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# ~73

7A
THE GENERAL SERVICE SCHOOL

LIBRARY

LIBRARY

## Call Number L 0-111-2,7

Acc~soin Ymter 11147
CGSC Form 154 (Rev) 22 Oct 52
Army-CGSC-p5-1707-28 Feb 55-M-2M

%

3 ~a
ARTILLERY FIRING

## Lectures to The Staff and Line Classes

General Service Schools, Fort'
Leavenworth, Kansas,
October,
1919

BY

Major L. J. McNair, F. A.

9,LL Wp

Line Class:
T. T. 30, October 10.
T. T. 41, October 16.
T. T. 54, October 23,
Staff Class:
T. T. 26, October 10.
T. T. 50, October 27.
T. T. 62, November 5.

## The Army Service Schools Press

Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

1919
Contents
Subject Par.
GENERAL --------------------------------------- 1-3
PART I. Preparation of fire ----------------------- 4-41
Defined ---------------------------------------- 4
Mechanism of laying --------------------------- 5
Methods of laying. Direct. Indirect ------------- 6
Laying for direction. Deflection ------------------- 7
Deflection graduation of sights ----------------- 8
Laying for elevation --------------------------- 9-20
Systems. Independent line of sight. Direct laying -10-15
Indirect laying. Site------------------------16-17
Data needed to lay the piece-------------------- 20
Finding the deflection-------------------------21-31
Description, direct and indirect laying. Methods -_ 21
On the ground, without map or compass -- _--------22
Reciprocal laying ----------------------------- 23
Means for measuring angles --------------------- 24
On the ground, without map, but with compass.-- 25
By the map, but without compass----------------26
By the map, with compass---------------------- 27
Conversion of angles into deflection-------------- 28
Deflection difference------------------------29-30
Application of various methods------------------31
Finding the site---------------------------------- 32
Finding the range------------------------------- 33
Finding the elevation-------------------------34-36
Range Tables --------------------------------- 34
Use of tables to find elevation-------------------- 35
Time fire. Data for. Corrector__---------------36
Summary of firing data. Refinements of the prepar-
ation of fire-------------------------------37-41
Summary of firing data------------------------- 37
Nature of refinements possible------------------38-39
Atmospheric and ballistic corrections------------ 40
General --------------------------------------- 41
PART II. Firing -------------------------------- 42-67
Dispersion-----------------------------------42-46
Law of dispersion. Probable error------------43-44
Effect of dispersion---------------------------- 45
3
-4-
Subject Par.
Safe distances from points of fall --------------- 46
Defined -------------------------------------- 47
Observation------------------------------------- 48
Adjustment by measured deviations --------------- 50
Adjustment of time fire ------------------------- 56
Method of fire during adjustment. Salvo -------- 57
Fire for effect -------------------------------- 58-60
Classes. Precision, zone, systematic. Volleys__- 58
Use of datum or registration point --------------- 59
Use of witness point --------------------------- 60
Special shell ---------------------------- 61
Effect of fire------------------------------------ 62
Clearing the crest ----------------------------- 6-65
Elevation formulas------------------- -------- 66
Reaching a reverse slope ------------------------ 67
PART III. Special auxiliaries --------------------- 68-78
Aerial observation----------------------------68-72
Balloon-------------------------------------- 68
Airplane ---------------- 6------------------
69-72
Communication ------------------------------- 70
Signals ------------------------------------- 71
Method -------------------------------------- - 72
Sound ranging-------------------------------73-75
Apparatus ---------------------------------- 73
Method -------------------------------------- 74
Possibilities------------------------------- 7
Flash ranging ----------------------------------- 76
High burst ranging ----------------------------- 77-78
Artillery Firing
General
1. Artillery firing has changed as a result of the
war. Contrary however to the general belief, the
changes are not in the nature of discarding the old,
but adding to it, developing and refining it, when
time and the situation permit. The accomplished
artilleryman of today must have a much larger tech-
nical repertoire than formerly. For example, cor-
rections for atmospheric conditions have greatly
developed, although applicable only under certain
conditions. Again, when detailed maps of the plan
directeur type are available, the newly developed ar-
tillery topography affords highly important advan-
tages.
On the other hand, the older, cruder methods in
use before the war are still sound, still necessary,
and cannot be neglected without dangerously impair-
ing fighting efficiency.
2. It is the aim and duty of the artilery to de-
liver effective fire when and where needed.
The problem of delivering effective fire on a
given point at a given time is largely one of tech-
nique.
To insure that the given point and time meet
the needs of the infantry and the situation in general
is a tactical problem; in fact, it is the essence of ar-
tillery tactics.
3. This discussion of artillery firing will be con-
fined wholly to technique, and will include the fol-
lowing:
(a) repar ti f
Metos i ;

r 5
--6--
Finding the deflection.
Complete firing data.
(b)- Firing:
Dispersion.
Fire for effect.
Effect of fire.
Clearing a crest.
Reaching a reverse slope.
(c) The special auxiliaries of:
Aerial observation.
Sound ranging.
Flash ranging.
High burst ranging.

PART I
Preparation of Fire
4. The preparation of fire is finding the firing
data, which are defined to be "the information and
commands necessary to enable the gun squads to
accomplish the orderly, rapid and accurate service of
the pieces."
Therefore 'before one can intelligently proceed
with the preparation of fire, it is necessary to under-
stand the mechanism of laying a piece of artillery
and how it is served.
5. Mechanism of laying. The object of laying
is to give the piece such an elevation (or depression)
in a vertical plane and such direction that the pro-
jectile will reach the target.
Formerly the elevation and direction were mat-
ters of guesswork and skill on the part of the gun-.
ner; with modern artillery the cannoneer executes
commands mechanically by means of laying instru-
ments. The cannoneer must have a certain degree
of skill and dexterity, but responsibility for suc-
cessful results rests mainly with those determining
the data announced to the cannoneers.
6. Kinds. of laying. Laying is direct and in-
direct.
-7-
For direct laying the piece is sighted for direc-
tion and elevation on the target itself which must be
visible to the gunner.
For indirect laying the piece is given direction
by sighting on any convenient designated point (aim-
ing point), and elevation by a quadrant or level.
The cannoneers do not see or know the target of ne-
cessity.
Indirect laying is easily the predominating
method. It has a number of advantages.
The pieces can fire effectively from concealed
and protected positions. An aiming point is dis-
tinct and definite; the target is generally vague and
indefinite. Indirect laying is thus possible when
direct laying would either be ijipossible or very dif-
ficult. Indirect laying affords decided advantages
of collective control and eliminates difficulties of tar-
get designation. It operates to place the brain work
of firing on the officer and makes the soldier's work
more purely mechanical.
Direct laying is, however, decidedly superior for
moving targets.
7. Laying for direction. This operation is the
same for either direct or indirect laying. A deflec-
tion must be announced, which is the horizontal an-
gle to be set on the sight in order that the piece when
laid will give shots correct in direction.
The gunner, the cannoneer on the left of the
trail near the breech, sets the sight at the deflection
ordered and traverses the piece till the line of sight
is on the aiming point or target for direction.
Laying for direction is not difficult, although
errors in sight setting occur occasionally, and accur-
acy in sight setting must be insisted upon and
checked.
-8-
8. Deflection graduation of sights. Sights are
graduated so that all deflections from 0 to 6400 mils
may be set. Unfortunately, however, among the va-
rious materiels now in our service, there is not uni-
formity in the method of graduating the deflection
scale. The angular unit is generally the mil,*
and all except the British howitzers are graduated
clockwise; but in the matter of numbering the scale
and its origin, there are the following principal
systems:
Figure 1 is the old U. S. system, 0 to 6400 mils,
with the gun axis at 0, that is, when the sight is set
at 0 deflection, its axis is parallel to the gun axis.
The limb is graduated in hundreds of mils; single
mils are set by means of a micrometer graduated
from 0 to 100 mils.
Figure2 is the system of the French 75 gun now
in our service. It is difficult to understand how the
minds who conceived this remarkable weapon could
also conceive so clumsy a system of deflection gradua-
tion; there is no defense for it. The gun axis is at
uated alike. Each quadrant is divided into eight
subdivisions of 200 mils each, called plateaux, and
numbered successively 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14. Thus
"Plateau 2" means any one of the four identical
subdivisions between 200 mils and 400 mils. A mi-
crometer subdivides the plateaux; it reads from 0 to
200 mils. Readings on the micrometer are referred
to as "Drum, so and so." A complete deflection
*It is asumed that the student is familiar with the mil
and its properties; if not, see par. 14 of the War Department
manual "Artillery Firing," or other texts in which the mat-
ter is discussed. 1 mil=3.375 minutes, 33/8 minutes; 18 mils
(more exactly, 17,778) =1 degree.
The sight of the British 8-inch and 9.2-inch howitzers
is graduated in degrees and minutes, one-half clockwise and
the other half counter clockwise; the sight of the 155 Filloux
-9-

* 1Breech
100' on limb 0-100 on Micrometer
fig 1.
OLD U.S.
must therefore be expressed in two units, thus, "Pla-
teau 4, Drum 175"; while in other systems one num-
ber is sufficient, thus, 1435.
Figure 3 is the system of the 155-mm. Schneider
howitzer used in our division artilery. The gun axis
-10-

y G

Breech

## 200'5 on Iimb-0200 on Micrometer

Fig 2
75 FRENCH GUN
is at 1000, that is, the 0 of the sight scale is 1000
mils to the left front. The graduation is from 0 to
6400. The limb is graduated in hundreds, and the
micrometer from 0 to 100. No real advantage is
derived from the position of the origin of graduation;
-11-

''p
THE C!"~N
4fr
(a~

## on the other hand, it causes considerable incon-

venience.
Figure 4 is the new U. S. system. The gun
axis is at 0. The scale is in two halves, each grad-
-12-

1 l Breech

Fi9 4.
NEW U. 5.

## uated from .0 to 3200. This is advantageous in re-

ciprocal laying (par. 23). The limb is graduated in
hundreds, and the micrometer from 0 to 100.
-13-
9. Laying for elevation. This operation is dif-
ferent for the methods of direct and indirect lay-
ing. But in both cases a range setting or elevation
is announced to give the bore an elevation corres-
ponding to the range of the target.

5i, 5.

## 155 m.m. HOWITZ E R

10. Systems of laying for elevation. Two typi-
cal systems of laying for elevation are shown in
Figures 5 and 6. Figure 5 is essentially that of the
155 howitzer and is the simpler. , Figure 6 is that
of the 75 gun and embodies the so-called independent
line of sight.
-14--
11. In Figure 5, K is an optical sight for ac-
curate laying. It is mounted on a shank R curved
to a circumference having the trunnion w as a center.
The sight and shank, K and R, slide up and down in
a seat B fastened to the cradle. The sight shank is
ticular range is so placed that when the shank is
set at this graduation, the sight axis makes a verti-
cal angle with the gun axis equal to the elevation cor-
responding to the given range. S. is the elevating
screw fixed at the lower end of the trail of the car-
riage and at the upper end of the cradle. It is oper-
ated by a handwheel and suitable gears M.
12. If now any desired range be set on the
shank R, and the piece then elevated by means of
the elevating system S and M until the line of sight
is at the height of the target, the operation will re-
sult in the piece being elevated above the target by
an amount corresponding to the range. In other
words, the piece will be laid for range (or elevation).
This case is direct laying (par. 6), and is the
simplest.
It will be noted that as soon as the range is an-
nounced, the operations of setting this range and
elevating the piece the proper amount are simple and
easily performed by the gunner, a corporal.
13. As thus described, laying for elevation or
range involves two operations, i. e.:
(a) Setting the range on the sight shank.
(b) Sighting on the target.
With this system, these operations must be per-
formed successively and practically by one man.
Moreover a change of range after the first shot in-
volves a complete repetition of the process.
In view of these facts, the French introduced the
independent line of sight shown in Figure 6. A sub-
-15-
trail-a mechanical complication, it is true. The
lower end of the elevating screw S is mounted, not
on the trail as in Figure 5, but on the rocker. This

ri. 6.

MODEL 1897

## screw is operated by a cannoneer on the right of the

piece, No. 1. The rocker can be elevated by the gun-
ner on the left of the piece through the pinioh H.
The piece can therefore be elevated by either the
gunner or No. 1, but in different ways.
A range scale R moves when the piece is moved
with respect to the rocker, and thus indicates ranges
-16-

## of the piece with respect to the rocker. The sight K

is fixed to the rocker so that when the range scale
reads 0, the line of sight is parallel to the bore of
the piece.

## 14. When a range is- announced, No. 1 (on the

right) turns Ml and S till R indicates this range. At
the same time, before or after, the gunner (on the
left) turns H, thus moving the whole, system, till the
line of sight is on the target. This constitutes lay-
ing for range, the same result as in par. 12, but ob-
tained in a different manner.

