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21st century literature Cultural/ Post- Colonial Criticism

-Examine how different religions, ethnicities, class identifications, and

political beliefs affect how texts are created and interpreted.
Critical approaches to literature Literary theory
- It means to be part of- or excluded from- a particular group enhances
understanding of the text in relation to culture.
Literary Theory Colonialism
- The way people read the text. -Is the political and economic control over a dependent territory.
- The lens through which you view the literature.
- There is no right way to look at literature. -Uses a process called othering- the colonized are seen as different and
lesser the colonized.
Creation of Theory
-Important to look at the relationship between dominant and submissive
- 20th century: theories began to emerge. cultures.
- No theory is based in factual knowledge- someone created it and it is arguable.
- Some theories are created in opposition or response to another theory Historical/Biographical Criticism

TYPES -According to WILFRED GUERIN, historical/biographical criticism see a

literary work chiefly, in not exclusively, as a reflection of the authors life and
Reader Response times of the life and times of the character in the work (Guerin, 22).
-Making a connection between your experiences and the text Assumption of Historical/Biographical
-literature has no objective meaning.
-A reader brings their own though and experiences. -Understanding the social structure or way of life of a certain time period will
help the reader draw conclusion and better understanding about the work of
Formalist Criticism the author.
- Scientific Dissection of texts
- Focus on literary elements New Historical Criticism
- Analyze: setting, character, plot, theme, imagery foreshadowing, irony, etc.
-Seeks to find meaning in a text by considering the work within and
assumptions of its historical era.
Archetypal Criticism
-Are UNIVERSAL SYMBOLS that appears in literature, myth, dreams, oral tradition, -Concerned with the political function of literature and with the concept of
song, etc. power.
Character: hero, earth mother, soul mate, trickster, damsel in distress.
Ideas: light vs. darkness, good vs. evil, journey/quest. - More on Sociohistorical than it is a delving into facts.
Psychological Criticism MODERNISM vs. POSTMODERNISM

-Deal with the work of literature as a fictional expression of the personality, Modernism
state of mind, feelings, and desires of the author
-there is an absolute, universal truth that we can understand through
-Idea is to evaluate the psychology of the character or the author to find rationalism and logic.
meaning in the text.
-disenchantment with material truth and search for abstract truth.
Marxist Criticism
-Based on the economic and cultural theory of KARL MARX
-theres no universal truth. Rationality by itself does not help us truly
-Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, will understand the world.
produce internal tension which will lead to its destruction.
-Theres no universal trust, abstract or otherwise.

-focus on power and money in the literature.

Feminist Criticism
Allegory- Story in which the character represent abstract qualities or ideas.
-Realizes cultural and economic problems in a patriarchal society Ex: Westerns, the sheriff represents the good, and the outlaw represents the
-The concept of gender are cultural constructs.
Alliteration The repretition of first consonants in a group of words as in
Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers.
Structuralism Allusion- reference to something or someone often literary. For instance, if
you were trying to instill confidence in a friend and said, Use the force, that
-is a way of thinking about the world in relationship to structure
would be an allusion to Stars Wars. The verb form of allusion is to allude.
-Every element in the literature has no significance by itself- it is determined
Antagonist- A major character who opposes the protagonist in a story or
by all the other elements involved in the literature

Archetype- A character who represents a certain type of person. For

Postmodern Theory example, Daniel Boone is an archetype of the early American frontiersman.

-A reaction to structuralism Assonance- The repetition of vowel sounds as in Days wane away.

-Reader can find endless meaning- theres no single center.

Atmosphere- The overall feeling of a work, which is related to tone and Fable- A story that illustrates a moral often using animals as the character
mood. for example, The Tortoise and the Hare.

