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– C6-42 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

A6.2

Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients

A6.2.1 Procedure for estimating wind force coefficients

Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients depend on building shape, building surface

condition, terrain condition and local topography at the construction site. Therefore, they should be

determined from wind tunnel experiments that properly simulate full-scale conditions. However, the

coefficients for buildings with regular shapes can be estimated from the procedure described in this

section. The coefficients are divided into two categories, one for the design of structural frames and

the other for the design of building components/cladding, because the wind effects on structural

frames and components/cladding are quite different from each other.

Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients are generally defined in terms of the velocity

pressure

where the

members under consideration are placed.

m, for example, while

it is generally small, smaller than 1.0 in many cases, for lower buildings. The flow field around a

building changes with the aspect ratio, which results in a significant change in the wind force and

pressure coefficients. Therefore, two different procedures are provided for estimating the wind force

coefficients for buildings with

The sign of the wind pressure coefficient indicates the direction of the pressure on the surface or

element; positive values indicate pressures acting towards the surface and negative values pressures

acting away from the surface (suction). In the case of curved roofs, the direction of wind pressure

varies with location, as shown in Fig. A6.2.1. The wind forces on buildings and structures are the

vector sum of the forces calculated from the pressures acting on surfaces such as walls and roofs or on

structural elements.

D for estimating horizontal wind loads on structural frames are generally

, on the windward and

leeward faces, as shown in Eq.(A6.13); the exception is that for buildings with circular sections, where

for

the resultant wind force coefficients are provided. Similarly, the wind force coefficients

estimating roof wind loads on structural frames are generally given by the difference between the

, on the roof, as shown in Eq. (A6.14),

except for open roofs. The wind pressure coefficients are space- and time-averaged values where the

averaging duration is 10 minutes. The averaging area depends on the building shape. The wind force

coefficients

the solidity

ϕ . The wind force can also be calculated by using the wind force coefficients for

individual members provided in A6.2.4(5).

C for the design of components/cladding are generally given

for the

by the difference between the peak external pressure coefficient

q

H evaluated at the reference height

H . For lattice structures and members, the wind force

q

Z

evaluated at the height

H > 45

Z

coefficients are defined in terms of the velocity pressure

The aspect ratio

H / B

is generally large for tall buildings, such as

H > 45 m and those with

H

45 m.

Wind force coefficients

C

given by the difference between the wind pressure coefficients,

C

pe1

and

C

pe2

C

R

external and internal pressure coefficients,

C

pe

and

C

pi

C

D for estimating horizontal wind loads on lattice structures are given as a function of

The peak wind force coefficients

ˆ

C

ˆ

C

pe

and the factor

C

*

pi

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-43 –

ˆ

effect of fluctuating internal pressures, except for open roofs, in which the value of

The values of

and negative peak values irrespective of wind direction. Note that the factor

is provided.

C in the open roof case) are determined from the most critical positive

C

C

ˆ

C

pe

(and

ˆ

C

C

*

pi

for the effect of

ˆ

fluctuating internal pressures is not the actual peak internal pressure coefficient

value producing the peak wind force coefficient

coefficient

but an equivalent

C when combined with the peak external pressure

C

pi

ˆ

C

ˆ

C

pe

.

The wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients given in this section are all for isolated

buildings and are obtained from the results of wind tunnel experiments. When nearby buildings are

expected to influence the wind forces and pressures, it is necessary to carry out wind tunnel

experiments or other special researches to determine the coefficients 12) .

Figure A6.2.1

to determine the coefficients 1 2 ) . Figure A6.2.1 External pressure on a building with

External pressure on a building with a vaulted roof in a wind parallel to the gable

walls

A6.2.2

(1) External pressure coefficients

45m

External pressure coefficient for structural frames

C pe

for buildings with rectangular sections and heights greater than

External pressure coefficients on the windward and leeward walls of buildings with rectangular

sections have the following features:

1) External pressure coefficients on windward walls are nearly proportional to the velocity pressure of

the approach flow, except for areas near the top and bottom of the building. In the top and bottom

areas, the external pressure coefficient is almost independent of height.

2) External pressure coefficients on leeward walls are negative and almost independent of height.

Based on these features, the vertical distribution of external pressure coefficients on windward walls

are assumed to be proportional to the factor for vertical profile (

those on leeward walls are assumed constant regardless of height. The external pressure coefficients

on leeward walls decrease with increase in side ratio

the separated shear layer from the windward edge and is reflected in the value of

ratio

on the wind pressure coefficients is not significant. Therefore, the pressure

range, the effect of

Z ) provided in Table A6.8, while

k

D / B

. This feature is related to the behavior of

C pe2

. The aspect

H / B

of high-rise buildings with

H / B

H > 45

m is in the range from 1 to 8 in most cases. In this

– C6-44 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

coefficients are provided independently of H / B .

The external pressure coefficients on roofs are determined from the results of various wind tunnel

experiments 20), 28) as well as on the provisions of international codes and standards. Although

flat-roofed buildings have parapets in many cases, their effect on the pressure coefficients is not

considered here. A reduction factor for external pressure coefficients on roofs with parapets is

provided in Eurocode 28) . (2) External pressure coefficient

equal to 45m

for buildings with rectangular sections and heights less than or

C pe

1) Buildings with flat, gable and mono-sloped roofs

External pressure coefficients are influenced by many factors, such as roof shape, roof angle and

flow condition. The coefficients in this section are estimated from the results of wind tunnel

experiments on buildings with rectangular sections and reference heights less than or equal to 45m.

The roof shapes under consideration are flat, gable and mono-sloped. When the roof angle is less than

or equal to 10 degrees, the roof can be regarded as a flat roof.

The roof and walls are divided into several zones, and the external pressure coefficients for these

zones are provided in Table A.6.9(1) as a function of building configuration parameters ( B / H ,

θ ). The external pressure coefficient for each zone is estimated from the spatially

averaged pressure over the zone for a range of wind directions, the center of which is normal to the

u ,

because the pressure coefficient becomes both positive and negative due to a small change in

experimental conditions. It is necessary to combine these values with those for the other zones when

the stresses in the members are calculated.

The net wind forces on windward eaves become very large, because negative pressures act on the

top surface and positive pressures on the bottom surface of the eaves. In this case, the external

pressure coefficient on the bottom surface is approximately equal to that on the windward wall just

bellow the eaves.

2) Buildings with vaulted roofs

The external pressure coefficient for a building with a curved surface generally depends on the

shape and surface roughness of the building, the flow conditions and the Reynolds number. Buildings

with vaulted roofs, however, are immersed in very turbulent flows. Furthermore, such buildings have

walls in most cases and therefore the flow tends to separate at the windward edge. These features

suggest that the external pressure coefficients on vaulted roofs are less sensitive to surface roughness

and the Reynolds number than those on circular cylindrical structures, as shown in A6.2.4(1). The

external pressure coefficients

eperiment 32), 33) that focuses on medium-scale buildings in urban areas. The effects of surface

roughness are not considered in the experiment.

