– C642 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
A6.2
Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients
A6.2.1 Procedure for estimating wind force coefficients
Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients depend on building shape, building surface
condition, terrain condition and local topography at the construction site. Therefore, they should be
determined from wind tunnel experiments that properly simulate fullscale conditions. However, the
coefficients for buildings with regular shapes can be estimated from the procedure described in this
section. The coefficients are divided into two categories, one for the design of structural frames and
the other for the design of building components/cladding, because the wind effects on structural
frames and components/cladding are quite different from each other.
Wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients are generally defined in terms of the velocity
pressure
where the
members under consideration are placed.
m, for example, while
it is generally small, smaller than 1.0 in many cases, for lower buildings. The flow field around a
building changes with the aspect ratio, which results in a significant change in the wind force and
pressure coefficients. Therefore, two different procedures are provided for estimating the wind force
coefficients for buildings with
The sign of the wind pressure coefficient indicates the direction of the pressure on the surface or
element; positive values indicate pressures acting towards the surface and negative values pressures
acting away from the surface (suction). In the case of curved roofs, the direction of wind pressure
varies with location, as shown in Fig. A6.2.1. The wind forces on buildings and structures are the
vector sum of the forces calculated from the pressures acting on surfaces such as walls and roofs or on
structural elements.
D for estimating horizontal wind loads on structural frames are generally
, on the windward and
leeward faces, as shown in Eq.(A6.13); the exception is that for buildings with circular sections, where
for
the resultant wind force coefficients are provided. Similarly, the wind force coefficients
estimating roof wind loads on structural frames are generally given by the difference between the
, on the roof, as shown in Eq. (A6.14),
except for open roofs. The wind pressure coefficients are space and timeaveraged values where the
averaging duration is 10 minutes. The averaging area depends on the building shape. The wind force
coefficients
the solidity
ϕ . The wind force can also be calculated by using the wind force coefficients for
individual members provided in A6.2.4(5).
C for the design of components/cladding are generally given
for the
by the difference between the peak external pressure coefficient
q
H evaluated at the reference height
H . For lattice structures and members, the wind force
q
Z
evaluated at the height
H > 45
Z
coefficients are defined in terms of the velocity pressure
The aspect ratio
H / B
is generally large for tall buildings, such as
H > 45 m and those with
H
≤ 45 m.
Wind force coefficients
C
given by the difference between the wind pressure coefficients,
C
pe1
and
C
pe2
C
R
external and internal pressure coefficients,
C
pe
and
C
pi
C
D for estimating horizontal wind loads on lattice structures are given as a function of
The peak wind force coefficients
ˆ
C
ˆ
C
pe
and the factor
C
*
pi
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C643 –
ˆ
effect of fluctuating internal pressures, except for open roofs, in which the value of
The values of
and negative peak values irrespective of wind direction. Note that the factor
is provided.
C in the open roof case) are determined from the most critical positive
C
C
ˆ
C
pe
(and
ˆ
C
C
*
pi
for the effect of
ˆ
fluctuating internal pressures is not the actual peak internal pressure coefficient
value producing the peak wind force coefficient
coefficient
but an equivalent
C when combined with the peak external pressure
C
pi
ˆ
C
ˆ
C
pe
.
The wind force coefficients and wind pressure coefficients given in this section are all for isolated
buildings and are obtained from the results of wind tunnel experiments. When nearby buildings are
expected to influence the wind forces and pressures, it is necessary to carry out wind tunnel
experiments or other special researches to determine the coefficients ^{1}^{2}^{)} .
Figure A6.2.1
External pressure on a building with a vaulted roof in a wind parallel to the gable
walls
A6.2.2
(1) External pressure coefficients
45m
External pressure coefficient for structural frames
C pe
for buildings with rectangular sections and heights greater than
External pressure coefficients on the windward and leeward walls of buildings with rectangular
sections have the following features:
1) External pressure coefficients on windward walls are nearly proportional to the velocity pressure of
the approach flow, except for areas near the top and bottom of the building. In the top and bottom
areas, the external pressure coefficient is almost independent of height.
2) External pressure coefficients on leeward walls are negative and almost independent of height.
Based on these features, the vertical distribution of external pressure coefficients on windward walls
are assumed to be proportional to the factor for vertical profile (
those on leeward walls are assumed constant regardless of height. The external pressure coefficients
on leeward walls decrease with increase in side ratio
the separated shear layer from the windward edge and is reflected in the value of
ratio
on the wind pressure coefficients is not significant. Therefore, the pressure
range, the effect of
Z ) provided in Table A6.8, while
k
D / B
. This feature is related to the behavior of
C pe2
. The aspect
H / B
of highrise buildings with
H / B
H > 45
m is in the range from 1 to 8 in most cases. In this
– C644 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
coefficients are provided independently of H / B .