Blank Verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter. Plenty Figurative Language- Language that does not mean exactly what it says.
of modern poetry is written in blank verse. For example, you can call someone who is very angry steaming. Unless
steam was actually coming out of your ears, you were using figurative
Characterization- The means by which an author establishes character. An language.
author may directly describe the appearance and personality of character or
show it through action or dialogue. First person point of view- The point of view of writing which the narrator
refers to himself as I.
Climax- The point at which the action in a story or play reaches its emotional
peak. Foreshadowing- technique in which an author gives clues about something
that will happen later in the story.
Conflict- The elements that create a plot. Traditionally, every plot is build
from the most basic elements of a conflict and an eventual resolution. The Free Verse- Poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme.
conflict can be internal (within one character) or external (among or between
characters, society, and/or nature). Genre- A kind of style usually art or literature. Some literary genres are
mysteries, westerns, and romances.
Contrast- To explain how two things differ. To compare and contrast is to
explain how two things are alike and how they are different. Hyperbole- A huge exaggeration. For example, Dans the funniest guy on
the planet! or That baseball card is worth a zillion dollars!
Couplets-A pair of rhyming lines in a poem often set off from the rest of the
poem. Shakespeares sonnets all end in couplets. Lambic Pentameter- Ten-syllable lines in which every other syllable is
stressed. For example: With eyes like stars upon the brave night air.
Denouement- The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax. It also
refers to the resolution of the action in a story or play after the principal Imagery-The use of description that helps the reader imagine how
drama is resolvedin other words, tying up the loose ends or wrapping up a something looks, sounds, feels, smells, or taste. Most of the time, it refers to
story appearance. For example, The young birds white, feathered wings flutter
as he made his way across the nighttime sky.
Dramatic Monologue- A poem with a fictional narrator addressed to
someone who identity the audience knows, but who does not say anything. Irony- Language that conveys a certain ideas by saying just he opposite.

Elegy- A poem mourning the dead. Literature Language- Language that means exactly what it says.

End Rhyme- Rhyming words that are at the ends of their respective lines Lyric- A type of poetry that expresses the poets emotions. It often tells
what we typically think of as normal rhyme. some sort of brief story, engaging the reading in the experience.

Epic- A long poem narrating the adventures of a heroic figurefor example, Metaphor- A comparison that doesnt use like or assuch as Hes a
Homers The Odyssey. rock or I am an island.
Meter- The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in the lines of a Sensory Image-Imagery that has to do with something you can see, hear,
poem. taste, smell, or feel. For example, The stinging, salty air drenched his face.

Monologue- A long speech by one character in a play or story Simile- A comparison that uses like or as For example, Im as hungry as
a wolf, or My love is like a rose.
Mood- The emotional atmosphere of a given piece of writing
Soliloquy- A monologue in which a character expresses his or her thoughts
Motif- A theme or pattern that recurs in a work to the audience and does not intend the other characters to hear them.
Myth- A legend that embodies the beliefs of people and offers some Sonnet- A fourteen-line poem written iambic pentameter. Different kinds of
explanation for natural and social phenomena sonnets have different rhyme schemes.
Onomatopoeia- The use of words that sound like what they mean such as Stanza- A section of poetry separated from the sections before and after it; a
buzz. verse paragraph.
Paradox- A seeming contradiction. For example, It was the best Subplot- A line of action secondary to the main story.
of times. It was the worst of times.
Symbolism- The use of one things to represent another. For example, a
Parody- A humorous, exaggerated imitation of another work. dove is a symbol of peace.
Personification- Giving inanimate object human characteristics. For Theme- The central idea of a work.
example, The flames reached for the child hovering in the corner.
Tone- The authors attitude toward his or her subject. For example, a tone
Plot- Action in the story could be pessimistic, optimistic, or angry.
Prose- Writing organized into sentences and paragraphs. In other words, Voice- The narrative point of view whether its in the first, second, or third
normal writingnot poetry. person.
Protagonist- The main character of a novel, play, or story.

Pun- The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings. For
example, Noticing the bunch of bananas, the hungry gorilla went ape.

Quatrain- four-line stanza.

Rhetorical Question- A question not meant to be answered such as Why

cant we just get along?

Sarcasm- Language that conveys a certain idea by saying just he opposite

such as if its raining outside and you say, My what a beautiful day.

Satire- A work that makes fun of something or someone.