W 1 ), the building shape is represented by the

. However, for a wind parallel to the

rise/width ratio

D / H

and

wall. Both positive and negative values are provided for the external pressure coefficient for zone

R

C pe

in Table A6.9(2) are determined from the results of a wind tunnel

For a wind normal to the gable wall (wind direction

f / B

and the eaves-height/width ratio

h/ B

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-45 –

the

. In both cases, the roof is divided into three zones. However, the zone

definitions vary because of the difference between the flow patterns of the two wind directions. For

, the definition of zones is similar to that for flat, gable and mono-sloped roofs. For

wind direction

The external pressure coefficient corresponds to the area-averaged value and the design wind load is

assumed constant over each zone. When

roof level coincides with ground level. The coefficients for these cases, which have no physical

f / D = 0 ,

represented

eaves-height/depth ratio

gable wall (wind direction

W

2

)

it

is

by

the

rise/depth

ratio

f / D

and

h/ D

wind direction

W

1

W

2

, however, the definition is similar to that for spherical domes.

h / B = 0

and

f / B = 0

or when

h / D = 0

and

meaning, are provided to make interpolation possible.

The external pressure coefficients on walls are determined in the same way as for buildings with flat,

gable and mono-sloped roofs.

3) Spherical domes

In the same manner as for buildings with vaulted roofs, the external pressure coefficients for

spherical domes are determined from the results of a wind tunnel experiment 34) . Since the counter lines

of mean pressure coefficients on a spherical dome are almost perpendicular to the wind direction, the

d ), as shown in Table A6.10, and the external

for each zone is given by spatially averaging the mean external pressure

and the

ratios are

other than h/ D = 0

coefficient over the zone. The building shape is represented by the rise/span ratio

eaves-height/span ratio

provided in Table A6.10. Linear interpolation can be used for values of

shown. Both positive and negative values of

and f / D = 0 are again provided for interpolation.

pressure coefficient

dome surface is divided into four zones (

R

a

to

R

C pe

f / D h/ D

h/ D

h/ D

. The values of

C

C

pe

pe

for five

f / D

ratios and three

f / D

R

a

and

are provided for zone

. The value for

The wind force coefficients for walls can be obtained from Table A6.12 by substituting

h

for

H .

A6.2.3

Internal pressure coefficients for structural frames

Internal pressures are significantly influenced by the following factors:

a) distribution of external pressures

b) openings and gaps in building envelope

c) internal volume of building

d) openings and gaps in internal partitions

e) operation of air-conditioners

f) distortion of walls and/or roofs

g) air temperature

h) damage to building envelope

In general, buildings have many gaps and openings, such as ventilating openings, etc., in their

envelopes. Air leaks through these gaps and openings due to differences between external and internal

pressures. The internal pressure is determined by applying the mass conservation principle to the air in

the internal volume. For instance, a dominant opening in the windward wall may produce positive

– C6-46 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

internal pressures, whereas one in a side or leeward wall may produce negative internal pressures.

Moreover, the internal pressure fluctuates and its characteristics depend on the relationship between

the size of the openings and the internal volume of the building. In this section, internal pressure

coefficients for buildings without dominant opening are provided based on the results of a series of

computations, in which it is assumed that the internal pressures are significantly influenced by factors

in Table A6.11 are provided based on the

calculations of the mean internal pressures for various building configurations, assuming that the gaps

and openings are uniformly distributed over the external walls and the internal pressure is caused by

external pressures acting at the locations of the gaps and openings.

When the influence of other factors is assumed to be significant, it should be taken into account for

evaluating the internal pressure coefficient. For instance, when the internal volume is divided by

airtight partitions, the influence of factor d) is significant. When powerful air-conditioners are in

operation, the influence of factor e) is significant. In buildings with flexible roofs and/or walls, such as

membrane structures, the influence of factor f) is significant. When glass windows on the windward

face are broken by wind-borne debris in strong winds, the internal pressure is suddenly increased by

winds blowing into the building. This often results in failures of roof structures. In such cases, factor

h) should be considered appropriately.

a) and b) mentioned above. That is, the values of

C pi

A6.2.4

(1) Wind force coefficients

Wind force coefficients for cylinders are affected by the Reynolds number, flow condition, aspect

ratio H / D , surface roughness of the cylinders, and other factors. Figure A6.2.2 36) shows the variation

of drag coefficient

number Re (

viscosity coefficient of flow, respectively). For wind, the Reynolds number is approximately given by

are expressed in units of ‘m/s’ and ‘m’, respectively. It is found

× 10 5 to 5 × 10 6 . The flow

= UD /ν , where U , D and ν are wind speed, cylinder diameter and kinematic

D on a two dimensional smooth cylinder in a uniform flow with Reynolds

Wind force coefficients for design of structural frames

C

D for buildings with circular sections

C

Re 7UD ×10

4

, where

U

and

D

from Fig. A6.2.2 that

around a cylinder is usually classified into four regimes, i.e. ‘subcritical’, ‘critical’, ‘supercritical’ and

‘transcritical’, as shown in Fig. A6.2.2. Since the Reynolds number of the flow around buildings in

strong winds is in the transcritical regime, the provision of

the drag coefficients in this regime.

In particular,

the effect of surface roughness is significant in the transcritical regime. In Table A6.12 the effects of

aspect ratio and surface roughness are represented by

C

D changes significantly with Re in the range from 2

C

D in A6.2.4(1) is based on the values of

The aspect ratio and surface roughness of the cylinder also affect the drag coefficient.

k

1

and

k

2

, respectively

37) .

The external pressure coefficients

C pe

on roofs are given in Table A6.10 assuming that

f / D = 0

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-47 –

CHAPTER 6 WIND LOADS – C6-47 – Figure A6.2.2 Plots of drag coefficient surface as a

Figure A6.2.2

Plots of drag coefficient

surface as a function of Reynolds number Re

C

D on a two-dimensional cylinder with very smooth

36)

(2) Wind force coefficients

For free roofs where strong wind can flow under the roof, high fluctuating pressures act on both the top and bottom surfaces. It is reasonable to evaluate the net wind force coefficients directly, not from the wind pressure coefficients on the top and bottom surfaces, because the correlation between fluctuating wind pressures on both surfaces is higher than that for enclosed buildings.

The wind force coefficients in Table A6.13 can be used for small-scale buildings, to which the simplified method (A6.11) is applied, because the coefficients are determined from the results of wind

tunnel experiments on free roofs with H < 10 m. For gable (θ > 0 ο ) and troughed roofs (θ < 0 ο ), previous studies have shown the most critical peak wind force coefficients on the windward and leeward areas irrespective of wind direction. Since the tested roof angle θ is limited to the range of |θ |30 ο , the provision is also limited to that range.

