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The default-information originate always does not produce a static route in the routing table of the local

router on which it is configured but it will generate a default route and advertise it into the ospf domain

On the ASBR
o Use route-map
On the ABR
o Area < > filter-list prefix < prefix-list name> [in | out]
On any router
o Distribute-list < > in [This command will only prevent the filtered route from entering
the routing table but the route will still appear in the ospf database]

EIGRP considers the load (k2) of an interface only when sending an update for some other reason. The
load is a five- minute exponentially weighted average that is updated every five seconds

The neighbor command is used in EIGRP to define a neighboring router with which to exchange routing
information. EIGRP stops processing multicast packets that come inbound on that interface. It also stop
sending multi casts to that interface. No dynamic neighbor can be either discovered or continue to work
if already discovered [over a network with more than two routers in the same subnet running EIGRP].
EIGRP exchanges routing information with that neighbor via unicasts whenever this command is used.

One difference between DHCPv4 and stateful DHCPv6 is that IPv4 hosts send IP broadcasts to find DHCP
servers, whereas IPv6 hosts send IPv6 multicasts. IPv6 multicast addresses have a prefix of FF00::/8,
meaning that if the first 8 bits of an address are binary 11111111, or FF in hex.

When using link local addresses as the next hop address when configuring IPv6 static routes, the
outgoing interface has to be specified in the configuration.

Reliable EIGRP packet types

Unreliable EIGRP packet types

OSPF Frame Relay Interfaces

1) Physical - Non Broadcast
2) Multipoint subinterfaces - Non Broadcast
3) Point to Point subinterfaces - Point to Point

Show ip route ospf | begin IA

show ip ospf database | begin Summary
Show ip ospf database | include 172.16.4

The maximum number of LSAs learned from other routers can be limited by a router using the max-lsa
number OSPF subcommand. When configured, if the router learns more than the configured number of
LSAs from other routers (ignoring those created by the router itself), the router reacts. The first reaction
is to issue log messages. The router ignores the event for a time period, after which the router repeats
the warning message. This ignore-and-wait strategy can proceed through several iterations, ending
when the router closes all neighborships, discards its LSDB, and then starts adding neighbors again. (The
ignore time, and the number of times to ignore the event, can be configured with the max-lsa

If no DR is required:
When sending the first DD message, transition to an Exstart state. The Master/Slave relationship is
established in the Exstart state. Then the neighbor is transitioned to the Exchange state
The Master is the router with the highest RID
Sequence Number begins with 0x80000001 and increments by 1 whenever the LSA changes
RouterA#debug ip ospf events
OSPF events debugging is on
04:43:16: OSPF: Rcv hello from area 0 from Serial0/0
04:43:16: OSPF: Mismatched hello parameters from
04:43:16: OSPF: Dead R 120 C 10, Hello R 30 C 30
The Dead R is the Dead Timer of the neighbor that in this case is 120 seconds,
and the Dead C is the local Dead Timer.
When pinging a link local IPv6 address, the outgoing interface will have to be specified because these
addresses are are not routed and are not in the routing table. Also note that the full interface name
must be specified without spaces.
With Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF), layer 3 switching is done in hardware (in an ASIC) instead of by
software and the central CPU. It is off by default on all Cisco routers
To match a default route with a:
1) Standard ACL, use "access-list x permit
2) Extended ACL, use "access-list y permit ip host host
3) prefix-list, use "ip prefix-list z permit

When redistributing IGRP into EIGRP, if they have the same ASN, they redistribute automatically else
redistribution needs to be manually configured

The redistribute command also tells the router to redistribute connected routes on interfaces enabled
with that routing protocol including passive interfaces

Tool command language (tcl) syntax for ping & traceroute

Foreach address {
} { ping | trace $address}
To quit tcl, use the tclquit command. It takes you straight to privilege mode

"Bit bucket" - A term used when a router discards a route that matches the null0 interface of a summary

N/B: for default frame relay networks, Neighbor commands configured on spoke routers will not appear
in the running config if the router's OSPF priority has been set to 0 on the interface which would be used
to communicate with the designated neighbor.

Although you can use the "ip ospf dead-interval minimal hello-multiplier" command on serial links, it
would create additional overhead on these slow links and could result in flapping adjacencies if the link
begins to experience congestion.
Using this command on high-speed serial links would be less of an issue

When a router receives an unknown OSPF LSA, it will first of all flood the LSA out all interfaces except
the interface it learned that LSA from. This is done before it sends an ACK to the transmitting router of
that LSA

The metric of an OSPFv3 summary route will be the worst (highest) metric of its subordinate routes

Question: what technique should be used on BGP edge routers to prevent a multi- homed AS from
becoming a transit system?
Answer: Use an outgoing distribution-list to filter all networks not originating from inside the AS

The BGP Synchronization Rule

- Do not use or internally advertise a route until the route is learned from a source other than BGP

The redistribution command tells the router to take not only routes learned by the source routing
protocol but also connected routes on interfaces enabled wit that routing protocol - including passive
interfaces. i.e.
1) All routes in the routing table learned by the source
2) All connected routes of interfaces on which the source routing protocol was enabled

Delay is configured in tens-of-microseconds

Bandwidth is configured in kilobits per second
The OSPF Type-E2 metric is simply the metric value listed in the type 5 LSA

To defeat the RIP-OSPF domain loop problem using AD, just configure the AD for OSPF external routes to
be higher than the AD of RIP on the same router.
When configuring per-router AD, the IP address of the neighboring router as referenced in the distance
command in OSPF configuration will be compared to the RID of router that owns the Type-5 LSA
With regards to RIP and EIGRP, the IP address referenced is that of the neighboring router that
advertises the route

RIPv2 does not allow summarizing to a mask length that is less than the class full network prefix. To get
around the " ip summary-address rip" command issue, create a static route to summarize the routes
then redistribute the route using the " redistribute static" command. NOTE: this is not a limitation of
RIPv2 but a Cisco IOS implementation issue

You might need to issue the " clear ip route* " command on the route you wish to see changes in its
routing table when using RIPv2

The administrative distance for a specific routing protocol is locally significant.

Using route-maps with PBR, you have two match options to use
1) Match IP address [ ]
2) Match length [min max]

When a route-map (with the permit action) matches a packet, the set command defines the action to be
taken. The 4 set command options are
1) Set ip next-hop [address 1, address 2........]
2) Set ip default next-hop [....., ....,.........]
3) Set interface [ interface-type interface-number,...........]
4) Set default interface [ interface-type interface-number,...........]
N/B: 1) the next-hop IP has to be in the same connected subnet
2) with the default keyword used, the IOS applies the normal destination-based logic first
(excluding default routes)

To make the IOS process locally generated traffic using PBR logic, the " ip local policy route-map [ ]"
global config command should be used

16-Bit ASN Assignment Categories

0 Reserved
1 - 64,495 Assigned by IANA for public use
64,496 - 64,511 Reserved for use in documentation
64,512 - 65,534 Private Use
65,535 Reserved

BGP Operation
1) Only advertise the best route in any BGP update
2) Do not advertise iBGP-learned routes to iBGP peers

By default, when a router advertises a route using eBGP, the advertising router lists its own update-
source IP address as the next-hop address of the route. However when advertising a route to an iBGP
peer, the advertising router does not change the next-hop IP address.
The "neighbor [A.A.A.A] next-hop self" command changes the default iBGP next-hop behavior