The external pressure coefficients on roofs are determined from the results of various wind tunnel
experiments ^{2}^{0}^{)}^{,} ^{2}^{8}^{)} as well as on the provisions of international codes and standards. Although
flatroofed buildings have parapets in many cases, their effect on the pressure coefficients is not
considered here. A reduction factor for external pressure coefficients on roofs with parapets is
provided in Eurocode ^{2}^{8}^{)} . (2) External pressure coefficient
equal to 45m
for buildings with rectangular sections and heights less than or
C pe
1) Buildings with flat, gable and monosloped roofs
External pressure coefficients are influenced by many factors, such as roof shape, roof angle and
flow condition. The coefficients in this section are estimated from the results of wind tunnel
experiments on buildings with rectangular sections and reference heights less than or equal to 45m.
The roof shapes under consideration are flat, gable and monosloped. When the roof angle is less than
or equal to 10 degrees, the roof can be regarded as a flat roof.
The roof and walls are divided into several zones, and the external pressure coefficients for these
zones are provided in Table A.6.9(1) as a function of building configuration parameters ( B / H ,
θ ). The external pressure coefficient for each zone is estimated from the spatially
averaged pressure over the zone for a range of wind directions, the center of which is normal to the
u ,
because the pressure coefficient becomes both positive and negative due to a small change in
experimental conditions. It is necessary to combine these values with those for the other zones when
the stresses in the members are calculated.
The net wind forces on windward eaves become very large, because negative pressures act on the
top surface and positive pressures on the bottom surface of the eaves. In this case, the external
pressure coefficient on the bottom surface is approximately equal to that on the windward wall just
bellow the eaves.
2) Buildings with vaulted roofs
The external pressure coefficient for a building with a curved surface generally depends on the
shape and surface roughness of the building, the flow conditions and the Reynolds number. Buildings
with vaulted roofs, however, are immersed in very turbulent flows. Furthermore, such buildings have
walls in most cases and therefore the flow tends to separate at the windward edge. These features
suggest that the external pressure coefficients on vaulted roofs are less sensitive to surface roughness
and the Reynolds number than those on circular cylindrical structures, as shown in A6.2.4(1). The
external pressure coefficients
eperiment ^{3}^{2}^{)}^{,} ^{3}^{3}^{)} that focuses on mediumscale buildings in urban areas. The effects of surface
roughness are not considered in the experiment.
W 1 ), the building shape is represented by the
. However, for a wind parallel to the
rise/width ratio
D / H
and
wall. Both positive and negative values are provided for the external pressure coefficient for zone
R
C pe
in Table A6.9(2) are determined from the results of a wind tunnel
For a wind normal to the gable wall (wind direction
f / B
and the eavesheight/width ratio
h/ B
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C645 –
the
. In both cases, the roof is divided into three zones. However, the zone
definitions vary because of the difference between the flow patterns of the two wind directions. For
, the definition of zones is similar to that for flat, gable and monosloped roofs. For
wind direction
The external pressure coefficient corresponds to the areaaveraged value and the design wind load is
assumed constant over each zone. When
roof level coincides with ground level. The coefficients for these cases, which have no physical
f / D = 0 ,
represented
eavesheight/depth ratio
gable wall (wind direction
W
2
)
it
is
by
the
rise/depth
ratio
f / D
and
h/ D
wind direction
W
1
W
2
, however, the definition is similar to that for spherical domes.
h / B = 0
and
f / B = 0
or when
h / D = 0
and
meaning, are provided to make interpolation possible.
The external pressure coefficients on walls are determined in the same way as for buildings with flat,
gable and monosloped roofs.
3) Spherical domes
In the same manner as for buildings with vaulted roofs, the external pressure coefficients for
spherical domes are determined from the results of a wind tunnel experiment ^{3}^{4}^{)} . Since the counter lines
of mean pressure coefficients on a spherical dome are almost perpendicular to the wind direction, the
d ), as shown in Table A6.10, and the external
for each zone is given by spatially averaging the mean external pressure
and the
ratios are
other than h/ D = 0
coefficient over the zone. The building shape is represented by the rise/span ratio
eavesheight/span ratio
provided in Table A6.10. Linear interpolation can be used for values of
shown. Both positive and negative values of
and f / D = 0 are again provided for interpolation.
pressure coefficient
dome surface is divided into four zones (
R
a
to
R
C pe
f / D h/ D
h/ D
h/ D
. The values of
C
C
pe
pe
for five
f / D
ratios and three
f / D
R
a
and
are provided for zone
. The value for
The wind force coefficients for walls can be obtained from Table A6.12 by substituting
h
for
H .
A6.2.3
Internal pressure coefficients for structural frames
Internal pressures are significantly influenced by the following factors:
a) distribution of external pressures
b) openings and gaps in building envelope
c) internal volume of building
d) openings and gaps in internal partitions
e) operation of airconditioners
f) distortion of walls and/or roofs
g) air temperature
h) damage to building envelope
In general, buildings have many gaps and openings, such as ventilating openings, etc., in their
envelopes. Air leaks through these gaps and openings due to differences between external and internal
pressures. The internal pressure is determined by applying the mass conservation principle to the air in
the internal volume. For instance, a dominant opening in the windward wall may produce positive
– C646 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
internal pressures, whereas one in a side or leeward wall may produce negative internal pressures.