The wind force coefficients are regulated for a clear flow case where there are no obstructions under

the roof. The flow pattern around a roof is significantly affected by obstructions under it. If there is any obstruction whose blockage ratio is larger than approximately 50%, the wind pressure on the bottom surface may increase significantly, resulting in a significant increase in the net wind force on the roof. In such a case, it is necessary to evaluate the wind force coefficients from wind tunnel experiments and so on.

(3) Wind force coefficients

The size of individual lattice structure members is generally much smaller than the width of the structure, and they are arranged symmetrically. Therefore, it is assumed that the only wind force acting on a plane of the structure is drag. Total drag can be estimated as the summation of the drags on each member of the structure. Since the flow around a member depends only on the characteristics of the local flow around it, drag is proportional to the velocity pressure at the height of the member. Based on these features, the following two methods are often used for estimating the wind force on lattice

C

R for free roofs with rectangular base

C

D for lattice structures

– C6-48 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

structures. One is to multiply the wind force coefficient, given as a function of the solidity ϕ of the

plane, by the projected area of the plane. The other method 39) is to sum the wind forces on all members,

which is given by the product of the wind force coefficient

ϕ should be small. In the Recommendations, the former method is

is provided only for

The wind force coefficient is represented as a function of the solidity ϕ , the plan of the structure

and the cross section of the member. The solidity ϕ is defined as the ratio of the projected area

of the structure. The value of ϕ is calculated for

each panel of the lattice structure when the wind direction is normal to the plane. In the calculation,

the areas of the leeward lattice members and the appurtenances are not included. The wind forces on

the appurtenances can be estimated from the provision of

wind tunnel experiments and they are added to the wind force on the structure.

of the plane to the whole plane area

used and the wind force coefficient

area. For any method, the solidity

C

D of each member and its projected

ϕ0.6 .

A

F

C

D

A

0

=

(

Bh

)

C

D for members (Table A6.16) or from

D for lattice structures with square and

for

the triangular shape in plan is the same for the two wind directions shown in the table. When the

members are circular pipes, the wind force coefficients

triangular plan shapes, which consist of angles or circular pipes. The wind force coefficient

Table A6.14 provides the wind force coefficients

C

C

D

D for the members are affected by the

Reynolds number. The provisions are based on the value in the subcritical Reynolds number regime. In

may become smaller than that given in the provisions due to the effect

of the Reynolds number. However, this effect is not considered here.

When the plan of the structure and/or the cross section of the member are different from those in

strong winds, the value of

C

C

D

Table A6.14, the wind loads on the structure can be estimated by using the wind force coefficients of the members given in Table A6.16 together with the local velocity pressure. However, the solidity ϕ

of the structure is required to be less than 0.6.

(4) Wind force coefficients

C

D

for fences on ground

Wind force coefficients

C

D

for fences on the ground are defined as a function of the solidity

ϕ

in the same manner as those for lattice structures. The value of

introduced to obtain intermediate values of

calculated according to the simplified procedure using

as the whole area multiplied by

ϕ = 0 in Table A6.15 is

0 < ϕ < 0.2 . Wind load for a fence can be

C

D

for

C

D

for

C

D and the projected area A, which is defined

ϕ .

(5) Wind force coefficients

C

for components

Wind force coefficients

C

for components are determined from wind tunnel experiments with

C can be applied to line-like members less

than approximately 50cm wide, but should not be applied to ordinary buildings. In some cases, the

value of

C in the across-wind direction becomes relatively large when the wind direction deviates

two-dimensional models in a smooth flow. The values of

only a little from the normal direction. In such cases, two values of

A6.16.

C (

± 0.6) are provided in Table

Wind force coefficients for components may also be used for calculating the wind loads on lattice

Z of the member under

pressure

structures,

together

with

the

local

velocity

q

Z

at

height

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-49 –

consideration. The wind load on a component is given by the product of

(

q

Z

,

C

,

blϕ

for nets), where

I

Z

is the turbulence intensity at height

Z

(see Eq.(A6.7)).

(1

7

+ I

Z

)

and bl

A6.2.5 Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding

(1) Peak external pressure coefficients

greater than 45 m Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding correspond to the most critical positive

and negative peak pressure coefficients irrespective of wind direction. Positive pressures occur on

windward walls, and their characteristics are affected by the vertical profile of the approach flow. On

the other hand, negative pressures (suctions) occur on side and leeward walls, and their characteristics

are not significantly affected by the vertical profile of the approach flow; that is, the vertical

distribution is nearly uniform. Large negative pressures occur near the windward edges of sidewalls

due to flow separation from the edge. The peak external pressure coefficients provided in Table A6.17

are determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments 41)-44) . These coefficients are given by the

product of the external pressure coefficients influenced by the profile of the mean wind speed and the

gust effect factor influenced by the profile of the turbulence intensity. Therefore, the positive external

peak pressure coefficients are affected by the terrain category. However, negative external peak

pressures are almost independent of terrain category.

for buildings with rectangular sections and heights

ˆ

C

pe

For tall buildings with recessed or chamfered corners, the negative peak pressures are influenced by

ˆ

the size of the recess or chamfer. The values of

results of wind tunnel experiments 42), 43) . The values in Table A6.17 can also be used for buildings with

more than one recessed or chamfered corner. Peak external pressure coefficients for roofs are provided only for flat roofs. For diagonal wind

directions, very large suctions are induced near windward corners due to the generation of conical

vortices. However, the large suction zone is limited to a relatively small area 45) . Therefore, the use of

such large peak pressure coefficients for large components may overestimate the design wind loads. In

C for

roofs is introduced.

order to consider the subject area of components/cladding in zone

C

pe

for such buildings are also determined from the

R

c

, an area reduction factor

k

less than or equal to 8, because

the values are based on wind tunnel experiments on such buildings.

When a building is constructed on an escarpment or a ridge-shaped topography, the approach wind

is affected by the local topography, and therefore the positive peak pressure coefficients may change

significantly. Since wind speeds near the ground are increased by such local topography, the vertical

distribution of positive peak external pressure coefficients becomes nearly uniform. In such cases,

Z at the reference

H . This simplified method overestimates the wind loads to some degree in most cases.

However, for terrain category I, it may underestimate the positive peak external pressures. In this case,

height

positive peak external pressures can be calculated by using the values of

The provisions are applicable to buildings with aspect ratios

H / B

k

Z

and

I

investigations by wind tunnel experiments are recommended.