PERIODS OF LITERARY HISTORY General Types of Literature
1. The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910 Prose consists of those written within the common flow of
conversation in sentences and paragraphs, while poetry refers to
2. Period of Imitation: 1910-1925
those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza
3. Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941 and has a more melodious tone.
4. Japanese Period: 1941-1945 I. PROSE
5. The Rebirth of Freedom: 1946-1970 There are many types of prose. These include the following:
6. Period of Activism: 1970-1972 a. Novels.
7. Period of the New Society: 1972-1981
b. Short story.
8. Period of the Third Republic: 1981-1985
c. Plays.
9. Contemporary Period: 1986
d. Legends (fictitious narrative, usually about origins)
- Literature and history are closely interrelated. In discovering the history of a
race, the feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions of a people are sure to e. Fables. Animals
be included . . . and these feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions that
f. Anecdotes (authors imagination that has lesson.)
are written is literature.
g. Essay (ex: Editorial page of newspaper)
-History can also be written and this too, is literature. Events that can be
written down are part of true literature. Literature, therefore, is part of h. Biography- deals with life of a person. (Autobiography)
i. News- report of everyday events.
Literary Compositions that Have Influenced the World.
Oration- Formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in
Among them are:
1. The Bible or the Sacred Writings
2. Koran
A. Narrative Poetry- Form describe important events in life
3. The Iliad and the Odyssey
either real or imaginary.
4. The Mahab-harata 1. Epic- Heroes and supernatural control.
2. Metrical Table narrative written in verse and can be
5. Canterbury Tales
classified as ballad/metrical romance.
6. Uncle Toms Cabin
3. Ballads- Narrative poems (shortest and simplest.) tells a -Spaniards burned the literary works of our ancestors due to belief
single incident. that it was created by evils.
B. Lyric Poetry poetry that meant to be sung. (Short, simple
and easy to understand.)
1. Folksong- short poem that meant to be sung (common Pre-Spanish Literature Is Characterized By
theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow)
2. Sonnets- 14 lines ( Shakespearean) A.Legends prose the common theme of which is about the origin.
3. Elegy- Lyric poem that deals with grief (death)
B.Folk Tales- tells about stories of life, adventure, love, horror and
4. Ode- expressed with dignity (no definite number of
humor where one can derive lesson about life.
syllables or stanza)
5. Psalm- song for preaching God C.The Epic Age- long narrative poem which is a series of heroic. (no
6. Awit 12 syllables (dodecasyllabic) slow sung and one can determine the place, date, all the matters is the story itself.)
compliments the instruments.
7. Corridos- 8 syllables (octosyllabic) recited to a martial D. Folk Songs- song mirrored the early forms of culture. 12 syllables.
beat. (kundiman)
C. Dramatic Poetry
1. Comedy - Greek (kormos) meaning festivity or revelry.
(amusing and has a happy ending.) E.Epigrams, Riddles, Chants, Maxims, Proverbs or Sayings.
2. Melodrama- musical plays with the opera. Related to
tragedy but it ends with happy ending. 1.Epigrams (salawikain) allegories or parables that impart lessons
3. Tragedy- the hero dies and the protagonist win for the young.
4. Farce- exaggerated comedy 2.Riddles(bugtong) one or more measured lines with rhyme and may
5. Social poems- purely comic/tragic. Pictures the present consist of 4-12 syllables.
3.Chant(bulong)-Used in witchcraft or enchantment.

4.Maxims- some are rhyming couplets with verses of 5,6 or 8

-Our ancestor already uses an alphabet right before the Spaniards 5. Saying(kasabihan)- often used in teasing or to comment on a
came. persons actuations.
-first alphabet used by our ancestors was similar to that of the Malayo- 6.Sawikain (saying with no hidden meanings)
Polynesian alphabet.
SPANISH PERIOD (1565-1898) -By: Fr. Blanca de San Jose

-Spanish colonization of the Philippines started in 1565 during the -Printed at UST printing Press with the help of Juan de Verga.
time of the first Spanish Governor-General Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.
3. Libro de los Cuatro Post primeras de Hombre. (in Spanish and
-This spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872. Tagalog)

A.Spanish Influences of Philippine Literature 4. Barlaan at Josephat- Biblical story By Fr. Antonio de Borja.

1.Alibata 5.The Pasion- the suffering of Jesus Christ

2.teaching Christian Doctrine. 6.Urbana at Felisa- a book by Modesto de Castro Father of Classic
Prose in Tagalog)
3.Spanish Language became the literary language during this time
-letters between two sisters and how behavior of people in society
4.European legends and traditions brought here became assimilated
in our songs, corridos, and moro-moros. 7.Ang mga dalit kay Maria (Psalms for Mary)

5.Ancient literature is translated to tagalog. C.Literary Compositions

6.Grammar book were printed in Filipino, and other language in the D.Folk songs
-became widespread in the Philippines. Each region had its national
7.Gained religious tone. song from the lowlands to the mountains of Luzon, Visayas and
B. The First Books
E. Recereational Plays-
1.Ang Doctrina Cristiana -1583
-There are many recreational plays performed by Filipinos during the
-By: Fr. Juan de Placencia and Fr. Domingo Nieva, tagalog and Spanish times. Almost all of them were in poetic form.
Spanish. Consist of Our father, hail mary, hail holy mary, ten
commandment of god, the commandments of the catholic church, 7 Tibag- St. Helena search for the cross on which Jesus died.
mortal sins, confess, catchecism.
Lagalay- this is a special occasion for the Pilareos of Sorsogon
-3 copies at Vatican (87 pages) cost 5,000 usd. during Maytime to get together.