Moreover, the internal pressure fluctuates and its characteristics depend on the relationship between
the size of the openings and the internal volume of the building. In this section, internal pressure
coefficients for buildings without dominant opening are provided based on the results of a series of
computations, in which it is assumed that the internal pressures are significantly influenced by factors
in Table A6.11 are provided based on the
calculations of the mean internal pressures for various building configurations, assuming that the gaps
and openings are uniformly distributed over the external walls and the internal pressure is caused by
external pressures acting at the locations of the gaps and openings.
When the influence of other factors is assumed to be significant, it should be taken into account for
evaluating the internal pressure coefficient. For instance, when the internal volume is divided by
airtight partitions, the influence of factor d) is significant. When powerful airconditioners are in
operation, the influence of factor e) is significant. In buildings with flexible roofs and/or walls, such as
membrane structures, the influence of factor f) is significant. When glass windows on the windward
face are broken by windborne debris in strong winds, the internal pressure is suddenly increased by
winds blowing into the building. This often results in failures of roof structures. In such cases, factor
h) should be considered appropriately.
a) and b) mentioned above. That is, the values of
C pi
A6.2.4
(1) Wind force coefficients
Wind force coefficients for cylinders are affected by the Reynolds number, flow condition, aspect
ratio H / D , surface roughness of the cylinders, and other factors. Figure A6.2.2 ^{3}^{6}^{)} shows the variation
of drag coefficient
number Re (
viscosity coefficient of flow, respectively). For wind, the Reynolds number is approximately given by
are expressed in units of ‘m/s’ and ‘m’, respectively. It is found
× 10 ^{5} to 5 × 10 ^{6} . The flow
= UD /ν , where U , D and ν are wind speed, cylinder diameter and kinematic
D on a two dimensional smooth cylinder in a uniform flow with Reynolds
Wind force coefficients for design of structural frames
C
D for buildings with circular sections
C
Re ≈ 7UD ×10
4
, where
U
and
D
from Fig. A6.2.2 that
around a cylinder is usually classified into four regimes, i.e. ‘subcritical’, ‘critical’, ‘supercritical’ and
‘transcritical’, as shown in Fig. A6.2.2. Since the Reynolds number of the flow around buildings in
strong winds is in the transcritical regime, the provision of
the drag coefficients in this regime.
In particular,
the effect of surface roughness is significant in the transcritical regime. In Table A6.12 the effects of
aspect ratio and surface roughness are represented by
C
D changes significantly with Re in the range from 2
C
D in A6.2.4(1) is based on the values of
The aspect ratio and surface roughness of the cylinder also affect the drag coefficient.
k
1
and
k
2
, respectively
37) _{.}
The external pressure coefficients
C pe
on roofs are given in Table A6.10 assuming that
f / D = 0
and h / D = 1 .
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C647 –
Figure A6.2.2
Plots of drag coefficient
surface as a function of Reynolds number Re
C
D on a twodimensional cylinder with very smooth
36)
(2) Wind force coefficients
For free roofs where strong wind can flow under the roof, high fluctuating pressures act on both the top and bottom surfaces. It is reasonable to evaluate the net wind force coefficients directly, not from the wind pressure coefficients on the top and bottom surfaces, because the correlation between fluctuating wind pressures on both surfaces is higher than that for enclosed buildings.
The wind force coefficients in Table A6.13 can be used for smallscale buildings, to which the simplified method (A6.11) is applied, because the coefficients are determined from the results of wind
tunnel experiments on free roofs with H < 10 m. For gable (θ > 0 ^{ο} ) and troughed roofs (θ < 0 ^{ο} ), previous studies have shown the most critical peak wind force coefficients on the windward and leeward areas irrespective of wind direction. Since the tested roof angle _{θ} is limited to the range of _{}_{θ} ≤ 30 ^{ο} , the provision is also limited to that range.
The wind force coefficients are regulated for a clear flow case where there are no obstructions under
the roof. The flow pattern around a roof is significantly affected by obstructions under it. If there is any obstruction whose blockage ratio is larger than approximately 50%, the wind pressure on the bottom surface may increase significantly, resulting in a significant increase in the net wind force on the roof. In such a case, it is necessary to evaluate the wind force coefficients from wind tunnel experiments and so on.