## 15. The advantage of this system is in general

two-fold:
(a) The two phases of laying for elevation, de-
scribed in par. 13 as successive, are made simul-
taneous and apportioned to two, instead of one,
cannoneers. This saves time.
(b) Changes of range do not entail relaying.
No. 1 merely changes the range setting by means
of M and S; the gunner does nothing. This is
important as the gunner is also concerned with
the deflection and is busy (par. 7). In other
words, the sight is constantly available to the
gunner for sighting purposes, and is independent
of changes of range.

## 16. Indirect laying (par. 6). When the target

cannot be seen, the elevation must be given by the
bubble, which refers it to the horizontal. Except
when the target is on the same level as the piece,
L

P T

S //

Fig. 7.
INFLUENCE QF SITE ITH INDIRECT LAYING.
-17-

## 'this involves a correction of the elevation for range

to make it correct with respect to the target.
Thus, in Figure 7, GH is a horizontal through
the piece, and T is a target more elevated than the
piece. The angular difference of level at the piece
between the target and the piece is called the site. In
the figure, the site is TGH.
If direct laying were used, an elevation E would
reach the target; but if used with indirect laying
without correction for site, the' shot would fall short
by PT. If the elevation for indirect laying were in-
creased by the site S, the piece would have the same
elevation above the target as for direct laying, and
would be correctly laid.
The site is + (plus) when the target is above
the piece, and - (minus) when the. target is below-
the piece. With this convention, the elevation for in-
direct laying (quadrant elevation) is the elevation
for .the range with the site added algebraically.
Example :
The piece is on contour 520, the target elevation is 610
feet. Map range, 3700 yards. Elevation for range only,
6°21'. What is the elevation for indirect laying?
Solution :
The target is 610-520=90 feet=30 yards above the
piece. The site is+, and equal to
30
-mils, or 8 mils, or 27'
3.7
The elevation required is therefore 6°21+27'=648'.

## 17. - With the sighting systems shown in Figures

5 and 6, the site is announced as such separately from
the range (except in quadrant laying, par. 18), and
is combined automatically by the mechanism. The
operation of indirect laying is as follows:
For Figure 5, the announced range is set on the
sight shank R as for direct laying. The site an-
nounced is set on the scale r. - The piece. is then
-18-
elevated till the bubble of r is centered, which lays
the piece for elevation. This operation is performed
entirely by the gunner on the left side of the piece.
For Figure 6, the gunner sets the site on r and
at once centers the bubble of r by moving H. No. 1
on the right turns M and S till R indicates the range
announced. The two cannoneers work independ-
ently.

## 18. Elevation scale graduation. The scale used

in laying for elevation are graduated either in range
or in angular units.
Those graduated in range are in meters, * this
having been adopted for service in Europe.. The 75
The scales graduated in angular units vary.
The 155 howitzer is graduated in twentieths (of a
degree); the 155 Filloux gun (G. P. F.) and the
British howitzers in degrees and minutes. The mil

## 19. Quadrant laying. The methods of laying

for elevation indirectly just described (pars. 16 and
17), while simple and mechanical, involve mechan-
isms with joints which become worn. For very ac-
curate work, where speed is not essential, laying for
The quadrant is a frame carrying a pivoted arm
which can be set at any useful elevation. This arm
carries a bubble. The instrument is held by hand on
the tube of the piece, so that the play of auxiliary
parts is eliminated. The elevation set is the quad-
rant elevation (par. 16).

## *Increase meters 10% to obtain yards. Thus 1200

meters= 1200 +120=1320 yards (1312, more exactly). De-
crease yards 10% to obtain meters. Thus 1312 yards=1312
-131=1181 meters (1200, exactly).
-19-
20. It is thus seen that the cannoneers, in order
to lay the piece, need the following data:
(a) Deflection,
and for direct laying
(b) Range,
or for indirect laying
(b) Site,
(c) Range,
(b) Quadrant elevation, which includes site.
The practical finding of these data constitute
the major portion of the preparation of fire, and will
be considered first.
FINDING THE DEFLECTION
21. For direct laying, the deflection is that
which, for the particular piece, corresponds to the
axis of the bore (par. 8). For the 75 gun, this
would be Plateau 0, Drum 100. Strictly speaking,
it would be necessary to correct for the drift, the
values of which are given in the range tables. A
cross wind is usally allowed for, as is also any con-
siderable cross movement of the target. Direct lay-
ing is generally hurriedly prepared, however, and re-
finements are not often practicabe, so that the
corrections are made as a result of the observation of
the first shots.
For indirect laying, the deflection determina-
tion is more difficult. The ideal method would be to
set an instrument at the gun position and measure
the angle from the target clockwise to the aiming
point. This direction and origin of measurement
must become a fixed habit; otherwise errors and
confusion are almost inevitable. The angle thus
measured, when modified for peculiarities of sight
graduation (par. 8), is the deflection.
Practically, the problem is not as simple as this,
since the target ordinarily cannot be seen from the
position of the piece.
,1tualbir:k"+2 L i U U,. £U-Yb4

-20-
A number of the principal methods of finding
the deflection will be explained, as follows:
(a) On the ground, without map or compass.
(b) On the ground, without map, but with compass.
(c) By the map, but without compass.
(d) By the map, with compass.
In all cases; the problem is to measure the de-
flection at a point other than the piece, where the
target can be seen, or from a map, and transmit this
measurement to the piece in a form which can be
used to lay the piece for direction.

TI

G'G

Fig. 8.
-21-
22. '(a) On the ground, without map dr com-
pass. Two cases arise, (A) a distant point P is
used as an aiming point, and (B) the battery com-
mander's instrument B is used as an aiming point.
For (A), TGP, as indicated in Figure 8, is
the angle sought, T being the target and G the piece.
For (B), the angle TGB is sought.
Since these angles cannot be measured directly,
recourse must be had to indirect methods. The bat-
tery commander's post is' probably the nearest
point from which the target and the aiming
point or piece can be seen. But even 'from here, if
the angles TBP and TBG' be measured, they are in-
correct due to the displacement of B and G.
Measurements made from B can be -utilized, how-
ever. Draw BT' parallel to GT, BP' parallel-to GP,
and BG' in prolongation of GB. Then, for case (A),
T'BP' is exactly the angle sought, since its sides are
parallel to those of TGP. Similarly for case (B),
T'BG' is the angle sought. This is called the paral-
lel method. Another is called the parallax method,
but is less simple'and will not be discussed.
Although simple in principle, the parallel meth-
od presents some difficulty practically, because there
is nothing on the, ground to establish the parallels
BT' and BP'. If time is important they must be
estimated by eye. This can be done with surprising
accuracy after a little practice. If more time is
available, the angular offset at B of T' from T and of
P' from P can be calculated more or less accurately
depending on the speed necessary. For example, the
offset T'BT in mils is roughly BG in yards divided
by BT in thousands of yards. In the case ofP'BP,
BG is rather oblique for good calculations; a better
value would be BG" divided by BP in thousands,
where BG" is perpendicular to the bisector of the an-
gle BPG. When an instrument is available, the ac-
-22-

## curacy of the method depends almost wholly on the

time and care used to find the offsets T'BT and P'BP.
Case (A) is restated: An instrument (which is
graduated clockwise) is set up at B and oriented, not
on T but on T' so that BT' is parallel to GT. Without
disturbing the orientation, it is pointed, not on P, but
on P' so that BP' is parallel to GP. The instrument
reading is then the angle sought..
23. Reciprocal laying. For case (B), however,
the offset of the aiming point is eliminated. The
instrument oriented and pointed on T' as before is
then pointed on G, instead of on G' estimated.
The angle T'BG thus obtained is not the angle
sought but differs from it by exactly 3200 mils. If
T'BG is less than 3200, 3200 is added to it; if T'BG is
greater than 3200, 3200 is subtracted from it. The
correctness of this rule can readily be verified by
inspection of Figure 8. This method, where the
battery commander "lays" on the piece as an aiming
point and the piece on the battery commander, is
called reciprocal laying. The term' is perhaps more
correctly applied to two pieces, one of which is laid
in the desired direction and is used by the above
method to assist in laying the other piece parallel to
itself.
It was seen above that the method involves a
calculation, causing occasional errors and delay. This
is eliminated in the graduation of the sights of the
75 gun and the laAtest American models (Figures 2
and 4, par. 8). The angle-measuring instrument
is graduated in the same manner as the sight. With
either of the sights named, no conversion of the angle
measured at B is necessary; the angle is announced
as read. The correctness of this statement is best
established by considering actual values with a dia-
gram such as Figure 8.
-23-
24. Measurements on the ground as in the pre-
ceding paragraph are preferably made by instru-
ment, such as the aiming circle, scissors telescope, etc.
When instruments are not available, the determina-
tion is still possible, but naturally with much less ac-
curacy. The means used would be handbreadths,
the B. C. ruler, the field glass, and the like.
25. (b) On the ground, without map, but with
conpass. This requires an aiming circle (par. 517,
Manual of Artillery Firing), but as this instrument
is very portable, it may be considered as nearly al-
ways available. The aiming circle is similar in
type to the transit, but is smaller, less elaborate,
and less accurate. It measures horizontal and ver-
tical angle in mils, and can be oriented in any de-
sired direction. The telescope and compass are both
mounted on the upper limb.
It will be noted that the method described in
pars. 22-24 requires a point B from which the target
can be seen, as well as the piece or an aiming point.
This is not always possible. The compass furnishes
a solution in case the previous method cannot be
used. The method of using the compass is simply
an extension of the method of par. 22.
The aiming circle is set up at a point from which
the target can be seen, as near as possible to the
piece; and oriented on a line parallel to the line
piece-target (par. 22).
This places the 0 of the scale in a position for
the measurement of -deflections (par. 21).
Without disturbing the orientation, the telescope
and compass are turned until the compass needle is
opposite its index. This index is on the telescope
axis, so that the telescope is pointing to the magnetic
north. The angle has then been measured from the
-24-
target to a fictitious aiming point, i. e., the magnetic
north.
The angle thus measured is then transmitted to
a similar instrument near the piece and from which
the piece can be seen; or the instrument can be moved
to this position. The latter is better if time permits,
for compasses have individualities. The instrument
setting is -left unchanged; it is only necessary to
place the needle opposite its index by turning both
upper and lower limbs. The instrument is then
oriented the same as previously. From this point
the method is exactly the same as that of par. 22.
The -telescope is turned on an aiming point or the
piece, whichever method is selected, and the reading
is the same as the angle T'BP' or T'BG in Figure 8,
par. 22.
26. (c) By the map, but without compass. A
simple method is that indicated in par. 21. The
piece, target and aiming point are located accurate-
ly on the map. The angle at the piece from the tar-
get clockwise to the aiming point is then measured
with the protractor.
A more practicable and more general, and in
most cases more accurate, method is the following,
used on stabilized fronts: A line is materialized
on the ground and carefully surveyed as to direction
expressed in true azimuth. The direction is then
plotted on the map, as well as the position of the tar-
get and piece. The angle between the line of fire
(piece-target) and the line on the ground (orienting
line) is then measured. clockwise from the line of
fire.by means of the protractor.
The aiming circle or similar instrument is then
set up on the orienting line at any point where the
piece can be seen. The angle read from the map is
then set and the aiming circle pointed on the orient-
-25-
ing line by turning the entire instrument. This
places the zero of the horizontal scale in a direction
parallel to the desired line of fire. The telescope
and upper limb can then be pointed on a distant aim-
ing point or on the piece as expedient and the de-
flection found as in par. 22-23.
27. (d) By the map, with compass. This meth-
od is much the same as (b), par .25.
It is necessary to know the declination constant
of the compass of the aiming circle used. 'This is
the setting such that when applied and the entire
aiming point turned till the needle is opposite its in-
dex, the zero of the scale will be pointed at the true
north. In other words, it is the setting which will
permit orientation on the true north by means of the
needle.
Begin by setting up the aiming circle at any
point from which the piece can be seen and orienting
it on the true north in the manner described. Mark
the true north on the ground by setting the upper
limb at 0, sighting through the telescope and setting
a stake on the vertical hair.
Plot the piece and target on the map, and with
the protractor measure the angle at the piece from
the target clockwise to. the grid or true north. Set
this angle on the aiming circle and turn the whole
till the telescope is on the stake marking the true
north. The aiming circle is then oriented in a di-
rection parallel to the line of fire, and the angle to
the piece or aiming point can be read with his orien-
tation, in the same manner as for (a), par. 22.
28. Conversion of angle read into deflection. The
angle at the piece measured clockwise from the
target to the aiming point, discussed in the forego-
ing paragraphs, must be converted to the sight grad-
uations, unless the instrument used has a second
-26-
scale which makes the conversion automaticaly. This
is true of the French aiming circle for the 75 gun
and of the new American aiming circle for the "New.
U. S." scale shown in Figure 4, par. 8.
If the aiming circle makes no conversion, the
following methods are applicable:
2, par. 8) ; subtract as many quadrants of 1600 mils
as possible. The remainder is converted into pla-
teau and drum by inspection, thus:
Angle read on aiming circle, 2975.
2975+ 100-3075
.3075-1600= 1475
or Plateau,14, Drum 75
Or the angle read is 435
435+100=535
or Plateau, 4, Drum 135
ure 3, par. 8) ; if the sum is greater than 6400, sub-
tract this amount, thus:
5800+1000=6800
6800-6400= 400
New U. S. (Figure 4, par. 8). Subtract 3200
from the angle read if it is greater than 3200.
29. Deflection difference. Thus far only a single
piece has been considered, but the battery com-
mander has ordinarily to find the deflection for
the four pieces of his battery. In Figure 9 the
pieces G1, G 2 , G 3 , and G 4 are laid with parallel lines
of fire (parallel fire), by means of a common aiming
point P. The deflections are d 1 , etc., as indicated.
G 2 P 1 , G 3 P 1 and G 4 P 1 are all parallel to G 1P. Similar-
ly G 3 P 2 and G 4 P. are parallel to G 9 P,, and G 4 P8 is
parallel to G 8 P. It will thus be seen that the deflec-
tions decrease successively from the right (1st
piece) to the left (4th piece). d 2 is less than d 1 by
the angle P 1 G 9 P, or G 9 PG 1 , or roughly 1 platoon front
-27--

