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Chapter-2

Cellular System
Fundamentals
Complied By:
Kartik R. Patel
EXTC Department
KJSCE
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Multiple Access
Methods
TDMA,FDMA,CDMA,
SDMA

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Multiple Access Schemes
Many mobile users to share simultaneously a finite
amount of radio spectrum.

High capacity is achieved by allocating available


bandwidth to multiple users.

Sharing of spectrum should be done without


degradation in the performance of system.

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Duplexing
Mobile telephony is a full duplex wireless
communication system.

It is possible to talk and listen simultaneously.

This effect is called Duplexing.

Duplexing may be done using frequency or time


domain techniques.

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Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
Provides two distinct bands of frequencies for every user.

The forward band provides traffic from BS to MS.

The reverse band provides traffic from MS to BS.

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Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
Duplexer is used inside each subscriber unit (MS) and BS
to allow simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission
and reception.

The frequency separation between each forward


and reverse channel is constant.

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Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
TDD uses time instead of frequency to provide both a
forward and reverse link.

Multiple users share single radio channel by taking turns


in the time domain.

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Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
Individual users are allowed to access the channel in
assigned time slots.

Each duplex channel has both forward and reverse time


slots.
TDD allows communication on single channel and hence
no duplexer is required.

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TDD & FDD Summary

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TDD Vs. FDD

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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
Assigns individual channels (band) to individual users.

Channels are assigned to users on demand who request


service.

During the period of the call, no other user can share the
same channel.

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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
The FDMA channel carries only one phone circuit at a
time.

If an FDMA channel is not in use, then it sits idle and


cannot be used by other user. (Waste of resource).

Once voice channel is assigned BS and MS transmits


simultaneously and continuously.

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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
The bandwidth of FDMA channels are narrow.

Symbol time of a narrowband signal is large as compared


to average delay spread.

Hence ISI is less.

FDMA is continuous transmission scheme, hence fewer bits


are needed for synchronization.

Requires costly band pass filters to be implemented at BS.


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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
The FDMA mobile unit uses duplexers since both TX and
RX operate at the same time. Increases cost of FDMA MS
and BS.
FDMA requires tight RF filtering to minimize adjacent
channel interference.

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Number of Channels in FDMA systems

Bt - 2Bguard
N=
Bc

N number of channels
Bt total spectrum allocation
Bguard guard band
Bc channel bandwidth

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Example: Advanced Mobile Phone System

AMPS
FDMA/FDD
analog cellular system
12.5 MHz per simplex band - Bt
Bguard = 10 kHz ; Bc = 30 kHz

12.5E6 - 2*(10E3)
N= = 416 channels
30E3
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Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Divides the radio spectrum into time slots.

Each slot only one user is allowed to either transmit or


receive.

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Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
TDMA systems transmit data in a buffer-and-burst
method. (Transmission is discontinuous).

Digital data and digital modulation must be used.

Transmission from various users is interlaced into a


repeating frame structure.

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Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

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Repeating Frame Structure

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TDMA Frame Transmission

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Features of TDMA
A single carrier frequency for several users

transmission in bursts

low battery consumption

handoff process much simpler

FDD : switch instead of duplexer

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Features of TDMA

very high transmission rate

high synchronization overhead

guard slots necessary

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Number of channels in a TDMA system

m*(Btot - 2*Bguard)
N=
Bc
N number of channels
m number of TDMA users per radio channel
Btot total spectrum allocation
Bguard Guard Band
Bc channel bandwidth

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Example: Global System for Mobile (GSM)
TDMA/FDD
forward link at Btot = 25 MHz
radio channels of Bc = 200 kHz
if m = 8 speech channels supported, and

if no guard band is assumed :

N= 8*25E6 = 1000 simultaneous users


200E3
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Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
SDMA controls the radiated energy for each user in space.

It serves different users by using spot beam antennas.

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Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

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Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)
Different areas covered by the antenna beam may be
served by the same frequency. (In TDMA or CDMA).

Sectorized antennas can be used for SDMA.

Adaptive antennas (beam steering) will be future of SDMA.

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Reverse link problems
Different propagation path from user to base.
Dynamic control of transmitting power from each
user to the base station required.
Limits by battery consumption of subscriber
units.
Possible solution is a filter for each user.

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Solution by SDMA systems
Adaptive antennas promise to
mitigate reverse link problems.

Limiting case of infinitesimal beam


width.

Limiting case of infinitely fast track


ability.

Thereby unique channel that is free


from interference.

All user communicate at same time


using the same channel
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