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Appears as thin clear, bright, homogenous wavy line

Ex12: Skin and scalp Contains substance known as eleidin (a transformation product of keratohyaline
in s. granulosum)
Integumentary system = skin and scalp and its derivatives (hairs, nails, some glands)
5. Stratum corneum
Skin largest organ of the body (16% of total body weight) Outermost layer of flattened, non-nucleated keratinized cells
Functions: Cytoplasm: filled with scleroprotein, keratin
Protects organisms from injury and dessication Horny cells
Receives stimuli from environment Keratinized cells consisting fibrillar and amorphous proteins &
Excretes various substances thickened plasma membranes
Regulates body temperature Stratum disjunctum
Maintenance of water balance Outermost layer of fully keratinized, lifeless cells
Loosening and desquamating
Slide: human skin
2 main layers of skin: epidermis (other epithelia) & dermis or corium (inner thicker connective 1. Keratinocytes
tissue) Principal cell type due to its capacity to synthesize keratin
Originate from S. basale producing increasing amounts of keratin as moving up
Epidermis: stratified squamous epithelium
Average = 0.07 0.12 mm
2. Langerhans cells
0.8 mm = palm
Star-shaped cells found in S. spinosum
1.4 mm = sole
Dark indented nucleus
Layers: inside to outside Cytoplasm: clear w/o tonofibrils
No desmosomes in membranes
1. Stratum basale May be involved in presentation of antigen to lymphocytes
Innermost layer above dermis consisting of a single layer of columnar or Participate in immunoproliferative processes in regional lymph nodes
cuboidal cells Believed to be important agents in contact w/ allergic responses & other cell-
Basement membrane: separates dermis from epidermis mediated reactions in skin
Nucleus: relatively large
Cytoplasm: basophilic 3. Melanocytes
Cells are mitotically active, responsible for continuous revival of epidermal Rounded cell bodies with long, irregular extensions branch into epidermis
cells Cells located in between cells of S. basale & S. spinosum
Formerly called stratum germinativum Cytoplasm: contain melanin (dark brown pigments)
Cells generated moved to s. spinosum and become flattened, polyhedral form Synthesized in melanosome of melanocytes from tyrosine,
Aided by tyrosinase
2. Stratum spinosum Once formed: migrate within cellular extensions to the cells of S.
3-5 cells thick, cuboidal polygonal or polyhedral OR slightly flattened w/ basale & spinosum
centrally located nucleus DERMIS
Cells bounded by filament-filled sytoplasmic spines & desmosomes (formerly Composed of connective tissue
called intercellular bridges), dark appearance of cell boundaries Supports the epidermis & binds it to hypodermis / subcutaneous tissue
o Sweat & sebaceous glands, blood vessels, nerves, sensory nerve endings
*S. basale & spinosum compose Malphigian layer where all mitosis are confined Cellular elements more abundant in papillary than reticular layer

3. Stratum granulosum Papillary / sub-epithelial layer

3-5 cell layers of flattened polygonal cells, central nuclei Loose (areolar) connective tissue composed of fine network of thin collagenous & elastic
Cytoplasm: filled w/ coarse & irregularly shaped basophilic granules fibers
(keratohyaline granules) o Mast cells & macrophages: most abundant
Projects into epidermis in the form of ridges & papillae (interdigitates w/ infoldings of
4. Stratum lucidum epidermis)
Present only in thick skin (palmar & plantar surfaces) o More common to those subjected to frequent pressure
Composed of thin layer of few layers of close compacted, highly refractile, o Believed to increase & reinforce dermo-epidermal function
flattened eosinophilic cells Types of papillae: tactile & vascular
o Tactile: only blood capillary 3 layers:
Reticular layer Outer poorly defined consists of longitudinally directed
Dense irregular connective tissue collagenous & elastic fiber
o Elastic fibers condensed around hair follicles & sebaceous and sweat glands Middle the thickest. Composed of circularly disposed
Arrector pili muscle: collagenous fibers
o Bundles of smooth muscle fibers connected with hair follicles o Blood vessels, nerves, pigment cells
o Muscles of facial expression: cross-striated muscle fibers terminated in the Inner has a glassy membrane (homogenous layer
