRONICS
ENGINEERING PRACTICE

11.1 INTRODUCTION
These days most of the scientific and industrial measurements require very fast responses. The
mechanical and electrical instruments and systems cannot cope up with these requirements. The
necessity to step up response time and also the detection of dynamic changes in certain parameters,
which require the monitoring time of the order of s and many a time s, have led to the design of
todayss electronic insturments and their associated circuitry.

11.2 STUDY OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT


11.2.1 Types of Electronic Components
Electronic circuits are made up of electronic components. The electronic components are divided
into two types:
(i) Active components
(ii) Passive components
Active components: The active components are non-linear and the main charactor of the signal
changes when it passes through these components. Active components delivers power. Transistors,
diodes, SCR, FET, UJT, MOSFET are examples of active components.
Passive components: The passive components are linear component, and the character of signal
does not change when it passes through these components. The passive components consume
power. Resistors, capacitors and inductors are examples of passive components.
11.2.2 Basic Electronic Components
Resistors: A resistor (Fig. 11.1) is used to control the flow of current and to get required voltage
drops in required places. This is a electronic passive component. The symbol of a resistor is R and
the unit is ohm (W).
274
! "#$%&'"() &*'& $'&*)+$,"#'" 275

Fig. 11.1 Symbol of resistor.


Capacitors: A capacitor (Fig. 11.2) is an electronic passive component which is used to share
electrical energy. It absorbs the power when it is needed. It has two conductors separated by an
insulator. It is indicated by farad with voltage rating. Its polarity is indicated in the component
itself. The unit of the capacitor is farad and symbol is C.

Fig. 11.2 Capacitor symbol.


Inductors: The conductors of many turns wound on an iron core or air core are called inductors
(Fig. 11.3). An inductor is a passive component. It is indicated by henry. The inductor allows AC
signals and blocks DC signals. It has no polarities.

Fig. 11.3 Inductor symbol.


The unit of the inductor is henry and it is denoted by L.
Semiconductors: Semiconductors are the material those are having the electrical properties
between the insulators and conductors. At room temperature the semiconductors never conduct.
Normally used semiconductors are germanium and silicon.
Transistors: A transistor (Fig. 11.4) is an active component. It is a three-terminal semiconductor
device. The three terminals are as follows:
1. Emitter
2. Base
3. Collector
The transistors are classified into two types:
(i) NPN transistor
(ii) PNP transistor

Fig. 11.4 Transistors.


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Diodes: A diode (Fig. 11.5) is a two-terminal (anode and cathode) device. It allows the electron
to flow in only one direction. It is like one direction value for electron flow. A semi-conductor
diode is a two-layer, one-junction device, which is formed by joinig one P-type and one N-type
semiconductor material.

Fig. 11.5 Diode symbol.


LED (Light Emitting Diode): A light emitting diode converts electrical energy into light energy
(green or infrared energy). LEDs are used in electronic instruments. It is a diode made up of
semiconductor gallium and arsenium diphosphide. This material glows when current passes though it.
MOSFET: MOSFET (Fig. 11.6) is the abbriviation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect
Transistor. In MOSFET the gate is insulated from the channel, so the gate current is extremely
small whether the gate is positive or negative.

Fig. 11.6 MOSFET symbol.


SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier): SCR (Fig. 11.7) is a three-terminal, three-junction
semiconductor device that acts as a true electronic switch. It is an unidirectional device. It converts
AC into DC.

Fig. 11.7 Silicon controlled rectifier.

11.2.3 Resistor Colour Coding


Colour coding is a system of colour used to indicate the
electrical resistance value of a component. In the resistance
body, four number of colour bands are printed (Fig. 11.8).
The signification of each colour is described below.
There are four colour bands 1, 2, 3 and 4. The first two
bands 1 and 2 indicate the resistance value and the third band 3
indicates the number of zeroes that follows the first two digits.
The last band 4 denotes the tolerance (see Table 11.1). Fig. 11.8 Resistor colour bands.
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Table 11.1 Colour coding table


Colour Multiplier Tolerance
Black 0 1
Brown 1 10 1%
Red 2 102 2%
Orange 3 103
Yellow 4 104
Green 5 105
Blue 6 106
Violet 7 107
Grey 8 108
White 9 109
Gold 0.15%
Silver 10%

11.2.4 CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope) and Multimeters


The block diagram for a general purpose oscillator is shown in Fig. 11.9.

Fig. 11.9 Block diagram of a general purpose oscilloscope.


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CRO (Cathode Ray Oscilloscope): The cathode ray oscilloscope is probably the most versatile
tool for the development of elctronic circuits and systems, and has been one of the more important
tools in the development of modern electronics. The cathode ray oscilloscope is a device that
allows the amplitude of electrical signals, whether it may be voltage, current, power, etc. to be
displayed primarily as a function of time. The oscilloscope depends on the movement of an electron
beam, which is then made visible by allowing the beam to impinge on a phosphorus surface, which
produces a visible spot.
Multimeter or VOM: The ammeter, voltmeter, and the ohmmeter use a d Arsonval movement.
The difference between these instruments is the circuit in which the basic movement is used. It
is therefore obvious that a single instrument can be designed to perform the three measurement
functions. The instrument, which contains a function switch to connect the appropriate circuits
to the d Arsonval movement, is often called a multimeter or volt-ohmmeter (VOM) shown in
Fig. 11.10.
A representative example of a commercial multimeter is shown in the figure. The meter is a
combination of a DC milliammeter, a DC voltmeter, an AC voltmeter, a multirange ohmmeter, and
an output meter.

Fig. 11.10 Multimeters.


There are two types of multimeters.
(i) Analog multimeter
(ii) Digital multimeter
Digital multimeters are preferred because of the following reasons:
(i) It eliminates interpretation errors.
(ii) It reduces human reading errors.
(iii) Power requirement is less.
(iv) Cost is low.
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11.3 SOLDERING OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS


Soldering is a method of joining two pieces of metal by means of a fusible alloy called solder,
which is applied in the molten stage. The melting point of the filler metal is below 420C. It is the
process of joining electrical parts together to form an electrical connection using a molten mixture
of lead and tin (solder) with a soldering iron. The melting point of solder should be lower than that
of metals to be soldered, so that the electrical parts would not get damaged.
Basic tools needed for soldering process are as follows:
(i) Soldering iron
(ii) Solder
(iii) Soldering flux
Soldering iron: A soldering iron (Fig. 11.11) supplies sufficient heat to melt solder by heat
transfer, when the iron tip is applied to a connection to be soldered.
Soldering irons are available in different temperature ranges. Table 11.2 illustrates the output
ratings of the available soldering irons.

Fig. 11.11 Soldering iron.


Table 11.2 Output ratings of soldering irons.
Voltage 6 12 24 50 110 230
Wattage 25 25 25 25 25, 75, 250 5250
The soldering iron temperature is selected according to the work to be performed.
Solder: Solder is one of the most widely used alloys in soldering process. It is an allory of low
melting metals like tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, silver, etc. The most commonly used alloy
combination is 63% tin and 37% lead. The solders are available in diameters of 0.0380.318 cm.
Soldering flux: Soldering flux is a resin, specially designed to flow over the job and prevents
contact with the atmosphere. Metals, particularly copper when heated, tend to oxidize and prevent
the alloying or good electrical bond between the copper and the solder. Applying flux can stop this
oxidization process.
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11.3.1 Types of Soldering Iron

Temperature-controlled soldering iron: It uses thermostatic control which maintains its


temperature at a fixed level (Fig. 11.12).

Fig. 11.12 Temperature-controlled soldering iron.


Soldering iron with soldering gun: It runs at 100 W, is not suitable for microelectronics and
components (Fig. 11.13).

Fig. 11.13 Soldering with soldering gun.

Gas-powered soldering iron: It uses butane instead of electrical supply and can be used where
electrical supply is not available.
11.3.2 Steps Followed in Soldering

Selection of the bit: According to the work, it should be small in size and can give good contact
with the surface. Figure 11.14 shows different shapes of soldering bits.
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Cleaning the bit and surface to be soldered: Clean the bit frequently with a wire brush or
emery paper or a special sponge pad. Surface should be cleaned completely and flux should be
applied.
Tinning the soldering iron bit: Coat the soldering iron on the surface of the tip which also looks
bright silver colour. Replace the tip if it is old or corroded.
Applying flux: Flux may be applied to the surface to be soldered.
Applying solder: With the use of proper soldering bit, solder should be applied. The quantity
depends on the size of the surface to be soldered.

Fig. 11.14 Shapes of soldering bits.

11.3.3 Procedure of Soldering


1. Clean the bit and switch on the supply. When hot, tin the soldering irons tip with a
small amount of solder. A clean, well-tinned tip can do the job properly. Wipe the terminal
of components.
2. Bend the components leads to fit the holes on the boards. Do not bend over.
3. Heat the joint by placing the soldering irons tip against the component leads and circuit
pad and touch the solder to the lead pad. Only after the flow of solder, remove the lead
and hold the tip in place for one second and remove it without moving the part or board
and let the joint cool.
4. Trim the excess component lead with the side cutter, no need to trim the short leads.
5. Inspect the joints, bends and leads, and pad smoothly together and have a bright finish.
6. After finishing all soldering, clean the board to remove any flux residue.
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Figure 11.15 shows various steps in soldering.

Fig. 11.15 Steps in soldering.

11.3.4 Desoldering

When an electronic component is to be removed from a circuit, desoldering is needed.


Procedure to desolder

1. Hold the terminal which is to be unsoldered by nose pliers.


2. Place the tip of the soldering iron on the joint until the solder is melted and remove the
terminal.
3. Clean the terminal of the component as well as PCB.
11.3.5 Safety Precautions While Soldering

Dos and donts during soldering are given in Table 11.3.


Table 11.3 Dos and Donts
Dos Donts

1. All parts of the board must be cleaned including 1. Dont use the table, which is already used for
the work table. soldering and not cleaned. It may lead to short-
2. Clean the hot soldering tip with a damp sponge circuit.
frequently. 2. Dont overheat the tip.
3. Apply sufficient solder. 3. Dont use excess solder. It may lead to short
4. Use an iron stand for safety circuit with nearby components.
5. The mains where the iron is connected should 4. Dont pull the iron on the table, use a soldering
be earthed properly. iron stand.
6. Always wore protective clothing like gloves, 5. Dont move the soldering iron until the solder
apron, boots, etc. has cooled.

11.3.6 Checking the Continuity for Electronic Circuits

A continuity tester is used for checking circuit board tracks, wires and connections for continuity.
With the use of the tester, we can confirm whether the electricity can flow through a cord, wire and
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metallic track. Electricity needs a continuous path or circuit in order to flow. To ensure this, the
continuity tester is used. The circuit diagram for a continuity tester is shown in Fig. 11.16.

Fig. 11.16 Circuit diagram for a continuity tester.


Components: The following are the components of a continuity tester:
1. 9 V battery 2. Red LED
3. 390 W resistor 4. Crocodile clips
While checking the continuity, the LED lights brightly, dimly or not at all, according to the
resistance of the item. When the tester is not in use the 9 V battery should be unclipped or the
crocodile clips are attached to a piece of plastic to prevent them touching. An ON/OFF switch can
be added in the red wire from the battery clip.
Working procedure: The continuity tester sends electricity from an internal batttery through
one side of the item and down the wires. If the LED gets electrical current, the other side lights up
confirming that the path is good.
While using of a continuity tester, first disconnect the item being tested from the power
source. Make sure switches on the device are ON.
Attach the crocodile clip to one side of the item. Now touch the tip of the tester to the other
side. If there is continuity, the LED will light up. Connect a crocodile clip on each side of the
suspected fault.
11.3.7 Assembling Electronic Components on PCB
PCB (Printed Circuit Board): A printed circuit board (Fig. 11.17) is the base plate over which
all electronic components are mounted with soldered condition. The interconnection between two
components is made by the metallic tracks.

Fig. 11.17 Sample for PCB diagram.