L'?7es f bre

DEFLECTION OIFFERENCE

## G2 G1 divided by the distance to the aiming point

G1P, or
20
GAP (in thousands)
Also d3 is less than d2, and d4 than d3, by the same
amount.
-28-
In other words, if the pieces be equally spaced,
the deflection of the adjacent pieces for parallel fire
differs by a constant amount called the deflection
difference. The deflection difference is announced
as such with respect to a certain piece, usually the
right, for which the deflection determination was
made. A command might be, for example, "Pla-
teau 8, Drum 135; on No. 1, close 5." All pieces set
the deflection P1. 8, Dr. 135. Close means to decrease
the deflection, swinging the line of fire nearer to
No. 1. Accordingly No. 2 decreases its deflection
5, No. 3 twice 5 or 10, and No. 4 three times 5 or 15.
30. For nearby aiming points the deflection dif-
ference is so large that it would introduce serious
errors to assume it constant for all pieces. For this
reason nearby aiming points are not used (nearer
than 1000 yards). In case distant aiming points are
not available, reciprocal laying (par. 23) must be
used. In this case, a deflection is read and an-
nounced for each piece, or it may be read for one
piece and the others laid parallel to it by laying on
the sight of the laid piece (par. 23).
31. The applicability of the various methods
of finding the deflection depends on the situation and
also on the facilities at hand particularly the maps
and instruments.
For rapid work, such as the hasty occupation of
position and immediate opening of fire, (a) on the
ground, without map or compass, is ordinarily the
most suitable method (par. 22). The use of an aim-
ing point is more rapid than reciprocal laying, but
frequently the ground is such that a suitable aiming
point cannot be found. Reciprocal laying is very sat-
isfactory.
Method (c) (par. 26) is the most precise and
satisfactory method developed for a highly organ-
-29--
ized stabilized sector, carefully surveyed. If a good
map and time are available, it can be used even when
the terrain is not so well organized beforehand.
The compass method (d) (par. 27) is a fair sub-
stitute for (c) when the ground is not organized for
the use of the latter.
In connection with the use of maps there is al-
ways a considerable amount of topographical work
to be done for accurate work unless the map and the
data pertaining to it are very complete. This makes
an abundance of time essential.

## 32. The site is necessary for indirect laying (par.

16). It may be determined:
(a) By direct measurement.
(b) By indirect measurement and calculation.
(c) From the map.
An estimation of site, unless comparative, is gen-
erally worthless. It is better to use 0 than pure es-
timation, unless the site is so considerable that its
sign at least is reasonably certain.

St

_ _ g
Bh,
Sy

B'

Fag.I.

SITE DETERMINATION
-30-
(a) Direct measurement. An aiming circle is
set up sufficiently near the piece to be considered as
at the piece for practical purposes. The site is then
measured directly by the portion of the instrument
used for vertical angles.
(b) Indirect measurement and calculation. In
Figure 10, B is the observation point where the tar-
get T and the piece G are visible. But T is not visi-
ble from G.
The figure is one enclosed by 5 faces; the side
faces are vertical, as well as the lines BB' and TT';
the face GB'T' is horizontal. Construct BBh parallel
to B'T', and BBh' parallel to B'G.
The angle TGT' is the one desired but it cannot
be measured directly. The best solution ordinarily
possible, and a general one, is to find the difference
in elevation between G and T, T'T, and divide this
by the distance GT' or GT. TT' is made up of BB'+
BhT'.
BB'=Sg (measurable) X GB (in thousands).
Similarly BhT St (measureable) XBT (in
thousands).
GT must either be estimated, or be determined by
plane table, calculation, or similar means.
Example: St=+25 mils BT4000 yards
Sg=-10 mils GB= 800 yards
GB makes an angle of 450 with the line of fire GT.
Required: The site S
Solution: BB' = 8 yards BhT = 100 yards
TT'=108 yards
GB projected on GT is about 800 x.7=560 yards
BT projected on GT is substantially 4000 yeards.
108
Therefore GT=4560 yards and S =-=24 mils
4.56
And, since T is higher than G, the sign is +, or
S= +24 mils.
Careful attention must be paid to the signs of
St and Sy; BB' and BhT will not always be added as
in this case.
-31-
(c) From the map. This is simple, provided
the map is contoured or otherwise provided with el-
evations. The difference in elevation between the
piece and the target is read from the map, together
with the range. The site can then be computed as
in the preceding case.
FINDING THE RANGE

## 33. Three methods are used:

(a) The map,
(b) Range finder,
(c) Estimation,
in the order of general accuracy.
The map is ordinarily more accurate than the
range finder, their relative accuracy depending on
the quality and scale of the map, assuming that the
range finder is well handled. The accuracy of a map
range can frequently be increased by topographical
operations to locate accurately the target and the
piece; time is an important factor in such work.
The service range finder in the hands of a rea-
sonably trained officer or soldier is some four times
more accurate than estimation. Its probable error
for artillery ranges up to about 5000 yards is 90
yards. The range finder is in most cases more rapid
than the map. It is the only reliable means of effect-
ively attacking a rapidly moving target which is vis-
ible only a short time.
FINDING THE ELEVATION
34. As seen in par. 11 and those following, some
systems of sights have scales so graduated that the
range may be set directly on the sight in either di-
rect or indirect laying. In the latter case, the site is
set separately.
Such graduations, however, are strictly correct
for but one ammunition, and during the war there
-32-
were as many as 20 kinds of ammunition issued for
the 75 gun at one time.* So that even though the
sight be graduated in range, it is-often necessary to
use tables showing the proper setting for a given
range for the ammunition to be used. Such tables
are called range tables or firing tables. When the
sight is not graduated in range, range tables are in-
dispensable.
The range tables give considerably more data
than the elevation corresponding to a given range,
some being more as of interest or for study than
practical utility.
The drift is the movement of the projectie out
of its initial plane of fire due to the rifling, gravity,
and the air resistance. It is to the right for right-
handed rifling.
The angle or slope of fall is sometimes necessary,
for example as in par. 67.
The probable error is discussed under Firing
(par. 43).
35. When the range has been found (par. 33),
the use of the tables to find the range setting or el-
evation is best explained by the following examples:
((a) The range has been determined as 1600
meters. What range should be announced for the 75
gun, using shell with direct laying?
In the range tables, opposite the range 1600, is
found the required value, 1400. The range scale was
graduated for the French shrapnel; the shell is a
more efficient form ballistically and has a higher
muzzle velocity.
(b) The range has been determined as 7300 me-
ters, and the site as +24 mils. What data should

## *Due either to form or weight of projectile or fuse,

necessitating different tables.
-33-
be announced in order to lay the 155 howitzer for
elevation by means of the sight mounting?
Since there is no stated condition to make this
inadvisable, the smallest possible charge will be used.
Charge 1 will theoretically reach this range but con-
ditions might well give a short with the maximum
elevation ; therefore Charge 0 is chosen. The re-
quired data are then: Charge 0; Site, +24; Eleva-
tion, 481 twentieths.
(c) The range has been determined as 6800 me-
ters and the site as -5 mils. What data should be
announced in order to lay the 15
gun for elevation
by the sight mounting, using shell?
A reference to the table shows that this range
is off the scale of ranges, but a range setting is given
with a notation in the column, "Site + 100., This
means that the range setting may be used if the site
is raised 100 mils, which has the, effect of increasing
the elevation sufficiently to make up the deficiency in
the range scale. Therefore the required data are:
Shell; Site, +95; Range, 450.
(d) The range has been determined as 4600 me-
ters and the site as +14 mils. What data should be
announced in order to lay the 75 gun for elevation by
means of the gunner's quadrant (par. 19), using
shell ?
The elevation for 4600 meters is 803'
14
14 mils = - = 47' (dividing by .3 is substantially the same as
.3
multiplying by 3.375, footnote, par. 8). Therefore
8'3'+47'-8'50' is the quadrant elevation. The data
required are then: Shell; Quadrant, 8050'.
36. Time fire. Time fire is with projectiles,
either shell or shrapnel, equipped with time fuses set
to give bursts in air before the projectile strikes. In
this case, an additional element of the firing data is
-34-
necessary, the fuse setting. This may be the tabular
time of flight given in the range tables, or a special
column of fuse settings may be included in the tables.
It ordinarily hapens, however, that the tabular
settings are incorrect due to atmospheric conditions
or other causes. This necessitates a correction of
the tabular values each time a new range is used,
for if the tabular values are incorrect for one range,
they are incorrect for other ranges. The gradua-
tions are in range to avoid the range tables. The
range announcement serves both for the sight and
the fuse setter. If the bursts are not correct, the
range setting is not changed; but instead the correc-
tion is made on an auxiliary scale, called the cor-
rector or correctorscale. In this way the correction
once made is applied automatically thereafter regard-
less of range. The range tables or drill regulations
give a tabular corrector which is ordinarily used to
start firing in the absence of more accurate data as to
the correct value for the particular conditions.

## SUMMARY OF FIRING DATA. REFINEMENTS OF

THE PREPARATION OF FIRE

## 37. Summary of firing data.-From the preced-

ing discussion, the firing data and the methods of ob-
taining them may be summarized as follows:
Aiming point: Distinct, definite and distant point,
or an instrument near the pieces. Used to lay
for direction with indirect laving.
Deflection: (par. 21 et seq.) : Setting of sight to be
used to give correct direction; necessary in both
direct and indirect laying.
Deflection difference (par. 29): Correction ap-
plied with indirect laying to make the deflection
applicable to the pieces other than the one for
which it was determined.
Site (par. 32): The angular height of the target
from the piece, used with indirect .laying; an-
nounced and set separately from the elevation, or
included in the announced elevation, according
to materiel and method.
-35-
Projectile, charge, fuse: Generally speaking, mat-
ters of selection rather than determination; must
be specified however.
Fuse setting (par. 36) Necessary in time fire
only.
Method of fire (pars. 57 and 58, b) : Discussed
later.
Range or elevation (par. 33 et seq.) : Range of
target determined in various ways; range tables
then used to give the proper range or elevation
setting to be announced.
38. Refinements of the preparationof fire. Re-
in the foregoing discussion to particulars in which
the preparation of fire could be refined if time and
facilities permitted, such as:
The use of accurate maps for deflection and range.
Topographical operations to secure more accurate
data as to deflection, site and range.
Care and minuteness of instrumental measurements;
calculations; entering into deflection, site and
range.
The advantage of so doing is evident: the effect
desired is produced more rapidly and more surely,
as the accurate preparation eliminates a part of the
adjustment during firing. This shortening of the
fire for adjustment renders our artillery less exposed
to neutralization or destruction before accomplishing
its mission.
39. In addition the war gave great impetus to
the practical application in the field of refinements
in the following respects:
(a) Those related to peculiarities and irregularities
of the pieces and ammunition which affect the
fire, such as, weight and form of projectile,
variation in powder charge, wear of the bore
and its effect on velocity.
(b) Atmospheric conditions, such as, the density or
weight of air, temperature and its effect on the
air and powder, wind.
All of these matters had been studied before
the war, but their practical application had been lim-
ited to the coast artillery. Their wide application
in the war was possible on account of the elaborate
-36-
organization and equipment of the front. Their ap-
plication in the future will depend on the recurrence
of comparable conditions.
Refinements of this character had the greatest
tactical importance in the, surprise attacks on the
Western front in 1918. In fact, during the winter
1917-1918, the Germans radically revised their ar-
tillery technique along these lines in order to permit
their great offensive of 1918. The French had their
system perfected upon our arrival in Europe in 1917,
the process having been started immediately upon the
organization of the Western front.
40. No detailed explanation of corrections for
the elements enumerated is possible here; they are
covered in the service firing tables and in the Manual
of Artillery Firing.
It is of importance, however, that the combat
arms with which artillery works appreciate in a gen-
eral way the disturbing elements affecting artillery
fire. Those here considered are distinct from disper-
sion discussed later (par. 42).
Values are tabulated below for 75 shell at
ranges of 5,000 and 10,000 meters, for the various
elements stated.
Range-Meters
5,000 1,000
1.5 inches of barometer change, due either
to temperature or pressure, will change the
actual range, in meters, by 144 ' 367
10 meters/sec., or 33 ft/sec., change in
the muzzle velocity of the piece will change
the actual range, in meters, by 93 134
A wind up or down the range of 22 miles
per hour will cause a variation from the tabu-
lar range, in meters, of 88 322
A variation of 1 lb. 10 oz. in the weight of
projectile will cause a variation in the range,
in meters, of 40 132