dermis homologous to basement membrane)
o Responsible for erection of hairs in mammals o Epidermal root sheath
In response to cold, fear, or anger Inner to dermal root sheath
o Attached at one end to papillary layer/ dermal root sheath Derived from epidermis, composed of outer and inner epithelial root
GLANDS FOUND IN DERMIS: Outer: direct continuation to epidermis
1. Sweat glands Inner: a keratinized epithelium of several layers of cells in thickness
Long, simple, unbranched coiled tubular glands distributed all over except Henles layer
nail bed, eardrum, glans penis, inner surface of prepuce and lip margins o Outermost layer of single row of elongated cells
Secretory portions: deep in dermis or subcutaneous connective tissue closely adherent to external root sheath
Consist of simple cuboidal epithelium surrounded by myoepithelial Huxleys layer
cells (helps discharge secretion) o Middle layer consists of 1-3 layers of cornified
Excretory ducts: lined w/ 2 layers of cuboidal cells opening to the skin surface cells immediately next & inner to Henles layers
Do not divide Cuticle of Internal root sheath
Thinner in diameter than secretory portions o Next to huxleys layer
2. Sebaceous glands o Consists of layer of flattened keratinized cells
Simple, branched alveolar type overlapping with edges directed downward
Pear / spherical in shape o Cells are nucleated at deeper parts of the sheath
Except in palms, soles, sides of feet Hair cuticle
Located in the angle between hair follicle and arrector pili muscle o Single layer composed of cells w/c is next & inner
Secretory portions: stratified epithelium, tends to fill the alveolus completely to cuticle of internal root sheath
Basal cells: flattened epithelial cells resting on basement membrane (evident o Middle to down: cuboidal
o Middle up: columnar
o Top: flattened & heavily keratinized
Wall of alveoli: formed by basement membrane, supported by fibrillar c.t.
Excretory duct: opens into neck of hair follicle, lined with stratified squamous
o Slender keratinized epithelial structures w/c grows
out of hair follicles
At glans penis, glans clitoris, lips
o Absent in palms, soles, side of feet and fingers,
Duct opens directly to epidermal surface lateral surface below ankles, lip, glans penis,
Sebum (secretion) with remnants of dead cells onto hair & upon surface prepuce, clitoris, labia majora
Oils hair and lubricates skin surface o PARTS:
constitutes the superficial fascia (loose c.t.; deeper continuation of dermis) Horny filament that projects
o Fat lobules (spaces of areolar c.t.) above skin surface
o Blood vessels, nerves, nerve endings Root
Binds the skin loosely to adjacent organs Within hair follicle with lower
terminating into hair bulb
HAIR FOLLICLE (knoblike expansion)
An invagination of epidermis Medulla
o Hair bulb deep end of hair follicle Central portion of hair shaft of
o Dermal papilla 1-more layers of cornified
o Hair root from epidermal cells that cover the dermal papilla cuboidal cells
Grows into the hair shaft Cortex
Free end projects beyond the skin surface The main bulk of hair
Double sheath: Consists of several layers of
o Dermal root sheath heavily keratinized & tightly
Fibrous around lower 2/3 of hair follicle compacted around medulla
Cells carry most pigment o Foliate
Cuticle Tongue of rabbit
Outer thin layer composed of 1 Closely packed fold along posterior lateral margin of tongue
layer of clear cells Humans: rudimentary (primitive)
Animals: site of main aggregations of taste receptors
EX. 13 TONGUE Rabbits: oval-bulging on mucous membrane, consisting of alternating
parallel fold & grooves
Digestive system mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, plus associated Stratified epithelium at sides of folds contains many taste buds
gland (salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gall bladder) Ducts of serous glands of von Ebner drain thru openings at bottom of
= to take in food & obtain its metabolites necessary for growth & energy needed by the body grooves bet. folds
Functions of papillae
TONGUE Filiform: used for licking layers off solid & semi-solid material w/ sand-paper efficiency
A muscular organ found in the mouth Fungiform & foliate: contain taste buds responsible for taste sensations
Compose of interwoven bundles of skeletal muscles covered with mucous membrane Taste Buds