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Fabrication and assembling electronic components on PCB: There are many types of PCBs
out of which the single-sided PCB is taken for our discussion. The single-sided PCB fabrication
consists of the following steps:
(i) PCB pattern designing
(ii) Pattern transformation on to PCB
(iii) Developing PCB
(iv) Cleaning of PCB
(v) Finishing and assembly components
PCB pattern designing: The design factors should be considered for all components, converted
into PCB tracks of appropriate shape and size. While disigning the PCB, the following factors
should be considered.
(i) Components position on the board.
(ii) The grounding system should be properly connected for good ground conduction. There
should not be any inductive loop.
(iii) To withstand a possible short circuit in a system.
(iv) Jumpers should be avoided.
After these design considerations with the help of self adhesive pads and lines, the master
pattern of PCB is made on a thick sheet with a reverse carbon placed underneath to take the mirror
image on the reverse side of sheet.
Pattern transformation onto PCB: Before doing the pattern transformation onto the PCB, the
copper side of the PCB should be thorougly cleaned with the help of alcoholic spirit or petrol, and
must be made free from dust and contaminants.
Base laminate is a board of insulating material, which is given a coating of a conducting
material that is copper and aluminium. For a simple circuit, the phenolic board is preferred.
Developing PCB: This process removes all the excessive copper from the base laminate. After
this, only the printed pattern is left behind. A solution of 75C hot tap water and ferric chloride is
used to remove the excess copper. The above said solution is thoroughly stirred and to speed up the
process, a few drops of HCl may be added.
The board, with its copper side facing upwards, is placed in the above prepared solution. It
takes nearly one hour to complete the process.
Cleaning of PCB: After the developing process, the board should be washed under running
water and should be dried. Now we can see the printed pattern very clearly. If any unwanted lines
are thereby means or using petrol or alcohol the paint or inkline is removed from the PCB.
Finishing and assembling the components: For finishing the board should be fully dried. Now
using high speed drilling, the holes are drilled according to the component size and shape.
After preparing PCB, we have to assemble the electronic components to make the circuit
work. The components are soldered in the correct position and the circuit is tested with a continuity
tester. Now the circuit is ready for use.
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11.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS


11.4.1 Characteristics of PN and Zener Diodes
The PN diode: A PN junction is formed from a piece of semiconductor (germanium or silicon)
by diffusing P-type material to one half and N-type material to the other half side. The plane
dividing the two zones is known as a junction. The diode symbol is shown in Fig. 11.18.

Fig. 11.18 Diode symbol.


Formation of PN junction: When the PN junction (Fig. 11.19) is formed, there is a tendency for
the electrons in the N-region to diffuse into the P-region and holes from P-region to N-region. This
process is called diffusion.

Fig. 11.19 PN junction.


Working of PN junction diode: The voltage across a PN junction can he applied in two ways:
(i) Forward biasing
(ii) Reverse biasing
Forward bias: When the positive terminal of the external battery is connected to the P-region
and the negative terminal to the N-region, the PN junction is said to be forward biased as shown in
Fig. 11.20. When the junction is forward biased, the holes in the P-region are repelled by the
positive terminal of the battery and are forced to move towards the junction. Similarly, the electrons
in the N-region are repelled by the negative terminal of the battery and are forced to move towards
the junction. This reduces the width of the depletion layer and barrier potential.

Fig. 11.20 PN junctionforward bias.


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Since a barrier potential is very small (nearly 0.7 V for silicon and 0.3 V for Germanium
junction), a small forward voltage is enough to completely eliminate the barrier. Once the potential
barrier is eliminated by the forward voltage, a large current starts flowing through the PN junction.
Reverse bias: When the positive terminal of the external battery is connected to the N-region
and nagative terminal to the P-region, the PN junction is said to be reverse biased as shown in
Fig. 11.21. When the junction is reverse biased, the holes in the P-region are attracted by the
negative terminal of the battery. Similarly, the electrons in the N-region are attracted by the positive
terminal of the external battery.
In a reverse biased PN junction, a small amount of current (in PN) flows through the junction
because of minority carriers. The reverse current is small because the number of minority carriers
in both regions is small.

Fig. 11.21 PN junctionreverse bias.


A graph between the voltage applied across the PN junction and the current flowing through
the junction called the VI (Volt-Ampere) characteristics of a PN junction diode is shown in Fig. 11.22.
The complete graph can be divided into two parts, namely forward characteristic and reverse
characteristic.

IF (mA)

Forward
characteristics

VBR

VR (V) Vd VF (V)

Reverse
characteristics
IR (mA)
VBR = Breakdown voltage
Vd = Cut-in voltage
Fig. 11.22 VI characteristics of PN junction diode.
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Zener diode: A zener diode (Fig. 11.23) is a specially designed PN junction diode. A reverse
biased, doped PN junction diode which is operated in the breakdown region is known as zener
diode. It is also called a voltage regulator diode or breakdown diode.

Fig. 11.23 Zener diode symbol.


Forward bias: The positive terminal of the battery is connected to the anode (A) and the negative
terminal of the battery is connected to the cathode (K). When the forward biasing voltage is increased,
the potential barrier is reduced and the current starts flowing in the circuit (Fig. 11.24).

Fig. 11.24 Zener diodeforward bias.


Reverse bias: The negative terminal of the battery is connected to the anode (A) and positive
terminal of the battery is connected to the cathode (K). Under the reverse bias condition, a small
reverse current flows through the zener diode (Fig. 11.25).

Fig. 11.25 Zener diodereverse bias.


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The VI characteristic of a zener diode is shown in Fig. 11.26.

IF (mA)

VBR VZ

VR (V) VF (V)

P IZ (min)

Q IZ (max)

Operating region

IF (mA)

Fig. 11.26 VI characteristic of zener diode.


Vz = Zener breakdown voltage.
Iz(min) = A minimum value of zener current (break over current)
Iz(max) = Maximum value of zener current.
11.4.2 Measurement of Ripple Factor for HWR and FWR
Rectifier: An electronic device that converts alternating current into direct current is called a
rectifier. It may be broadly categorized in the following two types:
1. Half-wave rectifier (HWR)
2. Full-wave rectifier (FWR)
Half-wave rectifier: A half-wave rectifier (Fig. 11.27) employs a single diode in series with a load
resistor. The ripple in the DC output has the same frequency as that of AC input voltage. Therefore,
the simple frequency of a half-wave rectifier is 50 Hz and that of AC power line voltage is 50 Hz.
During the positive half cycle of the input signal, the anode of the diode becomes positive
with respect to the cathode and hence the diodes conducts. For an ideal diode, the forward voltage
drop is zero. So the whole input voltage appears across the load resistance Rc.
During the negative half cycle of the input signal, the anode of the diode becomes negative
with respect to the cathode and hence the diode D does not conduct. So, the voltage drop across Rc
is zero.
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Transformer D
N1 N2

AC RL Vo
signal

Vm V0
Input voltage waveform Output voltage waveform
+Vm
+Vm

O p 2p wt
p 2p wt

Vm Vm

Fig. 11.27 Half-wave rectifier.


Ripple factor (r): The ratio of the rms value of AC component to the DC components in the
output is known as ripple factor.
RMS value of AC components
Ripple factor (r ) =
DC value of components
The ripple factor for a half-wave rectifier is 1.21.
Full-wave rectifier: In a full-wave rectifier (Fig. 11.28), current flows through the load in the
same direction for both half cycles of AC input wattage. The FWR can be achieved with the help of
two diodes working alternately.
For positive half cycle of AC input voltage, one diode supplies current to the load, and for the
negative half cycle, the other diode does so. The current being always in the same direction through
the load.
During the positive input half cycle, the polarities of the secondary voltage is shown in
Fig. 11.28. This forward biases the diode D1 and reverse biases the diode D2. As a result of this, the
diode D1 conducts some current whereas the diode D2 is off. The current through load RL is as
indicated in the figure. The load current flows through D1, and the voltage drop across RL will be
equal to the input voltage.
During the negative input half cycle the polarities of the secondary voltage are interchanged.
This reverse biases the doode D1 and forward biases the diode D2. As a result of this, the diode D1
is off and the diode D2 conducts some current.
The maximum (efficiency) of a FWR is 81.2% and the ripple factor is 0.48.
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Fig. 11.28 Full-wave rectifier.

11.4.3 Input and Output Characteristics of CE (Common Emitter) Transistor


A transistor consists of two PN junctions formed by sandwiching either P-type or N-type
semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. The common emitter NPN and PNP transistor is
shown in Fig. 11.29.

Fig. 11.29 Common emitter transistor.


Characteristics: The characteristic circuit of a CE transistor is shown in Fig. 11.30. The important
characteristics of this circuit arrangement are the input and output characteristics.
Input characteristics: It is the curve between base current IB and the base emitter voltage VBC at
constant collector-emitter voltage VCE.
To determine the input characteristics the collector to emitter voltage is kept constant at
zero volt and the base current is increased from zero in equal steps by increasing VBE in the
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circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 11.30. The input characteristics thus obtained are shown in
Fig. 11.31.
IC
mA

IB
mA
VCE
VCC

VBE VBE

Fig. 11.30 Characteristic circuit of CE transistor.

Fig. 11.31 Input characteristic curve.


Input resistance: The rate of change in the base-emitter voltage (DVBE) to the change in base
current (DIB) at constant VCE is called input resistance.
Input resistance ri = 'VBE
'I B
at constant VCE.
Output characteristics: It is the curve between the collector current IC and the collector-emitter
voltage VCE at constant base current IB.
To determine the output characteristic to adjust the base current (IB) to 40 mA value. Then
increase the collector to emitter voltage (VCE) in a number of steps and record the corresponding
values of collector current (IC) at each step. If we plot a graph with the collector to emiter voltage
(VCE) along the collector current (IC), we can obtain a curve as shown in Fig. 11.32.
Output resistance: The rate of change in the base-emitter voltage (DVBE) to the change in collector
current (IC) at constant IB is called output resistance.
'V
Output resistance (RO) = CE
'I C
at constant IB.
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Fig. 11.32 Output characteristics curve.

11.4.4 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)


A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is a current controlled device, i.e. the output characteristics of
the device are controlled by base current and not by base voltage. However, for a Field Effect
Transistor (FET), the output characteristics are controlled by input voltage (i.e. electric field) and
not by input current. This is probably the biggest difference between BJT and FET. There are two
basic types of field effect transistors.
(i) Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET)
(ii) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
A junction field effect transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device in which current
conduction is by one type of carrier, i.e. electrons or holes.
Schematic symbol of JFET: Figure 11.33 shows the schematic symbol of JFET. The vertical line
in the symbol may be thought as channel or gate (G) and source (S) and drain (D) connected to this
line. If the channel is n-type, the arrow on the gate points towards the channel as shown in the figure.
However, for the p-type channel, the arrow on the gate points from the channel to the gate.

Fig. 11.33 Schematic symbol of JFET.


JFET polarities: Figure 11.34(a) shows the N-channel JFET polarities whereas Fig. 11.34(b) shows
the P-channel JFET polarities. Note that in each case, the voltage between the gate and source is such
that the gate is reverse biased. This is the normal way of JFET connection. The drain and source
terminals are interchangeable, i.e. either one end can be used as source and the other end as drain.
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Fig. 11.34 Circuit diagrams for N and P channel JFET.


Characteristics of JFET: The curve between drain current (ID) and drain-source voltage (VDS)
of a JFET at constant gate source voltage (VGS) is known as output characteristics of JFET.
Figure 11.35 shows the circuit for determining the output characteristics of JFET. Keeping VGS
fixed at some value, say 1V, the drain source voltage is changed in steps. Corresponding to each
value of VDS, the drain curret ID is noted. A plot of these values gives the output characteristic of
JFET at VGS = 1V. Repeating the similar procedure, output characteristics at other gate-source
voltages can be drawn.

Fig. 11.35 Characteristics of JFET.


The following points may be noted from the characteristics:
(i) At first, the drain current ID raises rapidly with drain-source voltage VDS but then becomes
constant. The drain-source voltage above which drain current becomes constant is known
as pinch off voltage. Thus in Fig. 11.35, OA is the pinch off voltage.
(ii) After the pinch off voltage, the channel width becomes so narrow that depletion layers
almost touch each other. The drain current passes through the small passage between
these layers. Therefore, increase in drain current is very small with VDS above pinch off
voltage. Consequently, drain current remains constant.
Important terms: In the analysis of a JFET circuit, the following important terms are often used:
1. Shorted-gate drain current (IDSS)
2. Pinch off voltage (VP)
3. Gate-source cut off voltage [VGS (off)]
Shorted-gate drain current (IDSS): It is the drain current with source short-circuited to gate (i.e.
VGS = 0) and drain voltage (VDS) equal to pinch off voltage. It is sometimes called zero-bias current.
Figure 11.36(a) shows the JFET circuit with VGS = 0 i.e., source shorted-circuited to gate.
This is normally called shorted-gate condition. Figrue 11.36(b) shows the graph between ID and
VDS for the shorted gate condition. The drain current raises rapidly at first and then levels off at
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pinch off voltage VP. The drain current has now reached the maximum value IDSS. When VDS is
increased beyond VP, the depletion layers expand at the top of the channel. The channel now acts
as a current limiter and holds drain current constant at IDSS.

Fig. 11.36 Drain characteristics.


