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Metal Cutting, Metal Forming & Metrology

Questions & Answers-For 2018 (All Questions are in Sequence)

IES-1992-2017 (26 Yrs.), GATE-1992-2017 (26 Yrs.), GATE (PI)-2000-2017 (18 Yrs.), IAS-1994-
2010 (17 Yrs.), some PSUs questions and conventional questions IES, IAS, IFS are added.
Section-I: Theory of Metal Cutting Questions Answer & Explanations
Chapter-1: Basics of Metal Cutting Page-1 Page-144
Chapter-2: Analysis of Metal Cutting Page-8 Page- 148
Chapter-3: Tool life, Tool Wear, Economics and Machinability Page-19 Page-159

Section-II: Metrology Questions Answer & Explanations

Chapter-4: Limit, Tolerance & Fits Page-37 Page-169
Chapter-5: Measurement of Lines & Surfaces Page-50 Page-176
Chapter-6: Miscellaneous of Metrology Page-62 Page-177

Section-III: Metal Forming Questions Answer & Explanations

Chapter-7: Cold Working, Recrystalization and Hot Working Page-67 Page-179
Chapter-8: Rolling Page-72 Page-180
Chapter-9: Forging Page-82 Page-183
Chapter-10: Extrusion & Drawing Page-92 Page-186
Chapter-11: Sheet Metal Operation Page-105 Page-190
Chapter-12: Powder Metallurgy Page-124 Page-194

Section-IV: Cutting Tool Materials Page-133 Page-195

For-2018 (IES, GATE & PSUs)

g is a p
process of converting
g raw OrthogonalMachining
material in to finished product by using various
TheoryofMetalCutting processes, machines and energy, it is a narrow term.

Production is a p
process of converting
g inputs
p in to
outputs it is a broader term.

1 2 3

Speed feed
Speed, feed, and depth of cut IES2013 IES2001
Carbide tool is used to machine a 30 mm diameter For cutting of brass with singlepoint cutting tool
t l shaft
h ft att a spindle
i dl speed
d off 1000 revolutions
l ti per on a lathe, tool should have
minute The cutting speed of the above turning
(a) Negativerakeangle
p is:
(b) Positiverakeangle
k l
(a) 1000 rpm
( ) Zerorakeangle
(c) Z k l
(b) 1570 m/min
(d) Zerosidereliefangle
Z id li f l
(c) 94.2 m/min
Cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut for a turning operation (d) 47.1 m/min
4 5 6

IES1995 GATE1995;2008 IES1993

Cuttingpowerconsumptioninturningcanbe Assertion
A i (A):
(A) For
F a negative i rake
k tool,
l the
h specific
Singlepointthreadcuttingtoolshouldideally cutting pressure is smaller than for a positive rake
have: significantlyreducedby
f l d db tool under otherwise identical conditions.
(a)Increasingrakeangleofthetool Reason (R): The shear strain undergone by the chip
a) Zerorake in the case of negative rake tool is larger.
(b)Increasingthecuttinganglesofthetool ( ) Both
(a) h A and d R are individually
d d ll true and d R is the
b) Positiverake
(c)Wideningthenoseradiusofthetool correct explanation of A
c) Negativerake (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
(d)Increasingtheclearanceangle correct explanation of A
d) Normalrake
l k
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
7 8 9
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 1 of 213 Rev.0
IES 2005 IES2015 IES 2002
Statement (I) : The ceramic tools used in machining of
A i (A):
(A) Carbide
C bid tips i are generallyll given
i Assertion
A i (A):
(A) Negative
N i rakek is
i usuallyll provided
id d on
material have highly brittle tool tips.
negative rake angle. carbide tipped tools.
Statement (II) : Ceramic tools can be used on hardto hard to
Reason (R): Carbide tips are made from very hard machine work material. Reason (R): Carbide tools are weaker in
materials ( ) Both
(a) B th statement
t t t (I) and
d (II) are individually
i di id ll true
t andd compression.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the statement (II) is the correct explanation of statement (I) (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation
l off A (b) Both statement (I) and statement(II) are individually correct explanation
l off A
(b) Both
ot A aand d R aaree individually
d v dua y ttrue
ue but R iss not
ot tthee true but statement(II)
( ) is not the correct explanation
p of (b) Both
ot A aand d R aaree individually
d v dua y ttrue
ue but R iss not
ot tthee
correct explanation of A statement (I) correct explanation of A
( ) A is
(c) i true
t b t R is
but i false
f l (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false ( ) A is
(c) i true
t b t R is
but i false
f l
(d) Statement (I) is false but statement (II) is true
(d) A is false but R is true (d) A is false but R is true
10 11 12

IES2011 IAS 1994

Which one of the following statement is NOT correct
GATE 2008(PI)
2008 (PI) Considerthefollowingcharacteristics
C id h f ll i h i i
g g g
1. Thecuttingedgeisnormaltothecuttingvelocity.y
h reference
f to the
h purposes and
d effects
ff off rake
k angle
l B ittl materials
Brittle t i l are machined
hi d with
ith tools
t l
2. Thecuttingforcesoccurintwodirectionsonly.
of a cutting tool? having zero or negative rake angle because it
3. Thecuttingedgeiswiderthanthedepthofcut.
Th i d i id h h d h f
(a) To guide the chip flow direction (a) results in lower cutting force pp g g
(b) To reduce the friction between the tool flanks and ((b)) improves
p surface finish
( ) 1and2
(a) d (b) 1and3
the machined surface ((c)) p
provides adequate
q strength
g to cutting
g tool (c) 2and3 (d) 1,2and3
(c) To add keenness or sharpness to the cutting edges.
(d) results in more accurate dimensions
(d) To provide better thermal efficiency.
13 14 15

IES 2014 IES 2012 IES2006

Whi h one off theh following
f ll i statements is i correct about
b Duringorthogonalcutting,anincreaseincuttingspeed
D i h l i i i i d
an oblique cutting? causes Whichofthefollowingisasinglepointcutting
(a) Direction of chip flow velocity is normal to the (a)Anincreaseinlongitudinalcuttingforce tool?
cutting edge of the tool (b)Anincreaseinradialcuttingforce
(b) Only two components of cutting forces act on the (a) Hacksawblade
tooll (d)Cuttingforcestoremainunaffected (b) Millingcutter
(c) cutt
g edge oof tthee too
tool iss inclined
c ed at aan acute aangle
to the direction of tool feed (c) Grindingwheel
(d) Cutting
C tti edged clears
l th width
the idth off the
th workpiece
k i (d) Partingtool

16 17 18
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 2 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2017(PI) IES 2012 IES2003
St t t(I) N ti k l f d i id t The
Th angle l off inclination
i li i off the
h rake
k face
f with
Turning, drilling, boring and milling are upsforinterruptedcuttinganddifficulttomachine respect to the tool base measured in a plane
commonly used machining operations.
operations Among materials.
perpendicular to the base and parallel to the width
these, the operation(s) performed by a single Statement(II):Negativerakeangledirectsthechipsontothe
machinedsurface of the tool is called
point cutting tool is (are) (a) Back rake angle
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually
( ) turning
(a) t i t
true andd Statement
St t t (II) is
i the
th correctt explanation
l ti off (b) Side
S d rake
k angle l
Statement (I)
(b) drilling and milling only (b) Both
B h Statement
S (I) and
d Statement
S (II) are individually
i di id ll
(c) S
de cutt
cuttingg edge aangle
(c) turning and boring only true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of (d) End cutting edge angle
St t
Statement t (I)
(d) boring only (c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true
19 20 21

IES2015 GATE(PI)1990 IAS 1996

Th llif i i h h
The purpose of providing side rake angle in the cutting The diameter and rotational speed of a job are 100 mm and
((a)) Increaseinsidecuttingedgeangle
g g g
tool is 500 rpm respectively. The high spot (Chatter marks) are (b) Decreaseinsiderakeangle
(a) avoid work from rubbing against tool f
d at a spacing off 30 deg
d on the
h job
b surface.
f The
h chatter
h ( ) Decreaseinnoseradius
(c) D i di
(b) Control chip flow
flo frequency is ((d)) Decreaseinbackrakeangle

(c) Strengthen tool edge ((a)) 5 Hz ((b)) 12 Hz ((c)) 100 Hz ((d)) 5500 Hz

(d) Break chips


22 23 24

IAS 1995 IES2010 IES1995

Th f illi i h h i i Consider
C id the
th following
f ll i statements:
t t t The angle between the face and the flank of the
((a)) Sidecuttingedgeangle
g g g In an orthogonal, single
point metal cutting, single point cutting tool is known as
(b)Toolnoseradius as the sidecutting edge angle is increased, a) Rake angle
( ) Rakeangle
(c) R k l 1. The tangential force increases. b) Clearance angle
( )
g g g 2 The longitudinal force drops.
2. drops c) Lip angle
d) Point angle.
33. The radial force increases.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) 1 and 2 only
( ) 2 and
(c) d 3 only
l (d) 1, 2 and
25 26 27
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 3 of 213 Rev.0
IES2006 IES2002 IES 2012
Assertion (A): For drilling cast iron, the tool is Consider the following statements: Toollifeincreasewithincreasein
T llif i i hi i
provided with a p point angle
g smaller than that The strength of a single point cutting tool depends ( )
g p
required for a ductile material. upon (b)Noseradius
Reason (R): Smaller point angle results in lower 1. Rake
R k angle l ( )F d
rake angle. 2. Clearance angleg ( ) p
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the 3. Lip angle
correct explanation
p of A
hi h off these
h statements are correct?
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correctt explanation
l ti off A (a) 1 aand
d3 ((b)) 2 aand
(c) A is true but R is false (c) 1 and 2 (d) 1, 2 and 3
(d) A is false but R is true 28 29 30

IES2009 IES1995 IES1994

C id the
h following
f ll i statements about
b nose Tool geometry of a single point cutting tool is specified by
Consider the following statements with respect the following elements:
to the effects of a large g nose radius on the tool: radius
1. Back rake angle
1. It deteriorates surface finish. 1. It improves tool life 2. Side rake angle
2. It I increases
i the
h possibility
ibili off chatter.
h 2 It reduces the cutting force
2. 3. End d cutting edge
d angle l
33. It improves
p tool life. 3. It improves the surface finish. 4. Side cutting edge angle
Which of the above statements is/are correct? Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 5. Side relief angle
( ) 1 and
(a) d2 (b) 2 andd3 6. End relief angle
( ) 2 only
(a) l (b) 3 only
7. Nose radius
(c) 2 aandd3o onlyy (d) 1,, 2 aand
d3 (c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3
The correct sequence of these tool elements used for
correctly specifying the tool geometry is
( ) 1,2,3,6,5,4,7
(a) 6 (b) 1,2,6,5,3,4,7
31 32 (c) 1,2,5,6,3,4,7 (d) 1, 2, 6, 3, 5, 4,7 33

IES2009 IES1993
The following tool signature is specified for a single In ASA System, if the tool nomenclature is 8655 ISRO2011
point cutting
p g tool in American system:
y 10152mm,
5 , then the side rake angle
g will be A cutting tool having tool signature as 10,
10 9,
9 6,
6 6,
6 8,
8 8,
10, 12, 8, 6, 15, 20, 3 (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 10
2 will have side rake angle
Wh does
What d the
h angle l 12 represent??
((a)) Side cuttingedge
g g angle g (a) 10o (b) 9o (c) 8o (d) 2o
(b) Side rake angle
( ) Back
(c) k rake
k anglel
(d) Side
de cclearance
ea a ce aangle

34 35 36
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 4 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2008 GATE2001 GATE2011
I a single
i l pointi turningi tool,
l the
h side
id rake
k anglel A single point cutting tool with 12 rake angle is
During orthogonal cutting of mild steel with
and orthogonal rake angle are equal. is the used to machine a steel work p piece. The depth
p of
principal cutting edge angle and its range is a 10
10 rake angle tool,
tool the chip thickness ratio
cut, i.e. uncut thickness is 0.81 mm. The chip
0o 90o . The chip flows in the orthogonal plane.
was obtained as 0.4. The shear angle (in thickness under orthogonal machining condition is
The value of is closest to degrees) evaluated from this data is 1.8 mm. The shear angle is approximately
(a) 00 (b) 450 ( )6
(a)6.53 (b)
( ) 22
(c) 600 (d) 900 (c)22.94 (d)50.00 ((b)) 26
(c) 56
(d) 76

37 38 39

GATE2017 The
Th following
f ll i parameterst determine
d t i the
th IES2014Conventional
IES2014 Conventional
In an orthogonal machining with a tool of 90 model of continuous chip p formation: A bar of 70 mm diameter is being cut
orthogonal rake angle, the uncut chip 1. True feed orthogonally and is reduced to 68 mm by a
h k is 0.2 mm. Theh chip
h thickness
h k cutting tool.
tool In case mean length of the chip is
2. Cutting velocity
68.9 mm, find the cutting ratio. Determine
fluctuates between 0.25 mm and 0.4 mm. 3 Chip thickness
3. shear
h angle
l also
l if the
h rake
k angle i 10o
l is
The ratio of the maximum shear angle to the
4. Rake angle
4 g of the cutting g tool.
i i shear
h angle
l during
d i machining
hi i is i [10Marks]
___________ The parameters which govern the value of shear
l wouldld include
l d
Hint: length of uncut chip = D
(a) 1,2
1 2 and 3 (b) 1,31 3 and 4
(c) 1,2 and 4 (d) 2,3 and 4 41 42

IAS 2015 Main

GATE2014 IES 2004 In an orthogonal cutting operation, the tool has a
rake angle = 10o. The chip thickness before the cut
g p
pure orthogonal
g turning
g operation
p of a In a machining
g operation
p chip
p thickness ratio = 0.5
0 5 mm and the cut yields a deformed chip
hollow cylindrical pipe, it is found that the is 0.3 and the rake angle of the tool is 10. What thickness = 1.125 mm.
thickness of the chip produced is 0.5 mm. The feed is the value of the shear strain? Calculate
given to the zero degree rake angle tool is 0.2 (i) shear
h plane
l angle,
(a) 0.31 (b) 0.13
mm/rev. The shear strain produced during the
(ii) shear strain for the operation.
(c) 3.00 (d) 3.34
Derive the formulae that are to be used while
operation is .
finding out the shear plane angle and shear
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs)
Page 5 of 213
IES 2009 GATE(PI)1990
IES 2016
During the formation of chips in machining with a
Minimum shear strain in A single point cutting tool with 120 rake angle is cutting tool, which one of the following relations
th l turning
t i with
ith a cutting
tti used for orthogonal machining of a ductile h ld good?
holds d
tool of zero rake angle
g is (a)
= s = c
= s = c
i l Th
The shear
h plane
l angle
l f
for the
h cos ( ) cos sin sin ( ) cos cos
(a) 0.0
theoretically minimum possible shear strain to V V Vs
(b) 0.5 (c ) = c = (d ) V cos = Vc sin = Vs cos ( )
cos sin sin ( )
( ) 1.0
(a) 51 (b) 45 where V is the cutting speed, Vc is the velocity of the
(d) 2.0
20 chip,
hi VsV is
i the
th velocity
l it att which
hi h shearing
h i t k place
takes l
(c) 30 (d) None of these along the shear plane, is the shear angle and is the
rake angle.
46 47 48

GATE 2012
GATE2012 IES2004 IES2006
Details pertaining to an orthogonal metal cutting Considerthefollowingstatementswithrespectto
C id h f ll i i h Considerthefollowingstatements:
C id h f ll i
process are given below. thereliefangleofcuttingtool: 1. Alargerakeanglemeanslowerstrengthofthe
g g g
Chip thickness ratio 0.4 1.Thisaffectsthedirectionofchipflow cuttingedge.
Undeformed thickness 0 6 mm
0.6 2 Thisreducesexcessivefrictionbetweenthetool
2.Thisreducesexcessivefrictionbetweenthetool 2 Cuttingtorquedecreaseswithrakeangle.
2. Cuttingtorquedecreaseswithrakeangle
Rake angle +10 andworkpiece Whichofthestatementsgivenaboveis/arecorrect?
Cutting speed 2.5 m/s 3.Thisaffectstoollife (a) Only1 (b) Only2
Mean thickness of primary shear zone 25 microns 4 Thisallowsbetteraccessofcoolanttothetool
4.Thisallowsbetteraccessofcoolanttothetool ( ) Both1and2
(c) B th d (d) Neither1nor2
N ith
The shear strain rate in s1 during the process is workpieceinterface
(a) 0.1781105 (b) 0.7754105 Whichofthestatementsgivenabovearecorrect?
h h f h b
(c) 1.010410
1 0104105 4 397105
(d) 4.39710 (a) 1and2 (b) 2and3
49 (c) 2and4 (d) 3and4 50 51

IES2004 IES2004,ISRO2009 IES2008

M h Li I i hLi II d l h Considerthefollowingstatements:
C id h f ll i
The rake angle of a cutting tool is 15, shear angle 45
usingthecodesgivenbelowtheLists: Inanorthogonalcuttingthecuttingratioisfoundtobe
ListI ListII and
d cutting velocity
l 35 m/min. What
h is the
h velocity
l 075.Thecuttingspeedis60m/minanddepthofcut24
A. Planapproachangle 1. Toolface mm.Whichofthefollowingarecorrect?
of chip along the tool face?
B. Rakeangle 2. Toolflank 1. Chipvelocitywillbe45m/min.
C Clearanceangle
C. Cl l 3. T lf
dfl k (a) 28.5
28 5 m/min (b) 27 3 m/min
27.3 2 Chipvelocitywillbe80m/min.
2. Chipvelocitywillbe80m/min
D. Wedgeangle
g g 4.
4 Cuttingedge
g g 3. Chipthicknesswillbe18mm.
(c) 25.3
25 3 m/min (d) 23 5 m/min
5. Toolnose 4. Chipthicknesswillbe32mm.
A B C D A B C D Selectthecorrectanswerusingthecodegivenbelow:
(a) 1 4 2 5 (b) 4 1 3 2 (a) 1and3 (b) 1and4
(c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 1 4 3 5 ( ) 2and3
(c) d (d) 2and4d
52 53 54
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 6 of 213 Rev.0
IES 2014 IES2001 IES2003
I an orthogonal
h l turning
i process, the
h chip
hi thickness
hi k = If is
i theh rake
k angle
l off the
h cutting
i tool,l isi the
h An
A orthogonal
h l cutting
i operation
i is
i being
b i
0.32 mm, feed = 0.2 mm/rev. then the cutting ratio will shear angle and V is the cutting velocity, then the carried out under the following conditions:
be velocity of chip sliding along the shear plane is cutting speed = 2 m/s, depth of cut = 0.5 mm,
(a) 2.6
26 given
i b
by chip
hi thickness
thi k = 0.6
6 mm. Then
Th th chip
the hi
(b) 3.2 velocityy is
(c) 1.6 V cos V sin
(a) (b) (a) 2.0 m/s (b) 2.4 m/s
(d) 1.8
18 cos( ) cos ( )
(c) 1.0 m/s (d) 1.66 m/s
V cos V sin
( )
(c) sin( )
(d) sin( )

55 56 57

IAS2003 IAS2002 IAS2000


( ) Shearplaneandthecuttingvelocity

(b) Shearplaneandtherakeplane
Sh l dth k l

(c) Shearplaneandtheverticaldirection

((d)) Shearplaneandthedirectionofelongationofcrystalsin
p g y

58 59 60

IAS1998 IAS1995 GATE 2009(PI)CommonDataS1

The cutting velocity in m/sec, for turning a work piece In
I an orthogonal
h l cutting,
i the
h depth
d h off cut is
i halved
h l d and
d An
A orthogonal
h l turning
i operation
i is
i carried
i d out at 20
the feed rate is double. If the chip thickness ratio is
off diameter
di t 100 mm att the
th spindle
i dl speed
d off 480
8 RPM is
i unaffected
ff d withh the
h changed
h d cutting conditions,
d the
h m/min cutting speed,
speed using a cutting tool of rake angle
actual chip thickness will be 155o. The chip
p thickness is 0.4
4 mm and the uncut chip
(a) 1.26
1 26 (b) 2 51
2.51 (c) 48 (d) 151
(a) Doubled (b) halved
thickness is 0.2 mm.
(c) Quadrupled (d) Unchanged.
The shear plane angle (in degrees) is

(a) 26.8 (b) 27.8 (c) 28.8 (d) 29.8

61 62 63
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 7 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2009(PI)CommonDataS2 GATE1995 IES2007
A orthogonal
h l turning
i operation
i is
i carried
i d out at 20 Duringmachining,excessmetalisremovedintheform
Duringmachining excessmetalisremovedintheform
Plainmillingofmildsteelplateproduces ofchipasinthecaseofturningonalathe.Whichofthe
m/min cutting speed,
speed using a cutting tool of rake angle followingarecorrect?
155o. The chip
p thickness is 0.4
4 mm and the uncut chip
p (b)Regularshapeddiscontinuouschip 1
1. Atahighercuttingspeed
thickness is 0.2 mm. (c)Continuouschipswithoutbuiltupedge 2. Atalowercuttingspeed
(d)Joinedchips 3. Abrittlematerial
The chip velocity (in m/min) is 4. Aductilematerial
(a) 8 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 14
(a) 1and3 (b) 1and4
(c) 2and3 (d) 2and4

64 65 66

IES2015 IAS1997 GATE2002

Considerthefollowingmachiningconditions:BUEwill Abuiltupedgeisformedwhilemachining
Coarse feed , low rake angle, low cutting speed and
insufficient cooling help produce (a)Ductilematerialsathighspeed
(a) Ductilematerial.
Ductilematerial (b) Highcuttingspeed
(a) continuous chips in ductile materials (b)Ductilematerialsatlowspeed
(c) S
a a e a g e. (d) Smalluncutchipthickness.
S a u cut c p t c ess.
(b) discontinuous chips in ductile materials ( )
(c)continuous chips with built
up edges in ductile
(d)B i l
i l l d
(d) discontinuous chips in brittle materials

67 68 69

GATE2009 IES1997
Friction at the toolchip interface can be reduced by Assertion (A): For high speed turning of cast iron
pistons, carbide tool bits are provided with chip
b k
Analysis of Metal Cutting
(a) decreasing the rake angle
Reason (R): High speed turning may produce long,
ribbon type continuous chips which must be broken
(b) increasing the depth of cut into small lengths which otherwise would be
difficult to handle and may yp
prove hazardous.
( ) Decreasing the cutting speed
(c) (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
correct explanation
p of A
(d) increasing
i i the
h cutting
i speed
d (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
B SKM d l
70 71 72
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 8 of 213 Rev.0
ESE2000(Conventional) LimitationsofuseofMCD GATE2010(PI)LinkedS1
The following data from the orthogonal cutting test In
I orthogonal
h l turning
i off an engineering
i i alloy,
ll it
i has
1. MCD is valid only for orthogonal cutting. been observed that the friction force acting at the chip
is available. Rake angle = 100, chip thickness ratio =
0.35, uncut chip thickness = 0.51 mm, width of cut = 2. By the ratio F/N, the MCD gives apparent (not actual)
tool interface is 402.5 N and the friction force is also
3 mm,
mm yield shear stress of work material = 285 perpendicular
p p to the cuttingg velocityy vector. The feed
coefficient of friction. velocity is negligibly small with respect to the cutting
N/mm2, mean friction coefficient on tool face =
6 D
Determinei velocity The ratio of friction force to normal force
associated with the chiptool interface is 1. The uncut
((i)) Cutting
g force ((Fc)
hi thickness
thi k i 0.2 mm and
is d the
th chip
hi thickness
thi k i 0.4
(ii) Radial force mm. The cutting velocity is 2 m/s.
(iii) Normal
N l force
f (N) on tooll and
d The shear force (in N) acting along the primary shear
((iv)) Shear force ((Fs )). plane is
73 74 (a) 180.0 (b) 240.0 (c) 360.5 (d) 402.5 75

GATE2010(PI)LinkedS2 LinkedAnswerQuestionsGATE2013S1 LinkedAnswerQuestionsGATE2013S2

I orthogonal
th l turning
t i off an engineering
i i alloy,
ll it has
been observed that the friction force acting at the chip In orthogonal turning of a bar of 100 mm diameter In orthogonal turning of a bar of 100 mm diameter
t l interface
tool i t f i 402.5 N and
is d the
th friction
f i ti f
force i also
is l with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev, depth of cut of 4 mm with a feed of 0.25 mm/rev, depth of cut of 4 mm
perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector. The feed
l it isi negligibly
li ibl small ll with
ith respectt to t the
th cutting
tti and
d cutting
tti velocity
l it off 90 m/min,
/ i it is
i observed
b d that
th t and
d cutting
tti velocity
l it off 90 m/min,
/ i it is
i observed
b d that
th t
velocity. The ratio of friction force to normal force
the main (tangential)cutting force is perpendicular the main (tangential)cutting force is perpendicular
i t d with
ith the
th chiptool
hi t l interface
i t f i 1. The
is Th uncutt
chip thickness is 0.2 mm and the chip thickness is 0.4 to friction force acting at the chiptool interface. to friction force acting at the chiptool interface.
mm. The
Th cutting
i velocity
l i isi 2 m/s. /
The main (tangential) cutting force is 1500 N. The main (tangential) cutting force is 1500 N.
Assume that the energy gy expended
p during g machining g is
completely converted to heat. The rate of heat y The orthogonal rake angle of the cutting tool in degree is y The normal force acting at the chiptool interface in N is
generation (in W) at the p
g primaryy shear p plane is
(a) 180.5 (b) 200.5 (c) 302.5 (d) 402.5 (a) zero (b) 3.58 (c) 5 (d) 7.16 (a) 1000 (b) 1500 (c) 20oo (d) 2500
76 77 78

GATE 2015
GATE-2015 GATE 2017 (PI)
The Merchant circle diagram g showingg various forces MerchantTheoryorAnalysis
A single point cutting tool with 0 rake angle is associated with a cutting process using a wedge shaped
tool is given in the Figure. Assumption
used in an orthogonal machining process. At a The coefficient of Theworkmaterialbehaveslikeanidealplastics.
cutting speed of 180 m/min, the thrust force is 490 friction can be
estimated from Thetheoryinvolvesminimumenergyprincipal.
N If the coefficient of friction between
N. bet een the tool the
h ratioi s and areassumedtobeconstant,independentof
and the chip is 0.7, then the power consumption(in f f
(a) 1 (b) 3 I i b d i l h l h
kW) for the machining
g operation
p is _____ f2 f4
f5 f6
(c ) (d )
f6 f5
79 80 81
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 9 of 213 Rev.0
IAS 1999
From Merchant Theory or Analysis
In an orthogonal cutting process, rake angle of the

y Merchant
M h t theory
th gives
i hi h
higher shear
h plane
l tooll is 20 and
d friction
f angle
l is 25.5. Using

= + angle means smaller shear plane which means

lower shear force
Merchant'ss shear angle relationship,
Merchant relationship the value of

4 2 2 y Result: lower cutting forces, power, temperature,

shear angle will be

((a)) 39
5 ((b)) 42.25
4 5
all of which mean easier machining ((c)) 47
75 ((d)) 550.5

82 83 84

GATE1997 ESE2005Conventional GATE 2008 (PI) Li k d S 1

In an orthogonal cutting experiment,
experiment an HSS tool having
In a typical metal cutting operation, using a cutting Mild steel is being machined at a cutting speed of
200 m/min with a tool rake angle of 10. The width of the following
g tool signature
g in the orthogonal
g reference
tool of positive rake angle = 10, it was observed cut and uncut thickness are 2 mm and 0.2 mm system (ORS) has been used: 0107710751. Given
that the shear angle was 20. The friction angle is respectively If the average value of coefficient
respectively. co efficient of
width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece
friction between the tool and the chip is 0.5 and the
( ) 45
(a) (b) 30 shear
h stress off the
h work
k material
i l is
i 400 N/mm
N/ 2, material
i l = 460 N/mm2; depth
6 N/ d h off cut = 0.25 mm;

( ) 60
(c) 6 (d) 40 Determine coefficient of friction at tool
chip interface = 0.7.