o Run in 3 planes and cross one another @ right angles Little buds/ barrel-shaped in w/c gustatory receptor cells are found
o Submucosa layer is present only on the undersurface Arranged perpendicular to surface of epithelium of circumvallate p. of human tongue /
Special organ for sense of taste foliate (rabbit)
Aids in chewing & swallowing food in and from the mouth Outer taste pore: small opening on epithelium cover of each taste bud
Lower tongue: covered by papillae Taste hairs: coarse microvilli at apex of cell
o Elevations of oral epithelium Types of cells:
o Composed of primary papilla or lamina propria from which smaller 2o papillae o Taste/neuroepithelial/sensory cells
of lamina propria may extend toward surface Long, spindle-shaped, tapering towards their ends
TYPES OF PAPILLAE: Former: smaller, darker with elongated dark nuclei
o Filiform Latter: lighter color, rounder nuclei, usually located at sides of taste
Small, relatively high, narrow and conical/pointed buds
Lamina propria + stratified squamous epithelium o Supporting cells
Covers lamina propria and forms caps over each 2o o Basal cells
Located at base of taste buds
Very numerous in parallel rows
o Fungiform
Project to dorsal surface like little fungi EX 14. ESOPHAGUS
Narrower at base, extended smooth rounded tops Muscular tube that transport food from mouth to stomach
Has a central core of lamina propria Distal end: smooth muscle fibers
Not as numerous as filiform, scattered and more numerous at the Middle: mixture of striated & smooth muscle fibers
tips Proximal (adjoining pharynx): only striated muscles
o Circumvallate Muscularis mucosa of proximal region = thick
Largest variety & circular papilla Portion closest to stomach = the only one covered in serosa
Does not extend much above the tongue surface; sinks beneath surface o The rest covered by tunica adventitia (loose c.t.)
and surrounded by deep circular furrow Wall layers:
Core forms 2o papillae only on upper surface o Tunica Mucosa
Covering epithelium: stratified squamous Composed of inner epithelium (stratified squamous)
Smooth Squamous cells contain keratohyaline granules
Lateral surfaces of papilla: numerous taste buds No cornification
Mucous & Serous (glands of von Ebner) Near the region of stomach: groups of esophageal cardiac glands
Drain their secretion into deep grove that encircles the Termical ends of glands are branched, lined by
periphery of each papilla columnar/cuboidal cells w/ pale granular cytoplasm
Moat-like arrangement Larger duct: opens to tip of small papilla
Provides continuous flow of liquid over great number of Secrete mucus
taste buds present along papilla Muscularis mucosae
o Flow of secretions important in removing food Composed of longitudinal smooth muscle fibers & elastic
particles from vicinity of taste buds
They can receive & process gustatory
Usually thick at proximal region of esophagus
Forms the mucous membrane
7-12 papilla distributed in V-shaped row near junction of interior &
o Submucosa
posterior tongue
Made of dense connective t. (collagenous & elastic fibers) + Forms the mucous membrane and thrown in the lumen into fold (rugae)
lymphocytes + esophageal gland proper 2. Tunica submucosa
EGP: small compound with branched tubule-alveolar Loose c.t.
secretory portion containing only mucous cells Fat cells, mast cells, lymphoid wandering cells. Eosinophils
Unevenly distributed in submucosa Large blood & lymph spaces & venous plexuses
Main duct pierces muscularis mucosa, opening thru surface 3. Tunica muscularis
of mucous membrane Outer longitudinal
o Lined with stratified squamous o Continuous w/ fibers of esophagus
Together with muscularis mucosa forms numerous longitudinal folds, Middle circular
resulting in irregular outline of lumen in cross section o Most regular forming uniform layer over stomach
o Tunica muscularis o Thickest in pylorus forming annular pyloric sphincter or valve
Quite thick in human esophagus Inner oblique
Cranial end: striated muscles o Do not form complete layer
Middle: striated then smooth o Most abundant in cardia
Caudal: smooth o Absent along lesser curvature
Inner layer: spirals, elliptical, or oblique bundles Responsible for peristaltic movement of stomach
Outer: irregularly arranged longitudinal muscles 4. Serosa
o Tunica serosa Outermost layer covered with mesothelium
Covers the portion of esophagus closest to stomach Loose c.t.