2. Nuestra Sepra del Rosario (1602) 3.Cencaculo- passion and death of Jesus Christ

- 2nd book printed in the Philippines 4. Panunuluyan- presented before 12 on Christmas eve.
5. Salubong- easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen B. Highlights of the Propaganda Movement
Christ and his mother.

6.Carillo(shadow play) performed on a moonless night during a town

There were three principal leaders of the Propaganda
fiesta or on dark nights after a harvest.
movement. They were Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar and
7.Zarzuela- musical comedy or melodrama three acts which dealt with Graciano Lopez Jaena. Here are highlights about them and what they
mans passions and emotions like love, hate, revenge, cruelty, avarice have done for our country.
or some social or political proble.

8.Sainete- this was a short musical comedy popular during the 18th
century. They were exaggerated comedies shown between acts of
long plays and were mostly performed by characters from the lower The American Regime (1898-1941)
classes. Themes were taken from everyday life scenarios.
-The Filipino Revolutionists won against the Spaniards who colonized us for
F.Moro-Moro more than 300 years. Our flag was hoisted on June 12, 1898 as a symbol of
our independence. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected the first President of
-This is performed during town fiestas to entertain the people and to remind
the Philippine Republic but this was short-lived.
them of their Christian religion. The plot is usually the same that of a
Christian princess or a noblemans daughter who is captured by the -Filipino writers went into all forms of literature like news, reporting, poetry,
Mohammedans. The father organizes a rescue party where fighting stories, plays, essays, and novels. Their writings clearly depicted their love
between the Moros and the Christians ensue. of country and their longings for independence.

The active arousal in the field of literature started to be felt in the

The Period of Enlightenment (1872-98) following newspapers.

-After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule, the Filipino spirit -During the first year of the American period, the languages used in writing
were Spanish and Tagalog and the dialects of the different regions, but
reawakened when the 3 priests Gomez, Burgos and Zamora were
Spanish and Tagalog predominated.
guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt.
-In 1910, a new group started to write in English. Hence, Spanish, Tagalog,
A. The Propaganda Movement (1872-1896)
the Vernaculars and finally, English, were the mediums used in literature
This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual during these times. While the three groups were one in their ideas and spirit,
they differed in their methods of reporting. The writers in Spanish were wont
middle-class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar; Graciano Lopez
to write on nationalism like honoring Rizal and other heroes.
Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Panganiban, and
Pedro Paterno.
The Tagalog Drama By 1919, the UP College Folio published the literary
compositions of the first Filipino writers in English. They were the
During the advent of the American period, Severino Reyes and pioneers in short story writing.
Hermogenes Ilagan started the movement against the moro-moro ( a
play on the Spanish struggles against the Muslims) and struggled to D. Period of Self-Discovery and Growth (1925-1941)
show the people the values one can get from the zarzuela and the
By this time, Filipino writers had acquired the mastery of
simple plays.
English writing. They now confidently and competently wrote on a lot
Tagalog Poetry of subjects although the old-time favorites of love and youth persisted.
They went into all forms of writing like the novel and the drama.
Almost all Tagalog writers during the American Period were
able to compose beautiful poems which made it difficult to select the 3. ESSAYS AND OTHER PROSE STYLES (1925-1941)
best. Even if poetry writing is as old as history, poetry still surfaces
Essays during this period improved with the years in quality
with its sweetness, beauty, and melody.
and quantity, in content, subject and style. Essayists like Carlos P.
C. Philippine Literature in English Romulo became even more eminent editorial writers.

In a way, we can say that we can trace the beginnings of

Philippine literature in English with the coming of the Americans. For
this purpose, we can divide this period into three time frames, namely: The Japanese Period (1941-1945)

-Between 1941-1945, Philippine Literature was interrupted in its

1. The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910
development when the Philippines was again conquered by another foreign
2. The Period of Imitation: 1910-1925 country, Japan. Philippine literature in English came to a halt. Except for
the TRIBUNE and the PHILIPPINE REVIEW, almost all newspapers in
3. The Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941 English were stopped by the Japanese.