(3) Wind force coefficients
The size of individual lattice structure members is generally much smaller than the width of the structure, and they are arranged symmetrically. Therefore, it is assumed that the only wind force acting on a plane of the structure is drag. Total drag can be estimated as the summation of the drags on each member of the structure. Since the flow around a member depends only on the characteristics of the local flow around it, drag is proportional to the velocity pressure at the height of the member. Based on these features, the following two methods are often used for estimating the wind force on lattice
C
R for free roofs with rectangular base
C
D for lattice structures
– C648 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
structures. One is to multiply the wind force coefficient, given as a function of the solidity ϕ of the
plane, by the projected area of the plane. The other method ^{3}^{9}^{)} is to sum the wind forces on all members,
which is given by the product of the wind force coefficient
ϕ should be small. In the Recommendations, the former method is
is provided only for
The wind force coefficient is represented as a function of the solidity ϕ , the plan of the structure
and the cross section of the member. The solidity ϕ is defined as the ratio of the projected area
of the structure. The value of ϕ is calculated for
each panel of the lattice structure when the wind direction is normal to the plane. In the calculation,
the areas of the leeward lattice members and the appurtenances are not included. The wind forces on
the appurtenances can be estimated from the provision of
wind tunnel experiments and they are added to the wind force on the structure.
of the plane to the whole plane area
used and the wind force coefficient
area. For any method, the solidity
C
D of each member and its projected
ϕ≤ 0.6 .
A
F
C
D
A
0
=
(
Bh
)
C
D for members (Table A6.16) or from
D for lattice structures with square and
for
the triangular shape in plan is the same for the two wind directions shown in the table. When the
members are circular pipes, the wind force coefficients
triangular plan shapes, which consist of angles or circular pipes. The wind force coefficient
Table A6.14 provides the wind force coefficients
C
C
D
D for the members are affected by the
Reynolds number. The provisions are based on the value in the subcritical Reynolds number regime. In
may become smaller than that given in the provisions due to the effect
of the Reynolds number. However, this effect is not considered here.
When the plan of the structure and/or the cross section of the member are different from those in
strong winds, the value of
C
C
D
Table A6.14, the wind loads on the structure can be estimated by using the wind force coefficients of the members given in Table A6.16 together with the local velocity pressure. However, the solidity _{ϕ}
of the structure is required to be less than 0.6.
(4) Wind force coefficients
C
D
for fences on ground
Wind force coefficients
C
D
for fences on the ground are defined as a function of the solidity
ϕ
in the same manner as those for lattice structures. The value of
introduced to obtain intermediate values of
calculated according to the simplified procedure using
as the whole area multiplied by
ϕ = 0 in Table A6.15 is
0 < ϕ < 0.2 . Wind load for a fence can be
C
D
for
C
D
for
C
D and the projected area A, which is defined
ϕ .
(5) Wind force coefficients 
C 
for components 
Wind force coefficients 
C 
for components are determined from wind tunnel experiments with 
C can be applied to linelike members less
than approximately 50cm wide, but should not be applied to ordinary buildings. In some cases, the
value of
C in the acrosswind direction becomes relatively large when the wind direction deviates
twodimensional models in a smooth flow. The values of
only a little from the normal direction. In such cases, two values of
A6.16.
C (
± 0.6) are provided in Table
Wind force coefficients for components may also be used for calculating the wind loads on lattice
Z of the member under
pressure
structures,
together
with
the
local
velocity
q
Z
at
height
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C649 –
consideration. The wind load on a component is given by the product of
(
q
Z
,
C
,
blϕ
for nets), where
I
Z
is the turbulence intensity at height
Z
(see Eq.(A6.7)).
(1
7
+ I
Z
)
and bl
A6.2.5 Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding
(1) Peak external pressure coefficients
greater than 45 m Peak external pressure coefficients for components/cladding correspond to the most critical positive
and negative peak pressure coefficients irrespective of wind direction. Positive pressures occur on
windward walls, and their characteristics are affected by the vertical profile of the approach flow. On
the other hand, negative pressures (suctions) occur on side and leeward walls, and their characteristics
are not significantly affected by the vertical profile of the approach flow; that is, the vertical
distribution is nearly uniform. Large negative pressures occur near the windward edges of sidewalls
due to flow separation from the edge. The peak external pressure coefficients provided in Table A6.17
are determined from the results of wind tunnel experiments ^{4}^{1}^{)}^{}^{4}^{4}^{)} . These coefficients are given by the
product of the external pressure coefficients influenced by the profile of the mean wind speed and the
gust effect factor influenced by the profile of the turbulence intensity. Therefore, the positive external
peak pressure coefficients are affected by the terrain category. However, negative external peak
pressures are almost independent of terrain category.
for buildings with rectangular sections and heights
ˆ
C
pe
For tall buildings with recessed or chamfered corners, the negative peak pressures are influenced by
ˆ
the size of the recess or chamfer. The values of
results of wind tunnel experiments ^{4}^{2}^{)}^{,} ^{4}^{3}^{)} . The values in Table A6.17 can also be used for buildings with
more than one recessed or chamfered corner. Peak external pressure coefficients for roofs are provided only for flat roofs. For diagonal wind
directions, very large suctions are induced near windward corners due to the generation of conical
vortices. However, the large suction zone is limited to a relatively small area ^{4}^{5}^{)} . Therefore, the use of
such large peak pressure coefficients for large components may overestimate the design wind loads. In
_{C} for
roofs is introduced.
order to consider the subject area of components/cladding in zone
C
pe
for such buildings are also determined from the
R
c
, an area reduction factor
k
less than or equal to 8, because
the values are based on wind tunnel experiments on such buildings.
