Sei sulla pagina 1di 31
Chapter-2 Cellular System Fundamentals Complied By: Kartik R. Patel EXTC Department KJSCE 2/4/2017 Cellular System
Chapter-2 Cellular System Fundamentals Complied By: Kartik R. Patel EXTC Department KJSCE 2/4/2017 Cellular System
Chapter-2 Cellular System Fundamentals Complied By: Kartik R. Patel EXTC Department KJSCE 2/4/2017 Cellular System

Chapter-2

Cellular System

Fundamentals

Complied By:

Kartik R. Patel EXTC Department KJSCE

System Fundamentals Complied By: Kartik R. Patel EXTC Department KJSCE 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 1
Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2
Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2

Multiple Access Methods

Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2

TDMA,FDMA,CDMA,

SDMA

Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2
Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2
Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2

2/4/2017

Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2
Multiple Access Methods TDMA, FDMA , CDMA , SDMA 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 2

Cellular System Fundamentals

2

Multiple Access Schemes ◦ Many mobile users to share simultaneously a finite amount of radio
Multiple Access Schemes ◦ Many mobile users to share simultaneously a finite amount of radio

Multiple Access Schemes

Many mobile users to share simultaneously a finite amount of radio spectrum.

to share simultaneously a finite amount of radio spectrum. ◦ High capacity is achieved by allocating

High capacity is achieved by allocating available bandwidth to multiple users.

Sharing of spectrum should be done without degradation in the performance of system.

Duplexing ◦ Mobile telephony is communication system. a full duplex wireless ◦ It is possible
Duplexing ◦ Mobile telephony is communication system. a full duplex wireless ◦ It is possible

Duplexing

Duplexing ◦ Mobile telephony is communication system. a full duplex wireless ◦ It is possible to

Mobile

telephony

is

communication system.

a

full

duplex

wireless

It is possible to talk and listen simultaneously.

This effect is called “Duplexing”.

Duplexing may be done using frequency or time domain techniques.

Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)

Provides two distinct bands of frequencies for every user.

◦ ◦

The forward band provides traffic from BS to MS.

The reverse band provides traffic from MS to BS.

Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)

Duplexer is used inside each subscriber unit (MS) and BS to allow simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission and reception.

simultaneous bidirectional radio transmission and reception. ◦ The frequency separation between each forward and

The frequency separation between each forward and reverse channel is constant.

Time Division Duplexing (TDD) ◦ TDD uses time instead of frequency to provide both a
Time Division Duplexing (TDD) ◦ TDD uses time instead of frequency to provide both a

Time Division Duplexing (TDD)

TDD uses time instead of frequency to provide both a forward and reverse link.

of frequency to provide both a forward and reverse link. ◦ Multiple users share single radio

Multiple users share single radio channel by taking turns in the time domain.

Multiple users share single radio channel by taking turns in the time domain. 2/4/2017 Cellular System
Time Division Duplexing (TDD) ◦ Individual users are allowed to access the channel in assigned
Time Division Duplexing (TDD) ◦ Individual users are allowed to access the channel in assigned

Time Division Duplexing (TDD)

Individual users are allowed to access the channel in assigned time slots.

are allowed to access the channel in assigned time slots . ◦ Each duplex channel has

Each duplex channel has both forward and reverse time slots. TDD allows communication on single channel and hence no duplexer is required.

TDD & FDD Summary 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 9
TDD & FDD Summary 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 9
TDD & FDD Summary 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 9

TDD & FDD Summary

TDD Vs. FDD 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 10
TDD Vs. FDD 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 10
TDD Vs. FDD 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 10
TDD Vs. FDD 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 10

TDD Vs. FDD

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

Assigns individual channels (band) to individual users.

◦ ◦

Channels are assigned to users on demand who request service.

During the period of the call, no other user can share the same channel.

◦ During the period of the call, no other user can share the same channel. 2/4/2017

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

The FDMA channel carries only one phone circuit at a time.

◦

If an FDMA channel is not in use, then it sits idle and cannot be used by other user. (Waste of resource).

Once voice channel is assigned BS and MS transmits simultaneously and continuously.

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 13

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

The bandwidth of FDMA channels are narrow.

Access (FDMA) The bandwidth of FDMA channels are narrow. Symbol time of a narrowband signal is

Symbol time of a narrowband signal is large as compared to average delay spread.

Hence ISI is less.

as compared to average delay spread. Hence ISI is less. FDMA is continuous transmission scheme, hence

FDMA is continuous transmission scheme, hence fewer bits are needed for synchronization.

Requires costly band pass filters to be implemented at BS.

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

The FDMA mobile unit uses duplexers since both TX and RX operate at the same time. Increases cost of FDMA MS and BS.

operate at the same time. Increases cost of FDMA MS and BS. FDMA requires tight RF

FDMA requires tight RF filtering to minimize adjacent

channel interference.

