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OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this section are to introduce the student to the course material, explain whatis

expected of the student, and how the course will be evaluated.The study guide is aimed to direct the

learner through the contents of the syllabus by definingthe learning outcomes and leading the learner

through each section. There are a number oftypical examination questions covering each section

which is intended for self evaluation.

COURSE COMPOSITION:

This module consists of a study guide, a compulsory prescribed textbook and relevant SANScodes. The

study guide for this module contains brief highlight on each topic, specifying theobjectives and specific

outcomes. Students are directed to the prescribed book for the detailsof each topic.

This module consists of study notes and compulsory prescribed relevant SANS codes.

through each section in turn and make your own rough notes as you progress. Contact the mentor if you

are unable to clarify any important points.Once you are comfortable with the section, attempt the self

evaluation questions.Do not move onto the next section until you have mastered the present one.Do

not attempt and submit the assignment or project until you fully understand the coursematerials

required.

MODULE 1

The primary objective of this part of the course is to introduce you to the basics of designing Structural

steel elements such as trusses, beams and columns. This part also covers the loading on structures

including the effects o wind. You will be lead through the theory behind each section before getting into

the actual design of the elements.

Course Format

The prescribed text is ideally suited to the course and should be followed closely together with the code

of practice when working through each section. The textbook indicates references to the code on the

right hand side of the page thus: [4.5.11] to enable the student to quickly refer to the relevant parts of

the code. There are self evaluation questions provided for each section which are typical examination

questions for which the final answers are given (but not the worked solution) verify your solution.

Structural steel design to SANS10162:1-2005-1, Parrot, G.K, Shades Technical Publications. SA 2006

ISBN1-919858-13-X.

South African Steel Construction Handbook (Limit states design). The South African Institute of Steel

Construction.

SANS 10162-1:2005: The structural use of steel - Part 1: Limit-state design of hot-rolled steelwork. ISBN

0-626-16165-7.

SANS 10160: The general procedures and loadings to be adopted in the design of buildings.

Further reading:

There is a wide variety of books available for structural steel design. The students must, however,

ensure that any book used for additional reading is based on the relevant codes of practice.

The correct determination of loads acting on a structure is obviously a critical component ofthe overall

design process as any error in load calculations will lead to errors in the effects ofload on the structure

and make element strength calculation meaningless.

1.1.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to ensure that the learner is able to determine the intensity ofloading on

structural elements and also provide an understanding of the limit-statesapproach to structural

design.

At the end of this section the learner will be able to make a reasonable assessment of theintensity of

basic loads acting on structural elements. The learner will also have anunderstanding of Limit State

Design and be able to convert the loads calculated intoultimate and serviceability limit state values.

10

This is basically a revision section since most of the material covered has previously beencovered in the

prerequisite subjects Applied Mechanics I and Theory of Structures II.The additional work looks at

the understanding of the analysis of frames specifically thesecond order effects resulting from sway of

the structure which is a design requirement of thecode of practice used.

1.2.1 Objectives

The primary of this section is to ensure that the learner is able to carry out the basic analysisof

structures (Statically determinate).

At the end of this section the learner will be able to calculate the load effects on beams ofsupport

reactions, shear forces and bending moments, and the load effects on pin-jointedtrusses of axial forces

(tension and compression). Given the first order analysis calculated bycomputer, the learner will also be

able to determine the second order effect on framedstructures.

11

The type of connection used can affect the analysis and strength of a structural element whichmakes it

important to consider connection design before designing the elements themselves.

1.3.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to show the learner the different types of connections used instructural

steel and to provide the necessary equations to determine their strength.

At the end of this section the learner will know of the different ways of connecting structuralsteel and

be able to determine the strength of bolted and welded connections.

12

These structural elements generally make up trusses or girders and are used extensively

in practice for roofs and bridges. It is important to remember here that the strength of thesemembers is

also largely dependent on the type and strength of the connected ends.

1.4.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to derive and provide the learner with the equations necessaryto

determine the strength of members both in tension and compression.

At the end of this section the learner will be able to determine the different modes of failureand

calculate the factored resistance of members subjected to a pure axial load either intension or

compression.

13

Beams are used extensively in structural steel building frames where they provide the supportstructure

to the floors. It is very important to clearly understand that the compression flangeof a beam wants to

buckle laterally, and that the type of restraint offered has a large influenceon the strength of a beam.

1.5.1 Objectives

The objectives of this section are to give the learner an understanding of the behaviour

of beams and to provide him/her with the necessary information required to determine thestrength

(resistance) of hot-rolled steel beams and plate girders subjected to bending andshear effects of loading.

At the end of this section the learner will understand and be able to take into account thevarious types

of restraint offered to a beam. The learner will be able to determine the factored bending resistance of

hot-rolled and welded plate girder beams as well as the factored shearresistance including the provision

and design of web stiffeners where required. The learnerwill also be able to check the serviceability limit

state of deflection.

14

SSD301C UNISA STUDY GUIDE

These elements are encountered often and are generally referred to as beam-columns. Thelearner will

already know how to determine the factored resistance for bending and axialforce independently, and

will now look at the interaction of these load effects.

1.6.1 Objectives

The objective of this section is to demonstrate the effects of combined stresses acting on amember and

to enable the learner to assess the suitability of a given section subjected to thiscombined stress.

At the end of this section the learner will be able to assess the strength and suitability ofstructural steel

elements that are subjected to a combination of bending moment about one or both axes together with

either axial compression or tension forces.

16

The figure below shows the evaluation of part of a building frame. The frames are spaced at6. 5 m

centres over the length of the building. All columns are 254 x 107 H-section and

all beams are 356 x 171 x 67 I-sections. The structure is braced and all connections should beconsidered

as pinned (i.e. beams are simply supported). The floor consists of a 150 mmthick reinforced concrete

slab with applied finishes that amount to 1 kN/m

and is to beutilised for offices containing data processing equipment. The reactions at this floor

levelfrom columns A2 and B2 are given below:D

Column A2 25 kN 120 kNColumn B2 25kN 85kNDetermine the ultimate reaction of the base of column:

C1.

17

QUESTION 1. 2

The figure below shows the elevation of a sign board that is to be erected on Durbans beachfront.

The sign is required to withstand a wind force with a mean return period of 25years.(a)

Column A2 25 kN 120 kNColumn B2 25kN 85kNDetermine the ultimate reaction of the base of column:

C1.

Calculate the wind velocity pressure.(b)

Ignoring the self-weight of the sign and posts, calculate the maximum ultimatemoment that each post

would be subjected to as a result of the wind pressure.

QUESTION 1. 3

The figure below shows the line drawing representing a typical frame of a rectangular cladsteel building

with a mono-pitched roof. The structure is 25 m long with the frames at 5 mcentres. The building is to

be located at Durban international airport (site altitude 75 m) andwill be used as a repair workshop. The

interior of the building will be open plan and all fourwalls are equally permeable.

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