(i) shear angle and Shear p

plane angle
g ((in degree)
g ) for minimum cutting
g force

((ii)) Cutting
g and thrust component
p of the force. is

85 86
(a) 20.5 (b) 24.5 (c) 28.5 (d) 32.5 87

GATE 2008 (PI) Li k d S 2

GATE2008(PI)LinkedS2 GATE2014 GATE2014
In an orthogonal cutting experiment,
experiment an HSS tool having Which pair of following statements is correct for Better surface finish is obtained with a large rake
orthogonal cutting using a singlepoint cutting angle because
the following
g tool signature
g in the orthogonal
g reference
t l?
tool? (a) the area of shear plane decreases resulting in the
system (ORS) has been used: 0107710751. Given P. Reduction in friction angle
g increases cutting g force decrease in shear force and cuttingg force
width of cut = 3.6 mm; shear strength of workpiece Q. Reduction in friction angle decreases cutting force (b) the tool becomes thinner and the cutting force is
i l = 460 N/mm2; depth
6 N/ d h off cut = 0.25 mm; R Reduction
R. R d ti in i friction
f i ti anglel increases
i chip
hi thickness
thi k reduced
d d
coefficient of friction at tool
chip interface = 0.7.
07 g decreases chip
S. Reduction in friction angle p thickness (c) less heat is accumulated in the cuttingg zone
(a) P and R (b) P and S (d) the friction between the chip and the tool is less
Minimum p
power requirement
q ((in kW)) at a cutting
g speed
( ) Q and
(c) dR (d) Q and
of 150 m/min is
(a) 3.15 (b) 3.25 (c) 3.35 (d) 3.45 88 89 90
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 10 of 213 Rev.0
ModifiedMerchantTheory IES2010 IES2005
Th relationship
l ti hi between
b t the
th shear
h angle
l ,

Which one of the following is the correct
s = so + k s g and cutting
the friction angle g rake angle
expression for the Merchant
Merchant'ss machinability
is given as
Fn constant?
Where, s is
i the
th normalstress
l t on shear
h plane
l s = (a) 2 +
(b) 2 +
and then 2 + = cot (k )

(c) 2
((d)) +
(Where = shear angle, = friction angle
and = rake angle)
91 92 93

IFS 2016
IFS2016 OtherRelations
TheoryofLeeandShaffer In a slab milling g operation
p g teeth
with straight
They applied the theory of plasticity for an cutter, the cutter has 15 teeth with 10o rake angle
and rotates at 200 rpm.rpm The diameter of the
ideal-rigid-plastic body.
cutter is 80 mm and table feed is 755 mm/min, the
They also assumed that deformation occured depth of cut is 5 mm, the width of slab is 50 mm y ByStabler

on a thin-shear
thi h zone. and ultimate shear stress of work material is 420
N/mm2. Assuming the coefficient of friction
And derive between chip and cutter to be 0.7 and using Lee
and Shaffer relation,
relation plot variation of resultant
= + torque and cutter rotation, and estimate average
power consumption.i
94 95 96

Theforcerelations (VIMP) IES2003 IES 2014

F = Fc sin + Ft cos In orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force = 900 N,
I an orthogonal
h l cutting
i operation
i shear
h anglel = 11.31o ,
cutting force = 900 N and thrust force = 810 N. Then the
the thrust force = 600 N and chip shear angle is 30o. shear force will be approximately ( given sin 11.31o = 0.2)
N = Fc cos Ft sin Then the chip shear force is
(a) 650 N
(b) 720 N

Fn = Fc sin + Ft cos ( ) 1079.4 N

(a) (b) 969.6 N (c) 620 N
(d) 680 N
( ) 479.4 N
(c) (d) 6 6N

Fs = Fc cos Ft sin
and = = tan 97 98 99
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 11 of 213 Rev.0
IES2000 GATE 2007(PI)CommonData1
( )
GATE2016 In an orthogonal machining test, test the following
In an orthogonal cutting test, the cutting force and observations were made
In an orthogonal cutting process the tool used has rake
thrust force were observed to be 1000N and 500 N Cutting force 1200 N
g of zero degree.
g The measured cutting
g force and Thrust force 500 N
respectively. If the rake angle of tool is zero, the
thrust force are 500 N and 250 N, respectively. The Tool rake angle zero
coefficient of friction in chiptool
chip tool interface will
ill be
coefficient of friction between the tool and the chip is Cutting speed 1 m/s
1 1 Depth of cut 0 8 mm
(a)2 ( b)2 ( c) ( d) 2
2 Chip thickness 1.5 mm
Friction angle during machining will be
22 6o (b) 32.8
(a) 22.6 32 8o (c) 57.1
57 1o 67 4o
(d) 67.4
100 101 102

GATE 2007(PI)CommonData2
( ) G
GATE 20 ( ) i k d S
2011(PI)LinkedS1 G
GATE 20 ( ) i k d S2
In an orthogonal machining test, test the following During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen During orthogonal machining of a mild steel specimen
observations were made with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data with a cutting tool of zero rake angle, the following data
Cutting force 1200 N i obtained:
is bt i d i obtained:
is bt i d
Thrust force 500 N Uncut chip p thickness = 0.25 mm Uncut chipp thickness = 0.25 mm
Tool rake angle zero Chip thickness = 0.75 mm Chip thickness = 0.75 mm
Cutting speed 1 m/s Width off cutt = 2.5 mm Width off cutt = 2.5 mm
Depth of cut 0 8 mm
0.8 Normal force = 95 950 N Normal force = 95950 N
Chip thickness 1.5 mm Thrust force = 475 N Thrust force = 475 N
Th shear
The h angle
l andd shear
h f
force, respectively,
ti l are Th lti t h t
(i N/ 2)ofthework
) fth k
Chip speed along the tool rake face will be
((a)) 771.565o
5 5 , 150.21
5 N ((b)) 18.435o
435 , 75
4N materialis
(a) 0.83
0 83 m/s (b) 0.53
0 53 m/s
(c) 9.218o, 861.64 N (d) 23.157o , 686.66 N (a)235 (b)139 (c)564 (d)380
(c) 1.2 m/s (d) 1.88 m/s 103 104 105

IFS 2012
An orthogonal machining operation is being carried out GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(1) GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(2)
under the following conditions : Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation:
depth of cut = 0.1 mm, Uncutthickness 0 5mm
Uncutthickness=0.5mm Uncutthickness 0 5mm
chip thickness = 0.2 mm, Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15 Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15
width of cut = 5 mm, Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm
rake angle = 10o Thrustforce 200N
Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce 1200N
Cuttingforce=1200N Thrustforce 200N
Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce 1200N
Theforcecomponentsalongandnormaltothedirection AssumeMerchant'stheory. AssumeMerchant'stheory.
f i l i N d N i l
Thecoefficientoffrictionatthetoolchipinterfaceis Thepercentageoftotalenergydissipateddueto
(a)0 23
(a)0.23 (b)0 46
(b)0.46 frictionatthetool chipinterfaceis
(c)0.85 (d)0.95 (a)30% (b)42%
(ii)Ultimateshearstressoftheworkpiecematerial [10]
(c)58% (d)70%
106 107 108
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 12 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2006CommonDataQuestions(3) T i O ti
TurningOperation y Fc or Fz or tangential component or primary cutting
force acting in the direction of the cutting velocity,
Inanorthogonalmachiningoperation: largest
l force
f andd accounts forf 99%% off the
h power
required by the process.
Uncutthickness 0 5mm
y Fx or axial component or feed force acting in the
Cuttingspeed=20m/min Rakeangle=15
direction of the tool feed.
feed This force is about 50% of
Widthofcut=5mm Chipthickness=0.7mm Fc, but accounts for only a small percentage of the
Thrustforce 200N
Thrustforce=200N Cuttingforce 1200N
Cuttingforce=1200N power required
i d because
b f d rates
feed t are usually
ll small
AssumeMerchant'stheory. compared to cutting speeds.
Thevaluesofshearangleandshearstrain, y Fy or radial force or thrust force in turning acting
respectively are
respectively,are perpendicular to the machined surface. This force is
(a)30.3 and1.98 (b)30.3 and4.23 about 50% of Fx i.e. 25% of Fc and contributes very
little to power requirements because velocity in the
(c)40.2 and2.97 (d)40.2 and1.65
109 110 radial direction is negligible. 111

IES1995 IES2001 IES1997

The primary tool force used in calculating the total Power consumption in metal cutting is Consider the following forces acting on a
mainly due to finish turning tool:
power consumption in machining is the
((a)) Tangential
g component
p of the force 1. Feed force
(a) Radial force (b) Tangential force
(b) Longitudinal component of the force 2. Thrust force
(c) Axial force (d) Frictional force. (c) Normal component of the force 3. Cutting force.
(d) Friction
F i ti att the
th metaltool
t l t l interface
i t f Th correctt sequence off the
The th decreasing
d i order
d off
the magnitudes
g of these forces is
(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 2, 3, 1
(c) 3, 1, 2 (d) 3, 2, 1
112 113 114

IES1999 f d f d h
The radial force in singlepoint tool during
Conversion Formula thicknessinTurning:(VIMP)
thickness in Turning: (VIMP)
turning operation varies between We have to convert turning (3D) to Orthogonal Forsinglepointcuttingtool
Cutting (2D)
((a)) 0.2 to 0.4
4 times the main cutting
g force t = f sin
(b) 0.4 to 0.6 times the main cutting force Fc = Fz
(c) 0.6 to 0.8 times the main cutting force F b=
Ft = Fxy =
= y = Fx2 + Fy2 Where sin
(d) 0.5 to
t 0.66 times
ti th main
the i cutting
tti force
sin cos t=Uncutchipthickness
=90 Cs=approachangle

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs)

Page 13 of 213
116 l =D Rev.0
GATE2014 ESE2003 Conventional GATE 1995Conventional
During turning a carbon steel rod of 160 mm diameter by a
A straight turning operation is carried out using a carbide tool of geometry; 0, 0, 10, 8, 15, 75, 0 (mm) at speed of While turning a C15 steel rod of 160 mm diameter at
400 rpm,
p , feed
eed o
of 0.3
0.32 mm/rev
/ ev aandd 4.0 mm deptdepth o
of cut, tthe
e 315 rpm, 2.5 mm depth of cut and feed of 0.16
single point cutting tool on an AISI 1020 steel rod. following observation were made. mm/rev by a tool of geometry 00, 100, 80, 90,150, 750,
Tangential component of the cutting force, Pz = 1200 N 0(mm) the following observations were made.
0(mm), made
The feed is 0.2 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.5
Axial component of the cutting force, Px = 800 N
Tangential component of the cutting force = 500 N
mm The tool has a side cutting edge angle of 60o.
mm. Chi thickness
Chip thi k t) 2 = 0.8
( ft cut),
(after 0 8 mm
Axial component of the cutting force = 200 N
For the above machining condition determine the values of
The uncut chip thickness (in mm) is . Chip thickness = 0.48
0 48 mm
(i) Friction force, F and normal force, N acting at the chip tool
interface. Draw schematically the Merchants circle diagram
(ii) Yield shears strength of the work material under this for the cutting force in the present case.
machining condition.
(iii) Cutting power consumption in kW.
118 119 120

IAS2003MainExamination OrthogonalTurning( =90o) GATE2007

During turning process with 7 6 6 8 30 1
(mm) ASA tool the undeformed chip thickness of
Fc = Fz In orthogonal turning of a low carbon steel bar
of diameter 150 5 mm with uncoated carbide
2.0 mm and width of cut of 2.5 mm were used. The tool, the cutting velocity is 90 m/min. The feed
side rake angle of the tool was a chosen that the
Ft = x = x = Fx is 0.24
0 24 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 2

sin sin90
machining operation could be approximated to be The chip thickness obtained is 0.48 mm. If the
h l cutting.
i Th tangential
The i l cutting
i force
f and
d orthogonal rake angle is zero and the principal
thrust force were 1177 N and 560 N respectively.
Calculate: [30 marks]
t = f sin = f sin90 = f cutting edge angle is 90, the shear angle is
degree i
(i) The side rake angle (a) 20.56
.5 ((b)) 26.56
d d
(ii) Coefficient of friction at the rake face b= = =d (c) 30.56 (d) 36.56
(iii) The dynamic shear strength of the work material
i sin90
sin i 90 122 123

GATE 2015
GATE-2015 GATE 2015
GATE-2015 GATE 2016
Orthogonal turning of mild steel tube with a tool For an orthogonal cutting operation, tool material is
A orthogonal
h l turning
i operation
i isi carried
i d out under
rake angle of 10 is carried out at a feed of 0.14 HSS, rake angle is 22o , chip thickness is 0.8 mm, speed
the following conditions: rake angle = 55, spindle
mm/rev. If the thickness of chip produced is 0.28 mm. is 48 m/min and feed is 0.4 mm/rev. The shear plane
rotational speed
p = 4
400 rpm,
p , axial feed = 0.4
4 m/min
The values of shear angle and shear strain is angle (in degree) is
and radial depth of cut = 5 mm. The chip thickness, tc
a) 2820 and 2.19
is found to be 3 mm . The shear angle (in degrees) in
b) and
b)2220 d 3.53
this turning process is _____
c) 24
20 and 4.19
4 19
37 and 55.19
124 125 126
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 14 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2007 GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(1) GATE2003CommonDataQuestions(2)
In orthogonal turning of low carbon steel pipe with A cylinder is turned on a lathe with orthogonal A cylinder is turned on a lathe with orthogonal
machining principle.
principle Spindle rotates at 200 rpm.
rpm The machining principle.
principle Spindle rotates at 200 rpm.
rpm The
principal cutting edge angle of 90, the main cutting axial feed rate is 0.25 mm per revolution. Depth of cut is axial feed rate is 0.25 mm per revolution. Depth of cut is
force is 1000 N and the feed force is 800 N. The shear 0 4 mm.
0.4 mm The rake angle is 10 10. In the analysis it is found 0 4 mm.
0.4 mm The rake angle is 10 10. In the analysis it is found
that the shear angle is 27.75 that the shear angle is 27.75
angle is 25
2 and orthogonal rake angle is zero.
ero Thethicknessoftheproducedchipis Intheaboveproblem,thecoefficientoffrictionat
Employing Merchant
Merchantss theory, the ratio of friction (a)0 511mm
(a)0.511mm (b)0 528mm
(b)0.528mm thechiptoolinterfaceobtainedusingEarnestand
p g
(c)0.818mm (d)0.846mm Merchanttheoryis
force to normal force acting
g on the cutting
g tool is
(a)0 18
(a)0.18 (b)0 36
((a)) 1.56
5 ((b)) 1.255 ((c)) 0.80 ((d)) 0.64
4 (c)0.71 (d)0.98
127 128 129

GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(1) GATE2008CommonDataQuestion(2) MetalRemovalRate(MRR)

Orthogonal turning is performed on a cylindrical work Orthogonal turning is performed on a cylindrical work
piece with shear strength of 250 MPa.
MPa The following piece with shear strength of 250 MPa.MPa The following
M l
l (MRR) Ac.V
V =btV=fdV
b V fdV
conditions are used: cutting velocity is 180 m/min. feed conditions are used: cutting velocity is 180 m/min. feed
is 0.20
0 20 mm/rev.
mm/rev depth of cut is 3 chip thickness is 0.20
0 20 mm/rev.
mm/rev depth of cut is 3 mm. mm chip thickness
ratio = 0.5. The orthogonal rake angle is 7o. Apply ratio = 0.5. The orthogonal rake angle is 7o. Apply Where
M h ' theory
Merchant's h f analysis.
for l i M h ' theory
Merchant's h f analysis.
for l i
Ac =crosssectionareaofuncutchip(mm2)
p g ( g )
Theshearplaneangle(indegree)andtheshear g , p y,
forcerespectivelyare (a)568N;387N (b)565N;381N
V=cuttingspeed= DN , mm / min
(a)52:320N (b)52:400N ( )
N N (d)
(c)28:400N (d)28:320N
130 131 132

IES 2004 GATE2013 IES 2016

A 125 mm long, 10 mm diameter stainless steel rod is
A medium
di carbon
b steell workpiece
k i is
i turned
d on a A steell bar
b 200 mm in
i diameter
di is
i turned d at a feed
f d off
lathe at 50 m/min. cutting speed 0.8 mm/rev feed 0.25 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 4 mm. The being turned to 9 mm diameter, 0.5 mm depth of cut.
and 1.5 mm depth of cut. What is the rate of metal rotational speed of the workpiece is 160 rpm. The The spindle rotates at 360 rpm. With the tool traversing
removal? material removal rate in mm3/s is
at an axial speed of 175 mm/min, the metal removal rate
(a) 1000 mm3/min (a) 160 (b) 167.6 (c) 1600 (d) 1675.5
(b) 60,000 mm3/min
/ is nearly.
0,000 mm3//min
(c) 20,000 (a) 2200 mm3 / min (b) 2400 mm3 / min
(d) Can not be calculated with the given data (c) 2600 mm / min (d) 2800 mm3 / min

133 134 135

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 15 of 213 Rev.0
PowerConsumedDuringCutting SpecificEnergyConsumption GATE(PI)1991
Amount of energy consumption per unit volume of
Power (W ) Fc
e= = metal removal is maximum in
MRR mm / s 1000 fd ) (a) Turning (b) Milling
c (c) Reaming (d) Grinding

Fc=cuttingforce(inN) Sometimes it is also known as specific power
V tti
d / consumption.
136 137 138

GATE2007 GATE2016(PI) GATE2013(PI)CommonDataQuestion

In orthogonal turning of medium carbon steel. The A disc
di off 200 mm outer and d 80
8 mm inner
i diameter
di is
A cylindrical bar of 100 mm diameter is orthogonally faced of 0.1 mm/rev with a depth of cut of 1 mm. The
specific machining energy is 2.0 J/mm3. The cutting
velocity, feed and depth of cut are 120 m/min, 0.2 straight turned with cutting velocity, feed and depth of facing operation is undertaken at a constant cutting
mm/rev and 2 mm respectively.
respectively The main cutting speed
p of 990 m/min
/ in a CNC lathe. The main
cut of 120 m/min, 0.25 mm/rev and 4 mm, respectively. (tangential) cutting force is 200 N.
force in N is
(a) 40 (b) 80 The specific cutting energy
energ of the work 103
ork material is 1110 Neglecting the contribution of the feed force
towards cutting power, the specific cutting energy in
(c) 400 (d) 800 J/m3. Neglect the contribution of feed force towards
J/mm3 is
gppower. The main or tangential
g cutting
g force (in (a) 0.2 (b) 2 (c) 200 (d) 2000
N) is ________.