-Juan Laya, who use to write in English turned to Filipino because of

the strict prohibitions of the Japanese regarding any writing in English.
(1) The Period of Re-orientation (1898-1910)
Haiku- 17 syllables, 5,7,5
English as a literary vehicle came with the American
occupation in August 13, 1898 and as they say, a choice bestowed on Tanaga- 17 syllables but has measure and rhyme.
us by history. By 1900, English came to be used as a medium of
instruction in the public schools. From the American forces were B. FILIPINO DRAMA DURING THE JAPANESE PERIOD
recruited the first teachers of English. The drama experienced a lull during the Japanese period
(2) The Period of Imitation (1910-1924) because movie houses showing American films were closed. The big
movie houses were just made to show stage shows. Many of the restored, the tones and themes of the writings turned to the less pressing
plays were reproductions of English plays to Tagalog. problems of economic survival.



The field of the short story widened during the Japanese

Period of Activism (1970-1972)
Occupation. Many wrote short stories. Among them were: Brigido
Batungbakal, Macario Pineda, Serafin Guinigindo, Liwayway Arceo, -According to Pociano Pineda, youth activism in 1970-72 was due to
Narciso Ramos, NVM Gonzales, Alicia Lopez Lim, Ligaya Perez, and domestic and worldwide causes. Activism is connected with the history of
Gloria Guzman. our Filipino youth.

D. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH (1941-1945) -Many young people became activists to ask for changes in the
government. In the expression of this desire for change, keen were
Because of the strict prohibitions imposed b the Japanese in the writings of some youth who were fired with nationalism in order to
the writing and publishing of works in English, Philippine literature in emphasize the importance of their petitions.
English experienced a dark period. The few who dared to write did so
for their bread and butter or for propaganda. A. THE SEED OF ACTIVISM

The seeds of activism resulted in the declaration of Martial

Law in 1972. We can, however, say that he seeds were earlier sown
The Rebirth of Freedom (1946-1970) from the times of Lapu-lapu, Lakandula, and Rizal.
-The Americans returned in 1945. Filipinos rejoiced and guerillas who fled B. PERIOD OF THE BLOODY PLACARDS
to the mountain joined the liberating American Army.
Pineda also said that this was the time when the youth once
On July 4, 1946, the Philippines regained is freedom and the Filipino
more proved that it is not the constant evasion that shapes our race
flag waved joyously alone. The chains were broken.
and nationalism.


-A. THE STATE OF LITERATURE DURING THIS PERIOD The youth became completely rebellious during this period.
The early post-liberation period was marked by a kind of This was proven not only in the bloody demonstrations and in the
struggle of mind and spirit posed by the sudden emancipation from sidewalk expressions but also in literature. Campus newspapers
the enemy, and the wild desire to see print. showed rebellious emotions. The once aristocratic writers developed
awareness for society. They held pens and wrote on placards in red
-Journalists had their day. They indulged in more militant attitude in their paint the equivalent of the word MAKIBAKA (To dare!).
reporting which bordered on the libelous. Gradually, as normality was
Themes of most poems dealt with patience, regard for native
culture, customs and the beauties of nature and surroundings.
The irreverence for the poor reached its peak during this
period of the mass revolution. It was also during this period that The government led in reviving old plays and dramas, like the
Bomba films that discredit our ways as Filipinos started to come out. Tagalog Zarzuela, Cenaculo and the Embayoka of the Muslims which
were presented in the rebuilt Metropolitan Theater, the Folk Arts
Theater and the Cultural Center of the Philippines.
PALANCA AWARDEES FOR LITERATURE IN ENGLISH The following organizations contributed a lot to the development of
(Established in 1950, the Palanca Memorial Awards for plays during this period:
Literature had been giving cash prizes for short story, poetry and one- 1. PETA of Cecille Guidote and Lino Brocka
act play writing as an incentive to Filipino writers. The prizes come
from La Tondena, Inc., the firm founded by the late Carlos Palanca Sr. 2. Repertory Philippines: of Rebecca Godines and Zenaida Amador
For the list of winners from 1950-51 to 1960-70, we recommended
Alberto S. Florentinos Twenty Years of Palanca Awards.) 3. UP Repertory of Behn Cervantes

4. Teatro Filipino by Rolando Tinio


Radio continued to be patronized during this period. The play

Period of the New Society (1972-1980)
-The period of the New Society started on September 21, 1972. The LONELY were the forms of recreation of those without television.
Carlos Palanca Awards continued to give annual awards. Even the new songs were first heard over the airwaves.