The following points may be noted carefully:
(i) Since IDSS is meassured under shorted gate conditions, it is the maximum drain current
that you can get with normal operation of JFET.
(ii) There is a maximum drain voltage [VDS (max)] that can be applied to a JFET. If the drain
voltage exceeds VDS(max), JFET would breakdown as shown in figure.
(iii) The region between VP and VDS(max) (breakdown voltage) is called constant-current region
or active region. As long as VDS is kept within this range, ID will remain constant for a
constant value of VGS. In other words, in the active region, JFET behaves as a constant-current
device. For proper working of JFET, it must be operated in the active region.
The typical shape of drain characteristics is shown in Fig. 11.36(b). The current may be
sub-divided into the following region.
(i) Ohmic region: This is shown in a curve OA in the figure. In this region, drain current
increases linearly with the increase in drain to source voltage obeying Ohms law.
(ii) Curve AB: In this region, the current increases but the reverse square law rate with the
increase in drain to source voltage.
(iii) Pinch off region: It is also called saturation region or constant current region. In this
region, the drain current remains constant at its maximum value of IDSS. The drain current
in the pinch off region, depends upon the gate to source voltage and is given by the relation
2
V
ID I DSS 1  GS
V
P
The above equation is known as Shecklys equation. The pinch off region is the normal
operating region of JFET when used as an amplifier.
(iv) Breakdown region: In this region, the drain current increases rapidly as the drain to
source voltage is also increased. It happens because of the breakdown to gate-to-source
junction due to avalanche effect. The drain to source voltage corresponding to point C is
called break down voltage.
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Transfer characteristics: The relationship between


drain current (ID) and gate-to-source voltage (VGS) for
a constant value of drain to source voltage (VDS) is
called transfer characteristics. Adjust the drain to
source voltage to some value and increase the gate to
source voltage in small suitable steps. Now record the
corresponding values of drain current at each step. If
we plot a graph with gate-to-source voltage (VGS)
along the horizontal axis and drain current (ID) along
the vertical axis, we shall obtain a curve as shown in
Fig. 11.37.
Fig. 11.37 A plot of gate-to-source
voltage vs drain current.
11.5 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
An operational amplifier is a linear integrated circuit that has a very high voltage gain, a high input
impedance and a low output impedance. The circuit schematic of an op-amp is a triangle as shown
in Fig. 11.38.

Fig. 11.38 Schematic of an op-amp.


It has two input terminals and one output terminal. The terminal with a () sign is called
inverting input terminal and the terminal with (+) sign is called the non-inverting input terminal.
The V+ is connected to the positive terminal of one source and V pin is connected to the negative
terminal of other source.
11.5.1 Applications of Operational Amplifier
Integrator: An integrator is a circuit whose output is proportional to the area of its input waveform.
The circuit of an op-amp integrator is shown in Fig. 11.39. The RC circuit itself also acts as a
simple integrator. But the problem with such a simple circuit is that the output voltage is not a
linear triangular output.
Figure 11.40 shows input and output waveform of an op-amp integrator.
296 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.39 OP-amp integrator.

Fig. 11.40 Input and output waveform of an op-amp integrator.


Subtractor: The basic differential amplifier can be used as a subtractor as shown in Fig. 11.41.
If all resistors are equal in value, then the output voltage can be derived by using the superposition
principle.

Fig. 11.41 Op-amp as subtractor.


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To find the output Vo1 due to V1 alone, make V2 = 0. Then the circuit becomes a non-investing
amplifier having input voltage V1/2 at the non-investing input terminal and the output bcomes
V1
Vo1 = 1  R
2 R
Vo = V1
Similarly the output Vo2 due to V2 alone (V1 grounded) can be written supply for an inverting
amplifier as
Vo2 = V2
The function of the op-amp is to linearize output. It may be noted from the diagram that the
inverting input to the op-amp is held at a virtual ground by the differential amplifier in the op-amp
input circuit.
The input current I1 = Vin
R1
Because of the input impedance of the op-amp, virtually all of I1 will flow to the capacitor.
Assuming the Vin is constant for a given period of time and R1 is a fixed value; I1 can also be
assumed to be a constant value. Since virtually all of I1 flows to the capacitor, C is being charged
by a constant current source. Thus, as long as Vin is constant, the capacitor will charge or discharge
at a linear rate. This produces a linear ramp output.
The output voltage
Vo = Vo1 + Vo2
Vo = V1 V2
Adder: The application of an adder is shown in Fig. 11.42. The various inputs are fed at the
inverting input and the non-inverting input node keeping grounded. Here the output of an op-amp
is the sum of voltages at the output terminals.

Fig. 11.42 Adder.


V1, V2, V3, V4 are the input voltage terminals, Vo is the output voltage terminal and the input
current Iin = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4.
At the point N the nodal equation is
V1 V2 V3 V4 Vo
    0
R R R R R
298 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

V1 V2 V3 V4 V
    o
R R R R R
The output voltage
Vo = [V1 + V2 + V3 + V4]

11.6 LOGIC GATES


A logic gate is a circuit with one or more input signals but only one output signal. The most
common logic gates are OR, AND and NOT gates.
11.6.1 OR Gate
The OR gate (Fig. 11.43) performs logical addition, commonly known as OR function. The OR
gate has two or more inputs and only one output. The operation of OR gate is such that a high (1)
on the output is produced when any of the inputs is high (1) and the output is low (0) only when all
the inputs are low (0).

Fig. 11.43 OR gate.

11.6.2 AND Gate


The AND gate (Fig. 11.44) performs logical multiplication commonly known as AND function.
The AND gate is composed of two or more inputs and a single output. The output of AND gate is
high only when all the inputs are high. When any of the inputs is low, the output is low.

Fig. 11.44 AND gate.


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11.6.3 NOT Gate (Invertor)


The NOT gate (Fig. 11.45) performs a basic function called inversion or complementation. The
purpose of gate is to change one logic level to opposite level. It has one input and one output. When
a high level is applied to an inverter input, a low level will appear at its output and vice versa.

Fig. 11.45 NOT gate.


11.6.4 NAND Gate
The NAND gate is a concentration of NOT-AND. It has two or more inputs and only one output.
When all the inputs are high, the output is low. If any of the inputs is low. The output is high.
The logic symbol and truth table for the NAND gate are shown in Fig. 11.46.

Fig. 11.46 NAND gate.


11.6.5 NOR Gate
NOR is the contraction of NOT-OR. It has two or more inputs but only one output. When any of
the input is high, the output is low. Only when all the inputs are low, the output is high. The logical
symbol of NOR gate and the truth table are shown in Fig. 11.47.

Fig. 11.47 NOR gate.


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11.6.6 EX-OR Gate


It has two or more inputs and only one output. When all inputs are either high or low, the output is
low. If any one of the inputs is high, the output is also high. The symbol and the truth table are
shown in Fig. 11.48. The EX-OR gate output expression is
Y = A B = A B + AB

Fig. 11.48 EX-OR gate.

11.7 ADDER CIRCUITS


There are two types of adder:
(i) Half adder
(ii) Full adder.
11.7.1 Half Adder
A combinational circuit that performs the addition of two bits is called a half adder (Fig. 11.49). In
this the circuit needs two binary inputs and two binary outputs. The input variables designate the
augend and addend bits; the output variables produce the sum and carry. We arbitrarily assign
symbols x and y to the two inputs and s (for sum) and c (for carry) to the outputs. We are ready to
formulate a truth table to identify exactly the function of the half adder.
The carry output is 0 unless both inputs are 1. The s output represents the least significant bit
of the sum. The simplified Boolean functions for the two outputs (sum and carry) can be obtained
directly from the truth table.
The half adder can be implemented with an exclusive OR gate and NAND gate as shown in
Fig. 11.49. This form is used later to show that two half adder circuits are needed to construct a full
adder circuit.
Truth table
Input Output
x y s c
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
s = xy + xy
c = xy
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x
c
x y
c
Half adder
y s

Symbol of half adder s

Logic circuit for half adder


Fig. 11.49 Half adder.
The applications of a half adder are very limited because it cannot accept a carry from previous
addition. A full adder can do this function.
11.7.2 Full Adder
A full adder is a combinational circuit that forms the arithmetic sum of three input bits. It consists
of three inputs and two outputs. The input variables are denoted by x, y and z. The third input z,
represents the carry from the previous lower significant position. The two outputs are designated
by the symbols s for sum and c for carry. The binary variable s gives the value of the least significant
bit of the sum. The binary variable c gives the output carry.
The truth table of the full-adder is
Truth table
Input Output
x y z s c
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

When all input bits are 0s, the output is 0. The s output is equal to 1 when only one input is
equal to 1 or when all three inputs are equal to 1. The c output has a carry of 1 if the two or three
inputs are equal to 1.
A full adder can be implemented with two half adder and one OR gate. The s output from the
second half adder is the exclusive OR of z and the output of the first half adder. The block diagram
and logic diagram for full adder are shown in Fig. 11.50.
From the logic diagram, the sum
s = z (x y)
= z(xy + xy) + z(xy + xy)
= z(xy + xy) + z(xy + xy)
s = xyz + xyz + xyz + xyz
and carry output is
c = z(xy + xy) + xy
c = xyz + xyz + xy
302 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

x
y s

x c
Sum
y Full adder
Carry
z z
Symbol for full adder Logical diagram
Fig. 11.50 Full adder.

11.8 DECADE COUNTER


A decade counter is also known as mode 10 counter or BCD counter. It counts 0 to 9. Thus it
requires 10 pulses for resetting. It is used in frequency counter digital voltmeters, watches, etc.
The decade counter circuit is shown in Fig. 11.51. It is seen that in many respects it is similar
to a ripple counter. However, it skips the 10 to 15 states. This is possible because on the tenth clock
pulse, it generates its own clear signal and resets to 0000. It uses JK flip-flops and one NAND gate.
Initially, CLR causes Q = 0000. When CLR is high, the counter is ready to start. It is seen that the
input of NAND gates are Q1 and Q3 so that Y, the output of NAND gate, is Y = Q1Q3 . The counter
operates in an identical manner while counting from 0 to 9. On the tenth clock pulse, the output
Q = 1010, i.e. both Q1 and Q3 are high. This forces Y to be low which in turn results in setting the
counter and its output Q = 0000. Then Y goes high and the counter starts all over again.
Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0
High
Q3 J3 Q2 J2 Q1 J1 Q0 J0

FF3 FF2 FF1 FF0


CLK
CLR K3 K2 K1 CLR K0

Q1

Q3 Y = Q3Q1

Fig. 11.51 Decade counter.


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EXERCISES
1. ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS ON A PCB
2. SOLDERING AND CHECKING THE CONTINUITY
3. PCB DESIGNING
4. CHARACTERISTICS OF PN JUNCTION DIODE
5. CHARACTERISTICS OF ZENER DIODE
6. MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR FOR HALFWAVE RECTIFIER
7. MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR FOR FULLWAVE RECTIFIER
8. TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS
9. CHARACTERISTICS OF JFET
10. APPLICATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
11. STUDY OF LOGIC GATES
12. USING OP-AMP INVERTER OBTAINING TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATOR
13. STUDY OF ADDER CIRCUIT
14. STUDY OF DECADE COUNTER (Binary Coded Decimal Counter)
304 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.52 Assembling electronic components on a PCB.


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EXERCISE 1: ASSEMBLING ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS ON A PCB


Aim
To assemble the given electronic components in the given PCB (Fig. 11.52).
Materials and equipment required
1. PCB board
2. Soldering iron
3. Solder
4. Flux
5. Nose pliers/cutter
6. Components
Procedure
1. Study the electronic circuit and identify the component which is to be connected.
2. Clean the PCB board, clean the leads of the components and clean the soldering iron
before heating.
3. Heat the soldering iron and apply solder to the tip.
4. Bend the component leads to fit into the holes on the board. Insert and apply the hot tip to
the joint and apply solder.
5. Remove the soldering iron and hold the component tightly until the solder has cooled
and set.
Result
Thus, the given components are assembled in a PCB.
306 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

100 W

Yellow
wire Red wire
Battery Black wire

Black
wire

Yellow wire
R

LED
Red wire

Black wire Black wire

Yellow wire
R

LED
Red wire

Black wire Black wire

Fig. 11.53 Soldering and checking the continuity.

Observations
S. No. Component Condition Connection Interpretation
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EXERCISE 2: SOLDERING AND CHECKING THE CONTINUITY


Aim
To construct the continuity tester and to test the open or short circuited condition.
Materials and equipment required
1. Soldering iron (25 W)
2. Solder
3. Flux
4. General purpose PCB
5. Cutter, Wire stripper
6. 9V battery
7. Wire
8. LED
9. Resistor (100 W)
Procedure
1. Clean the PCB board and solder the given components in the PCB as per the given circuit
(Fig. 11.53).
2. Take the component which is to be tested.
3. Connect the tip to one side of the item.
4. Touch the tip of the continuity tester to the other side to check the status of the LED and
then interpret the status as a result.
Result
Thus, the given component (resistors) is tested using continuity tester.
308 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.54 PCB designing.