– C6-50 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

ˆ

(2) Peak external pressure coefficient

than or equal to 45 m 1) Buildings with flat, gable and mono-sloped roofs

C

pe

for buildings with rectangular sections and heights less

For estimating peak pressure coefficients for components/cladding of low-rise buildings, the subject

area is assumed to be 1 m 2 as a typical value. Positive peak external pressure coefficients are given as

a function of the turbulence intensity, because the pressures depend significantly on the turbulence of

the approach flow. The positive peak external pressure coefficient on a roof is evaluated by using the

positive external pressure coefficient

is provided for small roof angles, it is not necessary to evaluate the positive wind pressures.

u in Table A 6.9(1). If no positive value of

C

pe

for zone

R

C pe

Negative peak external pressure coefficients in the edge and corner regions are significantly influenced

by vortices related to flow separation at the edge. Negative peak pressure coefficients tend to increase

in magnitude as the turbulence intensity of the approach flow increases. However, the influence of

turbulence on negative peak pressure coefficients is smaller than that on positive peak pressure

coefficients on windward walls. Consequently, the provision of negative peak pressure coefficients is

determined from the values for terrain category IV and are independent of turbulence intensity. High

suctions are induced in the edge and corner regions of walls and roofs, whose widths are affected by

building dimensions such as height and width.

is

For

); the

suctions are larger and the high suction area is wider than that for gable roofs. Consequently, the peak

d is larger than that for gable roofs. In such high suction

zones, the wind load can be reduced by using the area reduction factor

of components/cladding is greater than 1 m 2 (up to 5 m 2 ).

2) Buildings with vaulted roofs

are determined from the results of wind-tunnel

experiments 33) , focusing on medium-scale buildings in urban areas, in which the

1 ratio is small, the corner and edge

regions of a roof are significantly affected by vortex generation as in the flat roof case. This results in

. When the

suctions are induced in zone

for winds nearly perpendicular to the eaves. Taking these wind pressure features into account, the roof is divided into several zones and positive

and negative peak external pressure coefficients are provided for these zones, as shown in Table

1 ratio is lower than 0.1, the roof is subjected to higher suctions similar to

gable and mono-sloped roofs. Therefore, it is not necessary to evaluate the positive peak external

pressure coefficients. The values for walls can be determined from Table A6.18(1).

A6.18(2). When the

ratio is varied

from 0 to 0.7 and the

For gable roofs, very high suctions are induced near corners (zone

R

b

R

b

and

) when the roof angle

R

g

) when

θ 20 ο .

R

d

θ

less than or equal to 10 ο and in the ridge corner (zones

mono-sloped roofs, very high suctions are induced near the higher eaves corners (zone

external pressure coefficient for zone

R

The peak external pressure coefficients

ˆ

C

pe

f / B

1

ratio from 0.1 to 0.4. When the

f / B

larger peak suctions in zones

R

R

d

a

and

R

d

f / B

k

C

when the subject area

A

C

h/ B

1

1 ratio is relatively large, large peak

R

c

for winds nearly perpendicular to the gable edge and in zone

f / B

(3) Peak external pressure coefficients

ˆ

C

pe

for buildings with circular sections

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-51 –

For buildings with circular sections, the maximum positive peak external pressure coefficient occurs

at the stagnation point on the windward face, whereas the maximum negative peak external pressure

coefficient occurs near the point of maximum negative mean external pressure. The vertical

distribution of positive peak pressure coefficients depends strongly on the mean velocity profile of the

approach flow in the same manner as that for buildings with rectangular sections. On the other hand,

and surface

the

effect of surface roughness in the transcritical Reynolds number regime. Negative peak external

pressure coefficients become larger in magnitude near the top of the building because of the flow

separation from the top (i.e. end effect). The factor

A6.19 are applicable to buildings with aspect ratios

provision is based on wind tunnel experiments using such models.

for domes with

negative peak external pressure coefficients are influenced by the aspect ratios

roughness of buildings. The factor

H / D

k 1 considers the effect of aspect ratio, and the factor

k

2

k

3

considers this effect

H / D

47) . The values in Table

less than or equal to 8, because the

ˆ

C

pe

Only negative peak pressures are considered for roofs. The values of

f / D = 0

provided in Table A6.20 can be used.

(4) Peak external pressure coefficients

ˆ

C

pe

for buildings with circular sections and spherical domes

Peak external pressure coefficients in Table A6.20 are determined from the results of wind tunnel

experiments 34) . External pressures on domes fluctuate significantly due to the effects of turbulence of

approach flow as well as of vortex generation. Therefore, both positive and negative peak pressure

coefficients are provided. Because the geometry of spherical domes is axisymmetric, they are divided

into three zones (

negative peak external pressures become large in magnitude near the windward edge (zone

to the flow separation at the windward edge. On the other hand, when the

) due

is small,

R

a

,

R

b

and

R

c

) by coaxial circles. When the rise/span ratio

f / D

( f / D)

R

a

ratio is large, large

positive peak external pressures are induced near the windward edge due to the direct influence of the

approach flow. Therefore, positive peak external pressure coefficients for zone

function of the turbulence intensity

a are provided as a

H of the approach flow when

R

I uH

at the reference height

f / D 0.2 .

A6.2.6 Factor for effect of fluctuating internal pressures

Peak wind force coefficients for components/cladding shall be determined from the maximum

instantaneous values, both positive and negative, of the pressure difference between the exterior and

interior surfaces. However, there are few data on these pressure differences. In the Recommendations,

C is represented by Eq.(A.6.15), because the peak

are usually obtained from wind tunnel experiments and a large

C

ˆ

external pressure coefficients

amount of data is available.

Figure A6.2.3 shows a schematic illustration of fluctuating external and internal pressures. The

frequency of internal pressure fluctuations is lower than that of external pressure fluctuations, and the

peak external and internal pressures are not induced simultaneously. The factor

fluctuating internal pressures in Eq.(A6.15) does not represent the peak internal pressure coefficient

it is assumed that the peak wind force coefficient

ˆ

C

pe

*

C Pi

for the effect of

– C6-52 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

itself but an equivalent value that provides the actual peak wind force when combined with the peak

C is evaluated from a series of computations for

for various building configurations.

external pressure coefficient

C

ˆ

the peak wind force coefficients using wind tunnel data on

The following assumptions are made in the computations:

ˆ

C

pe

. The value of

ˆ

C

pe

1) Gaps and openings in the external walls are uniformly distributed, and the internal pressures are

generated from the external pressures at the locations of the gaps and openings.

2) The fluctuating internal and external pressures are independent of each other.

When the building has intentionally designed openings or when glass windows on the windward

face are broken by flying debris, the size of the openings may be very large compared with ordinary

gaps and openings. The values in Table A6.21 cannot be used for such cases. It is necessary to estimate

the peak wind force coefficients appropriately by using the data on the external and internal pressures

obtained from wind tunnel experiments. Some international codes and standards 20), 50) provide internal

pressure coefficients for buildings with dominant openings.