139 140 141

Example GATE2014
Specific Cutting Pressure The
Th main i cutting
i force
f acting
i on a tooll during
d i the
Whentherakeangleiszeroduringorthogonalcutting, turning (orthogonal cutting) operation of a metal is
showthat The cutting force, Fc, divided by the cross section
area of the undeformed chip gives the nominal 400 N. The turning was performed using 2 mm
(1 r ) r cutting stress or the specific cutting pressure,
pressure pc depth
p of cut and 0.1 mm/rev/ feed rate. The specific
pc 1+ r2 cutting pressure is
Wh s is
Where i the
h shear
h strengrhh off the
h material
i l Fc Fc (a) 1000
pc = specific
p ppower of cutting
g pc = = (b) 2000
r = chip thickness ratio bt fd
= coefficient of friction in tool chip interface
(c) 3000
(d) 4000
142 143 144
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 16 of 213 Rev.0
l GATE1992 GATE1993
The effect of rake angle on the mean friction angle in The effect of rake angle on the mean friction angle in
machining can be explained by machining can be explained by
(A) sliding (Coulomb) model of friction (a) Sliding (coulomb) model of friction
(B) sticking and then sliding model of friction (b) sticking and then siding model of friction
((C)) sticking
g friction (c) Sticking friction
(D) Sliding and then sticking model of friction (d) sliding and then sticking model of friction

145 146 147

H Di ib i i M lC i
IES2000 IES2004
A i (A):
(A) The
Th ratioi off uncut chip
hi thickness
hi k to
Assertion (A): In metal cutting, the normal actual chip thickness is always less than one and is
laws of sliding friction are not applicable.
applicable termed d as cutting ratio in orthogonal
h l cutting
Reason ((R): ) Very y highg temperature
p is Reason ((R): ) The frictional force is veryy high
g due to the
produced at the toolchip interface. occurrence of sticking friction rather than sliding
( ) Both
(a) h A and d R are individually
d d ll true andd R is (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
the correct explanation of A explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
not the correct explanation of A correct explanation
l i off A
(c) A is true but R is false
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
(d) A is false but R is true 148 149 150

IES2002 IES1998 IAS 2003

A h i di
In a machining process, the percentage of In metal cutting operation, the approximate
heat carried away by the chips is typically ratio of heat distributed among chip,
chip tool ((a)) Moreheatistransmittedtotheworkpieceandless
((a)) 55% ((b)) 25%
5 and work, in that order is
(b) Moreheatiscarriedawaybythechipandlessheatis
(c) 50% (d) 75% (a) 80: 10: 10 (b) 33: 33: 33 transmittedtothetool
( ) 20: 60: 10 (d) 10: 10: 80
(c) (c) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththechipandthe
(d) Moreheatistransmittedtoboththeworkpieceand
th t l

151 152 153

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 17 of 213 Rev.0
Determination of cutting heat & temperature
i t ll
MeanTemperatureinTurning HEAT
IAS 2003
Th heat
h generatedd in
i metall cutting
i can
y Calorimetricmethod
conveniently be determined by
Mean temperature V f a b
(a) Installing thermocouple on the job
y Decolourising
g agent
(b) Installing thermocouple on the tool
y Toolworkthermocouple
ToolMaterial a b (c) Calorimetric setup
y Movingthermocoupletechnique
M i h l h i
HSS 0.5 0.375 (d) Using radiation pyrometer
y Embeddedthermocoupletechnique
p q
Carbide 0.2 0.125
y Usingcompoundtool
y IndirectlyfromHardnessandstructuraltransformation
di l f d d l f i
y Photocelltechnique
y Infraraydetectionmethod 155 156

IES2011 IES1993
Dynamometer Theinstrumentordeviceusedtomeasurethecutting A 'Dynamometer' is a device used for the
y Dynamometers are used for measuring Cutting forces.
forces measurement of
y For Orthogonal Cutting use 2D dynamometer ((a)) Chip
p thickness ratio
y For Oblique
q Cutting
g use 33D dynamometer
y ( ) y
(b) Forces during metal cutting
(d)Lactometer (c) Wear of the cutting tool
(d) Deflection
D fl ti off the
th cutting
tti tool
t l

157 158 159

IES1996 TypesofDynamometers StrainGaugeDynamometers

Which of the following forces are measured directly by Strain
S i gauge type The
Th strain,
i induced
i d d by b the
h force
f changes
h the
h electrical
l i l
strain gauges or force dynamometers during metal Or resistance, R, of the strain gauges which are firmly
cutting ? pasted on the surface of the toolholding beam as
piezoelectric type
1. Force exerted byy the tool on the chip p acting
g normallyy to R
the tool face. = G
2. Horizontal cutting g force exerted byy the tool on the work R
piece. Strain
St i gauge type
t d
t are inexpensive
i i but
b t less
l where, G = gauge factor (around 2.0 for conductive
3. Frictional resistance of the tool against the chip flow accurate and consistent, whereas, the piezoelectric type gauges)
acting along the tool face. are highly accurate, reliable and consistent but very
The change in resistance of the gauges connected in a
4 Vertical force which helps in holding the tool in
4. expensive
p for highg material cost and stringent g
Wh t t
Wheatstone b id produces
bridge d voltage
lt output
t t V,
V through
th h
position. construction.
a strain measuring bridge (SMB)
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4
(c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3 160 161 162
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 18 of 213 Rev.0
IES1998 IAS2001
A ti (A):
(A) Piezoelectric
Pi l t i transducers
t d and
d preferred
f d
The gauge factor of a resistive pickup of over strain gauge transducers in the dynamometers for
cutting force dynamometer is defined as the measurement of threedimensional
three dimensional cutting forces.
ratio of Reason (R): In electric transducers there is a significant
leakage of signal from one axis to the other,
other such cross
(a) Applied strain to the resistance of the wire error is negligible in the case of piezoelectric
(b) The
h proportionall change
h in resistance to the
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
applied strain explanation of A
(c) The resistance to the applied strain (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correctt explanation
l ti off A
(d) Change in resistance to the applied strain (c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
163 164 165

For PSU & IES Tool failure is two types
In strain gauge dynamometers the use of how y 1. Slowdeath: The g gradual or p
g wearingg
many active gauge makes the dynamometers more away of rake face (crater wear) or flank (flank wear) of
effective , ,
ToolWear,ToolLife,Economics& the cuttingg tool or both.
y 2.Suddendeath:Failuresleadingtoprematureend
(a) Four Machinability ofthetool
(b) Three y The suddendeath type of tool failure is difficult to
(c) Two predict. Tool failure mechanisms include plastic
deformation, brittle fracture, fatigue fracture or edge
(d) One pp g However it is difficult to p
chipping. predict which of
these processes will dominate and when tool failure
will occur.
166 167 168

IES2010 IES 2007,IES2016 IES 2014

Flank wear occurs on the Flank wear occurs mainly on which of the The
Th fatigue
f i failure
f il off a tooll is
i due
d to
((a)) abrasive friction,, cutting g fluid and chip
p breakage
( ) Relief face of the tool
(a) f ll i ?
(b) Variable thermal stresses, chip breakage and variable
(b) Rake
R k face
f (a) Nose part and top face dimensions of cut
(b) Cutting edge only (c) Abrasive friction, chip breakage and variable
( ) Nose
(c) N off the
th tool
t l dimensions of cut
((c)) Nose p
part, front relief face, and side relief face of the (d) Chip breakage,
breakage variable thermal stresses and cutting
(d) Cutting edge
cutting tool fluid

(d) Face of the cutting tool at a short distance from

the cutting edge
169 170 171
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 19 of 213 Rev.0
ToolWear l
ToolWear IES 1994
(a) Flank Wear Assertion(A):Toolwearisexpressedintermsof
A i (A) T l i di f
(b) Crater Wear Reason(R):Measurementofflankwearissimple
(c) Chipping off of the cutting edge
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
l f
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot
ot a d R a e d v dua y t ue but R s ot tthe e
( ) AistruebutRisfalse
(c) Ai t b tRi f l
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue
172 173 174

FlankWear:(Wearland) GATE2014 FlankWear:(Wearland)

C i tooll is
i much h harder
h d than h the
h workpiece.
k i
Reason Yet the tool wears out during the toolwork
y Abrasion
Ab i b hard
by h d particles
i l and
d inclusions
i l i i the
in h work
k interaction, because y Flank
Fl k wear directly
di l affect
ff the
h component dimensions
di i
piece. produced.
(a) extra hardness is imparted to the work
piece due to
y Shearing off the micro welds between tool and work coolant used y Flank wear is usually the most common determinant of
material tool life.
(b) oxide
d layers
l on the
h workpiece
k surface
f impart extra
y Abrasion by fragments of builtupedge ploughing hardness to it
i the
h clearance
l f
face off the
h tool.
(c) extra hardness is imparted to the workpiece due to
y At low speed
p flank wear p
predominates. severe rate of strain
y If MRR increased flank wear increased. (d) vibration is induced in the machine tool

175 176 177

FlankWear:(Wearland) FlankWear:(Wearland)
Stages Primary wear
y Flank
Fl k Wear
W occurs in
i three
h stages off varying
i wear rates The region
Th i where
h the
h sharp
h cutting
i edge
d i quickly
is i kl
broken down and a finite wear land is established.

y wear
The region where the wear progresses at a uniform rate.

178 179 180

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 20 of 213 Rev.0
FlankWear:(Wearland) IES 2004 GATE 2008 (PI)
u g machining,
During ac g, tthee wea a d ((h)) has
wear land as bee
been p otted
C id theh following
f ll i statements:
Tertiary wear against machining time (T) as given in the following
During g the third stage g of toolwear,, rapid
p figure.
The region
Th i where
h wear progresses at a gradually
d ll
deterioration of tool edge takes place because
increasing rate.
1 Flank wear is only marginal
y In the tertiary region the wear of the cutting tool has
become sensitive to increased tool temperature due to 2. Flank wear is large
high wear land. 3. Temperature of the tool increases gradually
y Regrinding
R i di i recommended
is d d before
b f they
h enter this
hi 4. Temperature
T t off the
th tool
t l increases
i d ti ll
region. Which of the statements g given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4 For a critical wear land of 1.8 mm, the cutting tool life (in
minute) is
( ) 1 and
(c) d4 (d) 2 and d3
181 182
(a) 52.00 (b) 51.67 (c) 51.50 (d) 50.00 183

ToollifecriteriaISO Craterwear CraterwearContd..

(A i id h ffl k (VB)i h y More common in ductile materials which produce y Crater depth exhibits linear increase with time.
criterion) y It increases with MRR.
y Uniformwear:0.3mmaveragedoverallpast continuous chip.
y Localizedwear:0.6mmonanyindividualpast
Localizedwear:0 6mmonanyindividualpast y Crater
C wear occurs on the
h rake
k face.

y At very high
hi h speed
d crater
t wear predominates
d i t

y For crater wear temperature is main culprit and tool

defuse into the chip material & tool temperature is y Crater wear has little or no influence on cutting forces,
maximum at some distance from the tool tip. work piece tolerance or surface finish.

184 185 186

IES 2002 IAS 2007 IES 2000

C l l di Whydoescraterwearstartatsomedistancefrom
Wh d di f Craterwearstartsatsomedistancefromthetooltip
C di f h l i
fromthetooltipbecauseatthatpoint thetooltip? because
(a) Cuttingfluiddoesnotpenetrate (a) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion (a) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion
(b) Normalstressonrakefaceismaximum (b) Cuttingfluidcannotpenetratethatregion (b) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion
(c) Temperatureismaximum (c) Tooltemperatureismaximuminthatregion (c) Toolstrengthisminimumatthatregion
(d) Toolstrengthisminimum (d) Stressonrakefaceismaximumatthatregion (d) Tooltemperatureismaximumatthatregion

187 188 189

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 21 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1995 WearMechanism IAS 2002
C i d i i Consider
C id theh following
f ll i actions:i
1. Abrasionwear
((a)) Carbonsteeltools 1. Mechanical abrasion 2. Diffusion
(b) Tungstencarbidetools 3. Plastic deformation 4. Oxidation
2. Adhesionwear
( ) Highspeedsteeltools
(c) Hi h d l l Whi h off the
Which h above
b are the
h causes off tooll wear??
((d)) Ceramictools 3 Diffusionwear
3. ((a)) 2 and 3 ((b)) 1 and 2
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 3
4. Chemicaloroxidationwear

190 191 192

IES 1995 IAS 1999 Whychippingofforfinecracks

M hLi I i hLi II d l h
Th type off wear that
h occurs due
d to the
h cutting
action of the particles in the cutting fluid is
d l d h d
ListI(Weartype) ListII(Associatedmechanism) referred to as y Tool material is too brittle
A Abrasivewears
A. 1
1. Galvanicaction (a) Attritions wear
B. Adhesivewears 2. Ploughingaction (b) Diffusion wear y Weak design of tool, such as high positive rake angle
C. Electrolyticwear 3. Moleculartransfer (c) Erosive wear
D Diffusionwears
D. Diff i 4. Pl ti d f
ti (d) Corrosive wear y As a result of crack that is already in the tool
5. Metallicbond
y Excessive
E i static
i or shock
h k loading
l di off the
h tool.
Code:A B C D A B C D
( ) 2
(a) 5 1 3 (b) 5 2 1 3
(c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 5 2 3 4193 194 195

IAS 2003 NotchWear IES 1996

C id theh following
f ll i statements: y Notch wear on the trailing edge is to a great extent an Notchwearattheoutsideedgeofthedepthofcutis
N h h id d f h d h f i
pp g of a cutting
Chipping g tool is due to dueto
id ti wear mechanism
h i occurring
i where
h th cutting
the tti
1. Tool material being too brittle (a) Abrasiveactionoftheworkhardenedchipmaterial
edge leaves the machined workpiece material in the feed (b) Oxidation
2. Hot
H hardness
h d off the
h tooll material.
i l
33. High g ppositive rake angle
g of the tool. direction. (c) Slipstickactionofthechip
Which of these statements are correct? (d) Chipping.
y But abrasion and adhesion wear in a combined effect can
( ) 1, 2 and
(a) d 3 (b) 1 and d3
contribute to the formation of one or several notches.
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2

196 197 198

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 22 of 213 Rev.0
Listtheimportantpropertiesofcuttingtool IES 2015
IES2015 ToolLifeCriteria
g statements are be correct for
Which of the following
t i l d l i h hi i t t Tool life criteria can be defined as a predetermined
temperature rise in metal cutting operation?
y Hardness at high temperatures this provides longer numerical value of any type of tool deterioration which
life of the cutting tool and allows higher cutting speeds. 1. It adversely affects the properties of tool material can be measured.
y Toughness to provide the structural strength needed 2. It provides better accuracy during machining Some of the ways
to resist impacts and cutting forces 3. It
I causes dimensional
di i l changes
h i the
in h workpiece
k i and
d y Actualcuttingtimetofailure.
y Wear resistance to prolong usage before replacement
affects the accuracy of machining y Volumeofmetalremoved.
doesnt chemically react another wear factor
4. It can distort the accuracyy of machine tool itself.
4 y Numberofpartsproduced.
p p
y Formable/manufacturable can be manufactured in a
useful geometry (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 y Cuttingspeedforagiventime

(c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1, 3 and 4 y Lengthofworkmachined.

199 200 201

IES 1992 TaylorsToolLifeEquation ValuesofExponentn

T llif i ll ifi db
basedonFlankWear n = 0.08 to 0.2 for HSS tool
((a)) Numberofpiecesmachined
p Causes
(b) Volumeofmetalremoved y Slidingofthetoolalongthemachinedsurface
= 0.1 to 0.15 for Cast Alloys
( ) Actualcuttingtime
(c) A l i i y Temperaturerise = 0.2 to 0.4 for
f carbide
bid tooll

VT n = C
((d)) Anyoftheabove
y [IAS1999;
[IAS 1999; IES
= 0.55 to 0.77 for ceramic tool
Where,V=cuttingspeed(m/min) [NTPC2003]
T Time(min)
202 condition. 203 Reference:Kalpakjian 204

IES 2012 IES 2008 IES 2006

I T l llif i VTn
InTaylorstoollifeequationVT =C,theconstantsn
C h I T l ' llif i i VTn
Whi h off the h following
f ll i values
l off index
i d n is
andCdependupon Whatisthevalueofnforceramictools? associated with carbide tools when Taylor's tool life
1.Workpiecematerial (a) 0.15to0.25 (b) 0.4to0.55 equation, V.Tn = constant is applied?
2 Toolmaterial
2.Toolmaterial ( ) 0.6to0.75
(c) 6 (d) 0.8to0.9
(a) 01 to 015 (b) 02 to 04
3.Coolant (c) 0.45 to 06 (d) 065 to 09
(b) d l

205 206 207

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 23 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1999 IAS 1998 IES 2016
Th approximately
i l variation
i i off the
h tooll life
lif MatchList
M t hLi t I(Cuttingtoolmaterial)withList
I(C tti t l t i l) ithLi t II In a machining test,
test a cutting speed of 100 m/min
exponent 'n' of cemented carbide tools is (Typicalvalueoftoollifeexponent'n'intheTaylor's
equationV Tn =C)andselectthecorrectanswerusing
equationV.T C)andselectthecorrectanswerusing indicated the tool life as 16 min and a cutting speed
(a) 0.03 to 0.08 (b) 0.08 to 0.20 thecodesgivenbelowthelists:
of 200 m/min indicated the tool life as 4 min. The
(c) 0.20
0 20 to 0.48
0 48 (d) 0.48
0 48 to 0.70
0 70 List I
List List II
A. HSS 1. 0.18 values of n and C are
B. Castalloy 2. 0.12
(a)0.5and200 (b)0.25and200
C. Ceramic 33. 0.255
D. Sinteredcarbide 4. 0.5 (c)0.5and400 (d)0.25and400
Codes:A B C D A B C D
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 3 4
(c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 1 2 4 3
208 209 210

ISRO2011 GATE2004,IES2000
GATE 2009 (PI) A 50 mm diameter steel rod was turned at 284 rpm and
I a machining
hi i operation,
i doubling
d bli
h cutting
speed reduces the tool life to 8 th of the original
I an orthogonal
In th l machining
hi i operation,
ti th tool
the t l life
lif tool failure occurred in 10 minutes. The speed was value. The exponent n in Taylor's tool life equation
obtained is 10 min at a cutting speed of 100 m/min,
m/min VTn = C,, is
h d to 232 rpm and
d the
h tooll failed
f il d in
i 60
6 minutes.
1 1 1 1
while at 75 m/min cutting
g speed,
p the tool life is 330 Assuming straight line relationship between cutting (a) (b) (c ) (d )
8 4 3 2
min. The value of index (n) in the Taylors tool life speed
p and tool life,, the value of Taylorian
y Exponent
p is
(a) 0.21 (b) 0.133 (c) 0.11 (d) 0.233
(a) 0.262 (b) 0.323 (c) 0.423 (d) 0.521

211 212 213

IES 1999,ISRO2013 GATE 2016

GATE2016 IAS 1995
In a single point turning operation with cemented carbide
In a singlepoint turning operation of steel with a In a single point turning operation with a cemented
tool and steel work piece, it is found that the Taylors
d carbide
b d tool,
l Taylor's
l ' tooll life
l f exponent is carbide
bid and
d steel
t l combination
bi ti h i
having a Taylor
T l
exponent is 0.25. If the cutting speed is reduced by 50% then
0 25 If the cutting speed is halved,
0.25. halved the tool life will exponent of 0.25, if the cutting speed is halved, then
the tool life changes by ______ times.
increase by the tool life will become
(a) Half
((a)) Two times ((b)) Four times
(b) Two times
((c)) Eight
g times ((d)) Sixteen times
(c) Eight times
(d) Sixteen times
214 215 216
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 24 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2015
Under certain cutting conditions, doubling the IAS 2002 IES2015
cutting speed reduces the tool life to 1/16th of the Using the Taylor equation VTn = c, calculate the If n = 0.5 and C= 300 for the cutting speed and the tool
original. Taylors tool life index (n) for this tool percentage increase in tooll life
l f when
h the
h cutting life relation, when cutting speed is reduced by 25% , if
workpiece combination will be _______ speed is reduced by 50% (n = 05
0 5 and c = 400) the
h tooll life
lif is
i increased
i d by
(a) 300% (b) 400% a) 100%

(c) 100% (d) 50% b)95%

c) 78%

217 218 219

IES2013 IAS 1997 IES 2006conventional

A carbide tool(having n = 0.25) with a mild steel In the Taylor's tool life equation, VTn = C, the value An HSS tool is used for turning operation. The tool life is
k i was found
f d to
t give
i lif off 1 hour
life h 21 off n = 0.5. The
h tooll has
h a life
l f off 180 minutes at a 1 hr.
h when
h turning is carried
d at 30 m/min. The
h tooll life
minutes while cutting at 60 m/min.
m/min The value of C cutting speed of 18 m/min.
m/min If the tool life is reduced will be reduced to 2.0
2 0 min if the cutting speed is
in Taylors
y tool life equation
q would be equal
q to: to 45 minutes, then the cutting speed will be doubled. Find the suitable speed in RPM for turning 300
(a) 200 ((a)) 9 m/min
/ ((b)) 18 m/min
/ mm diameter so that tool life is 30 min.

(b) 180 ((c)) 336 m/min ((d)) 772 m/min

(c) 150

(d) 100 220 221 222

IFS 2013
GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(1) GATE2009LinkedAnswerQuestions(2) In a metal cutting experiment, the tool life was
I hi i i llif f d Inamachiningexperiment,toollifewasfoundtovary
I hi i i llif f d
withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner: withthecuttingspeedinthefollowingmanner: found to vary with the cutting speed in the
Cuttingspeed(m/min) Toollife(minutes) Cuttingspeed(m/min) Toollife(minutes) following manner :
60 81 60 81 C i
d V(i / i ) Toollife,T(inmin)
T llif T(i i )
90 36 90 36
100 120
Theexponent(n)andconstant(k)oftheTaylor's Whatisthepercentageincreaseintoollifewhen
toollifeequationare thecuttingspeedishalved? 130 50
(a)n=0.5andk=540 (b)n=1andk=4860 (a)50% (b)200% Derive Taylor's tool life equation for this operation
(c)n=1andk=0.74 (d)n0.5andk=1.15 (c)300% (d)400% and estimate the tool life at a speed of 2.5 m/s. Also
estimate the cutting speed for a tool life of 80 min.
223 224 225
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 25 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2010 GATE2013 GATE 2017
Two cutting tools with tool life equations given
For tool A, Taylors tool life exponent (n) is 0.45 and Two cutting tools are being compared for a
below are being compared:
constant (K)
( ) is 90. Similarly
l l for
f tooll B, n = 0.3 and
dK machining
hi i operation.
ti Th tool
The t l life
lif equations
ti are:
Tool 1: VT0.1 = 150
= 60.
60 The cutting speed (in m/min) above which tool Carbide tool: VT 1.6 = 3000 Tool 2: VT0.3
0 3 = 300

A will have a higher tool life than tool B is HSS tool: VT 0.6 = 200 Where V is cutting speed in m/minute and T is
tool life in minutes. The breakeven cutting speed
((a)) 26.77 ((b)) 4
42.55 ((c)) 80.77 ((d)) 142.9
4 9 Where V is the cutting
g speed
p in m/min and T is the
beyond d which
hi h Tool
T l 2 will
ill have
h a higher
hi h tool
t l life
lif is
tool life in min. The carbide tool will provide higher ____ m/minute.
tool life if the cutting speed in m/min exceeds
(a) 15.0 (b) 39.4 (c) 49.3 (d) 60.0
226 227 228

p GATE 2003
Thefollowingdatawasobtainedfromthetoollife g tools could p
A batch of 10 cutting produce 500 GATE2017
cuttingtest: During
D i the h turningi off a 20 mmdiameter
di steell bar
components while working at 50 rpm with a tool
at a spindle speed of 400 rpm, a tool life of 20
CuttingSpeed,m/min:49.74 49.23 48.67 45.76 42.58 feed of 0.25 mm/rev and depth of cut of 1 mm. A minute is obtained.
Toollife,min 2.94 3.90 4.77 9.87 28.27 similar batch of 10 tools of the same specification When the same bar is turned at 200 rpm, the tool
ld produce
d 122 components
t while
hil working
ki att 80
8 life becomes 60 minute. Assume that Taylor
Taylorss tool
DeterminetheconstantsoftheTaylortoollifeequation life equation is valid.
VTn =C
C rpm with a feed of 0.25
0 25 mm/rev and 1 mm depth of
When the bar is turned at 300 rpm, the tool life
cut. How many
y components
p can be p
produced with (in minute) is approximately
one cutting tool at 60 rpm? (a) 25 (b) 32 (c) 40 (d) 50
229 (a) 29 (b) 31 (c) 37 (d) 42 230 231

GATE1999 ExtendedorModifiedTaylorsequation IES2010

What is approximate percentage change is the life, t, Tool life is affected mainly with

off a tooll with

h zero rake
k angle
l used
d in orthogonal
h l ( ) Feed
cutting when its clearance angle,
angle ,
is changed from (b) Depth
D h off cut
10o to 7o?
( ) Coolant
(c) C l t
((Hint: Flank wear rate is p
p to cot ))
(d) Cutting speed
((a)) 330 % increase ((b)) 330%, decrease

(c) 70% increase (d) 70% decrease i.e Cuttingspeedhasthegreatereffectfollowedbyfeed

g p g y
232 233 234
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 26 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1997 IES 1994,2007
ISRO2012 Considerthefollowingelements: For increasing the material removal rate in turning,
What is the correct sequence of the following
1. Noseradius 2. Cuttingspeed without
h any constraints, what
h is the
h right
h sequence
parameters in order of their maximum to
minimum influence on tool life? to adjust the cutting parameters?
3. Depthofcut 4. Feed
1. Feed rate
ThecorrectsequenceoftheseelementsinDECREASING 1
1. Speed 2
2. Feed 3
3. Depth of cut
2. Depth of cut
3 Cutting speed
3. orderoftheirinfluenceontoollifeis Select the correct answer using the code given below:
Select the correct answer using the codes given (a) 11 22 3 (b) 22 33 1
(a) 2,4,3,1
2 4 3 1 (b) 4 2 3 1
(a) 1,
1 2,
2 3 (b) 3,
3 2,
2 1 (c) 2,
2 3,
3 1 (d) 3,
3 1,
1 2 (c) 2,4,1,3
2 4 1 3 (d) 4 2 I 3
4,2,I,3 ((c)) 33 2 1 ((d)) 1 33 2
235 236 237