When a building is constructed on an escarpment or a ridgeshaped topography, the approach wind
is affected by the local topography, and therefore the positive peak pressure coefficients may change
significantly. Since wind speeds near the ground are increased by such local topography, the vertical
distribution of positive peak external pressure coefficients becomes nearly uniform. In such cases,
Z at the reference
H . This simplified method overestimates the wind loads to some degree in most cases.
However, for terrain category I, it may underestimate the positive peak external pressures. In this case,
height
positive peak external pressures can be calculated by using the values of
The provisions are applicable to buildings with aspect ratios
H / B
k
Z
and
I
investigations by wind tunnel experiments are recommended.
– C650 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
ˆ
(2) Peak external pressure coefficient
than or equal to 45 m 1) Buildings with flat, gable and monosloped roofs
C
pe
for buildings with rectangular sections and heights less
For estimating peak pressure coefficients for components/cladding of lowrise buildings, the subject
area is assumed to be 1 m ^{2} as a typical value. Positive peak external pressure coefficients are given as
a function of the turbulence intensity, because the pressures depend significantly on the turbulence of
the approach flow. The positive peak external pressure coefficient on a roof is evaluated by using the
positive external pressure coefficient
is provided for small roof angles, it is not necessary to evaluate the positive wind pressures.
u in Table A 6.9(1). If no positive value of
C
pe
for zone
R
C pe
Negative peak external pressure coefficients in the edge and corner regions are significantly influenced
by vortices related to flow separation at the edge. Negative peak pressure coefficients tend to increase
in magnitude as the turbulence intensity of the approach flow increases. However, the influence of
turbulence on negative peak pressure coefficients is smaller than that on positive peak pressure
coefficients on windward walls. Consequently, the provision of negative peak pressure coefficients is
determined from the values for terrain category IV and are independent of turbulence intensity. High
suctions are induced in the edge and corner regions of walls and roofs, whose widths are affected by
building dimensions such as height and width.
is
For
); the
suctions are larger and the high suction area is wider than that for gable roofs. Consequently, the peak
d is larger than that for gable roofs. In such high suction
zones, the wind load can be reduced by using the area reduction factor
of components/cladding is greater than 1 m ^{2} (up to 5 m ^{2} ).
2) Buildings with vaulted roofs
are determined from the results of windtunnel
experiments ^{3}^{3}^{)} , focusing on mediumscale buildings in urban areas, in which the
1 ratio is small, the corner and edge
regions of a roof are significantly affected by vortex generation as in the flat roof case. This results in
. When the
suctions are induced in zone
for winds nearly perpendicular to the eaves. Taking these wind pressure features into account, the roof is divided into several zones and positive
and negative peak external pressure coefficients are provided for these zones, as shown in Table
1 ratio is lower than 0.1, the roof is subjected to higher suctions similar to
gable and monosloped roofs. Therefore, it is not necessary to evaluate the positive peak external
pressure coefficients. The values for walls can be determined from Table A6.18(1).
A6.18(2). When the
ratio is varied
from 0 to 0.7 and the
For gable roofs, very high suctions are induced near corners (zone
R
b
R
b
and
) when the roof angle
R
g
) when
θ ≈ 20 ^{ο} .
R
d
θ
less than or equal to 10 ^{ο} and in the ridge corner (zones
monosloped roofs, very high suctions are induced near the higher eaves corners (zone
external pressure coefficient for zone
R
The peak external pressure coefficients
ˆ
C
pe
f / B
1
ratio from 0.1 to 0.4. When the
f / B
larger peak suctions in zones
R
R
d
a
and
R
d
f / B
k
C
when the subject area
A
C
h/ B
1
1 ratio is relatively large, large peak
R
c
for winds nearly perpendicular to the gable edge and in zone
f / B
(3) Peak external pressure coefficients
ˆ
C
pe
for buildings with circular sections
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C651 –
For buildings with circular sections, the maximum positive peak external pressure coefficient occurs
at the stagnation point on the windward face, whereas the maximum negative peak external pressure
coefficient occurs near the point of maximum negative mean external pressure. The vertical
distribution of positive peak pressure coefficients depends strongly on the mean velocity profile of the
approach flow in the same manner as that for buildings with rectangular sections. On the other hand,
and surface
the
effect of surface roughness in the transcritical Reynolds number regime. Negative peak external
pressure coefficients become larger in magnitude near the top of the building because of the flow
separation from the top (i.e. end effect). The factor
A6.19 are applicable to buildings with aspect ratios
provision is based on wind tunnel experiments using such models.
for domes with
negative peak external pressure coefficients are influenced by the aspect ratios
roughness of buildings. The factor
H / D
k 1 considers the effect of aspect ratio, and the factor
k
2
k
3
considers this effect
H / D
^{4}^{7}^{)} . The values in Table
less than or equal to 8, because the
ˆ
C
pe
Only negative peak pressures are considered for roofs. The values of
f / D = 0
provided in Table A6.20 can be used.