365 955
(NOTE: These values are for a concrete case, and are
strictly correct only for this case.)
-37-
If a combination of such influences should occur,
as is possible, in such a way that their results would
be cumulative, it can be seen that the point of fall of
projectiles would be changed by 365 meters for the
range of 5,000 meters and 955 meters for the range
10,000 meters.
The dominating element in the above figures is
temperature, and it is appreciated that large varia-
tions in this element are possible even in a few hours.
It is possible to correct at least partially for such
conditions, provided the necessary meteorlogical and
other data are available. This may or may not be the
case.
41. In general, it may be concluded that the pre-
paration of artillery fire requires a period of time
varying from a minute to hours and days, depending
on the situation. The artilleryman's art consists
not only of a familiarity with all methods, but of a
sensibe appreciation of what methods are applicable
and appropriate in a given situation, and what results
can be expected.
PART II
Firing
DISPERSION
42. In the preparation of fire, it is believed that
sufficient details were given to bring out the unavoid-
able approximations and the many uncertain ele-
ments entering into the problem, and make it evident
that the preparation of fire must in the general case
be imperfect. Imperfections are not confined to the
preparation of fire, but enter into the firing itself,
notably because of dispersion.
Dispersion is the scattering of shots intended to
strike or burst in the same place. Shots fired with
the same data and ammunition should strike in the
same place, but it is well known that such is never
the case.
43. Law of dispersion. It has been conclusively
established that the points of fall of a very large
number of supposedly like shots will always be
grouped according to a fixed law, called the law of
errors. The law can be applied to a particular case
and all desired details calculated, when a character-
istic value, called the probable error, is known. Ex-
planation of the law of dispersion by what is some-
times called the 25-16-7-2 rule is sufficient for this
discussion.
The supposedly like shots group themselves
about a center, or center of impact. Consider the
position of the shots only in range. One-half are
short and one-half over. Their distribution is shown
in Figure 11. The parallel lines are equi-spaced
and one probable error apart. The middle line passes
through the center of impact. With the space di-
vided in this manner, the percentages of a very large
39
-40-
number of shots which would fall for range in the
various spaces are those shown.

2%
3
7%
2
16%
1
25/Q
Center 0
25%
1

16%
2
7%
3
2%
4
Figure 11.

## These values are not strictly accurate, but are

sufficiently so for practical purposes. The principal
inaccuracy is in the outer or 2% spaces. The shots
are not actually confined to the limits "4" shown, but
the proportion outside is very small ( 7/io of 1% for
both sides of the center). Two per cent includes all
shots not included in the other spaces.
The spaces are subdivisible with fair accuracy,
thus: 50% of the shots are within 1 probable error of
the center; within what limits would 70% be in-
cluded? 70-50=20% are in the 16% spaces, 10%
in each. By proportion, which is not strictly correct,
the 10% would occupy 19%6 of the 16% space; or 70%
of the shots would be within 1s/s probable errors of
the center.
The same process applies to dispersion in direc-
tion.
-41-
* 44. Probable error. The values of the probable
errors for the different projectiles and ranges are
given in the range tables. These values are a mea-
sure of the accuracy of the piece. The values given,
however, are those of the proving ground, with very
favorable conditions. For this reason, it is custom-
ary to increase the tabular probable errors by 50%
in using them practically.
It should be remarked that the probable error in
deflection is very small as compared with that in
range, and that the probable error, in both range
and deflection, increases rapidly as the range in-
creases.
45. Dispersion is a practical factor in several
respects:
(a) It makes hits less frequent.
(b) It prevents our infantry from receiving the full
measure of protection from artillery fire, because
the fire on the objective of attack must cease or
lift when they are still some distance away; or
if the infantry approach too close, they suffer
casualties from our artillery fire.
(c) It greatly increases the difficulty of conducting
artillery fire.
46. It is generally taken that infantry cannot
approach more closely than the following distances
to the center of impact of fire of the 75 gun, in the
direction of range, that is, when the fire is over their
H. E. shell or time shrapnel, depending on the range,
150 to 200 meters.
Time shell, ' 200 to 250 meters.
This takes into consideration the dispersion of
the trajectory, the effective radius of the fragments,
and, in time fire, the dispersion of the fuse in time
of burning.
If the fire is enfilade, these distances may be re-
duced to about 75 meters. If the ground slopes
-42-
downward from us toward the enemy, they must be
increased.
47. It is eminently desirable to correct whatever
inaccuracies occur in the preparation of fire, during
the firing itself. This is in general possible if the fir-
ing can be observed, and the period of the firing de-
voted to this correction is called fire for adjustment.
When the adjustment has been completed as far as
circumstances permit, fire for effect is or may be un-
dertaken. If observation is not possible, fire for ef-
fect is delivered from the outset, but with diminished
effectiveness due to lack of adjustment. No amount
of careful preparationof fire can entirely eliminate
the necessity of fire for adjustment, nor yield the
same effectiveness.
48. Observation, on which fire adjustment de-
pends, is viewing the bursts or strike of the projec-
tiles in order to determine their location with respect
to the target. Observation is of two broad classes,
aerial and terrestrial. The former is discussed later
(par. 68).
Terrestrial observation is classified, according to
the position of the observer with respect to the line
of fire, as: axial, when the observer is on or near the
line of fire; forward, when he is materially in advance
of the pieces; lateral, when he is to one flank. Com-
bined observation is the use of more than one obser-
ver at considerably separated points; this method,
when well organized, enables the shots to be located
with respect to the target in both range and direction.
A single observer near the line of fire observes
for direction by noting the angular deviation of the
shot from the target. A command to the battery
"Left (or right) (so much)," stating the deviation
observed, will correct the direction of the shot rea-
-43-
sonably closely. He cannot, however, measure direct-
ly the distance of the shot from the target in range.
If, however, the smoke of the burst obscures the tar-
get, he knows the burst is short; if the smoke brings
.the target into relief, he knows the shot is over.
49. The two classes of observation:
Combined, which locates the shot in both direction
and range,
and the single-observer forms, which locate definite-
ly only in direction, and short or over in range,
control and determine the two methods of fire for
50. Adjustment by measured deviations. The
second shot is corrected by the amount the first shot
deviates from the target and should thus hit the tar-
get; in general, it does not, and is corrected by one-
half the deviation. The third shot is corrected by
one-third its deviation; and so on till the adjustment
is sufficiently refined. This gives due weight to all
of the shots fired and should insure a steady approach
to the target. Unfortunately, however, the informa-
tion as to the position of the shot essential to this
method'is rarely available, and its application is lim-
ited principally to highly organized fronts. It should
be noted that dispersion makes its influence felt in
this method by protracting and complicating the
process.
51. Adjustment by bracketing. This is the
method in general use. The fire is opened at the
range determined. The direction is corrected by
the measured deviation. If the observation for
range is "short," the range is increased; if "over,"
the range is decreased. The amount of the range
change depends on the accuracy of the initial deter-
mination; if we were very confident of its accurcy;
about 100 meters would be sufficient; but if the ini-
-44-
tial range was estimated and rather long, 400 meters
range change would be advisable. One or more shots
are observed at this altered range, and if still in
the same sense as the first range, the range is again
changed the same amount. Finally, a range will be
found which gives shots in the opposite sense. There
will thus be two ranges, differing by 100, 200, or 400
meters, or by an equivalent amount in elevation,
one range giving observations short and the other
giving observations over. These two ranges or ele-
vations constitute what is called a "bracket." The
size of the bracket is generally stated, thus, "a 100-
meter bracket has been obtained."
52. It would seem that a bracket based on cor-
rectly observed shots would make it certain that
the target lay within its limiting ranges. This
would be true but for one factor-dispersion. If one
shot is observed at say the short limit of the bracket,
a reference to Figure 11 will show that the shot may
be one at the short limit of the dispersion. In this
case, although the particular shot is short, the range
may.really be over, which raises doubt as to the cor-
rectness of the bracket.
For this reason, it is good practice to verify a
bracket, before finally accepting it, by securing at
least two observations at each limit.
53. After obtaining the first bracket the process
of range adjustment is continued by firing at the
mid-range of the bracket. When this range has
been observed, a new bracket results of one-half
the size of the former one.' This process is con-
tinued until a bracket is obtained of a size equal to
six tabular errors, approximately 100 to 200 meters,
generally nearer the former value. Firing at the
mid-range of this bracket will almost surely give
both shorts and overs for the same range. Based
-45-
on the proportions of shorts and overs, small changes
of elevation are made until substantially equal pro-
portions of shorts and overs are obtained. This
constitutes what is known as a precision adjustment,
used for the destructionof a target such as a battery
or trench.
54. It frequently happens that, during the early
stages of bracketing, a range gives both shorts and
overs. The bracketing ceases in this case, and firing
at.this range is continued, if a precision adjustment
is sought.
55. ~Bracket adjustment. Frequently the tar-
get is of indefinite extent in range, so that there
would be no object in a precision adjustment on
some one point of it; or again, the time available may
be too short to permit a precision adjustment, for
such firing takes time; or the target may be suscep-
tible of movement or in slow movement. In such cases,
the bracketing process is cut short with a bracket of
about 200 meters, sometimes more or less, depend-
ing on the conditions. Fire for effect must then
cover all of the bracket in order to be sure of reach-
ing the target; and this method is followed (par.
58-b).. Such an abbreviated or rough adjustment
56. Adjustment of time fire. Time fire may be
with either shrapnel or shell. The adjustment of
time shrapnel consists essentially of a. bracket ad-
justment for range the same as though the fire were
percussion, followed or accompanied by an adjust-
ment of the fuse so that the projectile will burst in
air at the proper height. This height depends on
the weapon: For the 75 gun, the best height of
burst in fire for effect is 3 mils above the target, but
the trajectory passing through the target.
With time shell fire, the object is to place the
burst vertically above the target, at a linear height
-46-
of about 20 meters. The methods are somewhat
different from those used with time shrapnel.
57. Method of fire during adjustment. The
usual method of fire during adjustment is the salvo,
and generally by the entire battery. A salvo is the
successive discharge of the pieces at regular inter-
val from one flank of the battery to the other. The
interval is about three seconds. The object of the
interval between shots is to permit the observation
of individual shots, in order that all possible informa-
tion may be derived from them. Salvos may be
platoon or battery, depending on whether two or
four pieces are used.
FIRE FOR EFFECT
58. Fire for effect is of three classes, depending
on the extent of the preceding adjustment:
(a) That based on a precision adjustment (par.
53), called precision fire for effect. This is simply
a continuation of the last stages of adjustment.
Successive salvos are fired at the range or elevation
determined in adjustment. Firing is continued un-
til the desired effect is obtained or until a large ac-
cumulation of observations gives definite indication
that the range is incorrect. In the latter case,
which would generally be due to changed atmospher-
ic conditions, a suitable change in elevation is made
and the firing continued.
(b) That based on a bracket adjustment, called
zone fire for effect (par. 55). The entire depth of
the bracket is searched, in bounds of 25 to 50 meters
for shell and 100 meters for time shrapnel. If am-
munition is available, a shell should be fired every
10 meters in deflection for the 75 gun and every
20 meters for the 155 howitzer . The method of
covering the area depends, however, on the time and
-47-
ammunition available and the importance of the tar-
get.
The method of fire used may be battery volleys,
in which each piece fires rapidly a prescribed num-
ber of rounds with fixed data, but without regard
to the other pieces; or zone fire, in which each piece
fires rapidly and independently through an entire
series of different firing data. Zone fire is some-
what more rapid than volleys, but the fire is not as
well in hand and is apt to become erratic unless the
battery is extremely well trained.
(c) That based merely on the preparation of
fire, without previous adjustment, called systematic
fire for effect. The method is the same as for zone
fire for effect, except that the depth and width
searched must in the general case be greater than
with the bracket adjustment, in order surely to cover
which was used so extensively in the great surprise
attacks on the Western front, since the considera-
tion of secrecy prevented practically all preliminary
This method particularly, and (b) to a lesser
extent, are extravagant in ammunition, and rela-
tively ineffective. The lack of concentrated effect
must be offset by increasing the amount of artillery
firing on a given locality; the rate of fire is limited
by the resistance of the mat6riel.
Precision adjustment (a) is the only method
which can be relied upon for considerable destruc-
tion. Methods (b) and (c) cause more or less de-
struction, but are principally effective in neutral-
izing, that is, causing the enemy to take cover, and
keeping down or stopping his fire.
59. Adjusted fire can be delivered on a target
without adjustment on that target itself, particular-
ly when good maps are available. A prominent
-48-
point, called the datum or registration point, is se-
lected in the vicinity of the target, and a precision
to the target by measuring the difference in data
between the datum point and the target, either from
the map or on the ground. The use of a datum
point may be necessitated either because observa-
tion on the target is not possible or because the tar-
get has not yet appeared. Registration is an effect-
ive method of preparing to attack prospective tar-
gets quickly, but it may reveal prematurely the pres-
ence of the artillery.
60. Another case special to a highly organized
sector is the use of a witness point. An adjustment
may be secured on a target by special means, such
as flash or sound ranging, aerial observation, ex-
ceptional atmospheric conditions, etc., but it may
not be possible or desirable to fire for effect at
the time, or it may be necessary to repeat the fire
for effect at some other time, when conditions would
be changed and the same facilities for adjustment
would not be available. It is therefore necessary
to "record" the adjustment on the ground in such
a manner that it can be utilized later when de-
sired. This is done by means of a nearby point
called the witness point, of the same character as
the datum point but used differently. Immediately
justment is made on the witness point. The differ-
ence in the firing data on the target and the witness
point are compared and recorded. When later it
is necessary to fire on the- same target, but observa-
the witness point, the previous differences in data
for the target applied to the new adjustment, and
fire for effect delivered on the target. It is essen-
tial that the first firing on the witness point be de-
-49=