IES 2008 IAS 1995 ESE1999;IAS2010Conventional

Wh h f d i f llif i Assertion
A i (A):
(A) An
A increase
i in
i depth
d h off cut shortens
h The following equation for tool life was obtained for HSS
machiningoperation? the tool life.
1. Temperatureriseofcuttingedge Reason(R): Increases in depth of cut gives rise to tool.
l A 60 min tooll life
l f was obtained
b d using the
h following
f ll
2 Chippingoftooledgeduetomechanicalimpact
2. relatively small increase in tool temperature.
temperature cutting condition VT0.13
0 13f0.6
0 6d0.3
0 3= C.
C v = 40 m/min,
m/min f = 0.25
0 25
3. Gradualwearsattoolpoint (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
mm, d = 2.0 mm. Calculate the effect on tool life if
4. Increaseinfeedofcutatconstantcuttingforce correct explanation
l off A
(b) Both
ot A aand d R aaree individually
d v dua y ttrue
ue but R iss not
ot tthee speed, feed and depth of cut are together increased by
S l tth
t i th d i
below: correct explanation of A 25% and also if they are increased individually by 25%;
(a) 1,2and3 (b) 2,3and4 ( ) A is
(c) i true
t b t R is
but i false
f l
where f = feed, d = depth of cut, v = speed.
(c) 1,3and4
1 3and4 (d) 1,2and4
1 2and4 (d) A is false but R is true
238 239 240

( ) IES 2016 Conventional
GATE2016 In a machining operation with turning tool, the
Write the generalized Taylor's tool life
tool life (T) is related to cutting speed V (m/s),
The tool life equation for HSS tool is VT0.14 f 0.7 d0.4
feed f(mm) and depth of cut d (mm) as equation. Also write the simplified Taylor's
2 5 0 9 0
0.9 0.15
15 tool life equation.
= C. The tool life (T) of 30 min is obtained using the T = Cv f d During g machining g of low carbon steel with
Where, C is
Wh i a constant.
t t The
Th suggested t d values
l f
following cutting conditions: V = 45 m/min, f = 0.35 HSS tool, the following observations have
the cutting gp parameters are: V = 1.55 m/s,, f = 0.255
mm, d = 2.0 mm. If speed (V),
( ) feed(f)
( ) and depth of been made:
mm and d = 3 mm for normal rough turning. If Cuttingspeed,m/min 40 50
cut (d) are increased individually by 25%,
25% the tool the operation is performed at twice the cutting ToolLife min
ToolLife,min 40 10
life (in min) is speed and the other parameters remain
unchanged, the corresponding percentage change Derive the VT relationship.
((a)) 0.155 ((b)) 1.06 ((c)) 22.50
5 ((d)) 330.0 in tool life is_____________.
241 242 243
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 27 of 213 Rev.0
l f IES2010Conventional IES2010
y Drawtoollifecurvesforcastalloy,Highspeedsteeland
D llif f ll Hi h d l d The above figure shows a typical
ceramictools. [2 Marks] relationship between tool life and
cutting speed for different
materials. Match the graphs for
Ans HSS Carbide
HSS, C bid and d Ceramic
C i tooll
materials and select the correct
answer usingi th code
the d given
below the lists:
Code: SS Carbide
C bid C
(a) 1 2 3
(b) 3 2 1
(c) 1 3 2
1.HSS 2.Carbide 3.Ceramic 1.Highspeedsteel 2.castalloyand3.ceramictools. (d) 3 1 2
244 245 246

IAS 2003 Cuttingspeedusedfordifferent EffectofRakeangleontoollife

Th llif f l A dB h i
thefigureandtheyfollowthetoollifeequationVTn =C. toolmaterials
d h f ll
1. Valueofnforboththetoolsissame. HSS (min) 30 m/min < Cast alloyy < Carbide
2. ValueofCforboththetoolsissame.
3. ValueofCfortoolAwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolB
ValueofCfortoolAwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolB. < Cemented carbide 150 m/min < Cermets
4. ValueofCfortoolBwillbegreaterthanthatforthetoolA. < Ceramics or sintered oxide (max) 600 m/min
Whi h fth t t t i / t?
(a) 1and3 (b) 1and4
(c) 2only (d) 4only

247 248 249


EffectofClearanceangleontoollife IES 2014

Tool life Tests In
I accelerated
l d tooll life
lif tests, the
h three
h main
i types off
If clearance angle increased it reduces flank wear but
y Conventionaltest:Usingempiricalformula
g p quick and less costly tool life testing are
edge so best compromise is 80 for
weaken the cutting edge,
HSS and 50 for carbide tool. y Acceleratedtest:Estimatethetoollifequickly (a) Extrapolation on the basis of steady wear;
E t
l ti f t d t conventional measurement of flank and crater wear;
Effectofworkpieceontoollife Highspeedtestwilltakelesstime comparative performance against tool chipping
y With hard microconstituents in the matrix gives poor Variablespeedtest (b) Measurement off abrasive
b wear; multi
l pass turning;
tool life. Multipassturning conventional measurement of diffusion wear
y With larger grain size tool life is better. Taperturning (c) Extrapolating on the basis of steady wear, multipass
turning; taper turning
(d) comparative performance against tool chipping;
taper turning; measurement of abrasive wear
Refer:B.LJuneja+NitinSeth 251 252
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 28 of 213 Rev.0
ChipEquivalent The SCEA alters the length of the engaged cutting edge IES1996
Engaged cutting edge length without affecting the area of cut. As a result, the chip Chip
Chi equivalent
i l is
i increased
i d byb
ChipEquivalent(q) =
Plan area of cut (a) An increases in sidecutting edge angle of tool
equivalent changed. When the SCEA is increased, the
(b) An increase in nose radius and side cutting g
y It
I is
i used
d for
f controlling
lli the
h tooll temperature. chip
h equivalent
l is increased,
d without
h significantly
f l edge angle of tool
h i the
th cutting
tti forces.
f ( ) Increasing
(c) I i the
th plant
l t area off cutt
I i nose radius
in di also
l increases
i th value
the l off the
th (d) Increasing the depth of cut.
chip equivalent and improve tool life.

253 254 255

E i f t l tti
Economicsofmetalcutting l
Vo Ton = C
Optimum tool life for minimum cost
C 1 n
To = Tc + t if Tc , Ct & Cm given
C m n

C 1 n
= t if Ct & Cm ggiven
Cm n
p tool life for Maximum Productivity
(minimum production time)
1 n
To = Tc
256 257
n 258

g g
Units:Tc min(Toolchangingtime)
IES2009Conventional GATE2014
D i the
h optimumi cutting
i speed
d for
f an If the Taylors tool life exponent n is 0.2, and the
Ct Rs./servicingorreplacement(Tooling
operation on a Lathe machine using the following
cost) tooll changing
h time is 1.5 min, then
h the
h tooll life
l f (in
Cm Rs/min(Machiningcost)
Tool change time: 3 min min) for maximum production rate is .
V m/min(Cuttingspeed)
Tool regrinds time: 3 min
Machine running cost Rs.0.50 per min
Depreciation of tool regrinds Rs.
Rs 5.0
The constants in the tool life equation are 60 and
) labourcost+overheadcostper 0.2

259 260 261

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 29 of 213 Rev.0
ESE2001Conventional A 600 mm long job of diameter 150 mm is turned with feed

In a certain machining operation with a cutting

IAS 2011Main
2011 Main 0.255 mm/rev
/ p of cut 1.55 mm.
and depth
Data: Labour cost = Rs. 12.00/hr.
Determine the optimum
p speed
p for achievingg Machine overhead cost = Rs.Rs 40.00/hr.
40 00/hr
d off 50 m/min, tooll life
l f off 45 minutes was maximum production rate in a machining Grinding cost = Rs. 15.00/hr.
observed When the cutting speed was increased to
observed. p
operation. The data is as follows :
G i di machine
Grinding hi overhead
h d = Rs.
R 50/hr.
Machining time/job = 6 min.
100 m/min, the tool life decreased to 10 min. Idle time = 5 min
T l life
Tool lif = 90 min.
i Tool life constants are 0.22 and 475
Estimate the cutting speed for maximum Taylor's equation constants C = 100, n = 0.5 For tool: Initial cost = Rs. 60.00
Job handling time = 4 min./job Grinding time is 5 min/edge
productivity if tool change time is 2 minutes.
Tool changing time = 9 min.
min Tool change time 2 min
[10Marks] 9 grinds per tool before salvage.
Fi d minimum
Find i i production
d i cost
262 263 264

Answer Answer(Contd.)
( )
Tool change time (Tc ) = 2 min
Tool grinding cost = 5 x (15 + 50)/60 = Rs.
Rs 5.417/edge
5 417/edge
Machining time (Tm ) =
150 600
1000 fV 1000 0.25 199.5
= 5.669 min GATE2016
Initial setuptime for a batch (ti ) For a certain job, the cost of metal cutting is Rs.
Tool will be used 10 times (Because first grinding not Total time (Ttotal ) = Idle time (to ) +
d d 9 regrinding
i di needed)
d d) Number of parts produced per batch ( p )
18C/V and
d the
h cost off tooling
l is Rs. 270C/(TV),
( ) where
Tooling cost (Ct ) =
60 + 5.417 9
= Rs.10.875 / use of tool Machining time (Tm )
+ Machining time (Tm ) + Tool change time (Tc ) C is a constant,
constant V is cutting speed in m/min and T is
10 Optimum tool life (To )
Machining cost (Cm ) = Labour cost +Overhead cost per min
5.669 the tool life in minutes. The Taylor
Taylorss tool life
=5 + 0 +5 669 + 2
5.669 = 10
= (12+40)/60 = Rs. 0.8667/min 51.58

O i
C 1 n
life (To ) = Tc + t
tooll lif C t off O
t T
ti = Cm to + i + Tm + (Ct + Tc Cm ) m
Operation equation is VT0.25 = 150. The cutting speed (in
Cm n p To
5 667 m/min)) for the minimum total cost is ________

= 2 +
10 875 1 0.22
10.875 0 22
= 51.58min = 0.8667 ( 5 + 0 + 5.667 ) + (10.875 + 2 0.8667 )
0.8667 0.22 51.58
= Rs.10.63 per piece
C 475
Optimum Speed (Vo ) = n = = 199.5m/min
To 51.580.22 265 266 267

C d
Contd. F
From previous
i slide
GATE2005 IAS 2007Contd
A diagram
di related
l t d to
t machininghi i economics
i with ith
various cost components is given above. Match List I
(C t Element)
(Cost El t) with
ith List
Li t II (Appropriate
(A i t Curve)
C ) and d
select the correct answer using the code given below
th Lists:
the Li t
ListI ListII
(CostElement) (AppropriateCurve)
A Machiningcost
A. 1
1. Curvel
B. Toolcost 2. Curve2 Code:A B C D A B C D
C. Toolgrindingcost
l d 3. Curve3 ( ) 3
(a) 2 4 5 ((b)) 4 1 3 2
D. Nonproductivecost
p 4.
4 Curve4
4 (c) 3 1 4 2 (d) 4 2 3 5
5. Curve5 269 270
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 30 of 213 Rev.0
IES2011 MinimumCostVsProductionRate IES 1999
The optimum cutting speed is one which should Consider
C id the
h following
f ll i approaches
h normally
have: applied for the economic analysis of machining:
1. High metal removal rate 1. Maximum production rate
2. High
Hi h cutting
i tooll life
lif 2 Maximum profit criterion
33. Balance the metal removal rate and cutting
g 3. Minimum cost criterion
tool life The correct sequence in ascending order of optimum
(a) 1,
1 2 and 3 cutting speed obtained by these approaches is
(b) 1 and 2 only (a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 1, 3, 2
(c) 2 and 3 only
Vmax.production > Vmax.profit > Vmin. cost (c) 3, 2, 1 (d) 3, 1, 2
(d) 3 onlyl
271 272 273

IES 1998 IAS 2002 IAS 1997

Th variablei bl cost and d production
d i rate off a Optimum
O i cutting
i speed
d for
f minimum
i i cost (Vc min ) Inturning,theratiooftheoptimumcuttingspeed
I i h i f h i i d
machining process against cutting speed are shown and optimum cutting speed for maximum forminimumcostandoptimumcuttingspeedfor
in the given figure. For efficient machining, the production rate (Vr max ) have which one of the maximumrateofproductionisalways
g of best cutting
g speed
p would be between following g relationships?
p (a) Equalto1
(a) 1 and 3 (a) Vc min = Vr max (b) Vc min > Vr max (b) Intherangeof0.6to1
(b) 1 andd5 ( ) Vc min < Vr max
(c) (d) V2c min = Vr max (c) Intherangeof0.1to0.6
(c) 2 aand
d4 (d) Greaterthan1
(d) 3 and 5

274 275 276

IES 2000 IES 2004 IES 2002

Th magnitude
i d off theh cutting
i speed
d for
f maximum
i Consider
C id the
th following
f ll i statements:
t t t Ineconomicsofmachining,whichoneofthe
I i f hi i hi h f h
profit rate must be 1. As the cutting speed increases, the cost of production followingcostsremainsconstant?
i i i ll reduces,
initially d then
h after
f an optimum
i cutting
i speed
d iti
(a) In between the speeds for minimum cost and increases (a) Machiningcostperpiece
maximum production rate 2. As A the
h cuttingi speedd increases
i the
h cost off production
d i (b) Toolchangingcostperpiece
(b) Higher than the speed for maximum production rate also increases and after a critical value it reduces (c) Toolhandlingcostperpiece
(c) Below the speed for minimum cost 3. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed reduces cost (d) Toolcostperpiece
of production
(d) Equal to the speed for minimum cost
4. Higher feed rate for the same cutting speed increases the
cost of production
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
((a)) 1 and 3 ((b)) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 4 (d) 3 only 278 279
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 31 of 213 Rev.0
IAS 2007 IES2010 MachinabilityDefinition
A i (A):
(A) The
Th optimumi cutting
i speed
d for
f theh With increasing
i i cutting
tti velocity,
l it the
th total
t t l Machinability
M hi bili can beb tentatively
i l defined
d fi d as ability
bili off
minimum cost of machining may not maximize the time for machining g a component
p being machined and more reasonably as ease of
profit. machining.
(a) Decreases
Reason (R): The profit also depends on rate of
(b) Increases Suchh ease off machining
h or machining
h characters
of any
y toolwork p
pair is to be jjudged
g by:
( ) Both
(a) h A and d R are individually
d d ll true and
d R is the
h (c) Remains unaffected
y Tool wear or tool life
correct explanation of A ((d)) First decreases and then increases
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the y Magnitude of the cutting forces

correct explanation of A y Surface finish

(c) A is true but R is false y Magnitude
g of cuttingg temperature
(d) A is false but R is true
280 281 y Chip forms. 282


FreeCuttingsteels MachinabilityIndex IES 2012

Th usuall method h d off defining
d fi i machinability
hi bili off a
y Addition of lead in low carbon resulphurised steels and
also in aluminium,
aluminium copper and their alloys help reduce
OrMachinabilityRating material is by an index based on
their s. The dispersed lead particles act as discontinuity The machinability index KM is defined by (a) Hardness of work material
and solid lubricants and thus improve machinability by KM = V606 /V60R
6 R (b) Production rate of machined parts
reducing friction, cutting forces and temperature, tool Where V60 is the cutting speed for the target material (c) Surface finish of machined surfaces
wear and d BUE formation.
f i that
h ensures tooll life
lif off 60
6 min,
i V60R is
i the
h same for
f the
(d) Tool life
y It contains less than 0.35%
35 lead byy weight
g . reference material.
y A free cutting steel contains If KM > 1, the machinability of the target material is
% Si0.03%,
Si % Mn0.9%,
M % P0.04%,
P % S0.22%,
S % Pb0.15%
Pb % better that this of the reference material,
material and vice versa

283 284 285

ForIESOnly ForIESOnly

IAS 1996 MachinabilityofSteel MachinabilityofSteelcontd

A i (A) Th hi bili f i l y Mainly
M i l sulfur
lf and
d lead
l d improve
i machinability
hi bili off y Leaded
L d d steel:
l Lead
L d is
i insoluble
i l bl and
d takes
k the
h form
f off
bemeasuredasanabsolutequantity. steel. dispersed fine particle and act as solid lubricants. At
Reason(R):Machinabilityindexindicatesthecase y Resulfurized steel: Sulfur is added to steel only if high speed lead melts and acting as a liquid lubricants.
withwhichamaterialcanbemachined As lead is toxin and p
pollutant,, lead free steel is p
there i sufficient
is ffi i t manganese in i it.
it Sulfur
S lf f
(a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe using Bismuth and Tin.
manganese sulfide which exists as an isolated phase
l f y Rephosphorized steel: Phosphorus strengthens the
and act as internal lubrication and chip breaker.
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot
ot a d R a e d v dua y t ue but R s ot tthe
e ferrite, causing increased hardness, result in better chip
y If insufficient manganese is there a low melting iron f
formation and
d surface
f f
correctexplanationofA sulfide will formed around the austenite grain y Calcium
Deoxidized steel: Oxide flakes of calcium
( ) AistruebutRisfalse
(c) Ai t b tRi f l boundary. Such steel is very weak and brittle. silicates are formed. Reduce friction, tool temp, crater
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue y Tellurium and selenium is similar to sulfur.
sulfur wear specially at high speed.
286 287 288
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 32 of 213 Rev.0
ForIESOnly ForIESOnly

MachinabilityofSteelcontd RoleofmicrostructureonMachinability IES 1992

y Stainless
S i l Steel:
S l Difficult
Diffi l to machine
hi due
d to abrasion.
b i Coarsemicrostructureleadstolesservalueof
C i l d l l f s. Toollifeisgenerallybetterwhen
T llif i ll b h
y Aluminum and Silicon in steel: Reduce machinability
y ((a)) Grainsizeofthemetalislarge
due to aluminum oxide and silicates formation, which Therefore,s canbedesirablyreducedby (b) Grainsizeofthemetalissmall
are hard and abrasive.
abrasive y Properheattreatmentlikeannealingofsteels
P h lik li f l ( ) Hardconstituentsarepresentinthemicrostructure
(c) H d i i h i
y Carbon and manganese in steel: Reduce ofthetoolmaterial
y Controlledadditionofmaterialslikesulphur(S),lead
p ( ),
h b l due d to more carbide.
bd (Pb),Telleriumetcleadingtofreecuttingofsoftductile (d) Noneoftheabove
y Nickel,
c e,C Chromium,
o u , molybdenum,
o ybde u , a and
d va
ad u in metalsandalloys.
steel: Reduce machinability due to improved property.
y Effect
Eff t off boron
b i
is negligible.
li ibl O
Oxygen i
improve y Brittlematerialsarerelativelymoremachinable.
machinability. Nitrogen and Hydrogen reduce
289 290 291

ForIESOnly ForIESOnly

Effects off tooll rake
k angle(s)
l ( ) on IAS 2000 EffectsofCuttingEdgeangle(s)on
machinability Considerthefollowingstatements:
C id h f ll i machinability
y The
Th variation
i ti ini the
th cutting
tti edge
d angles
l does
d nott affect
ff t
y AsRakeangleincreasesmachinabilityincreases. 1. Builtupedgeformation
cutting force or specific energy requirement for cutting.
2. Increasingcuttingvelocity
I i i l i
y Buttoomuchincreaseinrakeweakensthecuttingedge.
33. Increasingbackrakeangleuptocertainvalue
g g p y Increase in SCEA and reduction in ECEA improves
Whichofthesestatementsarecorrect? surface finish sizeably in continuous chip formation
( ) 1and3
(a) d (b) 1and2
hence Machinability.
(c) 2and3 (d) 1,2and3

292 293 294

ForIESOnly ForIESOnly

Effectsofclearanceangleonmachinability EffectsofNoseRadiusonmachinability IES 1992

Proper tool nose radiusing improves machinability to Easeofmachiningisprimarilyjudgedby
some extent through
(a) Lifeofcuttingtoolbetweensharpening
y increase in tool life by increasing mechanical strength
d reducing
d i temperature at the h tooll tip
i (b) Rigidityofworkpiece
y reduction of surface roughness,
g , hmax
( ) Microstructureoftoolmaterial
f (d) Shapeanddimensionsofwork
Sh ddi i f k
Inadequate clearance angle reduces tool life and surface hmax =
finish by tool work rubbing, and again too large
clearance reduces the tool strength
g and tool life hence
295 296 297
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 33 of 213 Rev.0
IES 2007,2009 IES 2003
ISRO2007 Assertion
A ti (A):
(A) The
Th machinability
hi bilit off steels
t l improves
by adding sulphur to obtain so called 'Free
1. Toollife M hi bilit depends
Machinability d d on M hi i Steels.
Machining St l
Reason (R): Sulphur in steel forms manganese
2. C tti f
Cuttingforces (a) Microstructure,
Microstructure physical and mechanical sulphide inclusion which helps to produce thin
properties and composition of workpiece material. ribbon like continuous chip.
3. Surfacefinish
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
Whichoftheaboveis/arethemachinability ((b)) Cutting
g forces correct
co ect eexplanation
p a at o oof A
criterion/criteria? (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
((c)) Type
yp of chip
p correct explanation of A
(a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and3only (d) Tool life (c) A is true but R is false
( ) A is false but R is true
(c) 2and3only (d) 2only 298 299 300

IES 2009 IES 1998 IES 1996

The elements which, added to steel, help in chip Considerthefollowingcriteriainevaluating
C id h f ll i i i i l i Which of the following indicate better
formation d
during machining
h are machinability?
hi bilit ?
1. Surfacefinish 2. Typeofchips
( ) Sulphur,
(a) S l h lead
l d and
d phosphorous
h h 3 Toollife
3. 4
4. Powerconsumption 1
1. Smaller shear angle
InmodernhighspeedCNCmachiningwithcoated 2. Higher cutting forces
(b) Sulphur,
S l h lead
l d and
d cobalt
b lt carbidetools,thecorrectsequenceofthesecriteria
CR S G o de o t e po ta ce s 33. Longer
g tool life
(c) Aluminium,
Aluminium lead and copper
(a) 1,2,4,3 (b) 2,1,4,3 4. Better surface finish.
(d) Aluminium,
Aluminium titanium and copper ( ) 1,2,3,4
(c) (d) 2,1,3,4
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 4

301 302
(c) 1 and 2 (d) 3 and 4 303


IES 1996 IES 1995 MachinabilityofTitanium

Small amounts of which one of the following Inlowcarbonsteels,presenceofsmallquantities y Titanium is very reactive and the chips tend to weld to
l off elements
l is added
dd d to steell to sulphurimproves
l h the
h tooll tip leading
l d to premature tooll failure
f l d to edge
due d
increase its machinability? ( ) Weldability
(a) W ld bili (b) F
bili chipping.