Wind force coefficient, wind pressure coefficient ^ C C C ^ * pi C pe
Wind force coefficient, wind pressure coefficient
^
C C
C
^
* pi
C pe
0
Time
C pi

wind force coefficient

external pressure coefficient

internal pressure coefficient

^

C C

^

C pe

coefficient internal pressure coefficient ^ C C ^ C pe C pi peak wind force coefficient

C pi

peak wind force coefficient

peak external pressure coefficient

peak internal pressure coefficient

Fig.A6.2.3

Example of fluctuating external and internal pressures acting on components/cladding

A6.2.7 Peak wind force coefficient for components/cladding

For free roofs, it is necessary to directly evaluate the net wind force represented by the pressure

difference between the top and bottom surfaces. Regulation of peak wind force coefficients is based on

previous wind tunnel experiments for the most critical peak wind forces irrespective of wind

direction 38) . When the roof angle is relatively large, large peak wind forces are induced along the roof

edges as well as along the ridge, because large suctions are induced by conical vortices on either the

top or bottom surface of the roof. The roof is divided into two zones (

b ), and positive and

θ . Larger

net wind forces are induced in zone

negative peak wind force coefficients are provided for each zone as a function of roof angle

R

a

and

R

R

b .

When any obstruction whose blockage ratio is larger than approximately 50% is placed under the

roof, it is necessary to evaluate the peak wind force coefficients from an appropriate wind tunnel

experiment and so on.

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-53 –

A6.3

Gust Effect Factors

A6.3.1

Gust effect factor for along-wind loads on structural frames

(1) Fundamental consideration

In this recommendation, gust effect factor is based on overturning moment as described by the

following equation.

where

 

G

 

M

Dmax

 

M

Dmax

+

g

D

σ

MD

1

g

D

σ

MD

D

=

   

=

= +

 

M

D

M

D

M

D

M

Dmax

,

M

D

,

σ

MD

 

(A6.3.1)

are maximum value, mean value and rms of overturning moment at the

base of the building, respectively. and σ MD involve load effect due to the dynamic
base of the building, respectively.
and
σ
MD involve load effect due to the dynamic
M Dmax
response of the building. If
σ
MD is expressed as composition of background component
σ
and
MDQ
resonance component
, Eq.(A6.3.1) becomes as follows.
σ MDR
σ
π f
S
(
f
)
2
2
MDQ
2
D
MD
D
G
= + g
1
σ
+
σ
M
D ≈ 1 + g
1
+
φ
(A6.3.2)
D
D
MDQ
MDR
D
D
2
4
ζ σ
M
D
MDQ
D
where
S
(
f
)
is power spectrum density of overturning moment at natural frequency for the first
MD
D
mode
f
and
φ
is the mode correction factor.
σ
is considered for only the first mode
D
D
MDR
vibration, and
is inertia force by vibration as described in the following equation.
σ MDR
σ
= σ
∫ H
(
Z m Z ZdZ
)
(
)
= σ
(
H
)
∫ H
μ
(
Z m Z ZdZ
)
(
)
(A6.3.3)
MDR
a
a
0
0
where
Z
)
,
m(Z )
and
μ(Z )
are rms of acceleration at height
Z , mass per unit height and
σ a (

vibration mode, respectively.

The parameters of Eq.(A6.3.2) are expressed by aerodynamic force coefficients as follows.

where

S

CMD

(

M

D

= q

H

2

BH C

MD

σ MDQ

f

D

S

= q

f

H

D

MD

(

BH C'

)

2

MD

f

*

D

S

CMD

(

*

D

f

)

=

σ

2

MDQ

C '

2

MD

(A6.3.4)

(A6.3.5)

(A6.3.6)

C

MD

*

D

f

)

is overturning moment coefficient,

C

'

MD

is rms overturning moment coefficient and

.

is power spectrum of overturning moment coefficient at non-dimensional frequency

*

f

D

If these equations are taken into consideration, Eq.(A6.3.2) becomes as follows.

G

D

≈ +

1

g

D

C ' π f * S ( f * ) MD 2 D CMD D
C '
π f
* S
(
f
* )
MD
2
D
CMD
D
1 + φ
D
2
C
C '
ζ D
MD 4
MD

(A6.3.7)

Additionally, in this formula non-dimensional frequency is defined by turbulence scale,

, but, in the wind tunnel test breadth of the building it is used usually

(2) Model of wind force The model of wind force is based on the assumption that wind velocity fluctuation is directly

changed into the wind pressure on the wall of the building. In this model, mean wind velocity,

turbulence intensity, power spectrum of wind velocity and co-coherence are described by Eqs.(A6.8),

*

f

D

= f

D

L

H

/U

H

f

D

= f

*

D

B /U

H

.

– C6-54 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

(A6.11), (A6.1.3), (A6.1.4), respectively. Additionally, wind force coefficient is expressed by a

difference of the wind pressure coefficient of the windward side and the wind pressure coefficient

(constant) of a lee side as described by the following equation.

C

MD

,

C

'

C

D

MD

=

C

PA

Z

H

and

S

CMD

2

(

α

C

*

D

f

)

PB

(A6.3.8)

are expressed using the parameter of the recommendation equations as

follows.

C

C

f

= C

= C

C

C

(A6.3.9)

(A6.3.10)

(A6.3.11)

is a factor relevant to overturning

is a factor relevant to rms overturning moment in the

is a spectrum factor of windward force. Spectrum factor of wind

D , factor expressing correlation of wind pressure of a windward

MD

'

MD

*

H

H

g

'

g

*

D

( f

C

H

D

S

CMD

) = C'

2

MD

F

D

where

moment in the along-wind direction,

along-wind direction and

velocity

side and a leeward side

is wind force coefficient at the top of the building,

F

D

S

C

'

g

F

D

by

C

g

F , size reduction factor

of

R are considered for

overturning

moment

.

expressed

Fig.A6.3.1 in comparison with those obtained from wind tunnel tests. The recommendation values of

overturning moment and rms overturning moment are slightly greater than the test values, and the

spectrum is mostly in agreement with the test values.

Characteristics

Eqs.(A6.3.9)(A6.3.11) are shown in

1.5 1.0 地表面粗度区分 category 0.5  II  III  IV 0.0 0123 side ratio D/B recommendation
1.5
1.0
地表面粗度区分
category
0.5
 II
 III
 IV
0.0
0123
side ratio D/B
recommendation value/test value
recommendation value/test value

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

-2 10 -3 10 地表面粗度区分 category -4 10 test  II 実験値 recommendation 指針値  III
-2
10
-3
10
地表面粗度区分
category
-4
10
test
 II
実験値
recommendation
指針値
 III
 IV
-5
10
10 -2
10 -1
10 0
0123 10 -3
side ratio D/B
fB/U H
fS CMD (f)

(a) mean overturning moment coefficient

(b) rms overturning moment coefficient

(c) power spectrum density of over turning moment

Figure A6.3.1

Along-wind force in comparison with those obtained from wind tunnel tests

( H /

with those obtained from wind tunnel tests ( H / BD = 4 ) 5 2

BD = 4 ) 52)

(3) Fluctuating component of overturning moment

When the vibration mode is

S

MD

(

f

μ = Z / H , the relation between spectrum of overturning moment due

) and spectrum of overturning moment due to the load effect by vibration

to the wind force

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-55 –

' S f ) is expressed by the following equation. MD ( S ' f
'
S
f
)
is expressed by the following equation.
MD (
S
'
f
) =
χ
(
f
)
2 S
f
)
MD (
m
MD (
2
where
χ
( f )
is mechanical admittance as expressed by the following equation.
m
1
2
χ
(
f
)
=
m
{
2
}
2
2
2
1
(
f
/
f
)
+
4
ζ
(
f
/
f
)
D
D
D

The variance of overturning moment due to the load effect by vibration

2

σ MD

(A6.3.12)

(A6.3.13)

is the integral of

Eq.(A6.3.12), and the variance consists of back ground component

2

σ MDQ

and resonance component

2

σ MDR

as expressed by the following equation.