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EXERCISE 3: PCB DESIGNING


Aim
To design a PCB for the given circuit (Fig. 11.54).
Materials and equipment required Quantity
1. PCB 1
2. Marker 1
3. FeCl3 solution 1
4. Hand driller 1
5. Continuity tester 1
Procedure
1. Study the given electronic circuit.
2. The master pattern of PCB is made on a thick sheet with a reverse carbon placed under to
take the mirror image on the reverse side of the sheet.
3. Clean the copper side of PCB with alcoholic spirit or petrol in order to make it free from
dust and contaminants.
4. The mirror image of the pattern is copied to the base laminate on the board with the help
of a ball point pen. Holes position should be marked very carefully.
5. The copied track is marked with the help of enamel paint or use a silver pen.
6. The board is dipped in a solution of FeCl3 for some time to remove the excess copper.
Then it is cleaned under running water and then it should be dried.
7. The marker ink/paint is removed with the help of alcohol or petrol.
8. Using a driller, holes of suitable diameters are drilled on the board. Then clean the holes.
9. Varnish coating is given on the PCB in order to prevent oxidation.
Result
Thus, the PCB is designed for the given circuit.
310 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.55 Characteristics of PN junction diodeforward bias.

+ 1 kW +

mA

(0100) mA

+ K
RPS IN4007 +
(030) V V (030) V
+ A

Fig. 11.56 Characteristics of PN junction diodereverse bias.

Forward bias (Observation) Reverse bias


S. No. Voltage (volts) Current (mA) S. No. Voltage (volts) Current (mA)
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EXERCISE 4: CHARACTERISTICS OF PN JUNCTION DIODE


Aim
To find the VI-characteristics of the PN junction diode.
Materials and equipment required
1. RPS (030) V
2. Diode IN4007
3. Resistor 1 kW
4. Ammeter (0100) mA
5. Ammeter (0500) mA
6. Voltmeter (01) V
7. Voltmeter (030) V
8. Connecting wires
Procedure
1. Forward bias: The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.55).
RPS is slightly decreased. The ammeter and voltmeter readings are noted. The graph is
drawn for different values of voltage and current.
2. Reverse bias: The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.56).
Different values of current and a voltage are noted and a graph is plotted. Here the
breakdown occurs in the reverse bias condition.
Calculation
Forward bias
Vf 0.24
Rf = 3
If 0.13 10
= 0.3 10
Rf = 300 W
Reverse bias
Rr = Vr
Ir
0.11
= 6 Rr = 1.5 M W
0.07 10
Result
Thus, the VI-characteristic of PN junction diode is found.
312 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.57 Characteristics of zener diodeforward bias.

Fig. 11.58 Characteristics of zener diodereverse bias.


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EXERCISE 5: CHARACTERISTICS OF ZENER DIODE


Aim
To study the VI-characteristic of a zener diode.
Materials and equipment required
1. Resistor 1 kW
2. Ammeter (0100) mA
3. Ammeter (0100) mA
4. Voltmeter (01) V
5. Voltmeter (015) V
6. Zener diode (015) V
7. Bread board
8. RPS (030) V
9. Connecting wires
Procedure
1. Forward bias: The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.57).
Hence the cathode of the zener diode is connected to the negative terminal of the ammeter.
The correct voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted. Using the same procedure the
current and the voltage are measured. The graph is drawn with the readings.
2. Reverse bias: The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.58).
The cathode of the zener diode is graduated and the anode is connected to the positive
terminal of the ammeter. The ammeter and the voltmeter readings are noted each time.
The graph is drawn. Thus gives voltage that occurs in reverse bias.
Result
Thus, the characteristics of a zener diode are studied.
314 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Half-wave rectifierWithout filter


D1
Phase Pri Sec A C

By 127 + (0100) mA
A
230 V (010 V) + +
220 mf +
50 Hz, 1f V V
~ (010) V
AC supply
1 kW
(06)A

230/6 V
Neutral
Transformer

Half-wave rectifierWith filter


Filter section
D1
Phase Pri Sec A C 10 W

BY 127
(0100)
100 mf + A mA
230 V + + 220 mf +
+
50 Hz, 1f 100 mf
V ~ (010) V
V

1 kW (06) A
AC supply
(010) V

230/6 V
Neutral Transformer

Fig. 11.59 Measurement of ripple factor for half-wave rectifier.


Ripple factor without filter (Observation)
S. No. DC voltage AC voltage DC current Ripple factor % Regulation
(VDC) in volts (VAC) in volts (IDC) in amps ( !)

Ripple factor without filter (Observation)


S. No. DC voltage AC voltage DC current Ripple factor % Regulation
(VDC) in volts (VAC) in volts (IDC) in amps ( !)
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EXERCISE 6: MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR FOR HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER


Aim
To study the ripple factor and regulation characteristics of a half-wave rectifier with and without a
filter (Fig. 11.59).
Materials and equipment required
1. Diode BY 127
2. Voltmeter (010) V
3. Ammeter (0100) mA
4. Capacitor 220 mC
100 mC
5. Rheostat 1 kW, 1.6 A
6. Transformer 230 V/6 A
7. Resistor 10 W
Ripple factor,
Vrms
=
VDC
where
Vrms = the rms value of the AC component of the output voltage
VDC = the average or DC value of the output voltage
% Regulation = V0  VL 100
VL
where
V0 = no load voltage
VL = full load voltage
Procedure
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The AC supply is switched ON directly to the filter circuit.
3. On moving the rheostat, get the voltage from AC voltage which give VL such that the
rheostat is in a minimum position.
Result
Thus, the ripple factor and regulation characteristics of a half-wave rectifier with and without a
filter are studied.
316 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Full-wave rectifierWithout filter


D1
Phase A C

Ripple factor (g)


BY 127 a
A (010)
+ mA + 220 mf +
230 V
V V
~ (010 V) b

(010 V)
50 Hz
AC supply
1 kW
(06) A
A C
230/6 V O
Neutral 1 DC (mA)
Transformer D2
BY 127
Full-wave rectifierWith filter
Filter section
D1
Phase A C 10 W

%Regulation
BY 127 b
A (010)
230 V + 100 mf + + mA + 220 +
mf V (010) V a
50 Hz 100 mf V ~
AC supply
1 kW
A C (06) A
230/6 V O VBC(V)
Neutral Transformer D2
a = Without filter response curve
BY 127 b = With filter response curve
Fig. 11.60 Measurement of ripple factor for full-wave rectifier.

Ripple factor without filter (Observation)


S. No. DC voltage AC voltage DC current Ripple factor % Regulation
(VDC) in volts (VAC) in volts (IDC) in amps ( !)
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EXERCISE 7: MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR FOR FULL-WAVE RECTIFIER


Aim
To study the ripple factor and regulation characteristics of a full-wave rectifier with and without a
filter.
Materials and equipment required
1. Diode BY 127
2. Step-down transformer
3. Voltmeter (010) V
4. Ammeter (0100) mA
5. Rheostat 1 kW, 1.6 A
6. Resistor 10 W
7. Capacitor 100 C, 220 C
Ripple factor,
2
Vrms
!= V  1
DC
where
Vrms = the rms value of the AC component of the output voltage
VDC = the average or DC value of the output voltage
V V
% Regulation = 0 L 100
VL
where
V0 = no load voltage
VL = full load voltage
Procedure
Without filter
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.60).
2. Switch on the ac supply and note down the no-load voltage and full load voltage.
3. Then vary the rheostat and note down the corresponding Vrms, VDC and IDC in steps.
4. Calculate the ripple factor and regulation using the formula.
With filter
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Switch on the ac supply and note down the corresponding Vrms, VDC and IDC in steps.
3. Then decrease the rheostat and switch off the supply.
Result
Thus, the ripple factor and regulation characteristics of a full-wave rectifier with and without a
filter are studied.
318 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.61 CE transistor characteristics.

Input characteristics (observation)


S. No. VCE1 VCE2 VCE3

VBE (V) IB(mn) IB(mA) VBE(V) VBE(V) IB(mA)

Output characteristics (observation)


S. No. IB1 IB2 Ie3

VCE(V) IC(mA) VCE(V) IC(mA) VCE(V) IC(mA)


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EXERCISE 8: TRANSISTOR CHARACTERISTICS


Aim
To plot the transistor characteristics of a common emitter configuration.
Materials and equipment required
1. Power supply (030) V
2. Ammeter (010) mA
(0100) mA
3. Voltmeter (01) V1
(030) V
4. Resistor 68 kW, 1 kW
5. Transistor BC107
6. Bread board
7. Connecting wires
Input characteristics
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.61).
2. Set VCE = 5 V (say) vary VBB in steps of 1 V to 20 V and note down the corresponding IB
and VBE. Repeat the above procedure for 10 V, 15 V, etc.
Output characteristics
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Set IB = 20 mA (say) vary VEE in steps of IV and down the corresponding Ia and VCE
repeat the procedure for 40 mA, 60 mA, 80 mA.
Result
Thus, we have plotted the transistor characteristics of common emitter configurations.
320 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.62 Characteristics of JFET.

Fig. 11.63 Model graph.

Drain characteristics (observation) Transfer characteristics (observation)


VGS1 VGS2 VDS1 VDS2
VDS(V) ID(mA) VDS(V) ID(mA) VDS(V) ID(mA) VDS(V) ID(mA)
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EXERCISE 9: CHARACTERISTICS OF JFET


Aim
To plot the drain and transfer characteristics for the given JFET.
Materials and equipment required
1. Power supply (030) V
2. Ammeter (010) mA
3. Voltmeter (030) V
(010) V
4. Transistor BFW10
5. Resistor 1 kW, 68 kW
6. Bread board
7. Connecting wires
Procedure
1. Connections are made as per the circuit (Fig. 11.62).
2. Made VAS constant (say 1 volt) and measure VDS and ID and do the same by varying VGS
(2 V).
3. Make VDS constant (say 1 volt) and measure VGS and ID and do the same by varying VDS.
4. Draw the graph for transfer characteristics by taking VDS along the x-axis and ID along
y-axis (Fig. 11.63).
5. Draw the graph for drain characteristics by taking along the x-axis and ID along the y-axis
(Fig. 11.63).
Result
Thus, the drain and transfer characteristics for a given JFET are plotted.
322 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Fig. 11.64 Application of operational amplifier.


! "#$%&'"() &*'& $'&*)+$,"#'" 323

EXERCISE 10: APPLICATION OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER


Aim
To construct and test an inverting adder circuit.
Materials and equipment required
1. Operating amplifier 741
2. Dual power supply (015) V
3. CRO
4. Resistor 1 kW
5. Bread board
6. Connecting wires
Procedure
1. The connections are made as per the circuit (Fig. 11.64).
2. The output waveform is obtained in the CRO.
3. The input voltage, and output voltage are found and compared with theoretical value.
4. The frequency of triangular waveform is compared to the theoretical frequency.
5. The waveforms are plotted on the graph sheet.
Result
Thus, the inverting adder circuits are constructed and tested successfully.
324 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

NOT GATE
Pin diagram Logic diagram
+VCC
14
1 2
1 13 A IC 7404 Y
2 12
I
C
3 11
4 7
10 Circuit diagram
4
0 1 2 220 W A K
5 4 9 A IC 7404
6 8
7 LED

Truth table
A Y=A
0 1
1 0

NAND GATE
Pin diagram +VCC Logic diagram
14
1 13 1
A 3
2 12 IC 7400 Y
B
2
I
C
3 11
4 7 10
5 4 9 Circuit diagram
0 1
0 A 3 220 W A K
IC 7400
6 8
B
2
7 LED

Truth table
A B Y = AB
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

Fig. 11.65 Study of logic gates (Contd.)...


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NOR GATE
Pin diagram Logic diagram
14
+VCC
1
1 13 A 3
2 12 IC 7402 Y
B 2
I
C
3 11
4 7 10
5 4 9 Circuit diagram
0
1
2 A 3 220 W A K
IC 7402
6 8 B 2
7 LED

Truth table
A B Y=A+B
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 0

AND GATE
Pin diagram +VCC Logic diagram
14
1 13 1
A 3
2 12 IC 7408 Y
B
2
I
C
3 11
4 7 10
5 4 9 Circuit diagram
0 1
8 A 3 220 W A K
IC 7408
6 8
B
2
7 LED

Truth table
A B Y = AB
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 0
1 1 1

Fig. 11.65 Study of logic gates (Contd.)...


326 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

OR GATE
Pin diagram Logic diagram
14
+VCC
1
1 13 A 3
2 12 IC 7432 Y
B 2
I
C
3 11
4 7 10
5 4 9 Circuit diagram
3
1
2 A 3 220 W A K
IC 7432
6 8 B 2
7 LED

Truth table
A B Y=A+B
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1

Fig. 11.65 Study of logic gates.