## livered immediately before or after the adjustment

on the target, to eliminate discrepancies due to
changed atmospheric conditions.
SPECIAL SHELL
61. In addition to the principal projectiles, the
H.E. shell and the shrapnel, there are a number of
special shell, notably the gas shell and the smoke
shell, as well as the thermite, the star or illuminating,
and the incendiary shell. There is nothing special in
the methods of firing these projectiles. They are
ordinarily constructed so as to give the same trajec-
tory as the shell, thus enabling the necessary ad-
justments to be made with shell. This is generally
advisable in order to avoid betraying the intention of
using the special shell before it can be used effec-
tively.
The kinds of special shell, their effects, and the
quantities to be fired to produce the desired effect
are covered in other lectures and in special regula-
tions.
EFFECT OF FIRE
62. Before the lade war, the data on the effect of
fire was largely experimental, and thus limited; or
calculated, considering the effect of the individual
projectile and the dispersion as measured by. the
probable error.
In service however there are so many conditions
entering into the effect produced that pre-war data
have been largely discarded in favor of the large
mass of practical data accumulated during the war.
Some few data are given here, from French
sources:
Destruction of batteries:
By 75 gun, 500 to 800 rounds.
By 155 howitzer, 300 to 400 rounds.
By 155 gun, 400 to 600 rounds.
-50-
By 8 or 9 inch calibers, 200 to 300 rounds.
By 12-inch, or similar calibers, 100 to 200 rounds.

## For each weapon, it is assumed that the protec-

tion of the battery attacked is such that it can be
successfully attacked by the particular weapon.
Wire cutting :
75 gun, a breach 25 meters wide in a band of wire
15 to 20 meters deep, 600 to 800 rounds at
mid-range and 1,000 to 1,200 rounds at long
rannge, fired by one battery.
155 howitzer, same breach, 200 to 300 rounds.
Destruction of trenches:
75 gun, not effective, except to a certain extent
when the trench can be enfiladed.
155 howitzer, 80 to 100 rounds for each point
selected for destruction.

## CLEARING THE CREST. REACHING A REVERSE

SLOPE
63. Clearing the crest. In paragraph 7 it is
stated that protection and concealment are advan-
tages of indirect laying; in fact, they are the princi-
pal ones. The amount of protection afforded by a
ridge behind which artillery is emplaced depends
principally on the steepness of the slope in front of
the position, the steeper the slope the better the pro-
tection. But if the slope is too steep, firing will bi
impossible because projectile will not clear the crest.
It is evident that the crest can be cleared for a long
range or a large site when it would not be cleared for
a short range or small site.
A number of methods are used to determine
whether a crest can be cleared under given condi-
tions, but this discussion will be limited to a single
method.
64. In paragraph 16 it is shown that the quad-
rant elevation used for indirect laying is the eleva-
tion for the range increased algebraically by the
site. If St is the site of the target, Ert is the eleva-
-51-
tion for range of the target, Eqt is the quadrant ele-
vation for the target, then
E qtErt + St
These values can be readily found in a given
case by the methods already explained (see par. 37),
and have no reference to clearing the crest.

## Now suppose it were the intention to fire, not at

the target, but at the crest itself. If the elevation
for the range from piece to crest is Ere, S, is the site
of the crest measured from the position of the piece
in the same manner as for the target, and Eqc is the
quadrant elevation sought,-then we have as for the
target
Eq-E rc+Sc

Escc
Ert

## Eqc 5\c Eqgs

Fig. 12.
CLEARING THE .CREST.

## These elements are shown in Figure 12. It is

evident that if the elevation for firing on the target
is greater than that for firing on the crest, the crest
will be cleared.
The addition of the elevation for the range of
the crest and the site of the crest will always be an
arithmetical one, since from its nature the crest will
be above the pieces and its site plus (+). The site of
-52--

## the target, however, must be carefully considered as

to sign.
The following examples illustrate the method
stated:
1. Site of target,-12 mils; range of target,
3,400 meters. The pieces are in position 600 meters
behind a crest whose site is 70 mils. Can the crest
be cleared with 75 shrapnel fire? With shell fire?
Shrapnel. The elevation for the range of the
target is, by the range tables, 60 11'. The site of the
target, in mils, is 12/.3=40', minus.
The quadrant elevation is then 6° 11'-40'=5°
31'.
The elevation for the range of the crest is 42'.
The site of the crest is 70 X 3.375=236'z--3' 56'.
The quadrant elevation of the crest is the
30 56'+42'=4° 38'.
The quadrant elevation for the target is then
greater than for the crest, so that the crest will be
cleared.
Shell. E 0 t=4° 35'-40'=3° 55k.
This is less than the quadrant elevation of the
crest, so that shell cannot be fired at the given range.
2. A certain battery position has been tenta-
tively selected from the map, on the eastern slope of
Sentinel Hill, on the 900-foot contour. What is the
minimum range which could be used with 75 shell,
firing west over the hill? Assume the site of the
target as 0 and the height of the treees on the hill as
20 feet.
Judged from the contours, the shoulder on the
slope is about on the 1,000-foot contour. The dis-
tance between the 900 and 1,000-foot contours is
200 yards, or 600 feet. The vertical interval, in-
cluding the trees is 120 feet. The slope Qf the
"crest" is then 120/600=20%
20X4/7=11.43, or the slope is 110 26'
-53-
In addition it is well to allow 30' clearance to
cover inaccuracy and irregularities on the hill. The
elevation for the range of the crest is about 10'. The
110 26'+40'=12° 26'
Since the site of the target is 0, this is the per-
missible elevation for the range of the target, or the
required minimum range is 6,400 meters.
65. With the pieces in position the elevation
which will clear the crest can be measured with the
laying instrument directly. Allowance must be made
however, for the drop of the projectile between the
pieces and the mask, if this distance is considerable.
66. Elevation formulas. It is sometimes found
convenient to make use of formulas which give the
elevation for a given range without the use of range
tables. A number are given below, but no formula
of this kind is accurate for all ranges, unless it is
very complex.
In problems to clear the crest, a clearance of 30'
should be allowed in the case of the 75 gun and 1o for
the 155 howitzer to cover inaccuracy in the formula
as well as for other uncertain factors.
-54-
E is the elevation in degrees; R is the range in
thousands of meters.
75 gun. Shrapnel. R (R+4)
E =
4
Shell. R (R±5)