)

σ

2

MD

=

=

f df

S

'

MD

0

0

S

MD

(

)

f df

(

+

σ

2

MDQ

S

MD

(

f

D

2 +σ MDR ∞ π f S ( f ) 2 2 D MD D
2
MDR
π
f
S
(
f
)
2
2
D
MD
D
)
χ
(
f
)
df
=
σ
+
m
MDQ
0
4
ζ
D

(A6.3.14)

In this equation, resonance component is estimated approximately as a response to white noise

S

MD

(

f

D

).

Therefore, overturning moment for maximum load effect is expressed by following equation.

2 2 + σ D D MDQ MDR
2
2
+ σ
D
D
MDQ
MDR

= M + g σ

(A6.3.15)

D is called peak factor, and is the ratio of maximum fluctuating component to standard

deviation. This is expressed by the following equation, based on the theory of stationary stochastic

where

g

M

Dmax

process.

g

D

=

0.577 2ln( ν T ) + ≈ 2ln( ν ) + 1.2 D D T
0.577
2ln(
ν
T
)
+
2ln(
ν
)
+
1.2
D
D T
2ln(
ν
T )
D

(A6.3.16)

where T is time for evaluation and

ν

D is level crossing rate calculated from power spectrum density

as in the following equation. ∫ ∞ f 2 S ' f df ) MD
as in the following equation.
∫ ∞
f
2 S
'
f df
)
MD (
R
0
D
ν
=
≈ f
D
D
1 + R
∫ ∞
S
'
f df
)
D
MD (
0

(A6.3.17)

Additionally, in some foreign wind loading standards,

In this equation, the background component and the resonance component are distinguished.

M Dmax

is expressed by the following formula.

g

M

Q

D
D

2

Q

2

MDQ

2

+ g σ

R

2

MDR

= M + g σ

(A6.3.18)

R is peak factor of resonance

Dmax

where

component calculated from Eq.(A6.3.16) as

(4) Vertical distribution of equivalent static wind load

In the gust effect factor method, the vertical distribution of wind load is given by mean wind load

multiplied by gust effect factor. This wind load is an approximate value based on the assumption that

vibration mode is close to mean wind load distribution and the building has uniform density. Actually,

the mean, background and resonance components of wind load distribution are different. The mean

component is expressed by Eq.(A6.3.8), and the resonance component is expressed by Eq.(A6.3.3).

Therefore, if the vertical distribution of building mass is remarkably uneven, the resonance component

is peak factor of background component (=3.4) and

ν

D

= f

D

.

g

– C6-56 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

should be estimated carefully. In that case, the distribution of resonance component for the

fundamental vibration mode could be estimated from the following equation.

where

where

2 2 W = W D + W +W (A6.3.19) D DQ DR W D
2
2
W
= W
D +
W
+W
(A6.3.19)
D
DQ
DR
W D =
q
C
A
H
D
C '
g
= g
q
C
A
W DQ
DQ
H
D
C
g
A
W
=
a
μ
(Z)m(Z)
DR
Dmax
B
W
,
,
(N): mean, background and resonance component of wind load, respectively
D
W DQ
W DR

a

g

Dmax

(cm/s 2 ): maximum acceleration at top of building as defined in A6.10.2

DQ : peak factor of background component

In this recommendation, it is assumed that the background component has a similar distribution to

mean component. The following methods may also be used.

1) Shear force or overturning moment at a certain building height may be obtained from the integral of

pressure on area over the height 20) .

2) Load distribution can be defined by LRC formula 53) .

(5) Example of calculation of gust effect factor

Figure A6.3.2 shows the variation of gust effect factor by terrain category and building height for

H / B = 4 , D / B = 1 and U 35 m/s.
H / B = 4
, D / B = 1
and
U
35
m/s. The gust effect factors become large with terrain category and
0 =
building height.
3.8
3.6
category
3.4
V
IV
3.2
III
3.0
II
I
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
gust effect factor
G D

Figure A6.3.2

height of building (m)

Variation of gust effect factor with terrain category and building height

A6.3.2 Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames

Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames is influenced by external pressure and

internal pressure. It can be assumed that there is no correlation between fluctuation of external

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-57 –

pressure and fluctuation of internal pressure for a building without dominant openings. Furthermore, Helmholtz resonance, the phenomenon of varying internal pressure at a specific frequency by external pressure, can be disregarded. Fluctuating internal pressure coefficient is derived from the theory for buildings with uniform openings 54) . Therefore, external pressure fluctuation, which is slower than response time of internal pressure, is transmitted as internal pressure, and it is assumed that quicker pressure fluctuation is not transmitted as internal pressure. Furthermore, fluctuating internal pressures act on all parts of a roof simultaneously for more safety. Generally, response time of internal pressure is long enough, compared with the natural period for the first mode of the roof structure. Therefore, resonance of the roof structure for internal pressure can be disregarded. Under these conditions, gust effect factor for roof wind loads is given by the following equation.

2 2 2 2 2 g r (1 + R ) + g r Re
2
2
2
2
2
g
r
(1
+
R
)
+
g
r
Re
Re
Re
Ri
Ri
r c
G
= 1 ±
(A6.3.21)
R
1 − r
c
where
and
are peak factors for generalized external pressure and generalized internal
g Re
g Ri

pressure, and these value are

r Ri

external

pressure

r

c

g

Re

and

are the generalized fluctuating external and internal pressures divided by the generalized mean

is the generalized mean internal pressure divided by the generalized

is resonance factor, which is calculated from the

non-dimensional power spectrum density at the frequency of the first mode of the roof and the critical

damping ratio.

mean

wind pressure coefficient.

=

3.5

,

g

Ri

=

3

from the results of test and measurement.

r

Re

coefficient.

R

Re

0 ïó â³ (-) èd (+) 時間 time wind load
ïó
â³
(-)
èd
(+)
時間
time
wind load

Figure A6.3.3

Fluctuation of roof wind loads when wind force coefficient is small

An equation of gust effect factor is expressed for two cases of internal pressure coefficient,

, given by Table A6.11. If wind force coefficient is small, roof wind loads act

in the upward direction and in the downward direction as shown in Fig.A6.3.3. When combinations

with other loads are considered, downward wind load can be dominant even if the absolute value is

R for “+”corresponds to

small. Therefore, downward wind load can be calculated. In Eq.(A6.17),

load in the same direction as given by wind load coefficient, and

the same for Eq.(A6.18) and Eq.(A6.19). However, wind force coefficients are given as positive or

negative in A6.2.2, and gust effect factor should be calculated from Eq.(A6.17) with “+”. Furthermore,

R for ““ is opposite. The above is

C =−

pi

0.4

and

C =

pi

0

G

G

– C6-58 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

is deformation at center due to weight), can approximately evaluate

the natural frequency for the first mode of the roof beam, and the document 55) is useful for estimating

the critical damping ratio,

(1) Case for

Roof wind loads can be calculated for roof beams parallel to the wind direction and for roof beams

the equation,

f

R

0.57

0.4

δ
δ

(δ

ζ .