-Almost all themes in most writings dealt with the development or

progress of the country

-The military government established a new office called the Ministry of

Public Affairs that supervised the newspapers, books and other publications. D. FILIPINO FILMS

New kinds of films without sex or romance started to be made but

which were nevertheless well-received by the public.
Period of the Third Republic (1981-1985)
-After ten years of military rule and some changes in the life of the The yearly Festival of Filipino Films continued to be held during this
Filipino which started under the New Society, Martial Rule was at last period. The peoples love for sex films also was unabated. Many producers
lifted on January 2, 1981. took advantage of this at the expense of public morality.

-A historian called this the Third Republic. The First Republic he claimed E. POETRY IN ENGLISH DURING THE THIRD REPUBLIC
was during the Philippine Republic of Emilio Aguinaldo when we first got our Most especially, during the wake of the tragic Benigno Aquino Jr.s
independence form the Spaniards on June 12, 1898. incident, people reacted with shock, appalled by the suddenness and the
unexpectedness of events.
-During this period, it cannot be denied that many people seethed with
rebellion and protest because of the continued oppression and suppression. F. MEDIA OF 1983
-This stage of the nation had its effect on our literature. After the Aquino Sheila S. Coronel, a PANORAMA staff stalwart, reporting on the state of the
assassinated, the peoples voices could no long be contained. Both the media during these times said: it was a year of ferment, and change, of old
public and private sectors in government were chanting, and shouting; problems made more oppressive by the new throbbing beat of the times.
women, men and the youth became bolder and their voices were raised in

THE PALANCA AWARDS Among the well-loved forms of writing which abounded during this period
were those of childrens stories. The Childrens Communication Center
The Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for literature which was launched (CCC) directed by poet and writer Virgilio S. Almario already has built up an
in 1950 (see Chapter 7, The Renaissance Period), continued its recognition impressive collection of these kinds of books. The following are some of the
of the best in the literary fields poetry, short story, essays, and the one and books of the period.
three-act plays.


Poems during this period of the Third Republic were romantic and
revolutionary. Writers wrote openly of their criticism against the government.
The supplications of the people were coached in fiery, colorful, violent,
profane and insulting language.
Periods (1986-1999)
-Historical Background
Many Filipino songs dealt with themes that were really true-to-life
like those of grief, poverty, aspirations for freedom, love of God, of country History took another twist. Once more, the Filipino people regained their
and of fellowmen. independence which they lost twenty years ago.
D. PHILIPPINE FILMS DURING THE PERIOD In the span of four days form February 21-25, 1986, the so-called People
Power (Lakas ng Bayan) prevailed. Together, the people barricaded the
streets petitioning the government for changes and reforms. Freedom The Making of A Writer by Salvador P. Lopez
became a reality won through a peaceful, bloodless and God-blessed
revolution. Shadow and Solitude (A translation of Solo Entre Las Sombras) by Claro M.
Recto translated by Nick Joaquin
2. THE JAPANESE PERIOD (1941-1945)
In the short span of the existence of the true Republic of the
Philippines, several changes already became evident. This in noticed in the To My Native Land by Tarrosa Subido
new Filipino songs, in the newspapers, in the speeches, and even in the
My Fathers Tragedy by Carlos Bulosan
television programs.
Shall We Walk? by Pura Santillan Castrence
Here are a few Filipino songs that were often heard. They were often aired
in radio and television and often accompanied the historical events that Poetry
transpired in the Philippines and gained for the Filipinos world-wide acclaim.
When I see a Barong-Barong by Maximo Ramos (1946)
Representative Compositions through the Years
Short Story
1. AMERICAN PERIOD (1898-1941)
Plighted Word by Narciso G. Reyes
A. Period of Re-Orientation 1898-1910
Scent of Apples by Bienvenido Santos
Air Castles (Poetry) by Juan F. Salazar (1909-1910)
Cadaver by Alberto S. Florentino
B. Period of Imitation 1911-1925 (American Period)
They Called It BROTHERHOOD by Maximo V. Soliven
The Sea by Natividad Marquez (Poetry)
4. PERIOD OF ACTIVISM (1970-1972)
C. Period of Self Discovery (1925-1941)
Valedictorian sa Hillcrest ni Rolando Tinio
Beggar Children by Emmanuel Torres
1896 by Aurelio Alvero
To a Lost One by Angela Manalang Gloria
Prayer of a Student by Trinidad L. Tarrosa Subido
Philosophers Love Song by Tita Lacambra-Ayala
Short Story
The Tomato Game by N.V.M. Gonzales
Dead Stars by Paz Marquez-Benitez
I Married a Newspaperman by Maria Luna-Lopez