6
155 howitzer. Shell Charge Elevation Limit of
range.
Approx.
00 R (R+5) - 9000

4
0 R (R+6) 8000

4
1 R (R+6) 7000

3
2 R (R+5) 6000

2
3 R (R+2) 5000
4 R (R+4) 4000
5 R (R+6) 3000
67. Reaching a reverse slope. Ground protected
from hostile fire by a covering crest can be reached if
the angle of fall of the fire directed upon it is suffi-
ciently great.. The vulnerability of terrain to fire
in this manner may be determined by comparing the
reverse slope with the slope of fall of the trajectory.
The latter is given in the range tables, but may also
be determined by means of the empirical formulas
given in par. 66 for the elevation. The angle of fall
may be taken as one-half greater than the elevation.
The slope of terrain may be determined from the map
for this purpose in the same manner as in problem 2,
par. 64. Or the scale of map distances may be used.
PART III
Special Auxiliaries
AERIAL OBSERVATION
68. Aerial observation is of two kinds, balloon
and airplane. The methods of balloon observation
are essentially those used on the ground. Communi-
cation is normally by telephone, connection being
given direct to the battery firing.
69. Airplane observation. Airplane observation
of fire has the advantage of vertical observation,
which is of great value not only in the observation
of fire but also in the location of targets. In terres-
trial observation, the deviation laterally only can be
measured; that in range can only be determined as
short or over. With vertical observation, the devia-
tion of the shot both laterally and in range can be
measured, at least as far as the position of the obser-
ver is concerned.
The disadvantages of airplane observation of
fire are in communication with the ground, in the
movement of the plane, the obstruction of vision for
various reasons, and the operations of hostile planes.
In addition, a high degree of co-operation between
the artillery and the airplane is necessary and is diffi-
cult of attainment.
70. Communication between the airplane and
the ground is now by radio; it was at first by visual
signals, and indications point to the use of radio tele-
phone for the future. Communication between the
ground and the airplane is ordinarily by panel signals
displayed on the ground, but some airplanes are now
equipped with facilities for receiving radio, in which
case reciprocal radio communication is possible.
55
-56-
71. The present official manual covering the
method of procedure is "Aerial Observation for Ar-
tillery," A. E. F. No. 80, Revised, with changes.
Communication is by code for the sake of bre-
vity; messages can rarely be spelled out. In the
ground panels, there are conventional combinations
to represent the various necessary phrases, such as,
the method of fire, "battery is ready to fire," "bat-
tery has fired," "repeat," "acknowledged," etc.
The radio signals from the airplane to the ground
are combinations of letters and numerals to designate
targets, start and interrupt the fire, and to report
the results of shots, particularly as to the deviations
from the target in range and direction.
The observer can estimate distances in connec-
tion with the burst of shots by comparison with
known distances between prominent objects; or he
may have a photograph of the target with the map
grid to scale on it. When the shots are close to the
target (about 100 meters in range or 10 meters in
direction), the observer reports only the sense, as
short or over, right or left.
72. The methods of adjustment and fire for ef-
fect are those described in connection with terres-
trial observation (par. 47 et seq.). Adjustment by
measured deviations can sometimes be used, when the
observer can estimate deviations with great accur-
acy (par. 50).
The preparation of fire must be as accurate as
possible. In addition, if the battery has opportunity
to adjust partially, the first shots are less apt to be
lost by the aerial observer and the adjustment will
be abbreviated. The preliminary adjustment might
be a shift of fire from datum point (par. 59), balloon
observation, or other means.
-57-
The method of fire is mostly by battery salvo;
but may be by volley if the shots are difficult to see;
or by single piece, to simplify.
In the early stages of adjustment each salvo is
fired at the signal "Fire" of the observer. During
fire for effect, the firing may be continuous or in long
series, the observer reporting on the fire in general
terms at intervals, unless the fire is so erroneous as
to demand an interruption.
Airplane observation at night is possible, under
special conditions.
SOUND RANGING
73. Sound ranging is a valuable auxiliary in ar-
tillery work in two ways: to locate hostile batteries,
and to locate the strike of our own projectiles in fire
The system is a development of the war, the mat-
ter having been actively pushed by all of the warring
nations during the stabilized period up to the Spring
of 1918.
Six stations are selected and accurately surveyed
on the are of a circle whose center, in general terms,
is about where the sound to be located is expected to
originate. The stations are from 1200 to 1700 meters
apart; the arc of stations should be from 1500 to 6000
meters behind the front line.
At each station is installed a microphone con-
nected electrically to a central station. Here there
is an apparatus consisting essentially of a moving
picture film on which shadows are cast by suitable
devices as follows: first, a continuous longitudinal
line for each microphone; second, transverse lines
every hundreth of a second. affording a scale for time
measurements. When a microphone is disturbed
by a sound its particular line on the film shows zig-
zag instead of straight. The central station is loca-
ted in a well protected spot usually well behind the
-58-
lines. There is also a control station, which must
be in advance of all microphones. Its function is
as follows: The apparatus in the central station
cannot operate continuously as it moves too rapid-
ly and must be read occasionally. It is so arranged
that it can be started and stopped electrically from
the control station. Thus, when the. operator at
the control station hears a sound which he considers
desirable to locate, he starts the instrument in the
central station; because of the location of the
control station, the sound has not yet reached the
microphones. After the sound has ceased, the
operator stops the apparatus, and the readings can
be taken.
74. Depending on the origin of the sound, it
will be recorded at the central station for the dif-
ferent microphones at different times. Nothing will
be known directly as to the direction of the sound,
but the instrument makes it possible to read for
each pair of adjacent stations, the difference in the
time of arrival of the sound at the two stations.
Knowing the velocity of sound, the difference in dis-
tance of the origin of the sound from the two stations
may be found. Mathematically, this determines a
hyperbola somewhere on which the origin of sound is
located. Practically the asymtote of this hyperbola
may be substituted for the hyperbola itself; and since
the asymtote is a straight line, the solution is simpli-
fied. In this manner, the direction of the sound is
determined, not for each microphone as is often
believed, but for each pair of microphones. For six
microphones then, there would be five direction lines
found, whose mean intersection locates the sound.
75. Not only can the sound be located, but
by means of the characteristics of the film record
of the microphone disturbance, the nature of the
-59-
sound recorded can be determined, such as the cal-
iber of the piece firing, whether it is a gun or a
howitzer, and even the exact type.
Sound ranging has its limitations. During
heavy firing, the records are so confused that de-
terminations are impossible; 5 rounds per seconds
is stated as a limit in this connection. Atmospheric
conditions materially affect its operation, nec-
essitate corrections, and in some cases prevent re-
liable determinations. An example of the latter
is a wind blowing perpendicular to the line of micro-
phones and toward the source of sound. On the
other hand, fog and night do not interfere as in
the case of visual systems.
A well trained section will be able to report
the coordinates of a hostile battery in from 3 to
5 minutes after the firing.
The accuracy is variable. Under favorable
conditions, the error should be within 50 meters
up to 8000 meters range; and in all practicable
cases, it should not exceed 150 meters. When ob-
servations on the same position for a long period
of time are possible, extreme accuracy is attained
by averaging the results.
FLASH RANGING
76. This system is in principle the location
of the flashes of hostile batteries or of our own
projectile bursts by means of angular observations
from the extremities of known base lines. Usual-
ly four observation posts work together, thus
giving two check readings. The posts are accurate-
ly located and equipped with special instruments.
A source of difficulty is the identification and
simultaneous reading of the same flash from widely
separated points. This is facilitated by means of
a light system. The posts are connected with a
-60-
central station by telephone and by light signals.
When an observer sees a flash, he sets his instru-
ment. accurately on it and at the same time presses
a key which lights his lamp in the central station.
If the lamps of all or sufficient observers light at
the same instant, the central operator can assume
the observers see the same flash, and he telephones
The readings are set on a plotting board, and
the result reported by telephone.
In 1918, much progress was made by our flash
ranging sections in following moving operations
and obtaining useful results, which is far more
difficult than operations on a stabilized front.
HIGH BURST RANGING
77. This is a phase of the work of the flash
ranging sections. It is used under the following
conditions: A target' cannot be seen, except per-
haps by aerial observation which we will say is not
available; but the location of the target on the map
is accurately known. This might often be the case,
The firing data is prepared as accurately as. pos-
sible from the map. A series of 10 or 12 shots is
then fired at data so calculated as to give air bursts
surely high enough to be visible, but with the tra-
jectory directed as accurately as possible on the tar-
get.
The bursts are observed and located horizontally
and vertically by the flash ranging sections. The
center of the group is then calculated, and by means
of charts, the point of fall of the trajectory pro-
longed through the center can be determined.
Unless the trajectory thus found is consider-
ably in error with respect to the target, fire for ef-
fect can be undertaken, by searching an area about
-61-
the calculated trajectory. Under conditions in
Europe, it was stated that the accuracy of the method
was sufficient to permit the searching of an area as
small as six probable errors in range. Precision
fire cannot be executed by this method.
78. High burst ranging may be used in the same
manner as a witness point (par. 60). For example,
target. To record this adjustment for subsequent
use without the necessity of readjusting by airplane,
the high burst method is resorted to immediately
after the first adjustment. When it is later desired
to resume the fire, a series of high bursts is fired,
observed, and the results compared as to trajectory
with the 'former ones. The difference determines
a correction which will put the fire again on the in-
visible target.
ABRIDGED ARTILLERY
RANGE TABLES
FOR USE AT

1. 75 mm. Gun.

(French).

## Long H. E. steel shell, Model 1914, short fuses.

Charge 00

Charge 0
Charge 1
Charge 2
Charge 3
Charge 4
Charge 5

October, 1919
Ft. Leavenworth, Kan.
Army Service Schools Press
-3-
CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF
AMMUNITION
Division Artillery
75 Gun and 155 Howitzer

30' Elevation

## Kind of projectile, fuse o

ycel

?r G w w U2
a ,

75 GUN
American shrapnel 1755 9250
French shrapnel ------- 1755 9700
E. E. shell, normal charge
Long fuse -------- 1780 7700
Short fuse --------- 1800 8400
Reduced charge
Short fuse ---------- 1130 6500
AL semi-steel shell
Long fuse Charge 00._ 16.4 1720 11400 890 95
Steel shell, Mod. 1917*.- 13.7 1900 11100 840 97
Semi-steel shell, Mod.
1918* -------------- 14.6 1820 10700 840 93
Steel AL R/2 shell______ 17.6 1660 11200 880 87
155 HOWITZER

40' Elevation
Shrapnel, Charge 00_. 89.5 1440 10800 865 122
Charge 0_. 1350 10200 835 115
Charge 1__ 1160 8300 800 106
Charge 2__ 940 7000 730 112
Charge 3__ 830 5800 685 100
Charge 4__ 740 4800 615 100
Charge 5__ 680 4050 580 93
Long shell (O.A.)
Short Charge 00.. 95. 1420 10400
fuse Charge 0.. 1310 9700
Charge 5__ 665 3950
Long fuse Charge 00-- 95.5 1420 10150
Charge 0. 1310 9500
Charge 5-- 665 3800

## Semi-steel shell (F.A.)

Short fuse Charge 00.. 96.0 1475 12250
Charge 0.. 1360 11400
'Charge 5_. 680 4250

## Long fuse Charge 00.. 96.5 1475 11950

Charge 0.. 1360 11200
Charge 5__ 680 4150

In all
NOTE: In cases the iSS charges
the 155 are 7 in numher: 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
NOTE: all cases charges are 7 in number : 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
*Average for various fuses.
-4-
75 GUN
American Shrapnel 21-sec. Combination Fuse.
Probable Error

c a
d a a 0
55 55 r o d+ cd
0 a 03 n o- Cb4
a
b

300 0 22 400 0
400 0 28 500 0

600 0 42 690 0
700 0 50 790 0
800 0 58 880 0
900 1 6 970 0

1100 1 23 1160 0
1200 1 32 1250 0
1300 1 41 1350 1
1400 1 50 1440 1

## 1500 2 00 1540 5 1 3.4 363 141 1 1500

1600 2 11 1650 1
1700 2 21 1750 1
1800 2 32 186.0 1
1900 2 43 1970 1

2100 3 7 2180 1
2200 3 19 2290 1
2300 3 32 2400 1
2400 3 45 2510 2

2600 4 12 2720 2
2700 4 36 2830 2
2800 4 40 2930 2
2900 4 54 3030 2

3100 5 24 3250 2
3200 5 39 3360 3
3300 5 55 3460 3
3400 6 11 3570 3

3600 6 44 3780 3
3700 7 1 3890 3
3800 7 18 3990 3
3900 7 36 4100 4

4100 8 13 4310 4
4200 8 31 4410 4
4300 8 50 4520 4
4400 9 10 4620 5

## 4500 9 30 4720 26 5 13.6 258 12 2 4500

4600 9 50 4830 5
4700 10 10 4930 5
4800 10 30 5030 5
4900 10 51 5130 6

75 GUN
-5-
75 GUN
American Shrapnel 21-sec. Combination Fuse.
Probable Error

5)

0 0
a)
a) o S
0-

## m. m. 0/ mils sec. ft,'sec. m. m. M.

5000 11 13 5230 32 6 15.7 249 13 3 5000
5100 11 35 5330 6
5200 11 58 5440 6
5300 12 20 6
5400 1.2 43 7

## 5500 13 6 38 7 17.9 241 15 3 5500

5600 13 29 7
5700 1.3 53 S 7
5800 14 18 0 8
5900 14 43 50 8
S
6000 15 9 44 8 20.3 236 17 3 6000
6100 15 36 8
6200 16 3 9
6300 16 30 9
6400 16 58 10

## 6500 17 27 a; 52 10 22.9 231 19 3 6500

6600 1? 57 S0 10
6700 18 27 a) 11
6800 18 58 11
6900 19 30 O 11
7000 20 2 61 12 25.7 4 7000
7100 20 35 12
7200 21 9 13
7300 21 45 18
7400 22 23 14
7500 23 1 72 14 28.7 4 7500
7600 23 40 15
7700 24 21 15
7800 25 3 16
7900 25 48 17
3000 26 36 87 17 32.3 4 8000
8100 27 27 18
8200 28 20 19
8300 29 16 19
8400 30 17 20
8500 31 27 1.09 - 22 36.9 4 8500
8600 32 50 23
8700. 34 24 25
8800 36 20 27
8900 40 21 30

75 GUN
-6-
75 GUN
H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1917 RY Fuse, M. V. 1890 ft/sec.
--
Probable Error

50
A
0 0

SA bi
50 d . +'
o . P4, Iz P
aPic
W

300 o 16 350 0
400 o 22 450 0

600 o 34 600 0
700 o 40 675 0
800 0 46 750 0
900 0 52 825 1

1100 1 6 1000 1
1200 1 13 1075 1
1300 1 20 1175 1
1400 1 27 1250 1

1600 1 42 1400 1
1700 1 50 1500 1
1800 1 58 1575 1
1900 2 6 1650 1

2100 2 22 1800 1
2200 2 31 1900 2
2300 2 40 1975 2
2400 2 49 2050 2

2600 3 7 2225 2
2700 3 17 2300 2
2800 3 27 2375 2
2900 3 38 2475 2

3100 4 00 2650 3
3200 4 11 2750 3
3300 4 23 2825 3
3400 4 35 2925 3

3600 5 59 3100 3
3700 5 12 3200 3
3800 5 25 3275 3
3900 5 38 3375 4

4100 6 6 3550 4
4200 6 20 3650 4
4300 6 34 3725 4
4400 6 48 3825 4

## 4500 7 3 3925 19 4 11.7 295 20 4500

4600 7 18 4025 5
4700 7 33 4100 5
4800 7 49 4200 5
4900 8 5 4300 5

75 GUN
-7-
75 GUN
H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1917 RY Fuse, M. V. 1890 ft/sec.
Probable Error

* bO r b 0 y ++ c'v 50 5
0; 0 bI 01 . v o
*-+S ac5~
0; °a5 0;Fl
5

## m. m. 0/a mils sec. ft/sec. m. m. M.

5000 8 21 4375 23 5 13:4 285 24 3 5000
5100 8 37 4475 5
5200 8 53 4550 6
5300 9 10 4650 6
5400 9 27 4725 6

## 5500 9 44 4825 28 6 15.3 276 27 3 5500

5600 10 1 4900 6
5700 10 18 5000 7
5800 10 86 5075 7
5900 10 54 5175 7

## 6000 11 12 5250 32 7 17.2 269 31 3 6000

6100 11 30 5350 "7
6200 11 49 5425 8
6300 12 8 3675 8
6400 12 27 3725 8

## 6500 12 46 3925 37 8 19.3 263 35 4 6500

6600 13 5 4040 8
6700 13 25 4150 9
6800 13 45 4250 9
6900 14 6 4375 9

## 7000 14 27 4500 43 9 21.4 259 40 4 7000

7100 14 48 4695 U? 10
7200 15 10 4750 f 10
7300 15 32 4350 -f- 10
7400 15 54 4950 0 10

## 7500 16 17 5075 49 11 23.7 256 45 4 7500

7600 16 40 5175 11
7700 17 4 5300 11
7800 17 4 5300 11
7900 17 52 12
O
3000
8100.
1316
18 41
~55 12
12
26.0 254 49 4 8000
8200 19 7 S 12
8300 19 33 13
8400 20 0 / 13

8600 20 55 14
8700 21 23 r 14
8800 21 52 a 14
8900 22 21 / 15

9100 23 22 16
9200 23 54 16
9300 24 26 16
9400 24 59 Cl 17

## 9500 25 33 p 80 17 33.7 253 63 5 9500

9600 26 7 4 18
9700 26 43 18
9800 27 20 19
9900 27 58 19

75 GUN
-8-
75 GUN
H. E. Steel Shell, Model 1917 RY Fuse, M. V. 1890 ft/sec.
Probable Eri'or

0)0 0 0
0) b0c d .4.