(a) Nickel (b) Sulphur and phosphorus ( ) Machinability

(c) M hi bilit (d) H d
bilit y Titanium and its alloys have poor thermal conductivity,

(c) Silicon (d) Manganese and copper g high

causing g temperature
p rise and BUE.

y Almost all tool materials tend to react chemically

y with

304 305 306

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 34 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1992 IES1995 SurfaceRoughness
Machiningoftitaniumisdifficultdueto Consider the following work materials: y Ideal Surface ( Zero nose radius)
1 Titanium
1. 2
2. Mild steel f
(a) Highthermalconductivityoftitanium Peak to valley roughness (h) =
3. Stainless steel 4. Grey cast iron. tan SCEA + cot ECEA
(b) Chemicalreactionbetweentoolandwork The correct sequence of these materials in terms of h f
and (Ra) = =
( ) Lowtoolchipcontactarea
increasing order of difficulty in machining is
4 4 ( tan SCEA + cot ECEA )
(a) 4, 2, 3, 1 (b) 4, 2, 1, 3 y Practical Surface ( with nose radius = R)
(d) Noneoftheabove
N f h b (c) 2, 4, 3, 1 (d) 2, 4, 1, 3 f2 f2
h= and Ra =
8R 18 3R
g in feed ((f)) is more important
p than a change
g in nose radius
(R) and depth of cut has no effect on surface roughness.
307 308 309

IES 2002 IAS 1996 IES 1999

Th value
l off surface
f roughness
h 'h' obtained
b i d during
d i Given
Gi that
h In turning operation, the feed could be doubled to
the turning operating at a feed 'f' with a round nose /
S = feed in mm/rev. and
tool having radius 'r' is given as increase the
h metall removall rate. To keep
k the
h same
R = nose radius in mm,
h maximum i h i h off surface
height f roughness
h Hmax level of surface finish,
finish the nose radius of the tool
produced by a singlepoint turning tool is given by should be
(a) S2/2R
((a)) Halved ((b)) Kept
p unchanged
(b) S2/4R
/ R
(c) S2/4R ((c)) doubled ((d)) Made four times
(d) S2/8R

310 311 312

GATE 1997 GATE 2007(PI)

( ) GATE 2005
Acuttingtoolhasaradiusof1.8mm.Thefeedrate A tool
t l with
ith Side
Sid Cutting
C tti Edge
Ed angle
l off 30o and
d Two
T tools
l P and d Q have
h signatures
i 5566830
6 6 8
0 and 55778150 (both ASA) respectively.
f l f h f
h End Cutting Edge angle of 10o is used for fine They are used to turn components under the same
turning with a feed of 1 mm/rev.
mm/rev Neglecting nose machining g conditions. If hp and hQ denote the p peak
( ) 0.268mm/rev
(a) 68 /
tovalley heights of surfaces produced by the tools P
(b) 0.187mm/rev
8 / radius of the tool,
tool the maximum (peak to valley) and Q,
Q the ratio hp/hQ will be

(c) 0.036mm/rev
0 036mm/rev height of surface roughness produced will be tan 8o + cot15o tan15o + cot 8o
(a) (b)
(d) 0.0187mm/rev
0 0187mm/rev tan 8o + cot 30o tan 30o + cot 8o
(a) 0.16 mm (b) 0.26 mm
tan15o + cot7o tan7o + cot15o
(c ) (d )
313 (c) 0.32 mm (d) 0.48 mm 314
tan 30o + cot7o tan7o + cot 30o 315
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 35 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1993,ISRO2008 IES 2006 GATE2014(PI)
( )
For achieving a specific surface finish in single point In the selection of optimal cutting conditions, the A spindle
i dl speed d off 300 rpm and d a feed
f d off 0.3
mm/revolution are chosen for longitudinal turning
turning the
h most important factor
f to be
b controlled
ll d requirement off surface
f f
h would
ld put a limit
l on operation on an engine lathe. In finishing pass,
is which of the following? roughness
g on the work surface can be reduced byy
(a) reducing the spindle speed
(a) Depth of cut (b) Cutting speed (a) The maximum feed (b) increasing the
h spindle
dl speedd
(c) Feed (d) Tool rake angle (b) The maximum depth of cut (c) reducing
educ g tthee feed
eed o
of too
(d) increasing the feed of tool
(c) The maximum speed

((d)) The maximum number of p

316 317 318

( ) Cutting fluid
GATE2017 y The cutting fluid acts primarily as a coolant and
During turning of a low carbon steel bar with TiN coated Assume
A that
th t the th surface
f roughness
h profile
fil is
i secondly
dl as a lubricant,
l bi t reducing
d i the th friction
f i ti effects
ff t att
carbide insert, one need to improve surface finish g
triangular as shown schematicallyy in the figure.
g If the toolchip interface and the workblank regions.
without sacrificing material removal rate. To achieve the peak to valley height is 20 m, the central line y Cast Iron: Machined dry or compressed air, Soluble oil
average surface roughness Ra (in m) is for high speed machining and grinding
improved surface finish, one should
y Brass: Machined dry or straight mineral oil with or
(a) decrease nose radius of the cutting tool and increase ((a)) 5 ((b)) 6.677 ((c)) 10 ((d)) 20
ih EPA
depth of cut y Aluminium: Machined dry y or kerosene oil mixed with
(b) Increase nose radius of the cutting tool mineral oil or soluble oil
(c) Increase feed and decrease nose radius of the cutting y Stainless steel and Heat resistant alloy: High
performance soluble oil or neat oil with high
tool concentration
i with i h chlorinated
hl i d EP additive.
ddi i
(d) Increase depth of cut and increase feed 319 320 321

IAS 2009 Main

IAS2009Main IES 2001 IES 2012
y Whatareextreme pressurelubricants?
D and d compressed
d air
i is
i used
d as cutting
i fluid
fl id for
f Themostimportantfunctionofthecuttingfluidisto
Th i f i f h i fl idi
[3 marks] machining ( )
Where hi h pressures and
high d rubbing
bbi action
i are
(a) Steel (b) Aluminium (b)Coolthetoolandworkpiece
encountered, hydrodynamic lubrication cannot be
i i d so Extreme
Pressure (EP) additives
ddi i must be
b (c) Cast iron (d) Brass ( )W h
h hi
added to the lubricant. EP lubrication is provided by a ( ) p
b off chemical
h i l components such h as boron,b
phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, or combination of these.
Th compounds
The d are activated
i d by
b the
h higher
hi h temperature
resulting from extreme pressure. As the temperature
i EP molecules
l l b
become reactive
i and d release
derivatives such as iron chloride or iron sulfide and
forms a solid
lid protective
i coating.
322 323 324
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 36 of 213 Rev.0
y The
Th science
i off measurement.

y The purpose of this discipline is to establish means

t, o e a ce & ts
Limit,Tolerance&Fits of determining physical quantities, such as
dimensions, temperature, force, etc.

BySKMondal 1 2 3

Terminology Terminology
Terminology C td
e o ogy Contd....

y Limits of sizes: There are two extreme permissible Unilateral Limits occurs when both maximum limit and
y No a ssize:
Nominal e: S
Sizee o
of a pa
partt spec ed in tthee d
specified aw g.
It is used for general identification purpose. sizes for a dimension of the part. The largest minimum limit are either above or below the basic size.
permissible size for a dimension is called upper or high e.g. 25 +0.18
+0 18
y Basic size: Size of a part to which all limits of variation +0.10
(i.e. tolerances)) are applied.
pp Basic dimension is or maximum limit, whereas the smallest size is known
Basic Size = 25.00
25 00 mm
theoretical dimension. as lower or minimum limit. Upper Limit = 25.18 mm
y Tolerance Lower Limit = 25.10 mm
y Actual size: Actual measured dimension of the part. Tolerance = 0.08 mm
The difference between the basic size and the actual The difference between the upper limit and lower
e g 25 -00.10
e.g. 10
size should not exceed a certain limit, otherwise it will limit. -0.20

interfere with the interchangeability of the mating It is the maximum permissible variation in a Basic Size = 25.00 mm
Upper Limit = 24.90 mm
parts. dimension. Lower Limit = 24.80 mm
The tolerance may be unilateral or bilateral. Tolerance = 0.10 mm
4 5 6

Terminology Contd

For Unilateral Limits,

Limits a case may occur when one of the ForPSU
For PSU ISRO2010
limits coincides with the basic size,
Tolerancesarespecified E
Expressing i as 25.3 0.05 mm is
i a dimension
di i the
th case
e.g.25+0.20 ,250 (a) Toobtaindesiredfits
0 0.10
0.10 of
(b) becauseitisnotpossibletomanufactureasize
BilateralLimits occurwhenthemaximumlimitisabove exactlyy (a) Unilateral tolerance
andtheminimumlimitisbelowthebasicsize. (c) toobtainhigheraccuracy
((b)) Bilateral tolerance
(d) tohaveproperallowances
h ll
e.g. 25 0.04
Basic Size = 25.00
25 00 mm ((c)) Limiting
g dimensions
Upper Limit = 25.04 mm (d) All of the above
Lower Li it = 24.96
Limit 6 mm
Tolerance = 0.08 mm 7 8 9
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 37 of 213 Rev.0
Terminology C td
Contd.... Terminology
Terminology C td
GATE 2010,ISRO2012
y Zero line: A straight
g line corresponding
p g to the basic
y Lower deviation: Is the algebraic difference between
A shaft has a dimension,, 35 mm
size. The deviations are measured from this line.
the minimum size and the basic size.
0 025
y Deviation: Is the algebraic difference between a size The respective values of fundamental deviation and
y Mean deviation: Is the arithmetical mean of upper
pp tolerance are
(actual, max. etc.) and the corresponding basic size.
and lower deviations. ( ) 0.025, 0.008
(a) ( ) 0.025,0.016
y Actual deviation: Is the algebraic difference between (c) 0.009, 0.008 (d) 0.009,0.016
y Fundamental deviation: This is the deviation, either
an actuall size
i and
d the
h corresponding
di basic
b i size.
the upper or the lower deviation, which is nearest one
y Upper
U d i i
deviation: I the
Is h algebraic
l b i difference
diff b
between to zero line for either a hole or shaft.
the maximum size and the basic size.
10 11 12

GATE 1992 GATE 2004 IES 2005

T h f A dBh h i di ifi d In
I an interchangeable
i h bl assembly,
bl shafts
h f off size
i The
Th tolerance
t l specified
ifi d by
b theth designer
d i for
f the
100 0.1mmand0.1 0.0001mmrespectively. diameter of a shaft is 20.00 0.025 mm. The shafts
+0.040 +0.020 produced
d d by
b three
th diff
different t machines
hi A B and
A, d C
Whichofthefollowingstatementsis/aretrue? 0.0100 mm mate with holes of size 25.000
have mean diameters of 1999 mm, 2000 mm and
(a) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftA mm. 20.01 mm respectively,ti l with
ith same standard
t d d
(b) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionisgreaterinshaft The maximum p possible clearance in the assembly
y deviation. What will be the percentage rejection for
A th shafts
the h ft produced
d d by
b machines
hi A B and
A, d C?
will be
(c) ToleranceinthedimensionisgreaterinshaftB (a) Same for the machines A, Band C since the standard
( ) 10 microns
(a) i (b) 20 microns
i deviation is same for the three machines
(d) Therelativeerrorinthedimensionissameforshaft (c) 30 microns (d) 60 microns (b) Least for machine A
d h f
(c) Least for machine B
(d) Least
L t forf machine
hi C
13 14 15

Clearance Fits Use

Fit y Machinetoolsspindles
y Pistonsofhydraulicmachines
Fits:(assemblyconditionbetweenHole&Shaft) y PistoncylinderinICengine
T l

Max C
Hole Afeatureengulfing acomponent Min C
y Innerandouterracesofball,rollerandjournalbearing
Shaft Afeaturebeingengulfed bya Shaft y Clutchdisks
Cl hdi k
p y Slidingrod
y Crankshaftjournals
y Bolts
Max. C = UL of hole - LL of shaft y Rivets
Min. C = LL of hole - UL of shaft y Pivots
y Latches
Th l fit b lid fit lidi fit i
16 fit,slackrunningfitandlooserunningfit. 17
y Fitsofpartsexposedtocorrosiveeffects 18
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 38 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2007 GATE 2015
GATE-2015 A hole and a shaft have a basic size of 25 mm and are to have a
clearance fit with a maximum clearance of 0.02 mm and a
0 .0 5 0 minimum clearance of 0.01 mm. The hole tolerance is to be 1.5
A hole is specified as 4 0 mm. The mating
0 .0 0 0 +0.040 times the shaft tolerance. The limits of both hole and shaft using
h f has
h a clearance
l f with
fit h minimum clearance
l off Holesofdiameter25 mmareassembled hole basis system will be
a) low limit of hole = 25 mm, high limit of hole = 25.006 mm,
0 01 mm.
0.01 mm The tolerance on the shaft is 0.04
0 04 mm.
mm The +0.005 upper limit of shaft = 24.99 mm and low limit of shaft = 24
interchangeablywiththepinsofdiameter25 mm.
maximum clearance in mm between the hole and 0.008 986 mm
b) low limit of hole = 25 mm, high limit of hole = 25.026 mm,
the shaft is Theminimumclearanceintheassemblywillbe upper limit of shaft = 24.8 mm and low limit of shaft = 24.76
a) 0.048mm b) 0.015mm mm
(a) 0.04 (b) 0.05 c) low limit of hole = 24 mm, high limit of hole = 25.006 mm,
c) 0
005mm d) 0.008mm
0 008mm upper limit of shaft = 25 mm and low limit of shaft = 24.99 mm
(c) 0.10 (d) 0.11 d) low limit of hole = 25.006 mm, high Ch limit of hole = 25 mm,
upper limit of shaft = 24.99 mm and low limit of shaft = 25 mm
19 20 21

Transition Fits
IAS 2015 Main
IAS2015Main Hole
IES 2015
A 20 mm diameter shaft and bearing g are to be Consider the following statements
assembled with a clearance fit. The tolerance and Max C
allowances are as under : overlap
In case of assemblyy of mating
Allowance = 0.002 mm Max I 1. The difference between hole size and shaft size is called
Tolerance on hole = 0.005 mm allowance.
T l
Tolerance on shaft
h f = 0.003 mm 2. In transition fit, small positive or negative clearance
Find the limits of size for the hole and shaft, if
between the
h shaft
h f and
d hole
h l member
b isi employable
l bl
(i) the hole basis system is used, Max. C = UL of hole - LL of shaft
Max. I = LL of hole - UL of shaft Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(ii) the shaft basis system is used.
The tolerances are disposed off unilaterally.
unilaterally Thetransitionfitsmaybetightfitandpushfit,wringing ((a)) 1 onlyy ((b)) Both 1 and 2
[10Marks] 22 23 (c) 2 only (d) Neither 1 nor 2 24

Interference Fits
Hole Tolerancezonesnevermeet IES2011 IES2013
Max I Interference fit joints are provided for: Which of the following is a joint formed by

i t f
interference fit ?
Min I (a) Assembling bush bearing in housing
(a) Joint of cycle axle and its bearing
(b) Mounting heavy duty gears on shafts
(b) Joint between I.C.
I C Engine piston and cylinder
(c) Mounting pulley on shafts
(c) Joint between a pulley and shaft transmitting power
(d) Assembly of flywheels on shafts
Max. I = LL of hole - UL of shaft
Min I = UL of hole - LL of shaft
Min. (d) Joint of lathe spindle and its bearing

Theinterferencefitsmaybeshrinkfit heavydrivefitand
lightdrivefit. 25 26 27
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 39 of 213 Rev.0
IES 2014
GATE 2005 StatementI: In interference fit, the outer diameter IES2015
of the inner cylinder will be more than the inner Statement
S (I) : In
I interference
i f fit,
fi the
h outer diameter
di off
In order to have interference fit, it is essential that diameter of the hollow outer cylinder the shaft is greater than the inner diameter of the hole.
h lower
l l
limit off the
h shaft
h f should
h ld be
b St t
t II These
Th fit are recommended
fits d d for
f two
t Statement (II) : The amount of clearance obtained from
parts frequently dismantled and assembled. the assemblyy of hole and shaft resulting g in interference fit
( ) Greater
(a) G than
h the
h upper limit
li i off the
h hole
h l (a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are is called positive clearance.
individuallyy true and Statement (II) is the correct (a) Both statement (I) and (II) are individually true and
(b) Lesser
L th the
than th upper limit
li it off the
th hole
h l explanation of Statement (I)
statement (II) is the correct explanation of statement (I)
(c) Greater than the lower limit of the hole (b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are (b) Both
B th statement
t t t (I) and
d statement(II)
t t t(II) are individually
i di id ll
individually true but Statement (II) is not the correct
true but statement(II) is not the correct explanation of
(d) Lesser than the lower limit of the hole explanation of Statement (I)
statement (I)
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement
St t t (I) is
i false
f l but
b t Statement
St t t (II) is
i true
t (d) Statement (I) is false but statement (II) is true
28 29 30

Statement (I): In sugarcane crushing rollers, the fit GATE2011 GATE2012SameQinGATE2012(PI)
between the cast roll and the forged steel shaft is of +0.015

i t f
interference t
type. A hole is of dimension 9 +0
mm The
mm. In an interchangeable assembly,
assembly shafts of size 25+0.04

Statement (II): This helps in removing the roll from the
corresponding shaft is of dimension 9 +0.001
mm. mm mate with holes of size 0 03
shaft whenever not needed. The resultingg assemblyy has
(a) Both statement (I) and (II) are individually true and (a) loose running fit The maximum interference (in microns) in the assembly
statement (II) is the correct explanation of statement (I)
(b) close
l running
i fit
fi is
(b) Both statement (I) and statement(II) are individually
true but statement(II) is not the correct explanation of (c) transition
a s o fit (a) 4
40 ((b)) 330 (c) 20 (d) 10
statement (I) (d) interference fit
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but statement (II) is true 31 32 33

IAS 2011 Main

IAS2011Main IES 2007 ISRO 2011
te e e ce asse
An interference b y, o
assembly, o a d
of nominal a ete 20
diameter 0 mm,, Ashaftandholepairisdesignatedas50H7d8.This
is of a unilateral holes and a shafts. The manufacturing
tolerances for the holes are twice that for the shaft.
Permitted interference values are 0.03 to 0.09 mm. (a)Interferencefit
D t
Determinei th sizes,
the i with
ith limits,
li it for
f the
th two
t mating
parts. [10Marks] (b)Transitionfit


Hint: Use unilateral hole basis system.

34 35 36
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 40 of 213 Rev.0
IES 2006 IES 2009 IES 2008
Which of the following is an interference fit? Consider
C id the
h following
f ll i joints:
j i Consider
C id the h following
f ll i statements:
1. Railwayy carriageg wheel and axle g
1. The amount of interference needed to create a tight
(a) Push fit 2. IC engine cylinder and liner joint varies with diameter of the shaft.
(b) Running fit Whi h off the
Which h above
b j i
joints i /
is/are the
h result(s)
l ( ) off 2 An interference fit creates no stress state in the
interference fit? shaft.
( ) Sliding fit
(c) (a) 1 only 3. The stress state in the hub is similar to a thick
(b) 2 only
l walled
a ed cy
de witht internal
te a p pressure.
essu e.
(d) Shrink
Sh i k fit
(c) Neither 1 nor 2 Which of the statements given above are correct?
(d) Both 1 and 2 ( ) 1, 2 and
(a) d3 (b) 1 and d 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only
37 38 39

IES 2015
IES2015 IES 2004 Allowance
y It is Minimum clearance or maximum interference. It is
I an interference
i f fit
fi between
b a shaft
h f and
d a hub,
h b the
h state Consider
C id theh following
f ll i fits:
fi the intentional difference between the basic
of stress in the shaft due to interference fit is 1. I.C. engine
g cylinder
y and p
piston dimensions of the mating
gpparts. The allowance mayy be
2. Ball bearing outer race and housing positive or negative.
a)) onlyy compressive
p radial stress
3. Ball
B ll bearing
b i inner
i race and
d shaft
h f
b)a tensile radial stress and a compressive tangential stress Which of the above fits are based on the interference
c) a tensile tangential stress and a compressive radial stress system?
( ) 1 and
(a) d2
d)a compressive tangential stress and a compressive radial
(b) 2 and 3
stress (c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and
40 41 42

GATE 2001 GATE 1998 IES 2012

Allowance in limits and fits refers to In the specification of dimensions and fits, Clearance in a fit is the difference between

(a) Maximum clearance between shaft and hole (a) Allowance is equal to bilateral tolerance (a) Maximum hole size and minimum shaft size

(b) Minimum clearance between shaft and hole (b) Allowance is equal to unilateral tolerance (b) Minimum hole size and maximum shaft size

( ) Difference between maximum and minimum size of

(c) ( ) Allowance is independent of tolerance
(c) ( ) Maximum hole size and maximum shaft size
hole (d) Allowance
All i equall to the
is h difference
diff b
between (d) Minimum
Mi i h l size
hole i and
d minimum
i i shaft
h f size
(d) Difference between maximum and minimum size of maximum and minimum dimension specified by the
shaft tolerance.
43 44 45
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 41 of 213 Rev.0

y For hole basis system,
y , H stands for dimensions of holes
+0.02 whose lower deviation is zero.
Dimension of the hole is 50 mm
y The basic size of the hole is taken as the lower limit of
0 02
and shaft is 50 mm. size of the hole ( Maximum metal condition).
The minimum clearance is Hole basis system y The higher limit of size of the hole and two limits of size

(a) 0.02 mm (b) 0.00 mm y The hole is kept as a constant member (i.e. when the for the shaft are then selected to give desired fits.
lower deviation of the hole is zero))
(c) -0.02
0 02 mm (d) 0.01
0 01 mm y The actual size of hole is always more than basic size or
y Different fits are obtained by varying the shaft size then
the limit system is said to be on a hole basis.
basis equal to basic size
si e but never
ne er less than Basic size.
si e
46 47 48

Why Hole Basis Systems are Preferred?
y For shaft basis system,
y , h stands for dimensions of shafts y Holes can be finished by
y tools like reamers,, drills,,
ZeroLine whose upper deviation is zero. broaches, and their sizes are not adjustable. The shaft

y Basic size of the shaft is taken Upper limit for the shaft ( sizes can be easily obtained by external machining.

Maximum metal condition) y If shaft basis system is used considerable no of reamers

y Lower limit of the shaft and two limits of hole are

and other precision tools are required for producing

selected to give the desired fit. different classes of holes for one class of shaft for
Shaft basis system:
y When the shaft is kept as a constant member (i.e.
(i e when the obtaining different fits which increases cost of
upper deviation of the shaft is zero) y Actual size of shaft is always less than basic size or equal
y Different fits are obtained by varying the hole size then the to basic size
si e but never
ne er more than basic size.
si e
limit system is said to be on a shaft basis. 49 50 y It is economical 51

IES 2005 IES 2005

ISRO2008 Assertion
A i (A):
(A) Hole
H l basisb i system isi generallyll Which
Whi h one off the h following
f ll i is i not correct in i hole
h l basis
b i
preferred to shaft basis system in tolerance design system of fits?
B i shaft
Basic h ft and
d basic
b i hole
h l are those
th whose
h upper for getting the required fits. (a) The hole size is kept constant.
deviations and lower deviations respectively are Reason (R): Hole has to be given a larger tolerance (b) The basic size of the hole is taken as the low limit of
band than the mating shaft. size of the hole.
(a) +ve, ve
ve (b) ve,
ve, +ve
( ) Both
(a) h A and d R are individually
d d ll true and
d R is the
h (c) The actual size of a hole that is within the tolerance
((c)) Zero,, Zero ((d)) None of the above correct explanation of A limitsts aalways
ays less
ess tthan
a tthee bas
basicc ssize.
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the (d) The high limit of the size of the hole and the two limits
correct explanation of A off size
i off the
th shaft
h ft are selected
l t d tot givei desired
d i d fit.
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
52 53 54
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 42 of 213 Rev.0
Limits and Fits

ToleranceZone y Limits and fits comprises 18 grades of fundamental ToleranceDesignation(IS)
tolerances for both shaft and hole, designated as IT01, Tolerance on a shaft or a hole can be calculated by using
It is defined graphically IT0 and IT1 to IT16. These are called standard table provided.
55 tolerances. (IS919) But ISO 286 specify 20 grades upto
by the magnitude of the T = K i
Tolerance Zone tolerance and by its IT18
20 position in relation to the y There are 25 (IS 919) and 28 (ISO 286) types of Where, T isthetolerance(inm)
zero line. fundamental deviations.
deviations Standard Tolerance unit or Fundamental tolerance unit
Hole: A, B, C, CD, D, E, EF, F, FG, G, H, J, JS, K, M, N, P,
i = 0.45 3 D + 0.001D in m
Basic Size R S,
R, S T,
T U,U V,
V X,
X Y,Y Z,
Shaft : a, b, c, cd, d, e, ef, f, fg, g, h, j, js, k, m, n, p, r, s, t, D = D1D2 (D1 and D2 are the nominal sizes marking
u, v, x, y, z, za, zb, zc. the beginning and the end of a range of
y A unilateral hole basis systemy is recommended but if sizes,, in mm))
necessary a unilateral or bilateral shaft basis system may K = is a constant [ForIT6toIT16]
55 56
also be used

Diameter Steps
DiameterSteps IT01 IT0 IT1 IT2
Above Upto andincluding 0.3 + 0.008D 0.5 + 0.012D 0.8 + 0.02D ar GradesofTolerance
( ) (mm)
( ) =a r = 101/5 y It is an indication of the level of accuracy.
3 IT3
3 IT4 IT5
5 IT6
3 6 ar2 ar3 ar4 = 7i 10(1.6)(ITn -IT6) y IT01 to IT4 For production of gauges, plug gauges,
6 10 = 10i
i instruments
10 18 IT7 IT8 IT9 IT10
188 30 10(1.6)
( )(ITn -IT6) 10(1.6)
0( 6)(ITn -IT6) 10(1 6)((ITn -IT6))
10(1.6) 10(1 6)(ITn -IT6)
10(1.6) IT6)
y IT5
IT to
t IT 7 For
F fits
fit in
i precision
i i engineering
i i applications
li ti
30 50 = 16i = 25i = 40i = 64i
550 80
IT11 IT12 IT13 IT14 y IT8 to IT11 For General Engineering
80 120
10(1.6)(ITn -IT6) 10(1.6)(ITn -IT6) 10(1.6)(ITn -IT6) 10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)
120 180
180 250 = 100i = 160i = 250i = 400i
y IT12 to IT14 For Sheet metal working or press working
250 315 IT15 IT16 y IT15 to IT16 For processes like casting,
casting general cutting
315 400 10(1.6)(ITn -IT6) 10(1.6)(ITn -IT6)
400 500 58
= 640i = 1000i 59
work 60

