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The APA Format

Marleonie M. Bauyot, PhD

The APA Format
The APA Publication Manual is intended
primarily as a guide for preparing articles or
manuscripts for journal publication.
This format facilitates easier editing should the
theses and dissertations be published on
different journals.
The entire thesis or dissertation report shall have
four (4) chapters (in special cases, five (5)
chapters) while the thesis or dissertation
proposal shall only have two (2) chapters,
excluding Chapters III and IV which are results,
and discussion respectively.
The APA Format
Title page
Approval sheets (1 recommending oral defense; 1 acceptance of paper)
Table of Contents (including List of Tables and List of Figures)
Review of Literature
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
Statement of Problem(s)
Hypothesis(es) (if applicable)
Significance of the Study (for proposal, include in INTRODUCTION; for final paper, integrate in DISCUSSION)
Setting (if applicable)
Data Analysis (for proposal, include in METHOD; for final paper, integrate in RESULTS)
Limitations of the Study (for proposal, include in METHOD; for final paper, integrate in DISCUSSION)
(Note that the subsections in this chapter may be organized and integrated in flexible ways, depending on the nature of the
topic, study design, writing style, etc.)
CHAPTER V (optional)

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Chapter I

a thorough discussion of the literature review
shows the theoretical and conceptual
presents the problem and hypothesis to be
describes the research strategy
Chapter II

describes in detail how the study will be
conducted for a thesis or dissertation proposal
and details on how the study was conducted
for a thesis or dissertation report.
discussion on the design, setting, participants,
measures, and procedures.
(proposal) discussion on the data analysis
and limitations of the study
Chapter III

presents in detail a report of the data

collected in relation to or subjected to the
statistical or data analytic treatment used for
quantitative researches; emerging themes,
and observations thematically analyzed for
qualitative researches.
Chapter IV

presents the interpretation of the results and
its implications in relation to the hypothesis.
this chapter may be organized in subsections
and integrated in flexible ways, depending on
the topic, study design, writing style, etc.
Chapter V

Summary and Conclusion

provides a summary of the entire thesis or
dissertation report and highlights the
significant results of the study and its
initiatives that could be taken by other
researchers and stakeholders to further the
results and implications of the study will also
be discussed in this chapter.
The APA Format
Provides a list of the references or literatures
cited in the thesis or dissertation report.

Includes materials or documents needed for
complete documentation

Is a brief summary (usually written in 350

words or less) of the main points of the
study i.e., its topic, purpose or hypothesis,
method, and findings.
It is integral to the thesis, therefore should
accompany each copy of the thesis.
Abstract (cont)
Tips on Abstract Preparation
1. An essential skill of the social scientist is the ability to
communicate ideas and research results effectively.
2. The purpose of the abstract is to highlight the most important
features of the study. It is very important because it is all that
many people will read. It should include a brief description of the
problem being investigated, the methods used, the results and
their implications.
3. The abstract should be accurate (do not include information that
is not in the body of the manuscript), self-contained (spell out
abbreviations), concise, and specific (begin this section with the
most important information and limit it to the 4 or 5 most important
concepts, findings, or implications of the study).
4. For conciseness, use digits for all numbers except when they
begin a sentence.
5. Avoid citing references in the abstract.
Abstract (cont)
6. Paraphrase rather than quote.
7. Use the active rather than the passive
voice (but avoid using personal pronouns).
8. Use past tense for procedures and
present tense for results.
9. Type the abstract in a block format
10. The abstract should not exceed 350
words, or more than one page.
The APA Format

Paper Quality
8 by 11 inches and 20 pound weight (substance 20)
Print and Fonts
All thesis copies should be produced with a sharp, high contrast black
image of the original.
Running Head
The first two or three words of the thesis/dissertation title appear five
spaces to the left of the page number on every page. The running head
can be inserted as a header, which then automatically appears on all
The left hand margin must be wide enough for binding, thus 1 inches
or 4 centimeters is suggested while the top, right-hand, and bottom
margins are 1 inch or 2.54 centimeters, respectively.
Flush left (creating uneven right margin)
The APA Format

Must always begin on a new page.
Double-spacing is required throughout most
of the thesis or dissertation proposal or report,
except for table titles, figure captions,
references, and footnotes where single-
spacing is used. Long quotations are also
indented five spaces or inch.
The APA Format

Figures, tables, and footnotes

Figures and tables used must be mentioned in
the thesis and dissertation report.
Refer to all tables as tables and to all graphs,
pictures, or drawings as figures.
Tables should be given brief and clear
explanatory titles typed above the pertinent
table, and should be numbered using Arabic
numerals; figure captions are typed below the
pertinent figure.
The APA Format