o Tunica adventitia
Layer of c.t. covering the rest of esophagus
1. Cardiac glands
EX 15. Stomach
Cardiac region only
Dilated segment & highly muscular organs specialized for storage & food processing for
Found @ immediate vicinity of opening of esophagus to stomach
absorption in intestine
Mucous cells & few argentaffin cells
3 regions:
Compound tubular glands w/ short ducts, open @ bottom of shallow foveolae
o Cardia[c]
Often show considerable dilatation
Area immediately surrounding the opening from esophagus to stomach
2. Gastric glands
Lamina propria: simple/compound tubular cardiac glands
o Fundus [-ic]& body 3 segments:
o Isthmus
Dome-shaped bulge, left of cardia & above the level of
o Neck
esophageogastric junction
o Base
Main portion is body
Simple branched tubular type
Lamina propria: compound tubular gastric glands
4 types of cells:
o Pylorus [-ic]
o Chief / zymogenic cells
Distal region joining stomach w/ duodenum
Cuboidal cells lining lower portions of base of gastric glands
Lamina propria: short & coiled tubular pyloric glands
Have ovoid & centrally located nucleus w/ granular
Basophilic at base of cells
Synthesize & secrete pepsinogen
Activated to form active enzyme pepsin
Absent in cardiac g., few in fundic g., rare in pyloric g.
o Parietal / oxyntic cells
Large pyramidal cells w/ central spherical nucleus;
eosinophilic cytoplasm
Conspicuous in tunica mucosa
1. Tunica mucosa
Mainly in the isthmus & neck of gland & intercalated bet
Inner epithelium
mucous neck cells
o Simple columnar
Scarcer at the base
Middle lamina propria
Secret HCl & gastric intrinsic factor
o Loose c.t. fills narrow spaces bet. glands & muscularis mucosa
GIF: a glycoprotein required for Vit B12
Outer muscularis mucosa
absorption in the small i.
o Inner circular & outer longitudinal layer smooth muscles
o Mucous neck cells (isthmus & mucous cells)
o For compressing stomach glands releasing their secretions
d. Paneth cells
o Argentaffin / enterochromaffin cells o Pyramidal cells at basal portion of
3. Pyloric glands glands of Lieberkuhn
Simple branched short tubular coiled glands w/ larger lumen, opens @ bottom o Nucleus: round/oval, basally located w/
of foveolae conspicuous reddish secretory
Principal cells: mucous cells & Gastrin cells granules in apical cytoplasm
o Mucous cells: plae cytoplasm, often flattened basally located nuclei Lysozyme is present
o G cells: pyramidal cells, ovoid dark nuclei basally located, & Posses antibacterial activity &
cytoplasmic granules at the base of cell may play role in controlling
Secrete Gastrin => stimulates secretion of HCl in the intestinal fauna
stomach glands Lamina propria
o Areolar/loose c.t. fills the spaces bet. glands of Liberkuhn, &
EX. 17 SMALL INTESTINE forms core of intestinal vili
- Processes of digestion are completed, products of digestion are absorbed o Blood & lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers, smooth muscle
- 6-7 m long to provide prolonged contact between food and digestive enzymes and fibers
absorptive cells of the epithelial lining o End products of protein digestion = blood capillaries
LAYERS: o End products of fat digestion = lacteals
1. Tunica mucosa o Periodic contraction of smooth muscle in villus core
empty the lacteal & propel lymph & absorbed nutrients (f.