Fundamental Deviation
is chosen to locate the tolerance zone w.r.t. the zero line Shaft Fundamental Deviation
a (265 + 1.3D ) for D 120 mm
y ForShaft
Holes are designated by capital letter: 3.5D for D > 120 mm
Letters A to G - oversized holes ei =es IT
Letters P to ZC - undersized holes b (140 + 0.85
0 85D ) for D 160 mm
es =ei +IT 1.8 D for D > 160 mm
y ForHole
F H l c 52D 0.2 for D 40 mm
(95 + 0.8
0 8D ) f D > 40 mm
Shafts are designated by small letter: ES=EI+IT
Letters m to zc - oversized shafts d 16 D 0.44
Letters a to g - undersized shafts
e 11D 0.41
H is used for holes and h is used for shafts es =upperdeviationofshaft
whose fundamental deviation is zero
ei =lowerdeviationofshaft f 5.5D 0.41
ES=upperdeviationofhole g 2 5D 0.41
61 EI=lowerdeviationofhole 62 h 0 63
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 43 of 213 Rev.0
Shaft Fundamental Deviation
j5 to j8
k4 to
t k7 + 0.6
0 63 D
m + ( IT 7 IT 6) y For hole, H stands for a dimension whose lower
n + 5D 0.34
0 34
d i ti refers
f t the
to th basic
b i size.
i TheTh hole
h l H for
f which
hi h
p + IT 7 + (0 5) the lower deviation is zero is called a basic hole.
r Geometric mean of values of
y Similarly, for shafts, h stands for a dimension whose Basicsize HoleToleranceZone
ei for p and s
upper deviation refers to the basic size. The shaft h for
s IT 8 + 1 to 4 for D 50 mm ShaftToleranceZone
IT 7 + 0.4 D for D > 50 mm
which the upper deviation is zero is called a basic
t IT 7 + 0.63
0 63D
u IT 7 + D y A fit is designated by its basic size followed by symbols
v IT 7 + 1.25D representing the limits of each of its two components,
F d
t lD i ti IT#
x IT 7 + 1.6 D the hole being quoted first.
y IT 7 + 2D y For example,
example 100 H6/g5 means basic size is 100 mm
z IT 7 + 2.5D
and the tolerance grade for the hole is 6 and for the
za IT 8 + 3.15D
shaft is 5.
zb IT 9 + 4 D
zc IT 10 + 5D 64 65 66

GATE 2014
GATE2014 IES 2008 IES2006Conventional
g y 5 g p
GroupB Consider
C id theh following
f ll i statements: Find
Fi d the
h limit
li i sizes,
i tolerances
l and
d allowances
ll for
f a
p GroupB
p A nomenclature 550 H8/p8 /p denotes that 100 mm diameter shaft and hole pair designated by
1. Hole diameter is 50 mm. F8h10. Also specify the type of fit that the above pair
P.H I.ShaftType belongsg to.
2. ItI is
i a shaft
h f base
b system.
Q.IT8 II.HoleType Given: 100 mm diameter lies in the diameter step
33. 8 indicates fundamental deviation. range of 80120
80 120 mm.
mm The fundamental deviation for
R.IT7 III.HoleToleranceGrade Which of the statements given above is/are incorrect? shaft designation f is 5.5 D0.41
S.g IV Sh ftT l
G d ( ) 1, 2 and
(a) d3 The values of standard tolerances for grades of IT 8
P Q R S P Q R S (b) 1 and 2 only and IT 10 are 25i and 64i respectively.
(a) I III IV II (b) I IV III II (c) 1 and 3 only Also, indicate the limits and tolerance on a diagram.
( ) 3 only
(d) [ M k ]
67 68 69

IES2015Conventional SelectedQuestion IES 2002

Determinethefundamentaldeviationandtolerancesandthe In the tolerance specification 25 D 6, the letter D
A journal of nominal or basic size of 75 mm runs
li it f i f h l d h ft i i th fit
H8d represents
in a bearing with close running fit H8g7. Find the
( ) Grade
(a) G d off tolerance
deviationfordshaftisgivenas16D0.44.Thetoleranceunitis, limits of shaft and bearing also find maximum
(b) Upper
U d i ti
i= 0.45 3 D + 0.001D and minimum clearance? 75 mm lies in the
(c) Lower deviation
Thetolerancegradefornumber8qualityis25iandfor9 diameter steps of 50 to 80 mm. Fundamental
qualityis40i. (d) Type of fit
deviation for shaft g is 2.5 D0.34
[ M k ]
70 71 72
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 44 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2009 GATE 2008(PI) GATE 2000
Wh t are the th upper and d lower
l limits
li it off the
th shaft
h ft Following data are given for calculating limits of
represented by 60 f8? A fit is specified as 25H8/e8. The tolerance value for
U the
Use h following
f ll i data: d di
i and
d tolerances
t l f a hole:
for h l Tolerance
T l unit
it i (in
(i a nominall diameter
d off 25 mm in IT8 is 33 microns
Diameter 60 lies in the diameter step of 5080 mm.
F d
Fundamental l tolerance
l unit,
m) = 0.45
0 45 D
D + 0.001D.
0 001D The unit of D is mm.
mm Diameter and fundamental deviation for the shaft is 40
i, in m= 0.45 D1/3 + 0.001D, where D is the step
p is 1830
3 mm. If the fundamental deviation for H microns. The maximum clearance of the fit in
representative size in mm;
Tolerance value for lT8 = 25i.
5 hole is zero and IT8 = 25 i, the maximum and minimum microns is
Fundamental deviation for 'f shaft = 5.5D0.41 limits of dimension for a 25 mm H8 hole (in mm) are (a) 7 (b) 7
(a) Lower limit = 59.924
59 924 mm,
mm Upper Limit = 59.970
59 970 mm
(b) Lower limit = 59.954 mm, Upper Limit = 60.000 mm (a) 24.984, 24.967 (b) 25.017, 24.984 (c) 73 (d) 106
(c) Lower
Lo er limit = 59.970
9 9 0 mm,
mm Upper Limit = 60.016
60 0 6 mm
(c) 25.033, 25.000 (d) 25.000, 24.967
(d) Lower limit = 60.000 mm, Upper Limit = 60.046 mm 73 74 75

GATE 2003 GATE2010(PI) GATE2016(PI)

Th dimensional
di i l limits
li i on a shaft
h f off 25h7
h are
A small bore is designated as 25H7. The lower The limits of a shaft designated as 100h5 are 100.000 mm
((a)) 25.000,
5 , 25.021
5 mm
(b) 25.000, 24.979 mm (minimum) and upper (maximum) limits of the bore and 100.014 mm. Similarly, the limits of a shaft
( ) 25.000, 25.007 mm
(c) are 25.000 mm and
d 25.021 mm, respectively.
ti l When
Wh the
th designated as 100h8 are 100.000 mm and 100.055 mm. If
((d)) 25.000,
5 , 24.993
4 993 mm bore is designated as 25H8, then the upper (maximum) a shaft is designated as 100h6,
100h6 the fundamental deviation
de iation
limit is 25.033 mm. When the bore is designated as
(in m) for the same is
25H6, then the upper (maximum) limit of the bore (in
(a)22 (b) zero (c) 22 (d) 24
mm)) is
( ) 25.001 (b) 25.005 (c)
(a) ( ) 25.009 (d) 25.013
76 77 78

RecommendedSelectionofFits GATE 1996,IES2012 IES 2000

Th fit
fi on a holeshaft
h l h f system isi specified
ifi d as H7
H Which
Whi h one off theh following
f ll i tolerances
l set on inner
s6.The type of fit is diameter and outer diameter respectively of headed
(a) Clearance fit jig bush for press fit is correct?
(b) Running fit (sliding fit) (a) G7 h 6 (b) F7 n6
(c) Push fit (transition fit) (c) H 7h 6 (d) F7j6
(d) Force fit (interference fit)

79 80 81
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 45 of 213 Rev.0
ForIESOnly ForIESOnly

SelectiveAssembly y Interchangeability,
g y a maintainabilityy design
g factor, is
quite closely related to standardization and is realized
y All the parts (hole & shaft) produced are measured
through standardization. I t h
bilit can be
b achieved
hi d by
and graded into a range of dimensions within the
y If the variation of items are within certain limits, all
tolerance groups. (a) Standardization
parts of equivalent size will be equally fit for operating in
machines and mechanisms and the mating parts will (b) Better process planning
y Reduces
d the
h cost off production
give the required fitting.
(c) Simplification
Process capability y This facilitates to select at random from a large number
y No.of group =
Tolerance desired of parts for an assembly and results in a considerable (d) Better product planning
saving in the cost of production, reduce assembly time,
replacement and repair becomes very easy.
82 83 84

ToleranceSink GATE 2003 GATE 1997

Th blocks
bl k B1 , B2 andd B3 are
y A design engineer keeps one section of the part blank to be inserted in a channel of
width S maintaining a
(without tolerance) so that production engineer can minimum gap of width T =
dump all
ll the
h tolerances
l on that
h section
i which
hi h becomes
b 0 125 mm,
0.125 mm as shown in Figure.
For P = 18. 75 0.08;
most inaccurate dimension of the part.
part Q = 25.00 0.12;
R = 28.125 0.1 and
y Position of sink can be changing the reference point.
S = 72.35 + X, (where all
y Tolerance for the sink is the cumulative sum of all the dimensions are in mm), the
l X is
tolerances and only like minded tolerances can be added ((a)+0.38
) 3 ((b)
) 0.38
3 ((c)+0.05
) 5 ((d)0.05
) 5
i.e. either equally bilateral or equally unilateral. 85 86 87

GATE 2015
GATE-2015 GATE 2007(PI)
GATE2007(PI) GATE 2007(PI)
( )
The geometric tolerance that does NOT need a datum
L 1 = 22.0 mm for its specification is Diameter of a hole after plating needs to be controlled
0.005 between 30++0.050
0.010 mm. If the plating thickness varies
L2 = L3 = 10.0
10 0 mm ((a)) Concentricityy ((b)) Runout
between 10 - 15 microns, diameter of the hole before
Assumingnormaldistributionofpartdimensions, ((c)) Perpendicularity
p y ((d)) Flatness
l i should
h ld be
thedimensionL4 inmm,
(a) 30++0.070
0.030 mm (b) 30++0.065
0.020 mm
a)2.000.008 b)2.000.012
) 0 016
d) 0 020 (c) 30++0.080
0.030 mm (d) 30++0.070
0.040 mm

88 89 90
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 46 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2013 GATE 2017 GATE 2000
A cylindrical
li d i l pin
i off mm diameter
di is
i A slot
l isi to be
b milled
ill d centrally
ll on a block
bl k with
ih a
Cylindrical pins of 25++0.020
0.010 mm diameter are p
electroplated. Plating
g thickness is mm. dimension of 40 0.05 mm. A milling cutter of 20
mm width is located with reference to the side of
electroplated in a shop. Thickness of the Neglecting the gauge tolerance, the diameter (in mm, up
to 3 decimal points accuracy) of the GO ring gauge to the block within 0.02 mm. The maximum offset in
plating is 30 2.0 micron. Neglecting gage inspect the plated pin is_________ mm between the centre lines of the slot and the
block is
tolerances, the size of the GO gage in mm (a) 0.070 (b) 0.070
tto iinspectt the
th plated
l t d components
t iis (c) 0.020 (d) 0.045
(a) 2525.042
042 (b) 25.052
25 052 (c) 25
074 (d) 25.084
25 084

91 92 93

GATE 2017 Limit Gauges

Th standard
d d deviation
d i i off linear
li dimensions
di i P
y Plug gauge: used to check the holes.
holes The GO plug gauge is
the size of the low limit of the hole while the NOT GO plug
and Q are 3 m and 4 m, respectively. When gauge corresponds to the high limit of the hole.
hole Plug gauges are used to
assembled, the standard deviation (in m ) of the y Snap, Gap or Ring gauge: used for gauging the shaft and (a) Measure the diameter of the workpieces
lti linear
li di
i (P + Q) is_________
i male
l components. The Th Go G snap gauge is i off a size
i (b) Measure the diameter of the holes in the
corresponding to the high (maximum) limit of the shaft, workpieces
hil theh NOT GO gauge corresponds d to theh low
(minimum limit). (c) Check the diameter of the holes in the
(d) Check the length of holes in the workpieces

94 Fig.Pluggauge Fig.Ringandsnapgauges 95 96

Bilateral system: in this

ll i f f i l Example system, the GO and NO GO
y Unilateral system: gauge tolerance
t l zone lies
Size of the hole to be checked 25 0.02 mm
gauge tolerance zones are
entirely within the work tolerance zone. bisected by the high and
y work tolerance zone becomes smaller by the sum of the
Here, Hi
h limit
li it off hole
h l = 25.02
25 02 mm low limits off the work
gauge tolerance.
tolerance Lower limit of hole = 24.98
24 98 mm tolerance zone.

Work tolerance = 0.04 mm

Gauge tolerance = 10% of work tolerance = 0.004 mm
Taking example as above:
+0.004 +0.002
Dimension of 'GO' Plug gauge = 24.98 mm Dimension of 'GO' Plug gauge = 24.98 mm
0 000 0.002
0 002
0.000 +0.002
Dimension of 'NOT GO' Plug gauge = 25.02 mm Dimension of 'NOT GO' Plug gauge = 25.02 mm
97 0.004 98 0.002 99

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 47 of 213 Rev.0

Wear Allowance = 5% of work tolerance = 0.002 mm GATE 2014
y Wearallowance:GOgaugeswhichconstantlyrub
g g y
Nominal size of GO plug gauge = 24.98
24 98 + 0.002
0 002 mm A GONOGO
GO NOGO plug l gauge isi to beb designed
d i d for
subjectedtowearandloosetheirinitialsize. +0.004 measuring a hole of nominal diameter 25 mm with a
Di i off 'GO' Plug
Pl gauge = 24.982
24 982 mm hole tolerance of 0.015 mm. Considering 10% of
y Thesizeofgopluggaugeisreducedwhilethatofgo 0.000 work tolerance to be the g gauge
g tolerance and no
+0.000 wear condition, the dimension (in mm) of the GO
y Toincreaseservicelifeofgaugeswearallowanceis
g g g ggauge
Dimension of 'NOT GO' Plug g = 25.02 mm plug gauge as per the unilateral tolerance system is
addedtothegogaugeinthedirectionoppositeto 0.004
0 004
+0.003 +0.000
0.003 0.006
worktolerance. (a ) 24.985 (b) 25.015
y Wearallowanceisappliedtoanominaldiameter
W ll i li d i ldi +0.03 +0.003
beforegaugetoleranceisapplied. 0.03 0.000
(c) 24
985 (d ) 24
100 102

GATE 2004 GATE 2015

GATE-2015 GATE 1995
GO and d NOGO
NO GO plug
l gages are to be
b designed
d i d for
f a Which one of the following statements is TRUE? Checking
Ch ki the
h diameter
di off a hole
h l using
hole 200.01 gauges is an, example of inspection by
g tolerances can be taken as 10%
0 01 mm. Gage a) The GO
GO gage controls the upper limit of a hole
of the hole tolerance. Following ISO system of gage ..(variables/attributes)
design sizes of GO and NO
design, NOGO
GO gage will be b)The NO GO gage controls the lower limit of a shaft The above statement is
respectively c) The GO gage controls the lower limit of a hole (a) Variables
( ) 20.010 mm and
(a) d 20.050 mm d)The NO GO gage controls the upper limit of a hole (b) Attributes
(b) 20.014
0.0 4 mm aand
d 20.046
0.046 mm (c) Cant say
(c) 20.006 mm and 20.054 mm (d) Insufficient data
(d) 20.014 mm and d 20.054 mm

103 104 105


GATE 2006,VS2012 T l Pi i l
TaylorsPrinciple LimitGauges
A ringi gauge is i used d to measure This principle states that the GO gauge should always be Gauge ForMeasuring
((a)) Outside diameter but not roundness SnapGauge ExternalDimensions
so designed
d d that
h it will
ll cover the
h maximum metall
(b) Roundness but not outside diameter
g g InternalDimensions
( ) Both
(c) B h outside
id diameter
di and
d roundness
d condition (MMC) of as many dimensions as possible in
TaperPlugGauge Taperhole
((d)) Onlyy external threads the same limit gauges, whereas a NOT GO gauges to
RingGauge ExternalDiameter
cover the minimum metal condition of one dimension
GapGauge G dG
RadiusGauge Gaugingradius
p g ExternalThread
106 107 108
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 48 of 213 Rev.0
FeelerGauge GATE2016
PSU Matchthefollowing:
Af l
i dt h kth P.Feelergauge
P Feelergauge II.Radiusofanobject
Q.Filletgauge II.Diameterwithinlimitsby
(a)Pitchofthescrew comparison
(b)Surfaceroughness R.Snapgauge III.Clearance orgapbetween
(c)Thicknessofclearance S.Cylindricalplug
S C li d i l l IV I id di
t f straight
t i ht
(d)Flatnessofasurface gauge hole

109 110

ForIESOnly ForIESOnly

Why is a unilateral tolerance Preferred Number
PreferredNumber Preferred Number Contd.
PreferredNumber.. C td
y A designed product needs standardization. y These are named as Renard series.
preferred over bilateral tolerance ? y Motor speed, engine power, machine tool speed and y Many other derived series are formed by multiplying or
y This system is preferred for Interchangeable manufacturing.
manufacturing feed, all follows a definite pattern or series. dividing the basic series by 10, 100 etc.
y This also helps in interchangeability of products. y Typical values of the common ratio for four basic G.P.
y It is easy and simple to determine deviations.
deviations series
i are given
i b l
y It has been observed that if the sizes are put in the form
y It helps
p standardize the GO g
g end of ggeometric p progression,
with a definite sequence.
, then wide ranges
g are covered R5 : 11.58
58 :1
0 1 6 2.5,...
25 ( 10
10, 100 5
1000 ) 5
100, 1000,....

:1 0 1 25 1 6 ( 10, 1000 )
y Helpful for operator because he has to machine the upper 10 10 10
y These numbers are called preferred numbers having R10 : 1.26
1 26 :1.0,1.25,1.6,... 10 100,
100 1000,....
limit of the shaft and the lower limit of the hole knowing common ratios as,
fully well that still some margin is left for machining before 5
10 1.58, 10
10 1.26, 20
10 1.12 and 40 10  1.06 R 20 : 1.12 :1 0 1 12 1 4 ( 10
1 12 :1.0,1.12,1.4,... 20 20
10, 100, 1000,....)
100 1000 20

the part is rejected.

rejected y Depending on the common ratio,
ratio four basic series are R 40 : 1.06 1 0 1 06 1 12 ( 10
1 06 :1.0,1.06,1.12,... 40
10, 100 1000,....)
100, 1000 40

formed; these are R5 , R10 , R20 and R40 113 114

Accuracy & Precision

y Accuracy The ability of a measurement to match the actual
(true) value of the quantity being measured. The expected
ability for a system to discriminate between two settings.settings
Smaller the bias more accurate the data.
y P i i
Precision The
Th precision
i i off an instrument
i i di
indicates i
MeasurementofLines&Surfaces ability to reproduce a certain reading with a given accuracy
OR it
i is
i the
h degree
d off agreement between
b repeated d results.
y Precision data have small dispersion
p ( spread
p or scatter ) but
may be far from the true value.
y A measurement can be accurate but not precise,
precise precise but
not accurate, neither, or both.
y A measurementt system
t i called
is ll d valid
lid if it is
i both
b th accurate t
BySKMondal 115 and precise. 116 117
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 49 of 213 Rev.0
GATE2017(PI) Repeatability Reliability of measurement
y It is a quantitative characteristic which implies
A off a measuringi instrument
i is
i y It is the ability of a measuring system to reproduce confidence in the measured results depending on
output readings when the same input is applied to it whether or not the frequency
q y distribution
expressed as
i l underd the
h same conditions,
di i andd in
i the
h characteristics of their deviations from the true values
(a) true value measured value same direction. of the corresponding
p g q
quantities are known. It is the
(b) measured value true value y Imperfections in mechanical systems can mean that probability that the results will be predicted.
true value-measured
l d value
l during a Mechanical cycle,
cycle a process does not stop at the
(c) 1- same location, or move through the same spot each time.
true value
Th variation
The i ti range is
i referred
f d to
t as repeatability.
t bilit
true value-measured value
true value Which of these targets represents A change in one variable, such as wind,
accurate shooting? Precise alters the results as shown. Dose this
h ti ? Reliable
R li bl shooting?
h ti ? show
h which
hi h shooting
h ti was the
th mostt
118 119 120

Calibration y Drift: It is a slow change of a metrological characteristics of a Errors

y It
I is
i the
h setting
i or correcting
i off a measuring
i device
d i measuring instruments y Systematic
S i errors or fixed
fi d errors (Bias):
(Bi ) Due
D to faulty
f l
usually by adjusting it to match or conform to a y Resolution: It is the smallest change of the measured
tit which
hi h changes
h th indication
the i di ti off a measuring
i or improperly calibrated instruments.
instruments These may be
dependably known value or act of checking.
y Calibration determines the performance characteristics reduced or eliminated byy correct choice of instruments.
y Sensitivity: The smallest change in the value of the
of an instrument, system or reference material. It is
measured variable to which the instrument respond is Eg.
g calibration errors, Errors of technique
q etc.
usuall achieved
usually achie ed by
b means of a direct comparison against sensitivity. It denotes the maximum changes in an input
measurement standards or certified reference materials. signal
g that will not initiate a response
p on the output.
p y Random errors: Random errors are due to nonspecific
y It is very widely used in industries. y Rule of 10 or Tento one rule: That the discrimination cause like natural disturbances that may occur during
y A calibration certificate is issued and,
and mostly,
mostly a sticker is (resolutions) of the measuring instrument should divide the
provided for the instrument. tolerance of the characteristic to be measured into ten parts. the experiment. These cannot be eliminated.
In other words,
words the gauge or measuring instrument should be Eg.Errorsstemmingfromenvironmentalvariations,Due
E E i f i l i i D
10 times as accurate as the characteristic to be measured. 122
toInsufficientsensitivityofmeasuringsystem 123

Linearmeasurements Vernier Caliper

y A vernier scale is an auxiliary scale that slides along the main
S off the
h instruments
i used
d for
f the
h linear
li scale.
measurements are: y The vernier scale is that a certain number n of divisions on
y Rules (Scale) the vernier scale is equal in length to a different number
y Vernier (usually one less) of main
scale divisions.
y Micrometer (Most widely used, Working Standard) nV = (n 1)S
h n = number
b off divisions
d on the
h vernier scale
y Height gauge
V = The length
g of one division on the vernier scale
y Bore
B gauge
and S = Length of the smallest mainscale division
y Dial indicator
y Least count is applied to the smallest value that can be read
y Slip gauges or gauge blocks (Most accurate, End directly by use of a vernier scale.
Standard) y Least count = S V = 1 S
n VernierCaliper
124 125 126
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 50 of 213 Rev.0
ISRO2010 M t i Mi t
Th vernier
i reading
di should
h ld not be
b taken
k at its
i face
f ISRO2008 y A micrometer allows a measurement of the size of a

value before an actual check has been taken for Th least

The l t countt off a metric
t i vernier
i caliper
li body. It is one of the most accurate mechanical devices

(a) Zero error having 25 divisions on vernier scale, matching in common use.