(4) Peak external pressure coefficients
ˆ
C
pe
for buildings with circular sections and spherical domes
Peak external pressure coefficients in Table A6.20 are determined from the results of wind tunnel
experiments ^{3}^{4}^{)} . External pressures on domes fluctuate significantly due to the effects of turbulence of
approach flow as well as of vortex generation. Therefore, both positive and negative peak pressure
coefficients are provided. Because the geometry of spherical domes is axisymmetric, they are divided
into three zones (
negative peak external pressures become large in magnitude near the windward edge (zone
to the flow separation at the windward edge. On the other hand, when the
) due
is small,
R
a
,
R
b
and
R
c
) by coaxial circles. When the rise/span ratio
f / D
( f / D)
R
a
ratio is large, large
positive peak external pressures are induced near the windward edge due to the direct influence of the
approach flow. Therefore, positive peak external pressure coefficients for zone
function of the turbulence intensity
a are provided as a
H of the approach flow when
R
I uH
at the reference height
f / D ≥ 0.2 .
A6.2.6 Factor for effect of fluctuating internal pressures
Peak wind force coefficients for components/cladding shall be determined from the maximum
instantaneous values, both positive and negative, of the pressure difference between the exterior and
interior surfaces. However, there are few data on these pressure differences. In the Recommendations,
C is represented by Eq.(A.6.15), because the peak
are usually obtained from wind tunnel experiments and a large
C
ˆ
external pressure coefficients
amount of data is available.
Figure A6.2.3 shows a schematic illustration of fluctuating external and internal pressures. The
frequency of internal pressure fluctuations is lower than that of external pressure fluctuations, and the
peak external and internal pressures are not induced simultaneously. The factor
fluctuating internal pressures in Eq.(A6.15) does not represent the peak internal pressure coefficient
it is assumed that the peak wind force coefficient
ˆ
C
pe
*
C Pi
for the effect of
– C652 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
itself but an equivalent value that provides the actual peak wind force when combined with the peak
C is evaluated from a series of computations for
for various building configurations.
external pressure coefficient
C
ˆ
the peak wind force coefficients using wind tunnel data on
The following assumptions are made in the computations:
ˆ
C
pe
. The value of
ˆ
C
pe
1) Gaps and openings in the external walls are uniformly distributed, and the internal pressures are
generated from the external pressures at the locations of the gaps and openings.
2) The fluctuating internal and external pressures are independent of each other.
When the building has intentionally designed openings or when glass windows on the windward
face are broken by flying debris, the size of the openings may be very large compared with ordinary
gaps and openings. The values in Table A6.21 cannot be used for such cases. It is necessary to estimate
the peak wind force coefficients appropriately by using the data on the external and internal pressures
obtained from wind tunnel experiments. Some international codes and standards ^{2}^{0}^{)}^{,} ^{5}^{0}^{)} provide internal
pressure coefficients for buildings with dominant openings.
wind force coefficient
external pressure coefficient
internal pressure coefficient
^
C C
^
C pe
C pi
peak wind force coefficient
peak external pressure coefficient
peak internal pressure coefficient
Fig.A6.2.3
Example of fluctuating external and internal pressures acting on components/cladding
A6.2.7 Peak wind force coefficient for components/cladding
For free roofs, it is necessary to directly evaluate the net wind force represented by the pressure
difference between the top and bottom surfaces. Regulation of peak wind force coefficients is based on
previous wind tunnel experiments for the most critical peak wind forces irrespective of wind
direction ^{3}^{8}^{)} . When the roof angle is relatively large, large peak wind forces are induced along the roof
edges as well as along the ridge, because large suctions are induced by conical vortices on either the
top or bottom surface of the roof. The roof is divided into two zones (
b ), and positive and
θ . Larger
net wind forces are induced in zone
negative peak wind force coefficients are provided for each zone as a function of roof angle
R
a
and
R
R
b .
When any obstruction whose blockage ratio is larger than approximately 50% is placed under the
roof, it is necessary to evaluate the peak wind force coefficients from an appropriate wind tunnel
experiment and so on.
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C653 –
A6.3 
Gust Effect Factors 
A6.3.1 
Gust effect factor for alongwind loads on structural frames 
(1) Fundamental consideration
In this recommendation, gust effect factor is based on overturning moment as described by the
following equation.
where
G 
M Dmax 
M 
Dmax 
+ 
g 
D 
σ 
MD 
1 
g 
D σ 
MD 

D = 
= 
= + 

M 
D 
M 
D 
M 
D 

M 
Dmax 
, 
M D 
, 
σ 
MD 
(A6.3.1)
are maximum value, mean value and rms of overturning moment at the
vibration mode, respectively.