R

C =−

pi

normal to the wind direction.

If external pressure coefficient

C pe

is 0.4 over the whole subject area as center beam shown in

0 . In this case, roof wind loads can be

and gust

as shown in

Fig.A6.3.4(a), the wind force coefficient becomes

calculated from Eq.(A6.18), which is the product

effect factor

Fig.A6.3.4(b), the wind loads can be calculated from Eq.(A6.17).

C

R =

C

R

G

R

of wind force coefficient

C

R

=

0

C

R

G

R

. However, when the wind force coefficient becomes partially

-0.2 -0.4 -0.8 -0.4 外圧係数 coefficient ― 内圧係数 -0.4 +0.2 coefficient 梁 beam -0.4 0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.8
-0.4
外圧係数
coefficient
内圧係数
-0.4
+0.2
coefficient
梁 beam
-0.4
0
-0.4
wind force
風力係数
coefficient
beam 梁
beam 梁
wind direction
風向
=
-1.0 -0.6 -0.4 external pressure 外圧係数 coefficient ― internal pressure coefficient 内圧係数 -0.4
-1.0 -0.6 -0.4
external pressure
外圧係数
coefficient
internal pressure
coefficient
内圧係数
-0.4
wind
force
風力係数
coefficient
0
-0.2
-0.6
=
beam 梁
wind direction
風向

external pressure

internal pressure

(a) beams normal to the wind direction

(b) beams parallel to the wind direction

Figure A6.3.4

Relation between wind force coefficient and external or internal pressure coefficient

(for

C

pi

=− 0 .4 )

(2) For

. In this case, gust effect

factor can be calculated from Eq.(A6.19). The equation considers the mean and fluctuating

components of external pressure, and the fluctuating component of internal pressure.

C

pi

=

0

Wind force coefficient is equal to external pressure coefficient for

C

pi

= 0

A6.4

Across-wind Vibration and Resulting Wind Load

A6.4.1 Scope of applications

The procedure described in this section applies to the equivalent static wind load with consideration

of across-wind forced vibration at a design wind speed lower than the non-dimensional critical wind

speed for vortex-induced vibration or aeroelastic instability. For a design wind speed expressed by

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-59 –

, aeroelastic instability may well occur and wind load will need to be calculated

from the wind force and the response in wind tunnel tests.

Along-wind vibration is caused by turbulence in natural wind, but across-wind vibration is caused

by wind turbulence as well as by the vortex in the wake of the building. Although there are many study

examples with regard to the behavior of a vortex in the wake of a building, unclear points remain.

Furthermore, since the behavior is greatly affected by building shape, it is difficult on the whole to

theoretically estimate across-wind vibrations in the same manner as for along-wind vibrations. With

consideration of the first mode, an estimation equation for across-wind load has been derived from

data of across-wind fluctuating overturning moment obtained from wind tunnel tests. Subjects for this

estimation equation are structures with rectangular planes (side ratio

D/ B = 0.2 ~ 5 ) from which

many experimental data have been obtained. Moreover, by taking into account the fact that

experimental data for buildings with an aspect ratio

H / BD exceeding 6 are insufficient, and that

aeroelastic instability easily occurs in these buildings, the scope of application is limited to aspect

ratios of 6 or less.

Furthermore, data of across-wind fluctuating overturning moment for buildings with plane shapes

other than rectangular planes can be obtained from wind tunnel tests. Where it is unnecessary to

consider aeroelastic instability, across-wind wind loads can be calculated using the method indicated

in the recommendations.

U

H

/(

f

L

BD

)

>

10

indicated in the recommendations. U H /( f L BD ) > 10 A6.4.2 Procedure (1)

A6.4.2 Procedure

(1) Concept of wind load estimation

Since a fundamental mode usually predominates in across-wind vibration, across-wind loads are

calculated using the spectral modal method considering only to the first translational mode, in the

same manner as for along-wind loads. For the non-resonance component, the profile of fluctuating

across-wind force is set to be vertically uniform and the magnitude of the fluctuating wind force is

decided to agree with the fluctuating overturning moment. The resonance component estimates the

in Eq.(A6.33) so as to be

proportioned to the first translational mode.

It is recommended that the critical damping ratio be estimated with reference to “Damping in

buildings” 7) .

(2) Modeling of overturning moment

The overturning moment varies with building shape and wind characteristics, but in the subjective

scope the breadth-depth ratio has the greatest effect on the overturning moment: the effects of other

parameters are slight. Therefore, in the recommendations, the fluctuating overturning moment is set as

a function of only the breadth-depth ratio of a building based on wind tunnel test data 52, 56) .

(3) Buildings with circular planes

Across-wind responses of buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes can be

estimated with the same concept. This section details buildings with circular planes. The parameter

inertia force due to vibration and the vertical profile is determined using

φ

L

– C6-60 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

'

values used in Eq.(A6.20) need to be set

β =

1

/ B ,

0.2 . These parameter values are in the transcritical critical region of Reynolds number

to

C

L

=

0.06 ,

m =1 ,

κ

1

=

0.9

,

f

S1

=

0.15U

H

(

U

H

D

6 (m

2 /s)).

A6.5

Torsional Vibration and Resulting Wind Load

A6.5.1 Scope of application

The procedure described in this section applies to the equivalent static wind load with consideration

of torsional vibration with a design wind speed lower than the non-dimensional critical wind speed for

vortex-induced vibration or aeroelastic instability. For the design wind speed expressed by

, aeroelastic instability may well occur and the wind load needs to be calculated

from the wind force or the response in wind tunnel tests.

Torsional vibration is caused by asymmetric wind pressure distribution on the windward face, side

faces and leeward face. This is due to both wind turbulence and the vortex in the building’s wake. The

torsional moment induced wind force is subject to the effects of building shape and wind behavior.

Therefore, the method for assessing the torsional wind load is derived from the fluctuating torsional

moment data obtained from wind tunnel tests as for the across-wind direction. Subjects for this

estimation equation are buildings with rectangular planes (side ratio D / B = 0.2 ~ 5 ) and aspect ratio

U

H /(

f

T

BD )
BD
)

>

10

H /

BD
BD

of 6 or less, from which many experiment data have been obtained.

Furthermore, data of torsional moment for buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes

can be obtained by carrying out wind tunnel tests. Where aeroelastic instability does not need to be

considered, torsional wind loads can be calculated using the method indicated in the

recommendations.