(b) Its calibration with 24

4 divisions of main scale (1 main scale y It consists a main scale and a thimble

divisions = 0.5 mm) is Method of Measurement

((c)) Flatness of measuring
g jjaws
(a) 0.005 mm (b) 0.01 mm StepI: Find the whole number of mm in the barrel
((d)) Temperature
p equalization
(c) 0.02 mm (d) 0.005mm StepI: Find the reading of barrel and multiply by 0.01

127 128
StepIII: Add the value in StepI and StepII 129

y Bore Gauge: used for measuring bores of different

ISRO2009 2011 g g from smalltolarge
sizes ranging g sizes.
y Provided with various extension arms that can be
I a simple
In i l micrometer
i t with
ith screw pitch
it h 0.5 added for different sizes.
mm and divisions on thimble 50, the reading
p g to 5 divisions on barrel and 12
divisions on thimble is

(a) 2.620 mm (b) 2.512 mm

Micrometer (c) 2.120 mm (d) 5.012 mm

130 131 132

y Dial indicator: Converts a linear GATE 2008 S1

displacement into a radial pp cat o s o d a d cato c ude:
A displacement
di l sensor (a
( dial
di l indicator)
i di ) measures the
movement to measure over a y centeringworkpicestomachinetoolspindles lateral displacement of a mandrel mounted on the taper
ll range off movement for
f theh hole inside a drill spindle. The mandrel axis is an
plunger. y offsettinglathetailstocks extension of the drill spindle
p taper
p hole axis and the
y The typical least count that can be protruding portion of the mandrel surface is perfectly
y aligningaviceonamillingmachine
obtained with suitable gearing cylindrical Measurements are taken with the sensor
dial indicators is 0.01 mm to 0.001 y checkingdimensions placed at two positions P and Q as shown in the figure.
mm Th readings
The di are recorded
d d as Rx = maximum
i d fl ti
y It is possible to use the dial minus minimum deflection, corresponding to sensor
indicator as a comparator by position at X, over one rotation.
mounting g it on a stand at anyy
suitable height. Principleofadialindicator
133 134 135
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 51 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2008contdfromS2
d f GATE 2014(PI)S1
( ) GATE 2014(PI)S2
( )
If Rp= RQ>0, >0 which one of the The
Th alignment
li test This
Thi test inspects
i whether
h h the h
following would be consistent with the
observation? Spindle square with ((a)) spindle
p vertical feed axis is p perpendicular
p to the base
(A) The drill spindle rotational axis is base plate is applied plate
coincident with the drill spindle
p taper
p to the radial drilling g
hole axis (b) axis of symmetry of the cylindrical spindle is
machine. A dial perpendicular to the base plate
(B) The drill spindle rotational axis
intersects the
h drill
d ill spindle
i dl taper hole
h l indicator is fixed to
the cylindrical spindle (c) axis of symmetry, the rotational axis and the vertical
axis at point P
d the
th spindle
i dl is i feed
eed aaxiss o
of tthee sp
d e aaree aall co
c de t
(C) The
Th drill
d ill spindle
i dl rotational
t ti l axis
i is
parallel to the drill spindle taper hole rotated to make the (d) spindle rotational axis is perpendicular to the base
axis plate
l t
d touch h the
(D) The drill spindle rotational axis
intersects the drill spindle taper hole base p
plate at different
axis at point Q points
136 137 138

SlipGaugesorGaugeblocks y Come in sets with different number of pieces in a given To make up a Slip Gauge pile to 41.125 mm
y These
Th are small
ll blocks
bl k off alloy
ll steel.
l sett to
t suit it the
th requirements
i t off measurements. t y A Slip
Sli Gauge
G pile
il is
i sett up with
ith the
th use off simple
i l
y Used in the manufacturing
g shops
p as length
g standards. y A typical
yp set consisting
g of 88 p
pieces for metric units is maths.
y Not to be used for regular and continuous shown in.
y Decide what height
g y you want to set up,
p in this
measurement y To
T build
b ild any giveni di
i it is
i necessary to t
y Rectangular blocks with thickness representing the identifyy a set of blocks,, which are to be p put together.
g case 41.125mm.
dimension of the block. The crosssection of the block y Number of blocks used should always be the smallest. y Take away the thickness of the two wear gauges,
iss usua
usuallyy 332 mm x 9 mm..
y Generally
G ll theh top and d bottom
b Sli Gauges
Slip G i the
in h pile
il and then use the gauges in the set to remove
y Are hardened and finished to size. The measuring
are 2 mm wear g gauges.
g This is so that theyy will be the
f off the
th gauge blocks
bl k are finished
fi i h d to
t a very high
hi h each place of decimal in turn,
turn starting with the
degree of finish, flatness and accuracy. only ones that will wear down, and it is much cheaper
to replace
l two gauges than
h a whole
h l set.
139 140 141

To make up a Slip Gauge pile to 41.125 mm A M t i li t (88 Pi )

-4.000 Slipgaugessizeor Increment,mm
Increment mm Numberof
37.125 range,mm Pieces
1 00
_______ 1.005 1
36.120 1.001to1.009 0.001 9
1 020
_______ 1.010to1.490 0.010 49
1 100 0 500 to9.500
0.500 to9 500 0 500
0.500 19
34.000 10to100 10.000 10
4 000
30 000

142 143 144

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 52 of 213 Rev.0
ISRO2010 Comparators
A master gauge is ISRO2008 y Comparator is another form of linear measuring
method, which is quick and more convenient for
(a) A new gauge St d d to
Standards t be
b used
d for
f reference
f purposes in
i checking
h ki largel number
b off identical
id ti l dimensions.
di i
(b) An international
te at o a reference
e e e ce sta
da d laboratories and workshops are termed as y Duringg the measurement, a comparator
p is able to g
the deviation of the dimension from the set dimension.
(c) A standard gauge for checking accuracy of (a) Primary standards y Cannot measure absolute dimension but can only
gauges used on shop floors
compare two dimensions.
(d) A gauge used by experienced technicians ((b)) Secondaryy standards
y Highly reliable.
((c)) Tertiaryy standards y To magnify the deviation, a number of principles are
used such as mechanical, optical, pneumatic and
(d) Working standards
145 146 147

GATE 2007(PI)
( ) Mechanical Comparators
y The Mikrokator principle
Which one of the following instruments is a
greatly magnifies any
t ? d i ti
deviation i size
in i so that
th t
even small deviations
(a) Tool Maker
Makerss Microscope produce
d l
large d fl
deflections off
the p
pointer over the scale.
(b) GO/NO GO gauge

(c) Optical Interferometer

(d) Dial Gauge

Fig. Principleofacomparator 148 149 150

Mechanical Comparators
The Sigma Mechanical Comparator uses a partially
y The EdenRolt Reed system
y uses a
d band
b d wrapped
d about
b a driving
d d
drum to turn a
pointer attached to the end of two
pointer needle.
needle The assembly provides a frictionless
reeds. One reed is pushed by a
movement with a resistant pressure provided by the
plunger, while the other is fixed. As
one reed
d moves relative
l ti tot the
th other,
the pointer that they are commonly
attached to will deflect.
151 152 153
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 53 of 213 Rev.0
OpticalComparators PneumaticComparators
y These
Th devices
d i use a plunger
l to rotate a mirror.
i A light
li h y Flow type:
beam is reflected off that mirror, and simply by the Inthissystem,Mechanicalamplification
virtue of distance, the small rotation of the mirror can =20/1, y The float height is essentially proportional to the air
be converted to a significant
g translation with little
A d O i l
lifi i that
h escapes from
f the
h gauge head
h d
y Master
M t gauges are used
d to
t find
fi d calibration
lib ti points
i t on
istiltedbyanangle thenimage
istiltedbyanangle,thenimage the scales
y The input pressure is regulated to allow
2x(20/1)(50/1 2000units) magnification adjustment
154 155 156

PneumaticComparators AngularMeasurement BevelProtractor

This involves the measurement of angles of tapers and y Is part of the machinist's combination square.
l surfaces.
f The
h most common angular
l measuring y The flat base of the protractor helps in setting it firmly
tools are: on the
h workpiece
k i and
d then
h byb rotating
i the
h rule,
l iti is
y Bevel protractor possible to measure the angle.
angle It will typically have a

y Sine bar discrimination of one degree.


157 158 159

Sine Bar
y When a reference for a nonsquare angle is required, a sine bar
can be used.
y Basically a sine bar is a bar of known length.
length When gauge blocks
are placed under one end, the sine bar will tilt to a specific
y Knowing the height differential of the two rollers in alignment
with the workpiece ,the angle can be calculated using the sine
y A sine bar is specified by the distance between the centre of the
two rollers, i.e. 100 mm, 200 mm, & 300 mm. the various part of
sine bar are hardened before grinding & lapping. H
ABevelProtractor s in =
160 161
L 162
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 54 of 213 Rev.0
( )
GATE2012(PI) Disadvantages
ISRO2011 y 1. Sine bars cannot be used for conveniently for
A sine bar has a length of 250 mm. Each roller has
A sine
i bar
b is
i specified
ifi d by
b measuring angles h 60o because
l more than b off slip
l gauge
a diameter of 20 mm. During taper angle
(a) Its total length adjustment problems.
measurement of a component, the height from the
(b) The size of the rollers surface
f plate
l to the
h centre off a roller
ll isi 100 mm. y 2.
2 Misalignment of workpiece with sine bar may

(c) The centre distance between the two rollers sometimes introduce considerable errors.
Th calculated
The l l t d taper
t angle
l (in
(i degrees)
d ) is
(d) The distance between rollers and upper surface ( ) 21.1
(a) (b) 22.8
8 ( ) 23.6
(c) 6 (d) 68.9

163 164 165

ThreadMeasurements y Theparametersthatarenormallymeasuredare: Three-Wire Method

y Threadsarenormallyspecifiedbythemajordiameter.
Th d ll ifi db h j di y Majordiameter
y Thoughtherearealargevarietyofthreadsusedin
g g y y Three wires of equal diameter placed in thread, two
y Micrometer
engineering,themostcommonthreadencounteredis on one side and one on other side
y Pitchdiameter
themetricV threadshowninFig.
y FloatingCarriagemicrometer y Standard micrometer used to measure distance over
y Wiremethod(Threewireandtwowire)
wires (M)
y Pitch
y Screwpitchgauge y Different sizes and pitches of threads require
y Pitchmeasuringmachine diff
t sizes
i off wires
y Threadform
y Opticalprojector
166 167 168

The Three-Wire Method of Measuring Threads y Distance W over the outer edge
W = D p + d 1 + cosec cot
2 2 2
For ISO metric thread,, = 60 and D p = D 0.6496 p
W = D + 3d 1.5156 p
y Best wire size
d= sec
2 2
For ISO metric thread, = 60
D p = pitch diameter or Effective diameter
d = 0.5774 p
169 p = pitch of thread , and = thread angle 170 171
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 55 of 213 Rev.0
y Pitch
Pit h Diameter
Di t or Eff
ti Di
Two-Wire Method Dp = T + P
GATE 2011(PI)
2011 (PI)
y Two wires of equal diameter placed in thread, two on =T + cot d cosec 1
2 2 2 The best wire size (in mm) for measuring
one side and one on other side T = Dimensions under the wire = D + ( Dm Ds ) effective diameter of a metric thread
D=D Diameter
i t off master
t or standard
t d d cylinder
li d (included angle is 60o) of 20 mm diameter and
Dm = Micrometer reading over standard cylinder with two wire 2.5 mm pitch using two wire method is
D s = Micrometer reading over the plug screw gauge with the wire (a) 1.443
P = Pitch value (b) 0.723
0 723
y Best wire size (c) 2.886
p (d) 2.086
d= sec
2 2
172 173 174

GATE2013 IES2017(Pre)
( )
A metric thread of pitch 2 mm and thread A metric thread of pitch 2 mm and thread
GATE 2011(PI)
2011 (PI)
To measure the effective diameter of an external
angle 60 inspected for its pitch diameter angle 60o is inspected for its pitch diameter metric thread (included angle is 60o) of 3.5 mm
pitch,, a cylindrical
p y standard of 330.55 mm diameter
using 3wire method. The diameter of the using the 3wire method. The indicated and two wires of 2 mm diameter each are used.
The micrometer readings over the standard and
best size wire in mm is diameter of the wire will be nearly over the wires are 16.532 mm and 15.398 mm,
respectively. The effective diameter (in mm) of the
(a) 0.866 (b) 1.000 (c) 1.154 (d) 2.000 (a)0.85mm (b)1.05mm thread is
(a) 33.366
33 366 (b) 30.397
30 397
(c)1.15mm (d)2.05mm (c) 29.366 (d) 26.397

175 176 177

Surfaces y Surfacegeometrycanbequantifiedafewdifferent
y No surface is perfectly smooth, but the better the
f quality,
l the
h longer
l a product
d generally
ll lasts,
and the better is performs.
fS f y Surface texture can be difficult to analyse
y y Realsurfacesarerarelysoflat,orsmooth,butmost
Realsurfacesarerarelysoflat orsmooth butmost
y Two surfaces may
y be entirelyy different, yyet still p
the same CLA (Ra) value.

178 179 180

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 56 of 213 Rev.0
y Roughness
g g
height: is the p
parameter with which
generally the surface finish is indicated. It is specified
either as arithmetic average value or the root mean
square value.
y Roughness
R h width:
idth isi the
th distance
di t parallel
ll l to
t the
nominal part surface within which the peaks and
valleys, which constitutes the predominant pattern of
the roughness.
y Roughness width cutoff: is the maximum width of
the surface that is included in the calculation of the
roughness height.

181 182 183

Lay LayContd..
y Waviness: refers to those surface irregularities that have Diagram Symbol Description Diagram Symbol Description
a greater spacing than that of roughness width.
width Parallel lay: Lay parallel to Multidirectional lay: Lay
y Determined by the height of the waviness and its the Surface. Surface is multidirectional. Surface is
width. produced
d d b
by shaping,
h i produced
d d by b grinding,
i di
y The greater the width,
width the smoother is the surface and planning etc. lapping, super finishing.
thus is more desirable. Perpendicular lay: Lay Circular lay:
y Lay
L di
i i the
is h direction
di i off the
h predominant
d i perpendicular to the Approximately circular
surface pattern produced on the workpiece by the tool Surface. Surface is produced relative to the center.
marks. b shaping
by h i and d planning
l i S f
Surface i produced
is d d by b
y y g facing.
y Flaw: are surface irregularities that are present which are
random and therefore will not be considered. bothdirections. Radiallay:Approximately
Surface is produced by radialrelativetothecenter
knurling, honing. 185
ofthenominalsurface. 186

IES2012 RepresentationofSurfaceRoughness GATE2017(PI)

I connection i with
i h surface
f texture define
d fi A machined
hi d surface
f with
ith standard
t d d symbols
b l
((a)) waviness indicatingg the surface texture is shown in the
(b) flaws, and Figure. (All dimensions in the Figure are in
( ) lay.
(c) l micrometer).
List three defects found on surfaces. The waviness height g ((in micrometer)) of the
[2marks] surface is
( )1
(a) (b) 50
(c) 60 (d) 120

187 188 189

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 57 of 213 Rev.0
Roughness RoughnessGrade RoughnessSymbol
Ra (m) Number
50 N12 IES 1992
2 N11

IES2016 conventional Which
Whi h grade
d symbol
b l represents surface
f rough
h off
12.5 N10 broaching?
Show in a figure location of the surface
6.3 N9 (a) N12 (b) N8
texture details when used with
3.2 N8 machining
h symbols.
b l (c) N4 (d) N1
1.6 N7
0.8 N6
0.4 N5
0.2 N4
0.1 N3
0 05
0.05 N2
0.025 N1 190 191 192

y Waviness height the distance from a peak to a valley EvaluationofSurfaceRoughness DeterminationofMeanLine

y Waviness width the distance between peaks or y MSystem: After plotting the characteristic of any
1. Centre line average (CLA) or arithmetic mean
y surface a horizontal line is drawn by joining two points.
y Roughness width cutoff a value greater than the deviation denoted as Ra. This line is shifts up and down in such a way that 50%
maximum roughness width that is the largest area is above the line and 50% area is below the line
2. Root mean square value (Rg) : rms value
separation of surface irregularities included in the
measurements. Typical
T i l values
l are (0.003,
( 0.010, 3. Maximum peak to valley roughness (hmax)
0.030, 0.100, 0.300)
y Lay the direction the roughness pattern should 4. The average of the five highest peak and five deepst
follow valleys
ll i the
in th sample.
y Stylus travel is perpendicular to the lay specified.
5 The average or leveling depth of the profile.
5. profile
193 194 195

DeterminationofMeanLine Arithmetical Average: GATE 2016 (PI)

The roughness profile of a surface is depicted below.
y Measured
M d for
f a specified
ifi d area and
d the
h figures
fi are added
dd d
y ESystem: (Envelop System) A sphere of 25 mm
diameter is rolled over the surface and the locus of its together and the total is then divided by the number of
centre is being traced out called envelope. This envelope measurements taken to obtain the mean or
is shifted in downward direction till the area above the arithmetical average
g ((AA).)
line is equal to the area below the line. This is called y It is also sometimes called the centre line average or
mean envelope
l and
d the
h system off datum
d i called
is ll d E
E CLA value.
value This in equation form is given by
1 1
Ra = y ( x) dx
L0 N
y i

196 197 The surface roughness parameter Ra (in m) is _______ 198

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 58 of 213 Rev.0
y Theotherparameterthatisusedsometimesistheroot
IES 2006
meansquarevalueofthedeviationinplaceofthe ISRO2011 The M and Esystem in metrology are related to
g p
CLAvalueandRMSvaluesareusedformeasurement measurement of:
y 2

( ) Screw
(a) S threads
h d (b) Fl

( ) Angularity
(c) A l it (d) S f
Surface fi i h



Fig.Surfaceroughnessparameters 199 200 201

IES 2007 IES 2008 IES2010

What is the dominant direction of the tool marks or What term is used to designate the direction of the Match List I with List II and select the correct answer
using the code given below the lists:
h in a surface
f texture having
h a directional
d l predominant
d surface
f pattern produced
d d b
by List I List II
(Symbols for direction of lay) (Surface texture)
quality called?
quality, machining operation?

(a) Primary texture (b) Secondary texture (a) Roughness (b) Lay

(c) Lay (d) Flaw (c) Waviness (d) Cut off

(a) 4 2 1 3 (b) 3 2 1 4
202 203 (c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 3 1 2 4204

IES 2008 MethodsofmeasuringSurfaceRoughness

h d f i S f h
ISRO2010 There are a number of useful techniques for measuring
Surface roughness on a drawing is represented by
surface roughness:
(a) Triangles
y Observation and touch the human finger
g is veryy
(b) Circles
perceptive to surface roughness
(c) Squares
y stylus based equipment very common
(d) Rectangles
y Interferometry uses light wave interference patterns
(discussed later)

205 206 207

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 59 of 213 Rev.0
ObservationMethods StylusEquipment
y Human perception is highly relative. y uses a stylus
l that
h tracks
k small
ll changes
h in
i surface
height, and a skid that follows large changes in surface
y To give the human tester a reference for what they are height.
hi commercial
i l sets off standards
d d are available.
il bl y The relative motion between the skid and the stylus is
measured with a magnetic circuit and induction coils.
y Comparison
C i should
h ld b
be made
d against
i t matched
t h d y One
O example l off this
h is the
h Brown & Sharpe
Sh S f
identical processes.
processes unit.

y One method of note is the finger nail assessment of

roughness and touch method.
208 209 210

Profilometer Contactprofilometers
y Adiamondstylusismovedverticallyincontactwitha
Adi d l i d i ll i i h
y Measuring instrument used to measure a surface's sampleandthenmovedlaterallyacrossthesamplefor
profile, in order to quantify its roughness. aspecifieddistanceandspecifiedcontactforce.
y Aprofilometercanmeasuresmallsurfacevariationsin
y Vertical resolution is usually in the nanometre level, verticalstylusdisplacementasafunctionofposition.
h h lateral
l l resolution
l is usually
ll poorer. y Theradiusofdiamondstylusrangesfrom20
h d fd d l f

211 212 213

NoncontactProfilometers AdvantagesofopticalProfilometers OpticalFlats

y Opticalgrade
O ti l d clear
l fused
f d quartz
t or glass
l structures
t t
y Because the noncontact profilometer does not touch
y An optical profilometer is a noncontact method for lapped and polished to be extremely flat on one or
h surface
f the
h scan speeds
d are dictated
d d by
b the
h light
l h b th sides.
both id
providing much of the same information as a stylus
y Used with a monochromatic light to determine the
reflected from the surface and the speed of the flatness of other optical surfaces by interference.
based profilometer.
acquisition electronics. y When a flat surface of another optic p is p placed on the
y There are many different techniques which are optical flat, interference fringes are seen due to
y Optical
p profilometers do not touch the surface and
p te e e ce in tthee ttinyy gap bet
interference between
ee tthee ttwoo su
tl being
b i employed,
l d such
h as laser
l ti
l ti
therefore cannot be damaged by surface wear or y The spacing between the fringes is smaller where the
(triangulation sensor),
sensor) confocal microscopy and digital gap is changing more rapidly,
rapidly indicating a departure
careless operators. from flatness in one of the two surfaces, in a similar
g p y way to the contour lines on a map.
214 215 216
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 60 of 213 Rev.0
217 218 219


GATE 2016
y When the fringes are perfectly straight and same fringe Two optically flat plates of glass are kept at a small
width for dark and bright band we conclude that the anglel as shown
h in
i the
th figure.
fi Monochromatic
M h ti light
li ht
is incident vertically.
surface is perfectly flat.
y For convex surface the fringes curve around the point of
y For concave surface the fringes curve away from the point
of contact.

The distance of air gap between two successive fringes is given by =
n If the wavelength of light used to get a fringe
Distance of air ggap g of n order is =
p of interference fringe th

2 spacing of 1 mm is 450 nm,nm the wavelength of light

220 (in nm) to get a fringe spacing of 1.5 mm is _______221 222


IES 2012Conventionall Optical flat as a comparator

n l
Write in short about optical flat. Two fringe patterns h =
are supplied for two completely different surfaces using 2
ti l flat,
fl t name the
th types
t off surfaces,
f and
d draw
d if Wh l = separation of edges
required n = number of fringes / cm
h = The difference of height between gauges
= wevlength of monochomatic light

Fig. Fringe patterns for two completely different types

of surfaces. 223 224 225

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 61 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2003 Parallelism Error
y In case of largelength
g g slip
p g g
gauges, the p
parallelism of
T slip
li gauges off 10 mm width
id h measuringi 1.000 mm surfaces can also be measured by placing the gauge on a
and 1.002 mm are kept side by side in contact with each NPLFlatness rotary table in a specific position and reading number 1
other lengthwise. An optical flat is kept resting on the
g as shown in the figure.
g Monochromatic light
g Interferometer can be taken.
y The
Th number b off fringes
fi obtained
bt i d is
i the
th result
lt off the
th angle
of wavelength 0.0058928 mm is used in the inspection.
that the gauge surface makes with the optical flat. (n1)
The total number of straight fringes that can be observed
on both slip gauges is y Then the table is turned through 180o and reading
number 2 can be taken. (n2)
(a)2 (b)6 y The change in distance between the gauge and optical
(c)8 (d)13 fl = /2
flat /
Parallelism Error =
( n2 n1 )
226 227 228

GATE 2011(PI) Talysurf

Observation of a slip gauge on a flatness y It
I is
i based
b d upon measuring
i the
h generated
d noise
i due
d to
interferometer produced fringe counts numbering dry friction of a metallic blade which travels over the
10 and 14 for two readings. The second reading is surface under consideration.
set up by 180o. Assume that
taken by rotating the setup y If the frictional force is made small enough to excite
both faces of the slip gauge are flat and the the blade, and not the entire system, then the noise MiscellaneousofMetrology
l h off the
h radiation
di i i 0.5086
is 86 m. The
Th will
ill be proportional to surface roughness,
roughness and
parallelism error (in m) between the two faces of independent of the measured specimen size and
the slip gauge is material.
(a) 0.2543
0 2543 (b) 1.172
1 172 y The specimen surface roughness was measured by a
(c) 0.5086 (d) 0.1272 widely used commercial instrument (Talysurf 10), and
the prototype transducer.
229 230 BySKMondal 231

Cli t
Clinometer Clinometer A t lli t
y An opt ca instrument
optical st u e t for
o noncontact
o co tact measurement
easu e e t o
y An
A optical
i l device
d i for
f measuring
i elevation
l i angles
l above
small angles or small angular tilts of a reflecting surface.
y Used
U d to t align
li components t and d measure deflections
d fl ti i
y Compass clinometers are fundamentally just magnetic
optical or mechanical systems.
compasses held with their plane vertical so that a
plummet or its equivalent can point to the elevation of y An autocollimator works by projecting an image onto a
the sight line.
line target mirror, and measuring the deflection of the
returned image against a scale, either visually or by
y The clinometer can read easily and accurately angles of
means of an electronic detector.
elevation that would be very difficult to measure in any
other simple and inexpensive way. y A visual autocollimator can measure angles as small as
0.5 arcsecond, while an electronic autocollimator can be
y A fairly common use of a clinometer is to measure the
p to 100 times more accurate.
h i ht off trees.
height t
232 233 234
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 62 of 213 Rev.0
y Visual autocollimators are used for lining up laser rod Autocollimator GATE 1998
d andd checking
h ki the
th face
f parallelism
ll li off optical
ti l Auto
A collimator
lli is
i used
d to check
h k
windows and wedges. ((a)) Roughness
y Electronic and digital autocollimators are used as (b) Flatness
l measurementt standards,
t d d for f monitoring
it i angular l ( ) Angle
(c) A l
movement over long periods of time and for checking ((d)) Automobile balance.
angular position repeatability in mechanical systems.
y Servo
S autocollimators
t lli t are specialized
i li d compactt forms
f off
electronic autocollimators that are used in high speed
servo feedback loops for stable platform applications.