a series of permanent folds (plicae circulares / valves of kerckring) having
acids & glycerol) towards mesenteric lymph nodes &
semi-lunar, circular or spiral form
thoracic duct
intestinal villi = minute, fingerlike projections
intestinal glands / crypts of Lieberkuhn = between villi
Epithelium Duodenum = broader, leaf-like
o Simple columnar Jejunum = club-like w/ narrow base & broader from middle to ends
o 4 types of cells Illeum = finger-like
a. Absorptive cells
o Tall columnar cells w/ oval nuclei Muscularis mucosae
basally located o Contractions increases the height of mucosal folds
o Free surfaces have distinct striated o Plays a role in mixing the contents
border made up of microvilli
To amplify the absorptive area 2. Submucosa
of cells
Dense c.t. rich in elastic fibers
b. Goblet cells
Meissners plexus (nerve plexus)
o Columnar cells between absorptive cells
Network of ganglia w/ few nerve cell bodies & interconnecting
o Theca: apical region of the cell
nerve bundles (Sympathetic division of Autonomic NS)
Contains mucigen droplets
Droplets contain Duodenum: glands of Brunner / duodenal / submucosal glands
mucus (secretory o Terminal secretory portions consist of branched & coiled
product) tubules
To protect & o Secrete clear viscous fluid to protect duodenal mucosa from
lubricate the corrosive effects of acid gastric juice
epithelial lining of 3. Tunica muscularis
s.i. Inner circular & outer longitudinal
o Nuclei: flattened, basally located Myenteric nerve plexus / Auerbachs plexus
o Cytoplasm: basophilic 3-50 or < nerve cell bodies & bundles of unmyelinated axons that
o Unicellular glands connect ganglia to form continuous network
Less abundant in duodenum o Axons: preganglionic fiber from Parasympathetic ANS
Numerous towards ileum Responsible for coordinated contraction of circular & longitudinal
c. Argentaffin cells (Endocrine cells) sm.M. (effective peristaltic movement)
o Small cells near base of intestinal 4. Tunica serosa
epithelium Continuous layer of simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) unto the
o Nuclei: oval, darkly stained mesentery
o Secretory granules concentrated bet.
nucleus & basement membrane EX. 18 LARGE INTESTINE
- Caecum (blind pouch), ascending, transverse, & descending colon, rectum, anus - Basket cells (basal myoepithelial cells): slender, spindle-shaped cells bet. basement membrane
- Vermiform appendix = extending downward from caecum & glandular cells of serous alveoli
- For absorption of h2o, fecal mass formation, mucus production for Contractile & facilitate movement of secretion into ducts
lubrication of mucosa surface - Intralobular ducts
1. Tunica mucosa Intercalated ducts thin, branched tubules lined w/ simple cuboidal
No plicae/villi/Paneth cells Striated (or secretory) ducts stratified columnar
Smooth surface, simple columnar w/ striated border (thin) - Interlobular (or excretory) ducts bigger ducts found in intralobular connective tissue septa;
Few goblet cells Simple to pseudostratified columnar epithelium
i. More abundant: L.I. in glands of Lieberkuhn
Base of cells: dividing epithelia; argentaffin cells Submaxillary glands
- Mixed glands; in alveoli Both serous & mucous cells
2. Submucosa M: clear cell body, & angular, compressed and basally located nucleus
3. Tunica muscularis S: crescent-shaped groups @ terminal portions demilunes of
Outer: not continuous but gathered into 3 longitudinal bands (teniae coli) Giannuzzi
i. Causes intervening portions of wall to bulge forward forming - Look for basket cells, intercalated & striated ducts, excretory/interlobular
sacculations called Haustrae ducts
4. Tunica serosa Sublingual glands
Small penduloud protuberances by accumulation of adipose tissues/cells beneath - Mixed glands; mucous alveoli predominates
mesothelium (appendices epiploicae) - Demilunes of Giannuzzi
- Striated & interlobular ducts