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EXERCISE 11: STUDY OF LOGIC GATES


Aim
To verify the truth table of logic gates.
Materials and equipment required
1. AND Gate IC 7408
2. OR Gate IC 7432
3. NOT Gate IC 7404
4. NAND Gate IC 7400
5. NOT Gate IC 7402
6. RPS (030) V
7. LED
Digital logic gates
The Boolean functions are expressed in terms of AND, OR and NOT operations. It is to implement
a Boolean function with these type of gates. The possibility of constructing gates for the other
logic operations is of practical interest. Factors to be weighted when considering the construction
of other types of logic gate are as follows:
1. Feasibility and economy of production
2. Possibility of extending the gate to more than two inputs
3. Basic properities of the binary operator such as commutativity and associativity
4. The ability of the gate to implement Boolean functions alone or in conjunction with other
gates
The inverter inverts the logic sense of a binary variable. It produces the not, or complement
function. The small circle in the output of the graphical symbol of an inverter designates the
logical complement. The triangular symbol designates a buffer circuit.
The NAND function is the complement of the AND function, as indicated by a graphic
symbol that consists of an AND graphic symbol followed by a small circle. The NOR function is
the complement of the OR function. The NAND and NOR gates are extensively used as standard
gates and in fact more popular than the AND and OR gates.
This is because NAND and NOR gates are easily constructed with transistor circuits.
The exclusive OR gate has a graphic symbol similar to that of the OR gate, except for the
additional curved line on the input side. The equivalence or exclusive NOR gate is the complement
of the exclusive OR as indicated by the small circle on the output side of the graphic symbol.
Procedure
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.65).
2. Ground the gate input for low level input and +5 V supply for high level input.
3. Observe the LED condition for the output.
4. Verify the truth table for each gate.
Result
Thus, the truth table of logic gates is verified.
328 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

Circuit diagram

Model graph

Pin diagram
Fig. 11.66 Design of traingular wave generator.
! "#$%&'"() &*'& $'&*)+$,"#'" 329

EXERCISE 12: USING OP-AMP INVERTER OBTAINING TRIANGULAR WAVE


GENERATOR
Aim
To design and construct a triangular wave generator using OP-AMP IC 741.
Materials and equipment required
S. No. Components Type/Range Quantity
1. Op-amp IC 741 1
2. Resistors 1010 kW, 100 kW 2
50 kW, 1 MW 1
3. Potentiometer 22 kW 1
4. Capacitor 0.01 mF 2
5. CRO 1
6. Dual power supply (015) V 1
Theory
A triangular wave can be generated by integrating the output from a square wave generator. The
frequency of the square wave and that of the triangular wave are the same. The amplitude of the
square wave is Vsa). The amplitude of the triangular wave will decrease if frequency increases.
This is because of the reactance of the capacitor C, in the feedback decreases at high frequencies.
The resistance R4 is connected across C2 to avoid saturation problem at low frequencies.
Amplitude of the triangular wave is
R2
V0(PP) = 2 Vsat
R3
Procedure
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram (Fig. 11.66).
2. The triangular wave generator is obtained by integrating the output from a square wave
generator.
3. The output of square wave generator is given to input of the integrator.
4. Then the output of square wave generator is given to the CRO.
5. The amplitude of the triangular wave generator value is noted and then tabulated for
various frequency.
6. Compare the triangular wave frequency with the theoretical frequency.
7. The corresponding output wave form is plotted in the graph.
Result
Thus, the triangular wave generator was designed and constructed.
330 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

S=X + Y
X
Half adder
Y
C = XY
Circuit diagram
Truth table
1 X Y SUM CARRY
A 3 220 W A K
IC 7486 0 0 0 0
B 0 1 1 0
2 LED 1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1

220 W A K
IC 7408

LED

Fig. 11.67 Adder circuit.


! "#$%&'"() &*'& $'&*)+$,"#'" 331

EXERCISE 13: STUDY OF ADDER CIRCUIT


Aim
To study of an adder circuit using logic gates.
Materials and equipment required
S. No. Components Type/Range Quantity
1. OR gate IC 7432 1
2. AND gate IC 7408 1
3. EX-OR gate IC 7486 1
4. Resistor 220 W 2
5. LED 2
Theory
Half adder
1. A half adder is a combinational circuit which performs the addition of two binary bits.
2. It has two inputs (two operand bits) and two outputs (a sum bit and a carry bit).
3. The output variables produce sum and carry.
4. The half adder circuit is constructed using EX-OR and AND gates as shown in Fig. 11.67.
Full adder
1. A full adder is a combinational circuit which performs the addition of three binary bits.
2. The full adder is constructed using a half adder.
3. It consists of three inputs and two outputs.
4. Two of the inputs are denoted by X and Y which represent the bits to be added.
5. The third input Z represents the carry.
Procedure
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. For high +5 V is given and for low + 0 V is given.
3. Supply the input to the adder circuit and note down the LED condition.
4. Then verify with the truth table.
Result
Thus, the adder circuits are studied using logic gates.
332 !"#! $#!"%&$'()#( *

IC 7408
IC 7432
IC 7408 +5V

IC 7408

J QD J QC J QB J QA
clk
IC 4776 IC 4776 IC 4776 IC 4776
D C B A
K QD K QC K QB K QA

IC 7408

220 W 220 W 220 W 220 W


Clock i/p

Fig. 11.68 Circuit diagram of decade counter.

Truth table

Output Input

State
QP QC QB QA GD GC GB GA
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
3 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1
4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
5 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
6 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
7 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
9 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
! "#$%&'"() &*'& $'&*)+$,"#'" 333

EXERCISE 14: STUDY OF DECADE COUNTER (Binary Coded Decimal Counter)


Aim
To study the decade counter using IC 7476.
Materials and equipment required
S. No. Components Type/Range Quantity
1. Dual JK Flip Flop IC 7476 2
2. AND gate IC 7408 2
3. OR gate IC 7432 2
4. Resistor 220 W 4
5. LED 4
Theory
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) is a binary coding format in which each of the decimal digits (09)
is expressed. The BCD counter is also called decade counter because it counts ten states. It can
also be called mod 10 counter. In other words a counter which resets at the 10th clock pulse is
called decade counter. It comes under the category of synchronous counter.
Procedure
1. Connections are made as per circuit diagram (Fig. 11.68).
2. The inputs +5 V for high and +0 V for low input are given.
3. Give the clock input.
4. Observe the LED condition for the output.
5. Verify the result with the truth table.
Result
Thus, the decade counter using IC7476 was studied and constructed.
VIVA QUESTIONS
AND ANSWERS

GENERAL WORKSHOP
1. What is a workshop?
A workshop is a place where the mechanical work is done on the workpiece,
Examples: Lathe shop, welding shop and fitting shop etc.
2. What are the types of workshop?
(i) Carpentry shop
(ii) Fitting shop
(iii) Sheet metal shop
(iv) Machine shop
(v) Welding shop
(vi) Blacksmithy shop
3. What is major operation takes place in a workshop?
Manufacturing and repair work of any product is done in a workshop.
4. Who should study workshop?
Mechanical engineers are concerned with manufacturing processes and tools. So, knowledge
of these processes is essential for engineers.
5. Why the layout is used in workshop?
Process layout is used in workshop for a sequence.
6. What is a workshop layout?
A layout in which man, machines, tools, materials, etc. are arranged in a suitable sequence
according to the order of processes is called workshop layout.
7. What are the types layouts used in industries?
(i) Product layout: When same types of product are manufactured in the workshop is
called product layout. Example: Gear.

335
336 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

(ii) Process layout: When one type of process is done in the workshop, is called process
layout. Example: Machines or welding.
(iii) Fixed position layout: When job is fixed and man and machines are move near the
job is called fixed position layout. Example: Construction of bridge etc.
8. What is the melting point of following materials?
(i) Aluminium 320C
(ii) Mild steel 800C
(iii) High carbon steel 3740C
(iv) Stainless steel 950C
(v) Brass 540C

PLUMBING
1. Define plumbing?
Plumbing is defined as the art which is involved in the design, installation and maintenance
of piping in a building.
2. What is the purpose of plumbing?
Plumbing is the operation which is carried out in a building for the comfort and convenience
of inhabitants as well as sanitation and health and water supply.
3. Name some tools used in plumbing.
The tools used in plumbing are: vice, pliers, pipe wrenches, hacksaw, chisels, pipe cutters,
pipe threading dies, taps, plumb bob, etc.
4. What is the use of pipe threading dies?
Pipe threading dies are also called stocks and dies. Two types of dies are available, namely,
solid and adjustable. They are fitted into the centre of the frame. Dies are held in position by
a block which is adjustable by means of a tommy bar. This stock cuts parallel threads. A
separate set of dies is required for each pipe size.
5. How are internal threads made in pipes?
Taps are used for cutting internal threads on a pipe or fitting. Three types of tap are necessary
to cut threads. A taper tap is used first and cuts light threads. Then a plug tap is used and,
finally, a bottoming tap is used which cuts threads to the required depth.

CARPENTRY
1. What is carpentry?
Carpentry is the art of work with wood for making wooden articles.
2. What are the different tools used in a carpentry shop?
Pencil, steel rule, try square, marking gauge, mortise gauge, rasp cut file, iron jack plane,
chisels, saws, etc. are used in a carpentary shop.
3. What is timber?
Timber is the wood material obtained from trees.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 337

4. What are the types of timbers


(i) Hard wood: as Sal, Teak, Oak, Mahogany, etc.
(ii) Soft wood: as Pine, Deodar, Spine, etc.
5. What is the moisture content in the seasoned wood?
The moisture content in the seasoned wood is about 1012%.
6. What are the types of rules used for measuring?
(i) Four fold box wood rule
(ii) Flexible measuring rule or tape
7. What is the use of a try square?
A try square is used for making and testing angles of 90.
8. What is the need of a miter square and a bevel square?
Miter square: It measures an angle of 45.
Bevel square: Its shape is like a try square but it can be used for measuring angles from 0 to
180.
9. What are the type of gauges used in carpentry?
(i) Marking gauge
(ii) Mortise gauge
(iii) Cutting gauge
10. What is the use of calipers?
Calipers are used to measure the outside and inside diameters using outside calipers and
inside calipers respectively.
11. What is the need of spirit level?
Spirit level is used for checking level, i.e. to check whether the surface is a true plane or an
inclined plane.
12. What is the chisel material and types used in carpentry?
Normally it is made up of steel. They are:
(i) Firmer chisel
(ii) Paring chisel
(iii) Mortise chisel
13. What are the types of carpentry joints?
(i) Halving joint
(ii) Mortise and tenon joint
(iii) Bridle joint
(iv) Dowel joint
(v) Butt or rubbed joint
(vi) Dovetail joint
(vii) Corner joint
14. What is the need of a bench vice?
A bench vice is used to hold the workpiece for our convenient.
15. What is the need for seasoning wood?
Seasoning of wood is done to extract or remove the moisture from it.
338 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

16. What are the types of plane?


(i) Wooden jack plane
(ii) Metal jack plane
(iii) Trying plane
(iv) Smoothing plane
17. What is setting of saw teeth?
The teeth are bent alternately to the right and left of the blade to enable it to pass through the
cut being formed in the timber with minimum friction.
18. What is the cutting bevel angle in a chisel?
The cutting bevel angle in a chisel is 2530.
19. What is the cutting angle for a cross cut and a rip saw?
The cutting angle for a cross cut saw is about 45.
The cutting angle for a rip saw is about 60.
20. What is the material used for making chisels?
Forged steel is used for making chisels.
21. What is TPI?
TPI stands for teeth per inch. That is, the number of teeth is 5, 6, 7 and 8 per inch.
22. Name the various joinery materials used in carpentry.
Adhesives and other joinery materials like nails, screws, bolts, nuts and dowels.
23. What are the types of saws used in carpentry?
(i) Cross cut saw
(ii) Rip saw
(iii) Tenon saw
24. What are the uses of the following joints?
(i) Mortise and tenon jointis used for framing work
(ii) Bridle jointis used for work in square section

WELDING
1. What is welding?
Welding is the process of joining similar metals by application of heat with or without
application of pressure and filler material.
2. What are the types of tools used in a welding shop.
Oxygen cylinder, acetylene cylinder, hose pipe, pressure regulator, welding torch, filler rod,
goggles, gloves, spark lighter, welding table, wire brush, tongs, apron, etc.
3. Welding is used to join similar or dissimilar metals. Say True or False.
False. Welding is the process to join similar metals.
4. Name the two important welding process.
(i) Gas welding
(ii) Arc welding
5. Name the three basic types of joints, common to arc welding and gas welding.
Butt-joint, Lap joint, T-fillet joint.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 339