Number of Channels in FDMA systems N = B t - 2B guard B c
Number of Channels in FDMA systems N = B t - 2B guard B c

Number of Channels in FDMA systems

Number of Channels in FDMA systems N = B t - 2B guard B c 

N=

Bt - 2Bguard

Bc

N … number of channels Bt … total spectrum allocation Bguard … guard band Bc … channel bandwidth

Example:Advanced Mobile Phone System  AMPS  FDMA/FDD  analog cellular system  12.5 MHz

Example:Advanced Mobile Phone System

Example:Advanced Mobile Phone System  AMPS  FDMA/FDD  analog cellular system  12.5 MHz per

AMPS

FDMA/FDD

analog cellular system 12.5 MHz per simplex band - Bt

Bguard = 10 kHz ; Bc = 30 kHz

N=

12.5E6 - 2*(10E3)

30E3

= 416 channels

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Divides the radio spectrum into time slots. Each slot only
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Divides the radio spectrum into time slots. Each slot only

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Divides the radio spectrum into time slots.

Access (TDMA) Divides the radio spectrum into time slots. Each slot only one user is allowed

Each slot only one user is allowed to either transmit or receive.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) TDMA systems transmit data in a method. (Transmission is discontinuous).
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) TDMA systems transmit data in a method. (Transmission is discontinuous).

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

TDMA

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) TDMA systems transmit data in a method. (Transmission is discontinuous).

systems

transmit

data

in

a

method. (Transmission is discontinuous).

buffer-and-burst

Digital data and digital modulation must be used.

Transmission

from

various

repeating frame structure.

users

is

interlaced

into

a

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 20
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 20

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 20
Repeating Frame Structure 2/4/2017 Multiple Access Techniques 21
Repeating Frame Structure 2/4/2017 Multiple Access Techniques 21
Repeating Frame Structure 2/4/2017 Multiple Access Techniques 21

Repeating Frame Structure

TDMA Frame Transmission 2/4/2017 Multiple Access Techniques 22
TDMA Frame Transmission 2/4/2017 Multiple Access Techniques 22
TDMA Frame Transmission 2/4/2017 Multiple Access Techniques 22

TDMA Frame Transmission

Features of TDMA • • A single carrier frequency for several users transmission in bursts
Features of TDMA • • A single carrier frequency for several users transmission in bursts

Features of TDMA

• •

A single carrier frequency for several users

TDMA • • A single carrier frequency for several users transmission in bursts • low battery

transmission in bursts

low battery consumption

handoff process much simpler

FDD : switch instead of duplexer

Features of TDMA • very high transmission rate • high synchronization overhead • guard slots
Features of TDMA • very high transmission rate • high synchronization overhead • guard slots

Features of TDMA

•

very high transmission rate

high synchronization overhead

guard slots necessary

Number of channels in a TDMA system
Number of channels in a TDMA system
Number of channels in a TDMA system N = m*(B tot - 2*B guard) B c

N= m*(Btot - 2*Bguard) Bc

N … number of channels

m … number of TDMA users per radio channel

Btot … total spectrum allocation Bguard … Guard Band

Bc … channel bandwidth

Example: Global System for Mobile (GSM)   TDMA/FDD forward link at B tot =

Example: Global System for Mobile (GSM)

 

TDMA/FDD forward link at Btot = 25 MHz

radio channels of Bc = 200 kHz

if m = 8 speech channels supported, and

if no guard band is assumed :

N= 8*25E6

200E3

= 1000 simultaneous users

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) SDMA controls the radiated energy for each user in space.
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) SDMA controls the radiated energy for each user in space.

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

SDMA controls the radiated energy for each user in space.

SDMA controls the radiated energy for each user in space. It serves different users by using

It serves different users by using spot beam antennas.

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 28
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 28

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 28
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2/4/2017 Cellular System Fundamentals 28
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Different areas covered by the antenna beam may be served
Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) Different areas covered by the antenna beam may be served

Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

Different areas covered by the antenna beam may be served by the same frequency. (In TDMA or CDMA).

beam may be served by the same frequency. (In TDMA or CDMA). Sectorized antennas can be

Sectorized antennas can be used for SDMA.

Adaptive antennas (beam steering) will be future of SDMA.

Reverse link problems Different propagation path from user to base.   Dynamic control of
Reverse link problems Different propagation path from user to base.   Dynamic control of
Reverse link problems
Reverse link problems

Different propagation path from user to base.

 

Dynamic control of transmitting power from each

user to the base station required.

Limits by battery consumption of subscriber units. Possible solution is a filter for each user.

 Solution by SDMA systems antennas promise to Adaptive mitigate reverse link problems.  Limiting
 Solution by SDMA systems antennas promise to Adaptive mitigate reverse link problems.  Limiting

Solution by SDMA systems

antennas

promise

to

Adaptive

 Solution by SDMA systems antennas promise to Adaptive mitigate reverse link problems.  Limiting case

mitigate reverse link problems.

antennas promise to Adaptive mitigate reverse link problems.  Limiting case of infinitesimal beam width. 

Limiting case of infinitesimal beam width.

Limiting case of infinitely fast track ability.

Thereby unique channel that is free

from interference.

All user communicate at same time using the same channel