Table format
The APA Format
Figure Format
All figures (photographs, drawings, charts, graphs,
etc.) must be neatly drawn and lettered in black or
colors as needed. All such figures must fit inside the
Illustrations should be labeled as Figures, such as
Figure 1, and the labels should be labeled
consecutively throughout the text, e.g. Figure 1, Figure
2, Figure 3, etc. Figures and Tables are not the same
and should NOT be numbered with reference to each
other, such as Figure 1, Table 2, Figure 3, etc. All
pages carrying figures must have page numbers in the
upper right hand corner.
The APA Format

The APA Format
It explains enough about the content so the reader
need not refer to the text.
Quotations of fewer than 40 words should be
incorporated into the text and enclosed by double
quotation marks ( )
Display quotations of 40 or more words in a double
spaced block type written lines with no quotation
marks. If the quotation is more than one paragraph,
indent the first line of second and additional
paragraphs five to seven spaces or in. from the new
The APA Format

An appendix should be topically independent
of the other appendices. An appendix should
be labeled and, if necessary, separated from
other appendices by a single sheet of paper.
Ordinarily, an appendix should not have
footnote (documentation can be inserted into
the text).
The word Appendix should be placed in the
center, written in capital letters, with
corresponding letters, e.g., APPENDIX A
How to Cite References
General Guidelines: In-Text Citations
Citing an Author or Authors
One Author
If the authors name appears in your sentence, cite
only the year of publication in parenthesis.
Price (1954) described nursing as a combination of both
art and science.
If both the year and the author are mentioned in
the text, do not add parenthetical information.
In 1954, Price described nursing as a combination of
both art and science.
If you do not use the name or year of publication in
your text, insert the information where appropriate.
If the citation occurs at the end of the sentence,
the end punctuation appears after the parenthetical
A recent study (Barrett, 1997) found that
The basis for this argument is provided by a recent
comprehensive study of .(Barrett, 1997).
Within a paragraph, you need not include the year
in subsequent reference to a study as long as the
study cannot be confused with other studies cited
in the article.
In a recent study of reaction times, Walker (2000)
described the method..Walker also found out that.
Citing an Author or Authors
Two Authors
Name both authors in the signal phrase or
parenthesis each time you cite the work. In the
parenthesis, use the ampersand & between the
authors names. In the signal phase, use and.
Spiritual health is achieved when a person finds balance
between his or her own life values, goals and belief
system and those of others (Potter & Perry, 2004).
According to Potter and Perry (2004), spiritual health is
achieve when a person finds balance between his or her
own life values, goals and belief system and those of
Citing an Author or Authors
Three, Four, or Five Authors
Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
In any other references, include only the last name
of the first author followed by et al. and the year if
it is the first citation in the paragraph.
First Citation for this source in your paper:
Greasely, Chiu, and Gartland (2001) posit that.
In 2001, Greasely, Chiu, and Garland posited
The concept of (Greasely, Chiu, & Garland, 2001)
Second Citation for this source in your paper:
As Greasely et al. (2001) also discussed
This study (Greasely et al., 2001) also found
This study found (Greasly et al., 2001).
Note: In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
Citing an Author or Authors
Six or More Authors
Include only the last name of the author followed by et al.
from the outset.
One study (Bautista et al., 1996) attempts to explain
In a recent study (Bautista et al., 1996).
Bautista et al. (1996) argued that
Unknown Author
If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its
title in the signal phrase or give the first word or two in the
parenthesis. Titles of books and reports are italicized or
underline and titles of articles and chapters are in quotation
Children struggling to control their weight must also struggle
with the pressure of television . (Television, 2002).
A similar study was done of students learning t o format
research papers (Using APA, 2001).
Note: In rare case the Anonymous is used for the author, treat it
as the authors name (Anonymous, 2001). In the reference list,
use the name Anonymous as the author.
Citing an Author or Authors
Organization as Author
The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g.
corporations, association, and government agencies) are
usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation.
The names of some associations or government agencies
acting as group authors, however, are spelled out in the first
citation and abbreviated thereafter. If the name is long and
cumbersome and if the abbreviation is familiar or readily
understandable, you may abbreviate the name in the second
and subsequent citations. If the name is short or if the
abbreviation would not be readily understandable, write out
the name each time it occurs.
First text citations:
Although health is defined as. as stated by the World
Health Organization (WHO) in 1999
Although health is defined as (World Health
Organization [WHO], 1999).
According to a recent (World Health Organization
[WHO], 1999)
Subsequent text citations:
In the WHO (1999) report
A study found that (WHO, 1999).
Citing an Author or Authors
Two or More Works by Different Authors
List the works in alphabetical order and separate them with
There is evidence to suggest that . (McSherry & Draper,
1997; Narayanasamy, 1993; Ross, 1996).
Authors with the same Last Name
To avoid confusion, use initials with the last names if your
reference list includes two or more authors with the same last
Research by D. Brown (1989), revealed that
Research conducted by A. Brown (1990), revealed
Multiple Works by One Author with Same Publication
Identify works by the same author with the same publication
date by adding the suffixes a, b, c and so forth after the year.
These kinds of references are ordered alphabetically by the
title on the References page.
Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; Singh 1983)
found that
Johnson (1991b) conducted an additional
Citing Indirect Sources
If you use a source that was cited in
another source, name the original source
in your paragraph. Use the phrase cited
in followed by the author and year of the
text in which you found the material.
Dombeck mentioned that the word spiritually was
derived from the Latin word spiritus, which refers to
breath or wind (as cited in Potter & Perry, 2005).
Van Leeuwen and Cusveller conducted a literature
review . (as cited in Pesut, 2008).
Electronic Sources
When possible, cite an electronic
document as you would any other
document (using author-date style).
A person is composed of body, mind and spirit.
When the physical domain of an individual is
compromised, the mind and the spirit are also
involved (Makhija, 2002).
For Watson in 1999, the transpersonal caring
relationship characterizes a special kind of
human care relationship that.
Electronic sources may lack authors
name or dates.
Electronic Sources
Unknown Author
If no author is named, mention the title of the document in a
signal phrase or give the first word or two of the title in
The bodys basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is a measure of its at-
rest energy requirement (Exercise, 2003).
Unknown Date
When the date is unknown, APA recommends using the