235 236 237

GATE 2009(PI)
2009 (PI) GATE
GATE 2014 y An
A Optical
O ti l square consists
i t off a small
ll cylindrical
li d i l metal
t l box,
about 5 cm in diameter and 12.5 cm deep, in which two
A autocollimator
An t lli t is i used
d to
t Th flatness
The fl t off a machine
hi b d can be
bed b mirrors are placed at an angle of 45o to each other and at
right angles to the plane of the instrument.
(a) measure small angular displacements on flat measured using y One mirror(horizon glass) is half silvered and other(index
glass) is wholly silvered.
surface (a) Vernier calipers y Th optical
The ti l square belongs
b l t a reflecting
to fl ti instruments
i t t which
hi h
measure angles by reflection. Angle between the first
((b)) compare
p known and unknown dimensions ((b)) Auto collimator incident ray and the last reflected ray is 90o
((c)) measure the flatness error ((c)) Height
g g gauge
g y Used to find out the foot of the perpendicular from a given
i t to
t a line.
(d) measure roundness error between centers (d) Tool makers microscope y Used to set out right angles at a given point on a line in the
fi ld
238 239 y Two mirrors may be replaced by two prisms. 240

ISRO2010 LaserScanningMicrometer
O i l square is i y The LSM features a high scanning rate which allows
((a)) Engineer's
g square
q having 90o
g stock and blade set at 9 inspection
p of small workpiece
p even if theyy are fragile,
g ,
(b) A constant deviation prism having the angle of at a high temperature, in motion or vibrating.
deviation between the incident ray and reflected ray, ray y Applications :
equal to 90o y Measurement of outer dia. And roundness of
(c) A constant deviation prism having the angle of cylinder,
dev at o bet
ee tthee incident
c de t ray
ay aand
d reflected
e ected ray,
ay, y Measurement of thickness of film and sheets,
equal to 45o y Measurement of spacing if IC chips,
(d) Used
U d tot produce
d i t f
interference fi
fringes y Measurement of forms,
y Measurement of gap between rollers.
AnOpticalSquare 241 242 243
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 63 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1998 Laser interferometer
Match ListI
List I with ListII
List II and select the correct answer using the y Laser interferometers represent the ultimate feedback
codes given below the lists: device for highprecision motion control application.
ListI ListII
(Measuring Device) (Parameter Measured) y The
h combination
b off high
h h resolution
l and
d outstanding
A. Diffraction grating 1. Small angular deviations on long accuracyy has made it the ideal transducer for wafer
flat surfaces
B. Optical flat 2. Online measurement of moving steppers, flat panel inspection, and highaccuracy laser
parts micromachining.
C. Auto collimators 3. Measurement of gear pitch
D. Laser scan micrometer4. Surface texture using interferometer y A laser interferometer system employs a highly stabilized
5. Measurement off very smallll li ht source and
light d precision
i i optics
ti to
t accurately
t l measure
Code: A B C D A B C D
(a) 5 4 2 1 (b) 3 5 1 2 y An additional advantage is that interferometers measure
((c)) 3 5 4 1 ((d)) 5 4 1 2 distances directly at the workpiece.
244 245 246

GATE2014 McLeodgauge
y Used
d to measure vacuum by
b application
l off the
Which one of the following instruments is widely
principle of Boyle's law.
used to check and calibrate geometric features of
y Works on the principle, "Compression of known
machine tools during their assembly?
volume of low p pressure ggas to higher
g pressure and
(a) Ultrasonic probe measuring resulting volume & pressure, one can
calculate initial p
pressure usingg Boyle's
y Law equation."
(b) Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) y Pressure of gases containing vapours cannot normally
measured with a McLeod gauge, gauge for the reason that
( ) Laser interferometer
(c) f
compression will cause condensation .
(d) Vernier calipers y A pressure from
f 0.01 micron
i t 50 mm Hg
to H can beb
measured. Generally McLeod gauge is used for
lib ti purpose.
247 248 249

Planimeter LVDT
y Adeviceusedformeasuringtheareaofanyplane y Acronym for Linear Variable Differential Transformer,
y g y a common type yp of electromechanical transducer that
can convert the rectilinear motion of an object to
which it is coupled mechanically into a corresponding
electrical signal.
y LVDT linear
li position
i i sensors are readily
dil available
il bl that
can measure movements as small as a few millionths of
an inch up to several inches, but are also capable of
easu g pos positions
o s up to
o 20 inches
c es ((0.5
.5 m).
y A rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT)
i a type
is t off electrical
l t i l transformer
t f used d for
f measuring i
250 251 angular displacement. 252
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 64 of 213 Rev.0
LVDT GATE 1992 ToolMakersMicroscope
M t h the
th instruments
i t t with
ith the
th physical
h i l quantities
titi they
th An essential part of engineering inspection,
measurement and calibration in metrology gy labs.
Instrument M
Hence is used to the following:
(A) Pilottube (1) R.P.M. of a shaft
y Examination of form tools,tools plate and template
(B) McLeod Gauge (2) Displacement
((C)) Planimeter (3) Flow velocityy
gauges, punches and dies, annular grooved and
(D) LVDT (4) Vacuum
h d d hobs
h b etc.
(5) Surface finish y Measurement of g glass ggraticules and other surface
(6) Area marked parts.
C d A
Codes:A B C D A B C D y Elements
El t off external
t l thread
th d forms
f off screw plug
(a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 3 4 6 2 gauges, taps, worms and similar components.
(c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4 y Shallow bores and recesses.
253 254 255

GATE 2004 Telescopic Gauges

y Used to measure
easu e a bo e s ssize,
bore's e, by ttransferring
a se g tthee
M h the h following
f ll i
internal dimension to a remote measuring tool.
Feature to be inspected Instrument
y They
Th are a direct
di t equivalent
i l t off inside
i id callipers
lli and
P Pitch and Angle errors of screw thread 1. Auto Collimator
require the operator to develop the correct feel to
Q Flatness error of a surface plate 2.
2 Optical Interferometer obtain repeatable results.
R Alignment error of a machine slide way 3. Dividing Head
andd Dial
Di l Gauge
S Profile of a cam 4. Spirit
p Level
5. Sine bar
6 Tool maker
6. maker'ss Microscope
(a) P6 Q2 R4 S6 (b) P5 Q2 R1 S6
(c) P6 Q4 R1 S3 (d) P1 Q4 R4 S2
256 257 258

GATE 1995 C di t M i M hi
g ,
Li I List
y canautomateinspectionprocess
((Measuring g instruments)) ((Application)
pp ) y Aninstrumentthatlocatespointcoordinatesonthree
st u e t t at ocates po t coo d ates o t ee
y lesspronetocarelesserrors
l l
(A) Talysurf 1. Tslots dimensionalstructuresmainlyusedforqualitycontrol
applications. y allowsdirectfeedbackintocomputersystem
p y
(B) Telescopic
Tl i gauge 2. Fl
y Thehighlysensitivemachinemeasurespartsdownto Disadvantages,
((C)) Transfer callipers
p 33. Internal diameter
thefractionofaninch. y Costly
C l
(D) Autocollimator 4. Roughness
y Specifically,aCMMcontainsmanyhighlysensitiveair y fixturingiscritical
d B C D A B C D
bearingsonwhichthemeasuringarmfloats. y requiresaverygoodtolerancemodel
(a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 4 3 1 2
(c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

259 260 261

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 65 of 213 Rev.0
GATE 2010 GATE 2008 (PI)
An experimental setup is planned to determine the taper of
A taper hole
h l is
i inspected
i d using
i a CMM,
CMM with i h a probe
workpiece as shown in the figure. If the two precision rollers
of 2 mm diameter. At a height, Z = 10 mm from the
have radii 8 mm and 5 mm and the total thickness of slip
bottom, 5 points are touched and a diameter of gauges inserted between the rollers is 15.54 mm, the taper
circle ((not compensated
p for p
probe size)) is obtained angle is
as 20 mm. Similarly, a 40 mm diameter is obtained
(a) 6 degree
at a height Z = 40 mm.
mm the smaller diameter (in mm)
(b) 10 degree
of hole at Z = 0 is
(c) 11 degree
( ) 13.334
(d) 12 degree
(b) 15.334
(c) 15.442
( ) 15.542
262 263 264

GATE 2014
The diameter of a recessed ring was measured by using two GATE2016
h i l balls
b ll off diameter
di d2 = 60
6 mm andd d1 = 40 mm as For the situation shown in the figure below the
shown in the figure. expression for H in terms of r, R and D is
The distance
H2 = 35.55 H2 H1 (a) H = D + r2 + R2
mm and d1 Diameter
H1 = 20.55 C
(b) H = (R + r) + (D + r)
mm. Th
diameter (D, H (c) H = (R + r) + D2 R2
i mm)) off the
in th R (d) H = (R + r) + 2D(R + r) D2
ring gauge is
Recessed Ring
265 266
d2 Diameter

For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 66 of 213 Rev.0

Four Important forming techniques are:
FourImportantformingtechniquesare: Terminology
Semifinished product
y Rolling:
g The pprocess of pplasticallyy deformingg metal byy
y Ingot:
I is
i the
h first
fi solid
lid form
f off steel.
passing it between rolls.
y Bloom: is the p product of first breakdown of ingot
g has square
y Forging: The workpiece is compressed between two cross section 6 x 6 in. or larger

MetalForming opposing dies so that the die shapes are imparted to the

Billet: is hot rolled from a bloom and is square,
side or larger.
Sl b is
Slab: i the
th hot
h t rolled
ll d ingot
i t or bloom
square 1.5
1 5 in.

in on a

l cross
y Extrusion: The work material is forced to flow section 10 in. or more wide and 1.5 in. or more thick.
through a die opening taking its shape

y Drawing: The diameter of a wire or bar is reduced by

pulling it through a die opening (bar drawing) or a series
BySKMondal off die
di openings
i ( i drawing)
(wire d i )
Ingot Bloom Billet
1 2 slab 3

Terminology PlasticDeformation BulkDeformationProcesses

Mill product y Deformationbeyondelasticlimits. y These processes involve large amount of plastic
y Plate is the product with thickness > 5 mm y Duetoslip,grainfragmentation,movementof
y The crosssection of workpiece
p changes
g without
y Sheet is the product with thickness < 5 mm and width > atomsandlatticedistortion. volume change.

600 mm y The ratio crosssection area/volume is small.

y Strip is the product with a thickness < 5 mm and width y For

F mostt operations,
ti h t or warm working
hot ki
conditions are preferred although some operations
< 600
6 mm are carried out at room temperature.

4 5 6

y In
I sheet
h metall working
ki operations,
i the
h crosssection
i off StrainHardening
Strain Hardening GATE1995
workpiece does not changethe material is only
y When metal is formed in cold state,
state there is no A test
t t specimen
i i stressed
is t d slightly
li htl beyond
b d the
subjected to shape changes.
y of g
grains and thus recoveryy from yield point and then unloaded.
unloaded Its yield strength
y The
Th ratio
i crosssection
i area/volume
/ l i very high.
is hi h
grain distortion or fragmentation does not take
y Sheet metalworking operations are performed on thin (a) Decreases
(less than 5 mm) sheets, strips or coils of metal by means place.
((b)) Increases
off a set off tools
l called
ll d punch
h and
d die
di on machine
hi toolsl y As grain deformation proceeds, greater resistance
called stamping presses. ((c)) Remains same
t this
to thi action
ti results
lt in
i increased
i d hardness
h d and
y They are always performed as cold working operations. (d) Become equal to UTS
strength i.e. strain hardening.
7 8 9
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 67 of 213 Rev.0
Statement (I): At higher strain rate and lower y Rx temp.
temp depends on the amount of cold work a material
temperature structural steel tends to become brittle. RecrystallisationTemperature(Rxtemp.) has already received. The higher the cold work, the lower
Statement (II): At higher strain rate and lower y The
Th minimum
i i temperature at which
hi h the
h completed
l d would
ld be
b the
h RxR temp.
p the yyield strength
g of structural steel tends recrystallisation of a cold worked metal occurs within a y Rx temp.
temp varies between 1/3 to melting paint.
to increase. specified period of approximately one hour.
y For Pure metal Rx temp. = 0.3 x Melting temp.
( ) Both
(a) B th Statement
St t t (I) and
d Statement
St t t (II) are individually
i di id ll y Rx temp.
temp decreases strength and increases ductility.
ductility (Kelvin).
true and Statement (II) is the correct explanation of y If working
g above Rx temp.,
p , hotworking
g p
Statement (I)
() y For Alloy Rx temp.
temp = 0.5
0 5 x Melting temp.
temp (Kelvin).
whereas working below are coldworking process.
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually y Rx temp.
p of lead and Tin is below room temp.
y It
I involves
i l replacement
l off coldworked
ld k d structure by
b a
true but Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of y Rx temp. of Cadmium and Zinc is room temp.
new set of strainfree, approximately equiaxed grains to
Statement (I)
replace all the deformed crystals. Contd. y Rx temp. of Iron is 450oC and for steels around 1000C
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false
(d) Statement (I) is false but Statement (II) is true y Finer
Fi i the
is h initial
i i i l grain
i size;
i lower
l will
ill be
b the
h Rx
R temp
10 11 12

IES 2016
IES2016 Graingrowth
h Malleability
ll b l
The recrystallization behaviour of a particular metal
y Graingrowthfollowscompletecrystallizationifthematerials y Malleability is the property of a material whereby it can
alloy is specified in terms of recrystallization
temperature, which is typically 1/3rd of the absolute b shaped
be h d when
h cold
ld by
b hammering
h or rolling.
y Graingrowthdoesnotneedtobeprecededbyrecoveryand
melting temperature of a metal or an alloy and depends recrystallization;itmayoccurinallpolycrystallinematerials.
ll ll l ll l y A malleable
ll bl material
i l is
i capable
bl off undergoing
d i plastic
l i
on several factors including
g the amount of y Incontrarytorecoveryandrecrystallization,drivingforce deformation without fracture.
1. cold working and purity of the metal and alloy forthisprocessisreductioningrainboundaryenergy.
y A malleable material should be plastic but it is not
2. hot working and purity of the metal and alloy y Inpracticalapplications,graingrowthisnotdesirable.
Which of the above is/are correct? y Incorporationofimpurityatomsandinsolublesecondphase essential to be so strong.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only particlesareeffectiveinretardinggraingrowth. y Lead, soft steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminium are
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 y Graingrowthisverystronglydependentontemperature.
13 14 some materials in order of diminishing malleability. 15

d f ld k
1. Better accuracy, closer tolerances
y Workingbelowrecrystalizationtemp.
2. Better surface finish

ColdWorking 3. Strain hardening increases strength and hardness

4. Grain flow during deformation can cause desirable

directional properties in product

5 No heating of work required (less total energy)


16 17 18
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 68 of 213 Rev.0
d f ld k
1. Equipmentofhigherforcesandpowerrequired
2. Surfacesofstartingworkpiecemustbefreeofscaleand
S f f t ti k i tb f f l d
3. Ductilityandstrainhardeninglimittheamountofforming
4. Insomeoperations,metalmustbeannealedtoallow

H tW ki g
55. Somemetalsaresimplynotductileenoughtobecold
py g
worked. 19 20 21

AdvantagesofHotWorking DisadvantagesofHotWorking
1. The porosity of the metal is largely eliminated. 1. It requires expensive tools.
y Workingaboverecrystalizationtemp. 2 The grain structure of the metal is refined.
2. refined 2 It produces poor surface finish,
2. finish due to the rapid
3. The impurities like slag are squeezed into fibers and oxidation and scale formation on the metal surface.
di ib d throughout
distributed h h the
h metal.l 3. Due
D to the
h poor surface
f fi i h close
finish, l tolerance
4. The mechanical p
4 properties
p such as toughness,
g , cannot be maintained.
percentage elongation, percentage reduction in area, and
resistance to shock and vibration are improved due to
the refinement of grains.

22 23 24

Mi St t l Ch i H t IES 2016
IES2016 Annealing relieves the stresses from cold working three
Statement (I) : Pursuant to p
plastic deformation of
Working Process (Rolling) metals, the mechanical properties of the metals get
stages: recovery,
recovery recrystallization and grain growth.
During recovery, physical properties of the coldworked
i l are restored
d without
ih any observable
b bl change
h i
Statement (II) : Mechanical properties of metals microstructure.
depend d on grain
i size
i also
l which
hi h gets
t changed
h d by
plastic deformation.
(a) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true and
Statement ((II)) is the correct explanation
p of Statement ((I).
(b) Both Statement (I) and Statement (II) are individually true but
Statement (II) is not the correct explanation of Statement (I).
(c) Statement (I) is true but Statement (II) is false.
(d) Statement
St t t (I) is
i false
f l but
b t Statement
St t t (II) is
i true
25 26 27
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 69 of 213 Rev.0
W F i
WarmForming IsothermalForming
h l
y Deformation produced at temperatures intermediate to IES2011
hot and cold forming is known as warm forming. y During hot forming, cooler surfaces surround a hotter Assertion (A): Lead, Zinc and Tin are always hot
y Compared to cold forming,
forming it reduces loads,
loads increase interior and the variations in strength can result in non
interior, non worked.
material ductility. uniform deformation and cracking of the surface.
Reason (R) : If they are worked in cold state
they cannot retain their mechanical properties.
y Compared to hot forming, it produce less scaling and
y For temp.sensitive materials deformation is performed (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
decarburization, better dimensional precision and
smoother surfaces. under isothermal conditions. correct explanation of A
y Warm forming
f i i a precision
is i i f i
forging operation
i carried
i d y The
Th dies
di or tooling
li must be
b heated
h d to the
h workpiece
k i (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT
out at a temperature range between 550950C. It is the correct explanation of A
p , sacrificing
g die life for p
product q
useful for forging of details with intricate shapes, with ( ) A is true but
(c) b R is false
f l
desirable grain flow, good surface finish and tighter y Close tolerances, low residual stresses and uniform metal (d) A is false but R is true
dimensional tolerances. 28
29 30

GATE2003 GATE2002,ISRO2012 ISRO 2010

C ld working
ki off steell is i defined
d fi d as working
ki Hot
H rolling
lli off mildild steell is
i carried
i d out Materials
M t i l after
ft cold
ld working
ki are subjected
bj t d to
((a)) At its recrystallisation
y temperature
p ((a)) At recrystallisation
y temperature
follo ing process to relieve
following relie e stresses
(b) Above its recrystallisation temperature (b) Between 100C to 150C
( ) Below
(c) B l itsi recrystallisation
lli i temperature ( ) Below
(c) B l recrystallisation
lli i temperature ( ) Hot
(a) H working
((d)) At two thirds of the melting g temperature
p of the ((d)) Above recrystallisation
y temperature
metal (b) Tempering

(c) Normalizing

(d) Annealing

31 32 33

IES 2006 IES 2004 IES 2009

Whi h one off theh following
f ll i is
i the
h process to refine
fi Consider
C id theh following
f ll i statements: Consider
C id theh following
f ll i characteristics:
h i i
the grains of metal after it has been distorted by p
In comparison to hot working,
g, in cold working,
g, 1. Porosityy in the metal is largely
g y eliminated.
hammering or cold working? 1. Higher forces are required 2. Strength is decreased.
(a) Annealing (b) Softening 2. NoN heating
h i is i required
i d 3. Close
Cl tolerances
l cannot be
b maintained.
i i d
(c) Recrystallizing (d) Normalizing 33. Less ductilityy is required
q Which of the above characteristics of hot working
g is/are
4. Better surface finish is obtained correct?
h h off the
h statements given above
b are correct? ( ) 1 only
(a) l (b) 3 only
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 2, 3 and 4

34 35 36
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 70 of 213 Rev.0
IES 2008 IES 2008 IES 2004
C id the h following
f ll i statements: Cold
C ld forging
f i results
l ini improved
i d quality
li dued to Assertion
A i (A):
(A) Cold
C ld workingki off metals
l resultsl in i
1. Metal forming g decreases harmful effects of which of the following? increase of strength and hardness
impurities and improves mechanical strength. 1. Better mechanical properties of the process. Reason (R): Cold working reduces the total number
2 Metal working process is a plastic deformation
2. 2 Unbroken grain flow.
2. flow of dislocations per unit volume of the material
process. 3. Smoother finishes. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the
3. Very intricate shapes can be produced by forging 4. High pressure. correct explanation
l off A
p ocess as co
pa ed to cast
ocess. S l t the
Select th correctt answer using
i the
th code
d given
i b l
below: (b) Both
ot A aand d R aaree individually
d v dua y ttrue
ue but R iss not
ot tthee
Which of the statements given above are correct? correct explanation of A
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2 and 4
( ) 1, 2 and
(a) d3 (b) 1 and d 2 only
l ( ) A is
(c) i true
t b t R is
but i false
f l
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 and 3 only (d) A is false but R is true
37 38 39

IES 2003 IES 2000

C ld working
ki produces
d the
h following
f ll i effects:
ff Assertion
A i (A):
(A) To
T obtain
b i large
l deformations
d f i by
b coldld ISRO2009
p in the metal
1. Stresses are set up working intermediate annealing is not required. In the metal forming process, the stresses
2. Grain structure gets distorted Reason (R): Cold working is performed below the encountered are
3. Strength
S h and
d hardness
h d off the
h metall are decreased
d d recrystallisation temperature of the work material.
material ( ) Greater
(a) G than
h yield
i ld strength
h but
b l
less than
4. Surface finish is reduced
4 (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the ultimate strength
correct explanation
l off A (b) Less than yield strength of the material
Which of these statements are correct?
(b) Both
ot A aand d R aaree individually
d v dua y ttrue
ue but R iss not
ot tthee (c) Greater than the ultimate strength of the
( ) 1and
(a) d2 (b) 1, 2 and d3 correct explanation of A material
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 1 and 4 ( ) A is
(c) i true
t b t R is
but i false
f l (d) Less than the elastic limit
(d) A is false but R is true
40 41 42

IES 1997 IES 1996 IES 2006

I l bj d ld ki i Considerthefollowingstatements:
C id h f ll i Assertion
A i (A):
(A) InI case off hot
h workingki off metals,
l the
hardeningeffectisdueto y
Whenametaloralloyiscoldworked temperature at which the process is finally stopped
h ld not be b above
b the
h recrystallisation
ll temperature.
(a) Slipmechanism 1. Itisworkedbelowroomtemperature.
Reason ((R): ) If the p process is stopped
pp above the
(b) Twiningmechanism 2. Itisworkedbelowrecrystallisationtemperature.
I i k db l lli i recrystallisation temperature, grain growth will take
(c) Dislocationmechanism 33. Itshardnessandstrengthincrease.
g place again
p g and spoil
p the attained structure.
(d) Fracturemechanism 4. Itshardnessincreasesbutstrengthdoesnot (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct
increase. explanation of A
Ofthesecorrectstatementsare (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the
correct explanation
l i off A
(a) 1and4 (b) 1and3
(c) A is true but R is false
( ) 2and3
(c) d (d) 2and4
(d) A is false but R is true
43 44 45
For-2018 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 71 of 213 Rev.0
IES 1992 IAS 1996 IAS 2004
S if the
h sequence correctly l For
F mild ild steel,
l the
h hot
h forging
f i temperature range is
i Assertion(A):Hotworkingdoesnotproducestrain
A i (A) H ki d d i
((a)) Grain ggrowth,, recrystallisation,
y , stress relief ((a)) 44000C to 6000C hardening.
(b) Stress relief, grain growth, recrystallisation (b) 7000C to 9000C Reason(R):Hotworkingisdoneabovethere
( ) Stress
(c) S relief,
li f recrystallisation,
lli i grain
i growth h ( ) 10000C to 12000C
(c) crystallizationtemperature.
((d)) Grain g
growth,, stress relief,, recrystallisation
y 3 0Cto 1500
((d)) 1300 5 0C (a) BothAandRareindividuallytrueandRisthe
l f
(b) BothAandRareindividuallytruebutRisnot
ot a d R a e d v dua y t ue but R s ot tthe
( ) AistruebutRisfalse
(c) Ai t b tRi f l
(d) AisfalsebutRistrue
46 47 48

IAS2002 IES2008
A i (A):(A) There
Th is
i good d grain
i refinement
fi in
i hot
h Which one of the following is correct?