Poetry Virginia R. Moreno (born 1925) is a Filipino writer.[1]

She was born in the Tondo neighbourhood of Manila and
Death Like Stone for Benigno S. Aquino Jr. from PHILIPPIN
studied at the University of the Philippines, where she
PANORAMA was editor of the campus newspaper, and at the
Kansas Institute of International Education. Her first
Fables collection of poems Batik Maker and Other Poems was
published in 1972; it received the Palanca Memorial
The Emperors New Underwear by Mynardo A. Macaraig Award for Literature. Her play Straw Patriot (1956) was
translated into Filipino by Wilfredo Pascua Sanchez in
1967 as Bayaning huwad. In 1969, she won the National
Historical Playwriting Contest for her play The Onyx Wolf,
Literary Compositions from 1986-1999 also known as La Loba Negra and Itim Asu. Also in 1969,
she studied at the British Film Institute in London under a
-And, as Salvador Lopez aptly said in his Literature and Society: Absolute British Council grant. In 1973, she was co-director of the
divorcement from the world by writers is impossible, for literature is, in some documentary The Imaginative Community: 7 Poets in
way, rooted in the earth of human experience. Iowa. Moreno also took part in the International Writing
Program at the University of Iowa. In 1976, she became
director of the University of the Philippines Film Center.
Jessica Hagedorn

Hagedorn was born in Manila to a Scots-Irish-French-Filipino

CANONICAL AUTHORS mother and a Filipino-Spanish father with one Chinese
ancestor.[1] Moving to San Francisco in 1963, Hagedorn received
Francisco "Franz" Arcellana (September 6, 1916 August 1, her education at the American Conservatory Theater training
2002) was a Filipino writer, poet, essayist, critic, journalist and program. To further pursue playwriting and music, she moved
teacher. He was born on September 6, 1916. Arcellana already to New York City in 1978.
had ambitions of becoming a writer during his years in the Joseph Papp produced her first play Mango Tango in 1978.
elementary. His actual writing, however, started when he became Hagedorn's other productions include Tenement Lover, Holy
a member of The Torres TorchOrganization during his high Food, and Teenytown. Her mixed media style often incorporates
school years. Arcellana Grande continued writing in various song, poetry, images, and spoken dialogue.
school papers at the University of the Philippines Diliman. He
later on received a Rocketfeller Granted and became a follower in Chiquita Banana. Third World Women (3rd World
creative writing the University of Iowa and Breadloaf's writers Communications, 1972)
Pet Food & Tropical Apparitions (Momo's Press, 1975)
conference from 1956 1957.[
Dangerous Music (Momo's Press, 1975)
Mango Tango (Y'Bird Magazine January 1, 1977)
Selected Stories (1962)
Dogeaters (Penguin Books, 1990)
Poetry and Politics: The State of Original Writing in English in
the Philippines Today (1977)
The Francisco Arcellana Sampler (1990).
Alejandro Reyes Roces
(13 July 1924 23 May 2011) was a Filipino author, essayist, language.[1][2] His novels and short stories depict the social
dramatist and a National Artist of the Philippines for literature. He underpinnings of class struggles and colonialism in Filipino
served as Secretary of Education from 1961 to 1965, during the society.[3][4] Jos's workswritten in Englishhave
term of Philippine President Diosdado Macapagal. been translated into 28 languages,
including Korean, Indonesian, Czech, Russian, Latvian, Ukrainian
Roces won Best Short Story for We Filipinos are Mild Drinkers. and Dutch.
Another of his stories, My Brothers Peculiar Chicken, was listed
as Martha Foleys Best American Stories among the most Po-on (Source) (1984)
distinctive for years 1948 and 1951. Roces did not only focus on The Pretenders (1962)
short stories alone, as he also published books such as Of Cocks My Brother, My Executioner (1973)
and Kites (1959), Fiesta (1980), and Something to Crow About Mass (December 31, 1974)
(2005). Of Cocks and Kites earned him the reputation as the Tree (1978)
country's best writer of humorous stories.
Filipino Canadian author Edmundo Farolan started winning
Francisco Baltazar
literary awards as a young writer-scholar while studying
(born Francisco Balagtas y de la Cruz; April 2, 1788 February philosophy and letters in Madrid in the 1960s. He taught English,
20, 1862), also known as Francisco Balagtas, was a Spanish, and Media in various universities, including Webster
prominent Filipino poet, and is widely considered one of the University Thailand, University of Silesia (Czech Republic), Dalian
greatest Filipino literary laureates for his impact on Filipino
University (China), University of Toronto and Corpus Christi
literature. The famous epic, Florante at Laura, is regarded as his
defining work. College[