The parameters of Eq.(A6.3.2) are expressed by aerodynamic force coefficients as follows.
where
S
CMD
(
M
D
= q
H
2
BH C
MD
σ MDQ
f
D
S
= q
f
H
D
MD
(
BH C'
)
2
MD
f
*
D
S
CMD
(
*
D
f
)
=
σ
2
MDQ
C '
2
MD
(A6.3.4)
(A6.3.5)
(A6.3.6)
C
MD
*
D
f
)
is overturning moment coefficient,
C
'
MD
is rms overturning moment coefficient and
.
is power spectrum of overturning moment coefficient at nondimensional frequency
*
f
D
If these equations are taken into consideration, Eq.(A6.3.2) becomes as follows.
G
D
≈ +
1
g
D
(A6.3.7)
Additionally, in this formula nondimensional frequency is defined by turbulence scale,
, but, in the wind tunnel test breadth of the building it is used usually
(2) Model of wind force The model of wind force is based on the assumption that wind velocity fluctuation is directly
changed into the wind pressure on the wall of the building. In this model, mean wind velocity,
turbulence intensity, power spectrum of wind velocity and cocoherence are described by Eqs.(A6.8),
*
f
D
= f
D
L
H
/U
H
f
D
= f
*
D
B /U
H
.
– C654 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
(A6.11), (A6.1.3), (A6.1.4), respectively. Additionally, wind force coefficient is expressed by a
difference of the wind pressure coefficient of the windward side and the wind pressure coefficient
(constant) of a lee side as described by the following equation.
C
MD
,
C
'
C
D
MD
=
C
PA
⎛ Z ⎞
⎜
H
⎟
⎠
⎝
and
S
CMD
2
(
α
− C
*
D
f
)
PB
(A6.3.8)
are expressed using the parameter of the recommendation equations as
follows.
C
C
f
= C
= C
C
C
(A6.3.9)
(A6.3.10)
(A6.3.11)
is a factor relevant to overturning
is a factor relevant to rms overturning moment in the
is a spectrum factor of windward force. Spectrum factor of wind
D , factor expressing correlation of wind pressure of a windward
MD
'
MD
*
H
H
g
'
g
*
D
( f
C
H
D
S
CMD
) = C'
2
MD
F
D
where
moment in the alongwind direction,
alongwind direction and
velocity
side and a leeward side
is wind force coefficient at the top of the building,
F
D
S
C
'
g
F
D
by
C
g
F , size reduction factor
of
R are considered for
overturning
moment
.
expressed
Fig.A6.3.1 in comparison with those obtained from wind tunnel tests. The recommendation values of
overturning moment and rms overturning moment are slightly greater than the test values, and the
spectrum is mostly in agreement with the test values.
Characteristics
Eqs.(A6.3.9)−(A6.3.11) are shown in
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
(a) mean overturning moment coefficient
(b) rms overturning moment coefficient
(c) power spectrum density of over turning moment
Figure A6.3.1
Alongwind force in comparison with those obtained from wind tunnel tests
( H /
BD = 4 ) ^{5}^{2}^{)}
(3) Fluctuating component of overturning moment
When the vibration mode is
S
MD
(
f
μ = Z / H , the relation between spectrum of overturning moment due
) and spectrum of overturning moment due to the load effect by vibration
to the wind force
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C655 –
The variance of overturning moment due to the load effect by vibration
2
σ MD
(A6.3.12)
(A6.3.13)
is the integral of
Eq.(A6.3.12), and the variance consists of back ground component
2
σ MDQ
and resonance component
2
σ MDR
as expressed by the following equation.
)
σ
2
MD
=
=
f df
S
'
MD
0
∞
∫
0
S
MD
(
)
f df
∫
∞
(
+
≈σ
2
MDQ
S
MD
(
f
D
(A6.3.14)
In this equation, resonance component is estimated approximately as a response to white noise
S
MD
(
f
D
).
Therefore, overturning moment for maximum load effect is expressed by following equation.
= M + g σ
(A6.3.15)
D is called peak factor, and is the ratio of maximum fluctuating component to standard
deviation. This is expressed by the following equation, based on the theory of stationary stochastic
where
g
M
Dmax
process.
g
D
=
(A6.3.16)
where T is time for evaluation and
ν
D is level crossing rate calculated from power spectrum density
(A6.3.17)
Additionally, in some foreign wind loading standards,
In this equation, the background component and the resonance component are distinguished.
M Dmax
is expressed by the following formula.
g
M
Q
2
Q
2
MDQ
2
+ g σ
R
2
MDR
= M + g σ
(A6.3.18)
R is peak factor of resonance
Dmax
where
component calculated from Eq.(A6.3.16) as
(4) Vertical distribution of equivalent static wind load
In the gust effect factor method, the vertical distribution of wind load is given by mean wind load
multiplied by gust effect factor. This wind load is an approximate value based on the assumption that
vibration mode is close to mean wind load distribution and the building has uniform density. Actually,
the mean, background and resonance components of wind load distribution are different. The mean
component is expressed by Eq.(A6.3.8), and the resonance component is expressed by Eq.(A6.3.3).