EX 19. APPENDIX Opens into ducts of submaxillary
- Usual layers but thickened due to extensive development of almost continuous - Relatively large lumen
layer og large & small lympathic nodules - Intercalated ducts absent replaced by mucous tubules
1. Tunica mucosa
Simple columnar w/ striated border & few goblet cells EX. 21 LIVER
Paneth & argentaffin cells regularly seen - The largest organ (except skin)
No villi - 70% of blood from HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN; rest from hepatic artery
Lamina propria: lymphoid tissue w/ complete lympathic nodule ring w/ - Gathering, transforming, & accumulating metabolites
- Neutralizing and eliminating toxic substances
Germinal center; Glands of Lieberkuhn irregularly shaped
- Synthesizes several important protein component of blood plasma
Muscularis mucosa: reduced in thickness, difficult to detect
- Stores glycogen; controls carbohydrate metabolism
2. Submucosa
- Lobule = unit structure of liver
Thick layer of fat cells, blood vessels, & nerves
Outer tunica serosa
3. Tunica muscularis Glissons capsule = thin dense c.t. capsule inner of previous
4. Tunica serosa
Liver cells/hepatocytes
- Large, polyhedral, rounded vesicular nucleus w/ 1-2 nucleoli
EX. 20 SALIVARY GLANDS Central vein
- Parotid, submandibular / submaxillary, sublingual - Endothelial lining & few collagenous fibers w/o muscle fibers
- Ducts are compound tubule-alveolar type - Liver cells radiating in cords/plates
P: front of ear aroung ramus of mandibles; Stensens duct Liver sinusoids
Inner surface of mandible body; Whartons duct - Narrow spaces bet liver plates
Ducts of Ricinus - Tortuous channels w/c receive blood from vessels @ periphery of lobule &
Types of salivary glands based on secretory cells discharge the blood from vessels @ periphery of lobule into central vein
a. Mucous = mucin - Lined by 2 cells (see below)
b. Serous (albuminous) = lacks mucin but w/ salts, proteins & enzymes, peroxidase, DNA, Endothelial cells
RNA, lysozyme (hydrolyse cell walls of patho. Bacteria) , & ptyalin (breaks down starch to - Thin w/ dark flattened nucleus w/ thin film of cytoplasm
maltose) Stellate cells of von Kupffer (or Kupffer cells)
c. Mixed = saliva - Large cell w/ large, vesicular, bulging nucleus; irregular shape & prominent
o Controls bacterial flora in oral cavity cytoplasmic processes
o Lubrication, moisture of food, acid buffer - Phagocytic; engulfed disintegrating RBCs, pigment deposits, & granules rich in
Parotid Glands Space of Disse
- Largest & purely serous (adults); mucous cells present in infant - Space bet sinusoid lining & hepatocytes
- Pyramidal, w/ cytoplasmic granules
Hepatic portal vein
- Walls thinner than artery; w/ RBCs
Hepatic artery
- Walls thicker; w/ RBCs
Lymphatic vessel
- Much thinner wall than vein & usually empty
Bile duct
- Lined by simple cuboidal/columnar epithelium

- Large gland connected w/ duodenum
- Mixed exocrine & endocrine gland
Exo: digestive juice => digestion of carbs, fats, & proteins
Compound tubule-acinar gland
Endo: hormones insulin & glycogen => control of carb metabolism
Composed of islets of Langerhans
Capsule areolar c.t.
Septa - areolar
Lobes & lobules loosely connected together but intact interiors
- Primarily acini & intralobular ducts (lobules)
Islet of Langerhans
- Scattered irregular groups of richly vascularized endocrine cells
Acini of exocrine portion
- Single row of pyramidal serous cells towards central lumen supported by
reticular fibers
- Zymogen (acidophilic) granules: apical ends
- Basophilis: basal end
- Centro-acinar cells
Pale granular; tend to surround beginning of intercalated duct
Appear to extend into center of acinus
Intralobular/intercalated ducts
- Smallest ducts lined w/ similar cells from centro-acinar
Excretory/interlobular ducts
- Larger ducts lined by simple columnar.
- Goblet cells & occasional argentaffin cells