abbreviation n.d. (for no date).
Attempts to establish a definitive link between television
programming and childrens eating habits have been
problematic (Magnus, n.d.).
Unknown Author and Unknown Date
If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal
phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses
and use the abbreviation n.d. (for no date).
Another story of students and research decisions discovered
that students succeeded with tutoring (Tutoring and APA,
Personal Communication
Personal Communications may be letters,
memorandum, electronic communications (e.g., e-
mail or messages from nonarchived discussion
groups or electronic bulletin boards), personal
interviews, telephone conversations, and like. Since
they do not provide recordable date, they are not
included in the reference list. However, they will be
cited in text only. In the text, initials as well as the
surname of the communicator as well as the exact
date should be given.
T. K. Lutes mentioned that (personal communication, April
18, 2001).
In a certain study (T. K. Lutes, personal communication,
April 18, 2001).
Sample References for Works-Cited List
Book/ Edited Book
Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social
anxiety. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Chickering, A. W., & Smith, L. E. (Eds.). (1981). The
Modern American College Responding to the new
realities of diverse students and a changing society.
San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.
Book, Two to Six Authors
Eggins, S., Smith, J. R., & Slade, D. J. (1997).
Analyzing casual conversation. London: Cassell.
Book, More Than Six Authors - include first 6
authors then abbreviate remaining authors as et
Quirk, R., Eggins, S., Smith, J. R., Slade, D. J., Buss,
A. H., Jones, B. D. et al. (1985). A comprehensive
grammar of the English language. London:
Book by a Corporate Author
Public Agenda Foundation (1992). The health care
crisis: Containing costs, expanding coverage. New
York: McGraw
Book with no Author or Editor
Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (10th ed.)
(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster
Work in an Anthology or Edited Book
Allende, I. (1992). Toads mouth. (M.S. Peden, Trans.).
In T. Cochie (ed.), A hammock beneath the
mangoes: Stories from Latin America (pp.83-88).
New York: Plume.
Good, T. L, & Brophy, J. E. (1986). School effects. In
M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on
teaching (3rd ed., pp. 570-602). New York:
Work Reprinted in a Multi-volume Collected
Washington, M. H. (1992). An essay on Alice Walker.
In J. P. Draper (Ed.) Black literature criticism. (Vol. 3,
pp. 1810-12). Detroit: Gale. (Reprinted fromSturdy
black bridges: Visions of Black women in literature,
pp. 133-49, by R. P. Bell, B. J. Parker, & B. Guy-
Sheftall, 1979, Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/
Encyclopedia Article
Bergman, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new
encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp.501-508).
Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
If an entry has no author, begin the reference with the entry
title and publication date.
Relativity. (1993). In The new encyclopedia Britannica
(Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia
Article in a Journal- include issue number only if each
issue is separately paged.
Lacayo, R. (1991, April 22). Global warming: A new warning.
Time, 137(16), 32.
Smith, M. L., & Finn, J. (1997, October). The use of the World
Wide Web by Undergraduate social work education programs.
Journal of Baccalaureate Social Work, 3(1), 71-84.
Stacks, D. W., & Hickson, M. (1991). The communication
investigator: Teaching research methods to undergraduates.
Communication Quarterly, 39, 351-357.
Article in the Published Proceedings of a
Brock, D. (1981). New public broadcasting programs and services.
In J. Brown (Ed.), Technology and education: Policy,
implementation, evaluation. Proceedings of the National
Conference on Technology and Education. January 26-28
(pp.30-59). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Unpublished Convention Paper
McCormack, S. A. (1988, May). When lovers become leery: The
lie-bias of suspicion. Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the International Communication Association, New Orleans, LA.
Article in a Newspaper or Weekly/ Biweekly
Magazine - do not include the volume and issue
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic,
social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
If an article has no author, begin the reference with the article title
and publication date.
Review - include name of work reviewed if not part of
Kauffman, S. (1993, December 13). A new Spielberg. [Review of
the movie Schindlers list]. New Republic, 30.
Updike, J. (2002, February 4). No brakes. [Review of the book
Sinclair Lewis: Rebel from Main Street]. New Yorker, 77-80.
Doctoral Dissertation obtained from the university
Byerly, J. (1982). An investigation of factors that condition student
enrollment in broadcast courses at Coastline Community
College (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 1981).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 58A.
Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation
Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analysis of bulimia: Normal-
weight and obese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University
of Missouri, Colombia.
Unpublished masters thesis, university outside the
United States
Almeida, D.M. (1990). Fathers participation in family work:
Consequences for fathers stress and father-child relations.
Unpublished masters thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria,
British Columbia, Canada.
Give the name of the city and the name of the state. (Do
not give the name of the state if it is included in the name
of university.
Give the city, state or province (if applicable) and country
of a university outside the United States.
Motion Picture
Lehman, E. (Producer), & Nichols, M. (Director). (1966). Whos
afraid of Virginia Woolf? [Motion Picture]. Burbank, CA: Warner
Television Broadcast
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/
Lehrer news hour. [Television broadcast]. New York and
Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
Legal Sources
Statutes - Name of Act, Volume Source Section (Year).
Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. Sec. 9401 (1988).
Cases - Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date).
Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (1972).
Regulations - Title/Number, Volume Source Section (year).
FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. Sec. 444 (1999).
Smith, I. M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, DC:
U.S Patent and Trademark Office.
Electronic Stand-Alone Document
Author/Authoring Body. (Date). Title of the Document.
Retrieval Date from URL
Bryant, P. (1999). Biodiversity and conservation. Retrieved
October 4, 1999, from
Electronic Document from a Multi-Page Site
Author/Authoring Body. (Date). Title of the Document.
Retrieval Date from URL [of the home (or entry) page
for the document].
Bell, S. H. & Gallagher, L. J. (2001, February). Prime-age adults
without children or disabilities: The least deserving of the
pooror are they? Retrieved April 20, 2001, from Assessing
the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Project Web site: http://
Article from an Internet Journal/Periodical -
same as article in journal/periodical, followed by
retrieval date and URL.
Fine, M., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on
determining authorship credit and Authorship order on
faculty-student collaborations. American
Psychologist, 48, 1141-1147 Retrieved June 7, 1999,