The name "Baltazar", sometimes misconstrued as a pen name,

Lluvias Filipinas (1967)
was a legal surname Balagtas adopted after the 1849 edict of
Governor-General Narciso Claveria y Zaldua, which mandated The Rhythm of Despair (1974)
that the native population adopt standard Spanish surnames Gramatica y Practica (1979)
instead of native ones. His trainer is Jose Dela Cruz, also Don Segundo Sombra: traduccion tagala (1979)
called Huseng Sisiw Literatura filhispana: una antologia (1980)
Espanol para universitarios filipinos (1981)
Tercera Primavera (1981)
Oh Canada (1994)
Florante at Laura or Pinagdaanang Buhay ni Florante at
Laura sa Kaharian ng Albanya, an awit (metrical narrative
poem with dodecasyllabic quatrains [12 syllables per line, 4
lines per stanza]); Balagtas' masterpiece Ingrid Chua-Go
La India elegante y el negrito amante a short play in one
is the daughter of Benjamin Chua, Jr. and Pacita Ong Chua.
When she was a child, her mother gave her a Tomy typewriter,
Orosman at Zafira a comedia in three parts
which sparked her fascination with writing.[1] This interest was
further stimulated by her father during the summers that they
Francisco Sionil Jos (born 3 December 1924) is one of the most would spend in San Francisco. He would assign her books to
widely read Filipino writers in the English read over the vacation and required her to write book reports on
each one. This developed her writing proficiency at an early age
and she considers her father a great influence on her chosen Carlos Sampayan Bulosan
(November 24, 1913[1] September 11, 1956) was an English-
Bag hag diaries, accessory lab. language Filipino novelist and poet who spent most of his life in
the United States. His best-known work today is the semi-
Cecilia Manguerra Brainard autobiographical America Is in the Heart, but he first gained fame
for his 1943 essay on The Freedom from Want.
is an author and editor of 160 books. She co-founded PAWWA or
Philippine American men Writers and Artists; she also founded Zoilo Galang
Philippine American Literary House. Brainard's works include the
World War II novel, When the Rainbow Goddess is the Filipino author of the first Philippine novel written in
Wept, Magdalena, and Woman With Horns and Other Stories. the English language, A Child of Sorrow, published in 1921
She edited several anthologies including Fiction by Filipinos in
America, Contemporary Fiction by Filipinos in America, and two
volumes of Growing Up Filipino I and II, books used by educators.

Short Story

Ala Carte Food and Fiction (Edited by Brainard and Orosa,

Anvil, 2007)
Contemporary Fiction by Filipinos in America (Anvil, 1998)
Fiction by Filipinos in America (New Day, 1993)
Growing Up Filipino: Stories for Young Adults (PALH & Anvil,
Growing Up Filipino II: More Stories for Young Adults (PALH,

Bautista was born in Tondo, Manila, Philippines on December 2,
1945 to Esteban Bautista and Gloria Torres. She graduated from
Emilio Jacinto Elementary School in 1958, and from Torres High
School in 1962 being a lowest in her class. She was a journalism
student at the Lyceum of the Philippines, but dropped out for the
reason of failed grades. She started her writing career in
the Liwayway magazine.

"Tatlong Kwento ng Buhay ni Juan Candelabra" (Three Stories in

the Life of Juan Candelabra), first prize, 1982; and "Buwan,
Buwan, Hulugan mo Ako ng Sundang" (Moon, Moon, Drop Me a