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Chapter 07


7.1 Concrete Box Structures

It is shown that results of solid element models are much closer to experimental
results which obtained from previously tested box culvert. This result validate that
solid element models of box culverts can be used as a base for comparison of
general shell and modified shell models.

In this research, it is found that span moment variation is 79-123% in general shell
models and it is 85-125% for modified shell models with reference to solid element
models. Support bending moment of modified shell models varies 71-134%. But in
general shell models, support center value varies 61-189% and face value varies 31-
117%. According to above results, it can be seen that by modifying shell models,
bending moment values in both span and support are improved towards solid
element model values.

General shell model, modified shell model and solid model indicate similar bending
moment curves especially at member spans, but considerable variation is found at
member supports.

At the face of the support, bending moment value obtained from general shell
models are under estimating compare to other models in many cases. Therefore, in
general shell models, as the support design moment, it should be selected the
maximum value which is at the center line of the support. These centerline values
are little higher than the value at the face of the supports and it is slightly

Reinforced concrete design guide lines such as BS 8110 [17] generally allow 30%
reduction of support moment redistribution. Results of some cases indicate that face
bending moment values of general shell models are below that 30% reduction.
Therefore bending moments values at face of the support cannot be justified as
design value.

According to results, it is indicated that all models provided similar bending moment
curves with little variation at spans and higher variation at supports.

Modified shell element models give results with little variation than the general
model compare to the solid models. Support design bending moment can be
obtained from modified shell models with reliability without confusion of center or
face value to select for the design as for the general shell element models. Therefore
box structures to be analyzed according to modified shell element models to obtain
bending moment values for more economical and reliable designs.

In this research, only simple equations are used for calculating bending moments
from stresses of solid element models. Using the same method in any other
structure, the bending moment values can be calculated easily from solid models
with sufficient accuracy.

7.2 Suggestions for Future Works

In this research only box type concrete structures are selected for modeling. Bending
moment critical values of any other shell or frame element models can be verified
with solid element models. Critical bending moments obtained from FEM analytical
models to be verified with more experimental results which use only reinforced
concrete but without using precast panels in the future.