6. What is gas welding?


Gas welding is a process in which the required heat to melt the surfaces is supplied by a high
temperature flame obtained by a mixture of two gases.
7. What are the various types of gas welding.
Oxy-acetylene welding, oxy-hydrogen welding, air-acetylene welding, pressure gas welding.
8. What are the different types of flames used in gas welding.
Oxyacetylene flame (3300C)
Natural flame (3200C)
Carburizing flame (3100C)
9. What are the full forms of TIG welding and MIG welding?
Tungsten inert gas welding
Metal inert gas welding
10. What are the types of flame used in oxyacetylene welding?
Neutral flame, oxidising flame, reducing flame.
11. What is a flux?
During the welding, if the metal is heated in air, oxygen in the air reacts with the metal to
form oxides which result in poor quality, low strength welds or in some cases may even
make welding impossible. In order to avoid this problem, a flux is added during the welding.
This prevents oxidation.
12. What is the significance of filler material?
It is the material added to the weld pool to assist in filling the gap (or groove). Filler metal
forms an integral part of the weld.
13. Why is a copper piping never used for acetylene gas?
Copper piping in the presence of acetylene forms copper acetylide. This is an unstable
compound and disassociates violently at the slightest shock. So a copper piping is never used
for acetylene.
14. What are the advantages of using LPG over acetylene for cutting?
(i) LPG can be used for pressure ranges above the atmospheric pressure.
(ii) LPG can be used in underwater cutting.
15. What is arc welding?
In arc welding process, the source of heat is electricity. In this process coalescence is produced
by heating the workpiece with an electric arc struck between a carbon electrode and the
workpiece. Welding may be carried out in air or in an inert atmosphere. Filler material may
or may not be used.
16. What are the major components used in arc welding.
AC or DC transformer electrode, electrode holder and earthing clamp.
17. What is an electrode?
Filler rods used in arc welding are called electrodes. The electrodes are made of metallic
wire called core wire.
18. Define weaving.
Weaving implies giving a side-to-side motion to the welding arc during transfering the material
to weld joints. A slight weaving or oscillating motion is preferred as this facilitates gas to
escape from weld bead. Weaving also produces a wider bead with better penetration.
340 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

19. Define soldering process?


It is defined as the process of joining similar or dissimilar metals by means of filler metal that
melts between 150C and 370C for soft soldering and between 600C and 900C for hard
soldering.
20. The oxygen regulator has ______ hand threads. The acetylene regulator has ______
hand threads.
Right, left.
21. ______ flame is used for welding brass material.
Oxidising.
22. Name the materials used for coatings on electrodes.
Copper, carbon, graphite, etc.
23. Define coating factor.
Coating factor = Diameter of the electrode
Diameter of core wire
24. Name few materials used as a coating agent for electrode.
Copper, carbon, graphite.
25. What is the current of a welding transformer when you are working?
150 Amps.
26. What are the types of electyrodes used in practice?
Bare electrodes, lightly coated electrodes, medium coated electrodes, heavily coated
electrodes.
27. What are the types of resistance welding?
Spot welding, projection welding, seam welding and butt welding.
28. What is projection welding?
In projection welding, small projections are made in one surfaces. Then the parts to be welded
are clamped between the two flat copper alloy electrodes in the passage having high current.
Then the projections melt and form the weld.
29. What are the welding defects?
Lack of fusion, undercut, cracking, oxidized weld, incomplete penetration, etc.
30. Name the different types of welding tests.
(i) Non-destructive testing
(a) Water and kerosene oil gravity testing
(b) Immersion or soap water test
(ii) Destructive test
(a) Bend test
(b) Fracture test

BASIC MACHINING
1. What are the mechanical properties of metals.
Hardness, toughness brittle, impact strength, plasticity, elasticity, creep, fatigue, ductility,
etc. are the mechanical properties of metals.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 341

2. What is an alloy?
An alloy is the homogenous mixture of a metal or non-metal with one or more metals or
non-metals.
3. What are the compositions of following alloys.
Stainless steel(Ni: 22%, Cr: 418%, C: 1%)
High speed steel/HSS(Tu: 18%, Cr: 4%, Vd: 1%, C: 0.8%)
Brass(Cu: 60%, Zn: 40%)
Bell metal(Cut: 80%, Sn: 20%)
Bronze(Cu: 7595%, Sn: 525%)
Gun metal(Cu: 88%, Sn: 10%, Zn: 2%)
4. What is the percentage of carbon in mild steel?
The percentage of carbon in mild steel is about 0.300.45%.
5. List a few materials which are used in a workshop.
Mild steel, aluminium, wood, GI (Galvanized iron) sheet, etc.
6. List the name of tools used in a machine shop.
Steel rule, vernier calipers, surface gauge, micrometer, chuck key, drill, turning tool, knurling
tool, height gauge, etc.
7. What is the use of outside calipers?
Outside calipers are used to measure the outside diameter/dimension of a given job.
8. What is the use of inside calipers?
Inside calipers are used to measure the inside diameter, width of slots, etc.
9. List different types of metals used in a machine shop.
Iron, copper, mild steel, cast iron, high speed steel.
10. What is the least count of vernier calipers?
The least count of vernier calipers is 0.02 mm.
11. What is the least count of a steel rule?
The least count of steel rule is 0.5 mm.
12. Define basic machining.
Machining is a process of reducing the given workpiece into the required shape and size with
the help of a machine tool. A widely used machine tool is lathe. In simple words, machining
is a process of removing certain material from the workpiece.
13. Define a lathe.
A lathe is a machine tool which is used to perform several operations on the workpiece. It is
useful in making several parts which is further assembled to make a new machine. Hence, a
lathe is known as mother of machines.
14. What is the principle of a lathe?
In a lathe, the workpiece is held in the chuck, a work-holding device. The cutting tool is
mounted in the tool post. The chuck is rotated by means of power. When the chuck rotates,
the workpiece also rotates. The tool is moved against the rotating workpiece by giving small
amount of depth of a cut. The material is removed in the form of chips.
15. List five main parts of a lathe machine.
Head stock, tailstock, bed, carriage, cross slide.
342 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

16. Name the types of lathe machines.


There are differnt types of lathe machines. They are centre lathe, production lathe, capstan
lathe, turret lathe and auto lathe.
17. What is the use of a carriage?
A carriage is used to carry a tool to bring in contact with the rotating workpiece or to withdraw
from such a contact. It operates on bed ways between the headstock and the tailstock.
18. What is the use of a tailstock?
It is located at the right end of the lathe bed and it can be positioned anywhere in the bed. It
is used for supporting lengthy jobs and also carries tools to carry out operations such as
tapping, drilling, reaming.
19. Name some workholding devices.
Some workholding devices are chuck, face plate, catch plate, lathe carrier, steady rest and
mandrel.
20. What is a chuck and what are the various types of chuck used?
(i) It is a device used to hold a job. It is easily fitted on the thread cut on the end of the
headstock spindle.
(ii) Various types of chuck are:
(a) Two-jaw chuck
(b) Three-jaw chuck
(c) Four-jaw chuck
(d) Collet chuck
(e) Magnetic chuck
21. What is the use of a mandrel?
It is a hardened piece of a round bar for holding bored or reamed jobs. It has drill holes at
both the ends. It is used for holding hollow jobs.
22. Name some cutting tools used in a lathe.
The cutting tools used in a lathe are a facing tool, rough turning tool, parting tool, form
turning tool, thread cutting tool, drill tool and a knurling tool.
23. Name some marking and measuring tools used in machining.
Some marking and measuring tools are a steel rule, vernier calipers, vernier height gauge,
scriber and a try-square.
24. What are the types of operations done in a lathe?
Various operations done in a lathe are facing, turning, step turning, taper turning, knurling,
drilling and thread cutting.
25. Explain facing.
It is done for getting fine finish (good surface finish) on the face of the job. A facing tool is
set at an angle to the workpiece. The tool is fed from the centre of workpiece towards the
outer surface against the rotating workpiece.
26. What is knurling?
It is a process of making serrations on the workpiece. The tool is held in the tool post and
pressed against the rotating workpiece. Workpiece is rotated at lower speed and small amount
of feed is given.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 343

27. What is taper turning?


Taper turning is the operation in which the material is removed from the job to produce a
conical shape.
28. What is known as cutting speed, feed and depth of cut?
Cutting speed: It is the peripheral speed of the work past the cutting tool. It is the speed at
which metal is removed by the tool from the workpiece. It is expressed in metre/minute.
Feed: It is defined as the rate of tool travels across a surface cutting it. It is the distance the
tool advances for each revolution of the workpiece. It is expressed in mm/revolution.
Depth of cut: It is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to the
uncut surface of work. It is expressed in mm
d1  d2
Depth of cut = .
2

SHEET METAL WORK


1. What is sheet metal work?
Sheet metal work is the process of shaping the sheet metal into different forms by cutting
and joining.
2. What is the application of sheet metal work?
Sheet metal work is used for making hoppers, tunnels, ducks, chimneys, etc.
3. How are metal sheets specified?
Metal sheets are specified by standard gauge numbers.
4. Give any four most commonly used sheet metals in practice.
(i) Black iron (ii) Stainless steel
(iii) Aluminium (iv) Tin plate
5. What are the types of tools used in sheet metal work?
(i) Cutting tools (ii) Striking tools
(iii) Supporting tools (iv) Bending tools
(v) Layout tools
6. Give examples of striking tools.
(i) Hammers (ii) Punches
7. What are the major operations carried out on sheet metal?
(i) Shearing (ii) Bending
(iii) Drawing (iv) Squeezing
8. What are the types of shearing operation?
(i) Cutting off (ii) Parting
(iii) Blanking (iv) Punching
(v) Notching (vi) Slitting
(vii) Lancing (viii) Nibbling
(ix) Trimming
9. What are the factors to be considered in riveting operation?
(i) Thickness of plate
(ii) Diameter of rivet
344 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

(iii) Distance between the edge of the punch and edge of the plate
(iv) Length of the shank
10. What is a hem?
A hem is an edge or border made by folding.
11. What is a seam?
A seam is a joining made by fastening two edges together.
12. What is the use of pattern development methods in sheet metal work?
In order to fabricate an object out of sheet metal, it is necessary to know the exact shape and
size of the sheet metal required for that pattern, which is the flat outline of the object to be
prepared.
13. What are the development methods used in practice?
(i) Parallel line method
(ii) Radial line method
(iii) Triangulation method
14. What are the important points to be considered in sheet metal work?
(i) Wastage of metals is avoided
(ii) Avoid mistakes while cutting the material
(iii) Flaps are to be cut at 45 to avoid sharp corners
(v) To avoid accidents the top edge should be folded and overlapped with the safe edge.
15. Write down the sequence of operations in making a square taper group.
(i) Checking (ii) Levelling
(iii) Marking (iv) Cutting
(v) Bending (vi) Seaming

MACHINE ASSEMBLY PRACTICE


1. What is the working principle of a centrifugal pump?
The working principle of a centrifugal pump is forced vartex flow. It means that when a
certain mass of liquid is rotated by an external torque, the rise in pressure head of the rotating
liquid takes place. The rise in pressure head at any point of the rotating liquid is proportional
to the square of tangential velocity of the liquid at that point (i.e. Rise in pressure head =
V2/2g = w2r2/2g).
2. What are all the main parts of a centrifugal pump?
(i) Suction pipe
(ii) Impeller
(iii) Casing
(iv) Delivery pipe
3. What are the various types of casing in a centrifugal pump?
(i) Volute casing
(ii) Vartex casing
(iii) Diffuser casing
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 345

4. What are the purposes of a multistage centrifugal pump?


(i) To produce high head
(ii) To produce large amount of discharge
5. What is the purpose of a multistage centrifugal pump with impellers in series?
The purpose of a multistage centrifugal pump with impellers in series is to produce high head.
6. What is the purpose of multistage centrifugal pump in parallel connection?
The purpose of multistage centrifugal pumps connected in parallel is to produce large amount
of discharge.
7. What is priming?
Before starting the pump, air from the suction pipe, casing and portion of delivery pipe, i.e.
up to the valve is replaced by water. The operation of replacing the air with water in the
pump is called priming.
8. Give some applications of a centrifugal pump.
(i) It is used to fill up the overhead tanks.
(ii) In the agricultural sector a centrifugal pump is used to deliver water from well.
(iii) It is useful in marine engineering.
(iv) It is used to feed water to boilers.
9. What are the main components of an air conditioner?
(i) Compressor (ii) Condensor
(iii) Expansion valve (iv) Evaporator
(v) Fan
10. What are the phases of a vapour compression cycle?
(i) Compression (ii) Condensation
(iii) Expansion (iv) Evaporation
11. What is the adverse effect of CFC?
Chloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC) causes global warming.
12. Now-a-days CFC is replaced by ______.
Hydro Fluoro Carbon (HFC).
13. Name the compressor used in an air conditioner.
Hermatic compressor or sealed compressor.
14. What are the types of motor used to run the compressor in air conditioner?
(i) Resistant Start Induction Run (RSIR) motor.
(ii) Capacitor Start Induction Run (CSIR) motor.
15. What are the materials used for condenser?
(i) Copper aluminium
(ii) Iron

SMITHY
1. What is meant by smithy?
Smithy is one of the manufacturing processes in which metals are processed to get the desired
size and shape by applying mechanical force or by heating the metal and then applying
smaller amount of force.
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2. How do you classify the tools used in a smithy shop?