W 32~

1000
m. sec. ft/sec. m. m. m.
28 37 0 36.8 255 68 5 10000
29 18
30 1
1000 30 46
10100 31 34
10200 5
10300 32 25 40.8 258 73 6 10500
10400 33 21 0a
34 21
110500 35 28
36 47 5)
0)
38 26 47.6 262 79 6 11000
11100 40 50

75 GUN
-9-
CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 1420 ft/sec.
Probable Error

Elevation
9 0
a Abp bS ao a
0-
cc . A

## 500 0 26 9 2 0 1.2 410 500

600 0 35 12 2 0 1.5 600
700 0 47 16 2 0 1.8 700
800 0 58 19 3 1 2.0 800
900 1 9 23 3 1 2.3 900

## 1000 1 21 27 3 1 2.6 384 1000

1100 1 32 31 4 1 2.8 1100
1200 1 44 35 4 1 3.1 1200
1300 1 55 38 5 1 3.4 1300
1400 2 7 42 5 1 3.7 1400

## 1500 2 20 47 6 1 4.0 361 11 I 0 1500

1600 2 32 51 6 1 4.2 1600
1700 2 45 55 7 1 4.5 1700
1800 2 58 59 7 1 4.8 1800
1900 3 11 64 8 1 5.1 1900

## 2000 3 24 68 8 2 5.4 339 2000

2100 3 38 73 9 2 5.7 2100
2200 3 52 77 9 2 6.0 2200
2300 4 6 82 10 2 6.3 2300
2400 4 20 87 10 2 6.6 2400

## 2500 4 35 92 11 2 6.9 320 2500

2600 4 50 97 12 2 7.2 2600
2700 5 6 102 12 2 7.5 2700
2800 5 22 107 13 2 7.9 2800
2900 5 38 113 13 3 8.2 2900

## 3000 5 54 118 14 3 8.6 304 3000

3100 6 10 123 15 3 8.9 3100
3200 6 27 129 15 3 9.2 3200
3300 6 43 134 16 3 9.6 3300
3400 7 00 140 17 3 10.0 3400

## 3500 7 17 146 17 3 10.3 3500

3600 7 35 152 18 4 10.7 3600
3700 7 52 157 19 4 11.1 3700
3800 8 09 163 20 4 11.4 3800
3900 8 27 169 20 4 11.8 3900

## 4000 8 44 175 21 4 12.2 17 1 1 4000

4100 9 02 181 22 5 12.6 4100
4200 9 19 186 23 5 12.9 4200
4300 9 37 192 23 5 13.3 4300
4400 9 55 198 24 5 13.7 4400

## 4500 10 14 205 25 5 14.1 4500

4600 10 33 211 26 6 14.5 4600
4700 10 52 217 27 6 14.8 4700
4800 11.11 224 28 6 15.2 4800
4900 11 30 230 28 6 15.6 4900

## CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00

-10-
CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 1420 ft/sec.
Probable Error

Elevation
a
a:
N WB cm
Gece 0.'b.

## m. 1/20's mils sec. ft/sec. m. m. m.

5000 11 50 237 29 6 16.0 268 19 1 5000
5100 12 10 243 30 7 16.4 20 5100
5200 12 30 250 31 7 16.8 5200
5300 12 50 257 32 7 17.2 5300
5400 13 11 264 33 7 17.6 21 5400

## 5500 13 33 271 34 8 18.0 21 1 5500

5600 13 55 278 35 8 18.4 2 5600
5700 14 18 286 36 8 18.8 22 5700
5800 14 41 294 37 8 19.2 5800
5900 15 04 301 38 9 19.7 5900

## 6000 15 28 309 39 9 20.1 23 2 6000

6100 15 53 318 40 9 20.6 6100
6200 16 18 326 42 9 21.1 24 6200
6300 16 43 334 43 10 21.5 6300
6400 17 09 343 44 10 22.0 6400

## 6500 17 36 352 46 10 22.5 25 2 6500

6600 18 03 361 47 11 23.0 6600
6700 18 31 370 48 11 23.5 26 6700
6800 18 59 380 50 12 23.9 6800
6900 19 28 389 51 12 24.4 27 6900

## 7000 19 58 399 53 12 24.9 27 2 7000

7100 20 29 410 54 13 25.5 7100
7200 21 00 420 56 13 26.0 7200
7300 21 32 431 57 14 26.5 29 7300
7400 22 04 441 59 14 27.1 7400

## 7500 22 36 452 60 14 27.6 249 30 2 7500

7600 23 09 463 62 15 28.2 7600
7700 23 43 474 64 15 28.7 31, 7700
7800 24 17 486 66 16 29.3 3 7800
7900 24 52 497 67 16 29.9 32 7900

## 8000 25 27 509 69 17 30.5 249 33 3 8000

8100 26 03 521 71 17 31.1 8100
8200 26 39 533 73 18 31.7 34 8200
8300 27 16 545 75 19 32.5 35 8300
8400 27 54 558 77 19 33.0 8400

## 8500 28 33 571 79 20 33.6 251 36 3 8500

8600 29 15 585 81 20 34.3 37 8600
8700 29 58 599 83 21 35.0 8700
8800 30 40 615 86 22 35.8 38 8800
8900 31 38 633 89 23 36.6 39 8900

## 9000 32 34 651 92 24 37.5 254 40 3 9000

9100 33 35 672 95 25 38.4 41 9100
9200 34 43 694 99 26 39.3 43 4 9200
9300 36 01 720 104 27 40.4 44 9300
9400 37. 34 751 110 29 41.7 46 9400

## CHARGE 00 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 00

-11-
'CHARGE 0 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 0
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 1310 ft/sec.
_1 _
Probable Error

S
Elevation
a) a
a,
0.'
a:
c wi b v cS a 50
F3 Ft > Pi A

## 500 0 40 13 2 0 1.3 385 8 0 500

600 0 52 17 2 0 1.6 600
700 104 21 2 1 1.9 700
800 117 26 3 1 2.2 9 800
900 130 30 3 1 2.5 900

## 1000 143 34 4 1 2.8 9 0 1000

1100 156 39 4 1 3.1 1100
1200 2 09 43* 5 1 3.4 1200
1300 2 23 48 5 1 3.7 1300
1400 2 36 52 6 1 4.0 10 1400

## 1500 2 49 56 6 1 4.3 10 0 1500

1600 3 03 61 7 1 4.6 1600
1700 3 17 66 7 1 4.9 1700
1800 3 31 70 8 2 5.2 1800
1900 3 46 75 8 2 5.5 11 1900

## 2000 4 01 80 9 2 5.9 11 0 2000

2100 4 15 85 9 2 6.2 2100
2200 4 30 90 10 2- 6.5 1 2200
2300' 4 45 95 11 2 6.8 2300
2400 5 01 100 11 2 7.1 12 2400

## 2500 5 17 106 12 2 7.5 12 1 2500

2600 5 34 111 13 3 7.8 2600
2700 5 51 117 13 3 8.1 2700
2800 6 08 123 14 3 8.5 13 2800
2900 6 25 128 15 3 8.8 2900

## 3000 6 42 134 16 3 9.2 13 1 3000

3100 6 59 140 16 3 9.5 3100
3200 717 146 17 3 9.9 14 3200
3300 7 35 152 18 4 10.2 3300
3400 6 53 158 19 4 10.6 3400

## 3500 8 12 164 19 4 10.9 14 1 3500

3600 8 31 170 20 4 11.3 15 3600
3700 8 50 177 21 4 11.7 3700
3800 9 09 183 22 4 12.0 3800
3900 9 29 190 23 5 12.4 3900

## 4000 9 48 196 24 5 12.8 16 1 4000

4100 10 08 203 24 5 13.1 4100
4200 10.28 209 25 5 13.5 4200
4300 10 48 216 26 5 13.9 4300
4400 11 08 223 27 6 14.3 17 4400

## 4500 11 29 230 28 6 14.7 17 1 4500

4600 11 49 236 29 6 15.1 4600
4700 12 10 243 29 6 15.5 18 4700
4800 12 32 251 30 6 15.9 4800
4900 12 54 258 30 7 16.3 4900

CHARGE 0
CHARGE
CHARGE 0
0 155
HOWITZER
155 HOWITZER CHARGE 0
-12-
CHARGE 0 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 0
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 1310 ft/sec.
Probable Error

_ bs
Elevation:

-'5 +- 5 +) 4 5 b0

## 5000 13 16 265 32 7 16.7 260 19 1 5000

5100 13 39 273 33 7 17.1 5100
6200 14 02 281 34 7 17.6 5200
5300 14 25 288 35 8 18.0 5300
5400 14 49 296 36 8 18.4 20 2 5400

## 5500 15 13 304 37 8 18.9 256 20 2 5500

)600 15.37 312 38 8 19.3 5600
5700 16 02 321 40 9 19.3 5700
5800 16 27 329 41 9 20.2 3800
5900 16 54 338 42 9 20.7 22 5900

## 6000 17 21 347 43 9 21.2 252 22 2 6000

6100 17 48 356 45 10 21.7 6100
6200 18 15 365 46 10 22.2 23 6200
6300 18 43 374 47 10 22.7 6300
6400 19 11 384 48 11 23.2 24 6400

## 6500 19 41 394 50 141 23.7 249 24 2 6500

66"0 9° 11 404 r,
M. 11 24.2 25 6600
6700 20 42 414 53 12 24.7 6700
6800 21 13 424 54 12 25.2 26 6800
6900 21 45 435 56 13 25.7 6900

## 7000 22 19 446 57 13 26.3 247 27 2 7000

7100 22 52 457 59 14 26.8 7100
7200 23 27 469 61 14 27.3 28. 7200
7300 24 03 471 62 1..5 27.9 7300
7400 24 39 493 64 15 23.5 29 7400

## 7500 25 17 506 66 15 29.1 246 30 2 7500

(600 25 55 518 68 16 29.7 3 7600
7700 26 35 532 70 16 30.4 31 7700
7800 27 17 546 72 17 31.0 32 7800
7900 28 00 560 75 18 31.7 7900

## 8000 28 46 575 77 18 32.4 247 33 3 8000

8100 29 33 591 79 19 33.1 34 8100
8200 30 21 607 82 20' 33.9 35 8200
8300 31 15 625 85 20 34.8 36 8300
8400 32 11 644 88 21 35.7 37 8400

## e500 33 15 665 92 22 36.6 249 38 3 8500

8600 34 25 688 95 23 37.7 40 8600
\$700. 35 45 715 100 24 38.8 41 . 8700
8800 37 18 746 105 26 40.0 43 8800
5900 39 20 787 112 28 41.5 250 46 4 8900

## CHARGE 0 155 HOWTITZER CHARGE 0

-13-
CHARGE 1 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 1
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 1050 ft/sec.
Probable Error

Elevation " b4

c n
0) 1

## 500 107 22 3 1.6 304 6 0 500

COO 125 28 3 1.9 600
700 144 35 4 2.2 700
800 2 02 41 4 2.5 800
900 2 21 47 5 2.9 7 900

## 1000 2 40 53 5 3.2 289 7 0 1000

1100 2 59 60 6 3.5 1100
1200 3 19 66 7 3.9 1200
1300 3 39 73 7 4.2 1300
1400 3 59 80 8 4.6 8 1400
1500 4 19 86 8 4.9 277 8 0 1500
1600 4 39 93 9 5.3 1600
1700 4 59 100 10 5.7 1700
1800 5 20 107 11 6.1 1800
1900 5 41 114 11 6.4 9 1 1900

## 2000 6 02 121 12 6.8 267 9 1 2000

2100 6 23 128 13 7.2 2100
2200 6 44 135 14 7.6 2200
2300 7 06 142 14 8.0 10 2300
2400 741 149 15 8.4 2400

## 2500 7 51 157 16 8.8 259 10 '1 2500

2600 8 13 164 17 9.2 2600
2700 8 36 172 18 9.6 11 2700
2800 8 59 180 19 10.0 2800
2900 9 22 187 20 10.4 2900