A6.5.2 Estimation equation

(1) Concept of wind load estimation

Since the effects of pressure acting on both sides on the torsional moment are complex, it is difficult

to formulate the power spectral density as a simple algebraic function. However, it is relatively easy to

collect experimental data of the response angle acceleration. Therefore, the equation for computing the

torsional wind load is based on the estimate of the response angle acceleration. With regard to the

non-resonant component, the profile of fluctuating torsional moment is set as vertically uniform and

the magnitude of the fluctuating torsional moment is decided to agree with the fluctuating torsional

moment at the base of the building. The resonant component estimates the inertia force due to

in Eq.(A6.33) so as to be proportioned to the

first translational mode. Buildings with an eccentric factor (eccentric distance / radius of rotation) of

0.2 or less for which any effect of eccentricity can be ignored are subject to the formulation of the

estimation equation. The wind load on a building for which the eccentricity cannot be ignored needs to

be calculated by carrying out wind tunnel tests.

vibration and the vertical profile is determined using

φ

L

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-61 –

It is recommended that the critical damping ratio be estimated with reference to “Damping in

buildings” 7) .

(2) Modeling of torsional moment

The torsional moment varies according to building shape and wind characteristics, but in respect of

buildings in the subjective scope the breadth-depth ratio exerts the greatest effect on the torsional

moment and the effects of other parameters are slight. Therefore, in the recommendations, the

fluctuating torsional moment is set as a function of only the breadth-depth ratio of a building based on

wind tunnel test data 52, 56) .

A6.6

Horizontal Wind Loads on Lattice Structural Frames

A6.6.1 Scope of application

This procedure has been prepared for estimating horizontal wind loads on lattice structures built

directly on the ground, and whose members all have small enough sections in comparison with the

width of the structure for the flow field around a member to be dominated by the local wind speed.

The procedure for estimating wind loads on lattice structures is basically the same as that described for

horizontal wind loads on buildings in Section 6.2, and can be applied to lattice structures of varying

widths and solidity ratios in the vertical direction. In addition, the effects of accessory ladders are

considered by the evaluation of wind force coefficients of those obtained from wind tunnel tests and so

on.

A6.6.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads

Horizontal wind loads are estimated by a gust effect factor method. The wind loads are calculated

from the local design velocity pressure because lattice structures often have varying widths and

solidity ratios in the vertical direction.

The projected area in Eq.(A6.22) is the total projected area of all elements on one face normal to the

wind. The area per panel is usually calculated.

A6.6.3

Gust effect factor

In deriving Eq.(A6.23), it is assumed as follow:

i) Solidity ratios in the vertical direction are uniform, that is to say, wind force coefficients

of each panel are uniform.

ii) A fundamental mode shape can be given by Eq.(A6.6.1) where

μ

modes higher than the fundamental one are neglected.

Z

β

= ⎜

H

According to the above assumptions, the peak response

of the generalized stiffness K of the fundamental mode by:

x max,Z

at height

Z

β = 2 , and vibration

(A6.6.1)

is given as a function

– C6-62 –

Recommendations for Loads on Buildings

   

q

H

C

D

HB

0

2 I

H

μ

B ( 1 + R ) D D Z is given by:
B
(
1 +
R
)
D
D
Z
is given by:
 

x

max,

Z

= g

D

 

0.95 +

α β

+

   

K

 

However, the mean response

C

H

B

 

X

Z at height

B

B

 

X

=

q

H

D

0

 

0

H

⎟ ⎠

μ

 

Z

 

K

1

+

2

α β

+

2 + 2

α β

+

where

and α

factor, the resonance factor and the back ground excitation factor, respectively.

q

H

,

I

H

are the velocity pressure and the turbulence intensity, respectively, at

g

D

,

R

D

and

B

D

is the exponent of the power law in the wind speed profile.

Gust effect factor is given by Eq.(A.6.23).

speed profile. Gust effect factor is given by Eq.(A.6.23). Figure A6.6.1 Definition of B 0 ,

Figure A6.6.1

Definition of

B

0

,

B

H

,

H

A6.7

Vortex Induced Vibration

A6.7.1

Scope of application

(A6.6.2)

(A6.6.3)

height,

are the peak

H

This section describes vortex-induced vibration, which can occur in tall slender buildings, chimneys,

and structural components with circular sections.

A6.7.2 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on buildings with circular sections

Shear layers separated from windward corners of both sides of buildings roll up alternately to shed

into wake and form Karman vortex streets behind the buildings. According to the alternate shedding,

the periodic fluctuating wind loads act on the buildings in the across-wind direction. When the natural

frequency of the building coincides with the vortex shedding frequency, the vibration of the building

can be resonant with the periodic fluctuating wind loads, causing the building to vibrate at large

amplitude in the across-wind direction. This is vortex-induced vibration, which is a problem for many

structures, particularly chimneys.

The critical wind speed of the resonance is larger than the design wind speed for most buildings, so

these phenomena are not normally important. However, as the critical wind speed is smaller than

CHAPTER 6

WIND LOADS

– C6-63 –

design wind speed for very slender buildings with small natural frequency and damping like steel chimneys, tall buildings and building components, the effect of vortex induced vibration should be checked carefully in the wind resistance design stage. A lot of research has been done on vortex-induced vibration and a number of methods have been developed in the past decade for estimating vibration amplitude and its equivalent static wind loads, particularly for structures with circular sections. The equivalent wind loads described in the recommendation are based on the spectral modal method in which the Strouhal number of vortex shedding is 0.2, and the power spectrum of the fluctuating wind loads depends on the vibration amplitude 6) and the Reynolds number.

The effects of structural density, damping and Reynolds number are included in the resonant wind

, which is shown in Table A6.2.3 for three categories of Reynolds number region

and for two types of structures with various density and damping. The rows in the table show the

effect of Reynolds number, that is,

force coefficient

C

r

U D

r

m

<

3

is the subcritical region,

3

U D <

r

m

6

is critical

region and

6 U

r

D

m

is super/trance critical Reynolds number region.

s L
s
L

ρ

ζ in Table A6.23

depends on the amplitude at the resonant condition.

amplitude, and

s L
s
L

ρ

ζ <

0.5 corresponds with the large

s L
s
L

ρ

ζ

0.5 corresponds with the small amplitude.

A6.7.3 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on building components with circular sections Occurrence of vortex induced vibration of building components with circular section can be checked by Eq.(A6.26). Most design wind speeds for components like members of truss towers are larger than the critical wind speed, so the effect of vortex induced vibration should be checked carefully. In particular, the vibration amplitude can be very large for components like steel pipes whose mass and damping are small. The equivalent wind loads described in Eq.(A6.27) are introduced in the sub-critical Reynolds number region based on wind tunnel tests 59) . The equation is applicable for various boundary conditions at the ends of components.

A6.8

Combination of Wind Loads