(i) Supporting tools (ii) Striking tools
(iii) Holding tools (iv) Cutting tools
(v) Finishing and shaping tools
3. Name the metals used for making an anvil and a swage block.
An anvil is made up of solid wrought iron or cast steel.
A swage block is made up of cast iron or cast steel.
4. State the various types of hand hammers used in a smithy shop.
(i) Ball peen hammer (ii) Straight peen hammer
(iii) Cross peen hammer
5. What are the furnaces used in a smithy shop.
(i) Box or bath furnace (ii) Rotary hearth furnace
(iii) Continuous or conveyor furnace (iv) Resistance furnace
(v) Open fire and stock fire furnace
6. What are the fuels used in a smith furnace?
(i) Gas (ii) Oil
(iii) Solid fuels
7. Name the three solid fuels used in a smith furnace.
(i) Coal (ii) Anthracite
(iii) Charcoal
8. What is the difference between a cold chisel and a hot chisel?
The edge of a cold chisel is with an angle of about 60 but the edge of a hot chisel is 30.
9. What are the operations involved in smithy?
(i) Bending (ii) Punching
(iii) Drawing down (iv) Fullering
10. Name the two components produced in a smithy shop.
(i) Flat drill piece (ii) Chain
11. Give the forging temperature of the following four metals.
Low carbon steel: 12501300C
High carbon steel: 11001150C
Non-ferrous alloys (Brass, Bronze): 600950C
Aluminium: 350500C
12. What are the types of hammers other than hand and sledge hammers used?
(i) Pneumatic hammer
(ii) Trip hammer
(iii) Steam or Air hammer
(iv) Level-spring hammer
13. What is the uses of tongs?
It is used to pick up the component or work from the furnace. It is also used as a holding tool
while hammering.
14. What are the types of tongs?
(i) Gad tongs (ii) Ring tongs
(iii) Flat tongs (iv) Straightup fluted tongs
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15. What is upsetting?


It is one of the smith forging operations to increase the thickness of the job and reducing the
length by the application of hammering.
16. What is meant by drawing-down?
Drawing-down is the operation of increasing the length of the bar by reducing the thickness.
17. What is meant by fullering?
Fullering is one of the processes of spreading metal along the length of the bar of workpiece
by hammering and in which the job is kept between fullers.
18. What is cold forging?
Cold forging is the process of making the desired shape of the metal by hammering without
heating the metal. But it is applicable only for soft metals.
19. What is hot forging?
Hot forging is the process of making the desired shape of the metal by hammering the metal
after heating it.
20. Name the two holes on an anvil.
(i) Round holePritchel hole
(ii) RectangularHardie hole

FOUNDRY
1. What is foundry?
Foundry is a place where moulding and casting are done.
2. What is meant by casting?
Casting is a process of making parts by pouring the molten metal into a mould and allowing
it to solidify.
3. What is meant by pattern?
Pattern is a model used to get the required casting. It is used to produce the mould cavity in
sand.
4. What are the materials used for making patterns?
(i) WoodTeak
(ii) MetalCast iron, Brass, Aluminium, etc.
(iii) PlasticsThermosetting, Thermoplastics
(iv) Rubber
(v) Plaster
(vi) Waxes
5. Name the various types of pattern.
(i) Single piece pattern (ii) Split pattern
(iii) Match plate pattern (iv) Gated pattern
(v) Loose-piece pattern (vi) Sweep pattern
(vii) Skeleton pattern (viii) Shell pattern
(ix) Segmental pattern (x) Cope and drag pattern
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6. What are the types of allowances used for making pattern?


(i) Shrinkage allowance
(ii) Draft allowance
(iii) Machining allowance
(iv) Distortion or camber allowance
(v) Rapping allowance
7. What is the name of the binder used to mix with moulding sand?
Bentonite is used as a binder to mix with moulding sand.
8. Name the different types of sand used in foundry work.
(i) Green sand (ii) Dry sand
(iii) Loam sand (iv) Oil sand
9. Name some important properties of moulding sand.
(i) Permeability (ii) Refractoriness
(iii) Cohesiveness (iv) Adhesiveness
(v) Plasticity (vi) Collapsibility
10. What are the ingredients of good moulding sand?
Silica sand (SiO2) 80.8%
Alumina (Al2O3) 14.9%
Iron oxide (Fe2O3) 1.3%
Water (H2O) 2.5%
Other inert materials 1.5%
11. What are the types of casting used in foundry?
(i) Slush casting (ii) Die casting
(iii) Centrifugal casting (iv) Continuous casting
12. What is the function of a riser?
A riser is a passage in sand made in the cope to permit the molten metal to rise above the
highest point in the casting after the mould cavity is filled up.
13. What is the use of a sprue pin?
A sprue pin is a tapered wooden pin used to make a hole in the cope through which the
molten metal is poured into the mould.
14. Name the two types of cores.
(i) Green sand core (ii) Dry sand core
15. Name the various defects in casting.
(i) Shifts (ii) Warpage
(iii) Fin (iv) Swell
(v) Blow holes
16. What is a runner?
In large castings, molten metal is usually carried from the sprue base to several gates around
the cavity through a passage called runner.
17. What is a gate?
A gate is a passage through which molten metal flows through the runner to the mould cavity.
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18. What is significance of fettling?


The castings as obtained from the moulds are not fit for immediate use or for work in the
machine shop as they carry unwanted metal attached in the form of gates, risers etc. Sand
particles also tend to adhere to the surface of the castings. The castings are therefore sent to
the fettling section where the necessary projections are cut off, the adhering sand is removed
and the entire surface is made clean and uniform.
19. What is the type of pattern used for making the stuffing box?
One piece pattern or solid pattern.
20. What is the type of pattern used for making taps and water stop-cocks?
Split pattern.
21. What is the type of pattern used for making the piston rings of IC engines?
Match plate pattern.
22. Name the various types of moulding boxes.
(i) Cope: Top box
(ii) Check: Middle box
(iii) Drag: Bottom box
23. What is the use of a vent rod?
This rod is used for making vent holes in the sand mould so that the molten gases released
during the pouring of molten metal can easily escape from the mould.

FITTING
1. What is meant by fitting?
Fitting is the process of assembling the parts by removing unwanted metals using hacksaws
and files to get the necessary fit.
2. List the tools used in a fitting shop.
Steel rule, punch, divider, calipers (Inside, Outside and Odd leg), try square, files, drill, tap,
scriber, chisels, etc.
3. What is the use of a vice and give the various types of vice?
A vice is used to hold workpiece.
Different types of vice:
(i) Bench vice (ii) Leg vice
(iii) Tool makers vice (iv) Pipe vice
(v) Hand vice
4. What is the difference in a dot punch, a centre punch and a prick punch?
Punch Angle
Centre punch 90
Dot punch 60
Prick punch 30
5. State the different types of hammers used in fitting work.
(i) Ball peen hammer
(ii) Cross peen hammer
(iii) Straight peen hammer
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6. What is the use of a V-block?


A V-block is used to hold the cylindrical workpiece for marking, drilling and filing, etc.
7. What is the material used for files?
Hardened piece of high grade steel is used for making files.
8. What are the methods of filing?
Cross filing, straight filing, draw filing.
9. What is the composition of high speed steel?
Tungsten: 18%
Chromium: 4%
Vanadium: 1%
Carbon: 0.75%
10. What is meant by peening or swaging?
Peening or swaging is the process of stretching or spreading of metal by hammering.
11. What are the different types of punches?
(i) Dot punch (ii) Pin punch
(iii) Prick punch (iv) Centre punch
(v) Automatic centre punch
12. What is the use of pliers?
Pliers are used for holding and gripping small articles in situation where it may be inconvenient
to use hands.
13. What is a wrench?
A wrench is a tool for turning nuts or bolts. Generally, it is made up of steel.
14. What is the material used for making hacksaw blades?
Hacksaw blades are made up of high grade steel such as tool steel, high speed steel or tungsten
alloy steel.
15. When should a blade with 32 teeth per inch be used?
While cutting thin materials, a fine pitch file is to be used to prevent the stripping of the teeth.
16. What are the causes of breaking of hacksaw blades?
(i) Using too much pressure on the blade.
(ii) Using a coarse tooth blade on thin material.
17. How to specify a vice?
The vice is specified by the width of its jaws. The width suitable for common work varies
from 80 to 140 mm, the maximum opening being 95180 mm.
18. What are the types of wrenches?
(i) Strap wrench
(ii) Torque wrench
(iii) Hex key wrench
19. What is a torque wrench?
It is used when it is necessary to know the amount of turning or twisting applied to a nut.
20. Name the material out of which a vice is made.
Body: Cast iron
Fixed and movable jaw: Cast steel
Handle, Square threaded screw and nut: Mild steel
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21. Name the different types of drills used in a fitting shop.


(i) Flat or Shape drill
(ii) Twist drill
(iii) Straight fluted drill
22. How can a tap drill step be determined?
It can be determined by using D = T 2d
where
D = Diameter of the tap drill size
T = Diameter of tap
d = Depth of thread
23. What are the lengths of steel rules?
The available lengths of the steel rule are 150, 300 and 600 mm.
24. What is the material used in making taps?
High speed steel is used for making taps.
25. What is the use of a tap?
A tap is used for cutting internal threads.
26. Name the files which are classified based on longitudinal shape and cross section.
(i) Flat file (ii) Hand file
(iii) Pillar file (iv) Square file
(v) Round file (vi) Knife edge file
(vii) Triangular file (viii) Halfround file

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
1. Name some good conductors of electricity.
Some good conductors of electricity are silver, copper, gold and aluminium.
2. Define current and its unit.
The flow of electrons in conductors is called electric current. The symbol of electric
current is I. The current is measured with the help of the ammeter and the unit of current is
Ampere (A).
3. Define voltage and give its unit.
The force which tends the movement of electrons in a conductor or closed circuit is known
as electromotive force. It can be measured with the help of the voltmeter and it is commonly
known as voltage. The unit of voltage is Volt (V).
4. Define resistance and give its unit.
It is the property of a conductor to oppose the free flow of current. It is measured by the
ohmmeter and the unit of resistance is ohm.
5. Name some measuring instruments and their uses.
The measuring instruments are ammeter, voltmeter and ohmmeter.
The ammeter is used to measure current. The voltmeter is used to measure voltage and the
ohmmeter is used to measure resistance.
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6. Mention two types of electrical supply.


(i) Direct Current (DC)
(ii) Alternative Current (AC)
7. What is the difference between direct current and alternating current?
The instantaneous value of direct current is positive at all instants of time, whereas the
instantaneous value of alternating current changes from +ve to ve and vice versa 50 times
in a second, i.e. equal to the supply frequency.
8. How is an ammeter connected in an electrical circuit?
A ammeter is generally used to measure the current in a branch and hence it is connected in
series in a electrical circuit.
9. How is a voltmeter connected in an electric circuit?
A voltmeter is used to measure the voltage across two parts and therefore it is connected in
parallel.
10. How is a wattmeter connected in an electric circuit?
A wattmeter contains four terminals, two current coils (low resistance) and two pressure
coil (high resistance). Generally the current coil is connected in parallel and pressure coil in
series.
11. What will happen when a permanent magnet moving coil instrument is connected in
an AC circuit?
A permanent magnet moving coil is generally used to measure the average value of the
quantity under measurement. For AC circuits the average value is zero and it indicates zero
value. But for a DC circuit, it could be safely used.
12. Is Kirchhoffs current law applicable to AC circuits too?
In a AC circuit the phasor sum is considered rather than the algebraic sum and hence
Kirchhoffs current law is applicable to AC circuits too.
13. In what respect, Kirchhoffs laws have an advantage over Ohms law?
Ohms law is used for simple series and parallel circuits but Kirchhoffs laws can be made
use for a large number of elements in a network possessing current and voltage sources,
number of branches and meshes. Kirchoffs law is highly efficient.
14. What is a bilateral circuit element?
A circuit which behaves exactly the same when connected in the revenue order is called a
bilateral circuit.
15. Why do we use network theorems and techniques to solve electrical circuits?
Network theorems are used in electrical circuits since,
l the complicated network can be reduced to its simplest form.
l a very complicated solution can be highly simplified in a network.