## 3000 9 45 195 20 10.8 254 11 1 3000

3100 10 08 203 21 11.2 12 3100
3200 10 32 211 22 11.6 3200
3300 10 56 219 23 12.0 3300
3400 11 21 227 24 12.4 3400
3500 11 45 235 25 12.8 250 13 1 3500
3600 1210 243 26 13.2 3600
3700 12 35 252 27 13.6 3700
3800 13 01 260 28 14.0 3800
3900 1327 269 29 14.5 14 3900

## 4000 13 53 278 30 14.9 247 14 1 4000

4100 14 19 286 31 15.3 4100
4200 14 46 295 32 15.8 15 4200
4300 15 14 305 33 16.2 4300
4400 15 42 314 34 16.7 4400

## 4500 16 11 324 36 17.2 244 16 1 4500

4600 16 40 333 37 17.7 4600
4700 17 09 343 38 18.1 4700
4800 17 39 353 39 18.6 17 4800
4900 18 09 363 40 19.1 4900

## 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 1

CHARGE
CHARGE 11 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 1
-14-
CHARGE 1 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 1
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 1050 ft/sec.
Probable Error

Elevation S
0 0 a
a
S a
bC cO

00

## 5000 18 41 374 42 8 19.6 241 18 2 5000

5100 19 13 384 43 9 20.1 5100
5200 19 45 395 44 9 20.6 6200
5300 20 19 406 46 9 21.1 19 5300
5400 20 53 418 47 10 21.7 5400

## 5500 21 27 429 49 10 22.2 239 20 2 5500

5600 22 03 441 50 10 22.8 5600
5700 22 40 453 52 11 23.3 21 5700
5800 23 18 466 54 11 23.9 5800
5900 23 59 480 56 11 24.5 22 5900

## 6000 24 41 494 58 12 25.1 239 22 2 6000

6100 25 24 508 60 12 25.7 23 6100
6200 26 11 524 62 13 26.4 6200
6300 27 00 548 65 13 27.0 24 6300
6400 27 52 557 67 14 27.7 25 6400

## 6500 28 49 576 70 14 28.5 236 25 2 6500

6600 29 50 597 73 15 29.3 26 6600
6700 30 56 619 77 16 30.1 27 6700
6800 32 10 648 80 17 31.0 28 6800
6900 33 32 671 85 18 32.1 29 3 6900

## 7000 35 05 702 90 19 33.2 236 30 3 7000

7100 36 54 738 95 20 34.6 31 7100
7200 39 02 781 102 22 36.5 33 7200
7300 41 50 837 117 24 38.7 239 34 3 7300

## CHARGE 1 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 1

-15-
CHARGE 2 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 2
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 9241 ft/sec.
00 Probable Error

Elevation o a0
a
00
a 0~w

## i. 1/20's mils sec. ft/sec. n. i. i.

500 1 31 30 1 1.8 268 5 0 500
600 1 54 38 1 2.2 600
700 2 17 46 1 2.6 700
800 2 41 54 1 3.0 800
900 3 04 61 1 3.4 6 900
1000 3 27 69 1 3.8 257 6 0 1000
1100 3 51 77 1 4.2 1100
1200 4 16 85 2 4.6 1200
1300 4 40 93 2 4.9 7 1300
1400 5 04 101 2 5.3 1400
1500 5 29 110 2 5.7 250 7 0 1500
1600 5 54 118 2 6.1 1600
1700 6 19 126 2 6.5 1700
1800 6 44 135 3 6.9 8 1 1800
1900 7 09 143 3 7.3 1900
2000 7 35 152 3 7.7 245 8 1 2000
2100 8 01 160 3 8.2 2100
2200 8 27 169 3 8.6 9 2200
2300 8 54 178 3 9.0 2300
2400 9 21 187 4 9.4 2400
2500 9 48 196 4 9.8 240 9 1 2500
2600 10 15 205 4 10.3 10 2600
2700 10 43 214 4 10.7 2700
2800 11 10 223 4 11.1 2800
2900 11 39 233 4 11.6 11 2900
3000 12 07 242 5 12.0 235 11 1 3000
3100 12 37 252 5 12.5 3100
3200 13 07 262 5 12.9 3200
3300 13 39 273 5 13.4 12 3300
3400 14 10 283 6 13.9 3400
3500 14 43 294 6 14.3 230 12 1 3500
3600 15 16 305 6 14.8 13 3600
3700 15 51 317 6 15.3 3700
3800 16 27 329 7 15.8 14 3800
3900 17 03 341 7 16.3 3900
4000 17 40 353 7 16.9 225 14 1 4000
4100 18 17 366 8 17.4 15 4100
4200 18 55 378 8 17.9 4200
4300 19 33 391 8 18.5 4300
4400 20 13 404 9 19.1 16 4400
4500 20 53 418 9 19.7 221 16 1 4500
4600 21 34 431 1 20.2 17 4600
4700 22 16 445 10- 20.8 2 4700
4800 22 59 460 10 21.4 18 4800
4900 23 46 475 10 22.0 4900
5000 24 33 491 11 22.7 218 19 2 5000
5100 25 20 507 11 23.3 5100
5200 26 10 523 12 24.0 20 5200
5300 27 03 541 12 24.7 21 5300
5400 28 01 560 13 25.4 5400
5500 29 02 581 13 26.2 216 22 2 5500
5600 30 07 602 14 27.1 23 5600
5700 31 19 626 15 28.1 24 5700
5800 32 39 653 16 29.2 25 5800
5900 34 15 685 17 30.4 26 5900
6000 36 19 726 18 31.9 217 28 2 6000
6100 39 18 786 .20 34.1 218 31 3 6100

HOWITZER CHARGE 2
CHARGE
CHARGE 2
2
155
155 HOWITZER CHARGE 2
-16-
CHARGE 3 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 3
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 820 ft/sec.
o Probable Error

Elevation _ a
o " 5
b 55

## 500 2 00 40 4 1 2.1 243 4 0 500

600 2 29 50 5 1 2.5 600
700 2 57 59 6 1 2.9 700
800 3 25 68 7 1 3.3 5 800
900 3 58 78 8 1 3.7 900

## 1000 4 21 87 8 2 4.1 237 5 0 1000

1100 4 50 97 9 2 4.5 6 1100
1200 5 20 107 10 2 5.0 1200
1300 5 49 116 11 2 5.4 1300
1400 6 20 127 12 2 5.8 1400

## 1500 6 51 137 13 2 6.3 231 6 0 1500

1600 7 22 147 14 3 6.7 7 1 1600
1700 7 54 158 15 3 7.2 1700
1800 8 27 169 16 3 7.6 1800
1900 9 00 180 17 3 8.1 8 1900

## 2000 9 33 191 19 4 8.6 225 8 1 2000

2100 10 07 202 20 4 9.1 2100
2200 10 42 214 21 4 9.6 9 2200
2300 11 18 226 22 4 10.0 2300
2400 11 54 238 23 4 10.5 2400

## 2500 12 30 250 24 5 11.0 219 9 1 2500

2600 13 07 262 26 5 11.6 10 2600
2700 13 45 275 27 5 12.1 2700
2800 14 25 288 29 5 12.6 2800
2900 15 06 392 30 6 13.1 11 2900

## 3000 15 48 316 32 6 13.7 214 11 1 3000

3100 16 29 330 34 6 14.2 12 3100
3200 17 11 344 35 7 14.7 3200
3300 17 54 358 37 7 15.3 3300
3400 18 38 373 39 7 15.3 13 3400

## 3500 19 22 387 40 8 16.4 209 13 1 3500

3600 20 07 402 42 8 17.0 14 3600
3700 20 53 418 44 8 17.6 3700
3800 21 40 433 46 9 18.2 15 3800
3900 22 29 450 48 9 18.8 3900

## 4000 23 20 467 50 10 19.5 205 16 1 4000

4100 24 14 485 52 10 20.2 2 4100
4200 25 12 504 55 11 20.9 17 4200
4300 26 12 524 58 11 21.7 4300
4400 27 17 546 61 12 22.5 18 4400

## 4500 28 29 570 64 12 23.4 202 19 2 4500.

4600 29.50 597 69 * 13 24.4 20 4600
4700 31 23 628 74 14 25.5 21 4700
4800 33 08 663 79 15 26.6 22 4800
4900 35 09 703 86 16 27.9 23 4900

## 5000 37 32 751 93 18 29.4 "202 25 2 5000

5100 40 18' 806 105 20 31.5 203 28 2 5100

CHRG 8 5 OIZRCAG
CHARGE 3 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 3
-17-
CHARGE 4 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 4
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 730 ft/sec.
Probable Error

be
Elevation

¢ J
w ( 4 q h

## m. 1/20's 0/0 mils sec. ft/sec. m. m. m.

500 2 34 51 5 1 2.3 218 4 0 500
600 3 09 63 6 1 2.8 600
700 3 44 75 7 1 3.2 700
800 4 19 86 8 2 3.7 800
900 4 55 98 9 2 4.1 5 900
1000 5 31 110 11 2 4.6 213 5 0 1000
1100 6 09 123 12 2 5.1 1100
1200 6 47 186 13 2 5.6 1200
1300 7 25 148 14 3 6.1 6 1300
1400 8 03 161 15 3 6.6 1400
1500 8 43 174- 17 3 7.1 207 6 1 1500
1600 9 24 188 18 8 7.6 7 1600
1700 10 06 202 19 4 8.1 1700
1800 10 49 216 21 4 8.7 1800
1900 11 33 231 22 4 9.2 8 1900
2000 12 18 246 24 5 9.8 201 8 1 2000
2100 13 04 261 25 5 10.3 2100
2200 13 51 277 27 5 10.9 9 2200
2300 14 40 293 29 6 11.5 2300
2400 15 29 310 31 6 12.1 10 2400
2500 16 20 327 33 6 12.8 194 10 1 2500
2600 17 13 344 35 .7 13.4 2600
2700 18 07 362 37 7 14.1 11 2700
2800 19 04 881 39 7 14.7 2800
2900 20 05 402 42 8 15.4 12 2900
3000 21 09 423 45 8 16.1 188 12 1 3000
3100 22 16 445 47 9 16.8 13 3100
3200 23 25 468 50 10 17.5 14 3200
3300 24 37 492 54 .10 18.3 3300
3400 25 51 517 57 -11 19.1 15 3400
3500 27 10 543 60 11 19.9 183 16 1 3500
3600 28 33 571 64 12 20.8 3600
3700 30 05 602 68 13 21.9 17 2 3700
3800 31 42 634 72 14 23.0 18 3800
3900 33 27 669 78 15 24.3 19 3900
4000 35 37 712 86 16 25.6 183 21 2 4000
4100 38 26 769 95 18 27.3 184 23 2 4100

## CHARGE 4 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 4

-18-
CHARGE 5' 155 HOWITZER CHARGE 5
Long H. E. Steel Shell, Short Fuses, M. V.
Model 1914 665 ft/sec.
Probable Error

Elev:stion a
a 0 C0 a
b4 bO
E-

## 500 3 07 62 6 1 2.5 198 500

600 3 49 76 7 2 3.0 600
700 4 31 90 8 2 3.6 700
800 5 13 104 10 2 4.1 800
900 5 57 119 11 2 4.6 900

## 1000 6 41 134 13 2 5.1 194 1000

1100 7 26 149 14 3 5.7 11o
1200 8 12 164 15 3 6.2 1200
1300 8 59 180 17 4 6.8 6 1300
1400 9 47 196 18 4 7.3 1400

## 1500 10 37 212 20 4 7.9 188 6 1500

1600 11 28 229 22 4 8.5 7 1600
1700 12 20 247 23 5 9.1 1700
1800 13 13 264 25 5 9.7 8 1800
1900 14 08 283 27 6 10.3 1900

## 2000 15 06 302 29 6 10.9 182 8 2000

2100 16 08 323 32 6 11.0 9 2100
2200 17 11 344 34 7 12.2 2200
2300 18 15 365 37 7 12.9 10 2300
2400 19 23 388 39 7 13.6 2400

## 2500 20 32 411 42 8 14.4 176 11 2500

2600 21 41 434 45 8 15.1 2600
2700 22 54 458 48 9 15.9 12 2700
2800 24 11 484 51 10 16.7 13 2800
2900 25 35 512 55 10 17.5 2900

## 3000 27 04 541 59 11 18.3 172 14 3000

3100 28 39 573 64 12 19.3 15 3100
3200 30 24 608 69 13 20.4 16 3200
3300 32'25 648 75 14 g1.5 17 3300
3460 34 50 697 81 16 22.8 19 3400

## 3500 37 54 758 90 17 24.5 172 20 3500

3600 41 50 837 107 20 27.2 173 23 3600