Article from an Online Encyclopedia

Daniel, R. T. (1995). The history of Western music.
Britannica online: Macropaedia. Retrieved June 14,
1999, from
Article from a Journal or Conference in an Electronic
Database - same as article in journal or conference,
followed by retrieval date and name of database.
Kramer, J. F. (1999, December/2000, January). Valuing
accounting practices. The National Public Accountant,
44(10), 32. Retrieved April 4, 2000, from ABI/Inform
Global via Proquest Direct.
Abstract of a Magazine/Journal Article in an
Electronic Database
Holmes, M. D. (1998). Perceptions of abusive police
practices in US-Mexico border community. Social
Science Journal, 35, 107-118. Abstract retrieved April
4, 2000, from Criminal Justice Abstracts via Silver
Newspaper Article in an Electronic Database
- same as article in a newspaper, followed by
retrieval date and name of database.
Henneberger, M. (1995, June 8). Republicans battle
party on arts funds. The New York Times, B6.
Retrieved April 4, 2000, from Lexis Nexis Academic
Universe/ General News.
Electronic Book in an Electronic Database -
same as book, followed by retrieval date and
name of database.
Gross, C. G. 1998. Brain, vision, memory: Tales in the
history of neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Retrieved January 19, 2004. from netLibrary.
Item from a CD-ROM
Albatross. 1992. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed.
[CD-ROM]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.