16. Why are the AC quantities expressed in r.m.s. values and not in average values?
On considering the average value of AC circuit, it derives to be zero, hence the average
values of current and voltage derives to be zero over a complete cycle. Hence AC quantities
are expressed in r.m.s values and not in average value.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 353

17. What are the differences between AC and DC circuits?


The important differences in AC and DC circuits are given below:
DC circuit AC circuit
l At all instants of time, the instantaneous The instantaneous current varies from positive
current is positive. to negative and vice versa.
l Only resistance is considered. Resistance, capacitance, inductance are
considered.
l DC quantities are added algebraically. Phasor sum is used for AC quantities.
l Frequency is not considered as it is always Frequency of supply affects the value of
zero. impedance.
18. What does the form factor of a wave indicate?
The form factor indicates the level upto which the wave departs from the sinusoidal wave.
The form factor for sine wave is 1.11. When the form factor is less than 1.11 it is called flat-
topped and when it is more than 1.11, it is called peaky.
19. What do you understand by the term power factor in reference to AC circuits?
The power factor of an AC circuit is defined as the cosine of the phase angle between the
voltage applied and current flowing. It is also defined as the ratio of real power to the apparent
power of a AC circuit.
20. What do you mean by a lagging power factor?
l In an AC circuit of current lags behind the applied voltage, the circuit is said to have
lagging power factor.
l It happens when inductive reactance > capacitive reactance.
l It is associated with sign.
21. What do you mean by a leading power factor?
l In an AC circuit if current leads the applied voltage, the circuit is said to have leading
power factor.
l Inductive reactance < capacitive reactance.
l +sign.
22. Define the term resonance in reference to AC circuit.
l An AC circuit is said to be resonance if current in circuit is in phase with applied voltage.
l At this condition, circuit behaves like a pure resistive circuit.
l Power factor will be unity.
l Voltage and current amplification take place.
R L C

I vR vL vC

v (t )

i (t )
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23. How can you find the value of frequency at which a R-L-C series circuit will have
resonance?
Frequency of resonance can be found out using
f
1
2 LC
24. Explain all about the resonance in a series R-L-C circuit.
Resonance in series R-L-C circuit can be defined as:
l Power factor is unity.
l Reactive component of I/P impedance is zero.
l When applied voltage and I/P current are in phase.
l Susceptance component of I/P admittance is zero.

25. In an AC circuit which power has higher value, the apparent power or the real power?
l In an AC circuit, the apparent power has higher value than that of the real power.
l In purely resistive circuit,
apparent power = real power.
26. What would be the readings of two wattmeters in this experiment, if the load is purely
resistive?
The reading of two wattmeters, if the load is purely resistive, is
3( w1  w2 )
tan
( w1  w2 )
27. Which type of wattmeter is generally used for measuring power in AC circuit?
Dynamometer type of wattmeter is generally used for measuring power in AC circuit.
28. Why are three phase loads mostly delta-connected?
If the load is delta-connected, then for the same line voltage, the current and power drawn by
the same load is three-times than that of the load which is star-connected.
l This is the reason why three-phase loads are delta-connected.
l This fact can be verified easily by drawing phasor diagrams for both cases.

29. Why calibration of an instrument is essential?


The calibration of an instrument is necessary to plot the curve between % error and some
basic parameters or load.
30. Why the armature of a DC machine is laminated?
The armature of a DC machine is laminated in order to reduce the eddy current loss.
31. How the various laminations of the armature of a machine are insulated from each
other?
The various laminations of the armature of a machine are insulated from each other by a thin
layer of varnish.
32. Why are interlopes used in DC machines?
Interlopes are used in DC machines because of the following reasons:
l They improve commutations under loaded conditions.
l The ensure the sparkles operation of the brushes at the commutator.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 355

33. What is a commutator?


l In case of DC generator, the commutator will rectify the alternating emf induced in armature
coil.
l In DC motor, the commutator inverts the applied DC voltage to alternating voltage for
feeding to the armature coils.
34. Name the material used in making commutator segments.
Highly conducting material should be used in making commutator signals. It is usually a
hard drawn copper.
35. Name the material of brushes of a DC machine.
l The material for brushes of a DC machine is usually graphite or carbon.
l It is used because it is soft, self-lubricating and highly conductive.
36. What is the most important precaution in any
experiment with a DC shunt motor? R Armature
The most important precautions in any experiment with coil
a DC shunt motor is before switching DC supply, a
sufficient resistance should be made in series with
armature coil of DC shunt motor.
37. What range of speed can you get with the armature control of speed control of a DC
shunt motor?
For lower range of speeds than the rated speed, the armature control method of speed control
for the DC shunt motors can be used.
38. What are the different types of transformers from the construction of magnetic frame
point of view?
The transformers can be classified as,
l Core type
l Berry type
l Shell type

On the basis of construction of magnetic frames.


39. Define earthing.
When a wire is connected from the ground to an electrical appliance, then it attains zero
potential and the appliance is said to be earthed and this process is known as earthing.
40. What is the purpose of earthing?
The purpose of earthing is to provide protection to human beings, electrical appliances and
circuits thereby preventing the possibility of dangerous or excessive voltage. The various
electrical appliances and domestic fittings such as plugs, sockets, fans, regulators, lighting
fittings, refrigerators, air conditioners etc., are earthed by the use of three-pin plugs.
41. What do you mean by fuses?
A fuse is a safety device used for the purpose of protecting a circuit against excess
current.
42. What is the purpose of providing a fuse?
When excess current flows through the fuse element, it melts and opens the circuits, thereby
protecting the circuit from damage.
356 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

43. What do you mean by a wiring diagram?


It is a diagram which shows the connection of installation or part of installation such as
connection of a lamp, a fan, switches, etc. with supply. It exactly shows how the connections
are made and it gives the layout of wiring.
44. Name some tools used in wiring.
Pliers, Screwdriver, neon tester, hand drill, portable drilling machine and spanner are some
of the tools used n wiring.
45. What is the use of a hand drill?
A hand drill machine is used for making holes in thin metal sheets or wooden articles.
46. What are the types of wiring used in residential buildings?
The following types of wiring are used in residential buildings:
(i) Tough rubber sheathed (TRS) or PVC dheathed or batten wiring
(ii) Metal sheathed wiring system
(iii) Conduct wiring system
(a) Rigid steel conduit wiring
(b) Rigid non-metallic conduit wiring (PVC)
(c) PVC casing and capping
47. What do you mean by an open circuit and a closed circuit?
(i) If the switch used in the circuit is in off position, then the circuit is said to be an open
circuit. There will not be any flow of current in an open circuit.
(ii) If the switch used in the circuit is in on position, then the circuit is said to be a closed
circuit. There will be normal flow of current in a closed circuit.
48. What is a fluorescent lamp?
It is a low pressure mercury lamp and it is a long evacuated tube. It contains a small amount
of mercury and argon gas at 2.5 mm pressure. At the time of switching, in the tube, mercury
is in the form of small drops. Therefore to start the tube, filling up of argon gas is necessary.
So, in the beginning, argon gas starts burning at the ends of the tube, the mercury is heated
and controls the current and the tube starts giving light.
49. What is the purpose of a starter in a fluorescent lamp?
The starter helps to start the tube and break the circuit. There are two types of starter: thermal
type and glow type.
50. What is the purpose of a choke?
It is also called blast. It has a laminated core over which enamelled wire is wound. The
function of the choke is to increase the voltage to almost 1000 V at the time of switching on
the tube and when the tube starts working, it reduces the voltage across the tube and keeps
the current constant.

ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
1. What do you mean by a conductor and name some conductors?
The materials those permit the flow of electric current are known as conductors.
Examples: Copper, silver, gold and aluminium.
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 357

2. Define a semiconductor and its types.


It is a substance which has resistivity in between conductors and insulators. Types of
semiconductor: N-type semiconductor, P-type semiconductor.
3. Define PN junction.
When a P-type semiconductor is joined to an N-type semiconductor, the contact surface is
called PN junction.
4. What do you mean by transistor?
The transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device. It can act as an apmlifier, oscillator
or photocell. It operates at very low power.
The three terminals are:
(i) Emitter
(ii) Base
(iii) Collector
5. What do you mean by diode?
A diode is a two-terminal (anode and cathode) device. It allows the electron to flow in only
one direction. It is like one direction valve for electron flow.
6. What is Light Emitting Diode (LED)?
This diode converts electrical energy into light energy (green or infrared energy). These
diodes are used in electronic instruments. LED is a diode made up of semiconductor gallium
arsenium diphosphide. The material glows when current passes through it.
7. Define soldering.
It is the process of joining electrical parts together to form an electrical connection, using a
molten mixture of lead and tin (solder) with a soldering iron. The melting point of solder
should be lower than that of metals to be soldered, so that the electrical parts wont get damaged.
8. What is the need of soldering?
By soldering we can attain the same electrical conductivity and mechanical strength as that
of the parent conductor. This cannot be achieved by mechanical joints. Hence we use soldering
for joining conductors in electronic equipment.
9. Name the soldering techniques.
It can be classified into two groups:
(i) Soldering with a soldering iron or Hand manual soldering
(ii) Mass soldering or Automatic soldering.
10. Name some tools used in soldering.
Some tools used in soldering are a soldering iron, solder and soldering flux.
11. What are the types of soldering iron?
The types of soldering iron are:
(i) Temperature controlled soldering iron
(ii) Soldering with soldering gun
(iii) Gas powered soldering iron
12. What are the steps involved in soldering?
The steps involved in soldering are:
(i) Selecting the bit
(ii) Cleaning the bit
358 ! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-'

(iii) Tinning the soldering iron bit


(iv) Cleaning the surface to be soldered
(v) Applying flux
(vi) Applying solder
13. What do you mean by de-soldering?
De-soldering is required when electronic components need to be removed from a circuit,
usually because they are faulty. A soldered joint that is improperly made will be electrically
noisy, unreliable and is likely to get worse in time.
14. What are the steps involved in de-soldering?
The steps involved in de-soldering are:
(i) Hold the terminals to be unsoldered by nose pliers.
(ii) Place the tip of the soldering iron on the joints until the solder is melted.
(iii) When the solder is melted, gently remove the terminals with tweezers and brush away
the molten solder.
(iv) Clean the terminals so that these can be used to make some other circutis.
15. What is a continuity tester?
A continuity tester is used for checking circuitboard tracks, wires and connections for
continuity (conduction). A continuity tester tells us whether electricity can flow through a
cord/wire/metallic track.
16. What are the component parts of a continuity tester?
(i) 9V Battery (ii) Red LED
(iii) 390 W resistor (iv) Crocodile clips
17. What is the principle of a continuity tester?
The continuity tester sends electricity from an internal battery through one side of the item
and down the wires. If the LED gets electrical current from the other side, it lights up, meaning
that the path is good. Otherwise, something is stopping it.
18. What is Printed Circuit Board (PCB)?
This is the base plate over which all components are mounted and soldered. The
interconnection between the components is made by the metallic tracks. There are many
types of PCBs.
19. What are the steps in PCB fabrication?
Single-sided PCB fabrication consists of the following steps:
(i) PCB pattern preparation (ii) Pattern transformation onto PCB
(iii) Etching (Developing) of PCB (iv) Cleaning of PCB
(v) Finishing
20. What do you mean by etching in PCB?
This process removes all the excessive copper from the base laminate. After this, only the
printed pattern is left behind. A solution of 75C hot tap water and ferric chloride is used to
remove the excess copper. The above said solution is thoroughly stirred and to speed up the
process, a few drops of HCl may be added.
21. What is a rectifier?
It is a device which converts alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC).
! "#$%&'(!)*'#"*+#"*',&-' 359

22. Define breakdown voltage.


It is the reverse voltage of a pn diode at which the junction breaksdown with sudden rise in
the reverse current.
23. Define a zener diode.
A zener diode is a properly doped crystal diode which has a sharp breakdown voltage.
24. Define a transistor.
It consists of two pn-junctions formed by sandwhiching either p-type or n-type semiconductor
between a pair of opposite type.
25. What are the types of transistor?
(i) NPN-transistor (ii) PNP-transistor
26. Define JFET.
Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a three-terminal semiconductor device in which
current conduction is by one type of carrier.
27. Define an operational amplifier.
An operational amplifier is a linear integrated circuit that has a very high voltage gain, a high
input impedance and a low output impedance.
28. Define logic gates.
A logic gate is a circuit with one or more input signals, but only one output signal.
SECOND EDITION

ENGINEERING PRACTICES
S. Suyambazhahan
This book helps students acquire hands-on skills in the following areas of workshop practices:
Plumbing and carpentry.
Arc and gas welding, sheet metal work and machining operations.
Smithy, foundry, machine assembly and fitting operations.
Methods of household and industrial wiring, use of measuring instruments, identification of electronic
components and devices, and the study of their characteristics through experimentation, soldering of
electronic components, etc.
The book is intended for the first-year undergraduate engineering students of all disciplines.

KEY FEATURES
Includes a large number of figures and examples for easy understanding of operations of tools and
equipment.
Offers viva questions with answers for practical examination.

THE AUTHOR
S. SUYAMBAZHAHAN, Ph.D., is Principal, S.A. Engineering College, Chennai. He received his doctorate
from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras. He has 22 years of teaching and research experience in
mechanical engineering subjects such as Fluid Mechanics, Engineering Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer,
Computational Fluid Dynamics, and Thermal Engineering. He is a life member of several professional bodies.
Dr. Suyambazhahan has published several research papers in international journals.

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Engineering Mathematics, 4th ed., Vol. 1, S.S. Sastry
Engineering Mathematics, 4th ed., Vol. 2, S.S. Sastry
Basic Engineering Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Madan Mohan Das,
Mini Das Saikia and Bhargab Mohan Das

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