Therefore, if the vertical distribution of building mass is remarkably uneven, the resonance component
is peak factor of background component (=3.4) and
ν
D
= f
D
.
g
– C656 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
should be estimated carefully. In that case, the distribution of resonance component for the
fundamental vibration mode could be estimated from the following equation.
where
where
a
g
Dmax
(cm/s ^{2} ): maximum acceleration at top of building as defined in A6.10.2
DQ : peak factor of background component
In this recommendation, it is assumed that the background component has a similar distribution to
mean component. The following methods may also be used.
1) Shear force or overturning moment at a certain building height may be obtained from the integral of
pressure on area over the height ^{2}^{0}^{)} .
2) Load distribution can be defined by LRC formula ^{5}^{3}^{)} .
(5) Example of calculation of gust effect factor
Figure A6.3.2 shows the variation of gust effect factor by terrain category and building height for
Figure A6.3.2
height of building (m)
Variation of gust effect factor with terrain category and building height
A6.3.2 Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames
Gust effect factor for roof wind loads on structural frames is influenced by external pressure and
internal pressure. It can be assumed that there is no correlation between fluctuation of external
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C657 –
pressure and fluctuation of internal pressure for a building without dominant openings. Furthermore, Helmholtz resonance, the phenomenon of varying internal pressure at a specific frequency by external pressure, can be disregarded. Fluctuating internal pressure coefficient is derived from the theory for buildings with uniform openings ^{5}^{4}^{)} . Therefore, external pressure fluctuation, which is slower than response time of internal pressure, is transmitted as internal pressure, and it is assumed that quicker pressure fluctuation is not transmitted as internal pressure. Furthermore, fluctuating internal pressures act on all parts of a roof simultaneously for more safety. Generally, response time of internal pressure is long enough, compared with the natural period for the first mode of the roof structure. Therefore, resonance of the roof structure for internal pressure can be disregarded. Under these conditions, gust effect factor for roof wind loads is given by the following equation.
pressure, and these value are
r Ri
external
pressure
r
c
g
Re
and
are the generalized fluctuating external and internal pressures divided by the generalized mean
is the generalized mean internal pressure divided by the generalized
is resonance factor, which is calculated from the
nondimensional power spectrum density at the frequency of the first mode of the roof and the critical
damping ratio.
mean
wind pressure coefficient.
=
3.5
,
g
Ri
=
3
from the results of test and measurement.
r
Re
coefficient.
R
Re
Figure A6.3.3
Fluctuation of roof wind loads when wind force coefficient is small
An equation of gust effect factor is expressed for two cases of internal pressure coefficient,
, given by Table A6.11. If wind force coefficient is small, roof wind loads act
in the upward direction and in the downward direction as shown in Fig.A6.3.3. When combinations
with other loads are considered, downward wind load can be dominant even if the absolute value is
R for “+”corresponds to
small. Therefore, downward wind load can be calculated. In Eq.(A6.17),
load in the same direction as given by wind load coefficient, and
the same for Eq.(A6.18) and Eq.(A6.19). However, wind force coefficients are given as positive or
negative in A6.2.2, and gust effect factor should be calculated from Eq.(A6.17) with “+”. Furthermore,
R for “−“ is opposite. The above is
C =−
pi
0.4
and
C =
pi
0
G
G
– C658 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
is deformation at center due to weight), can approximately evaluate
the natural frequency for the first mode of the roof beam, and the document ^{5}^{5}^{)} is useful for estimating
the critical damping ratio,
(1) Case for
Roof wind loads can be calculated for roof beams parallel to the wind direction and for roof beams
the equation,
f
R
≈
0.57
0.4
(δ
ζ .
R
C =−
pi
normal to the wind direction.
If external pressure coefficient
C pe
is −0.4 over the whole subject area as center beam shown in
0 . In this case, roof wind loads can be
and gust
as shown in
Fig.A6.3.4(a), the wind force coefficient becomes
calculated from Eq.(A6.18), which is the product
effect factor
Fig.A6.3.4(b), the wind loads can be calculated from Eq.(A6.17).
C
R =
C
R
G
R
of wind force coefficient
C
R
=
0
C
R
G
R
. However, when the wind force coefficient becomes partially
external pressure
internal pressure
_{(}_{a}_{)} _{b}_{e}_{a}_{m}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{n}_{d} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
(b) beams parallel to the wind direction
Figure A6.3.4
Relation between wind force coefficient and external or internal pressure coefficient
(for
C
pi
=− 0 .4 )
(2) For
. In this case, gust effect
factor can be calculated from Eq.(A6.19). The equation considers the mean and fluctuating
components of external pressure, and the fluctuating component of internal pressure.
C
pi
=
0
Wind force coefficient is equal to external pressure coefficient for
C
pi
= 0
A6.4
Acrosswind Vibration and Resulting Wind Load
A6.4.1 Scope of applications
The procedure described in this section applies to the equivalent static wind load with consideration
of acrosswind forced vibration at a design wind speed lower than the nondimensional critical wind
speed for vortexinduced vibration or aeroelastic instability. For a design wind speed expressed by
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C659 –
, aeroelastic instability may well occur and wind load will need to be calculated
from the wind force and the response in wind tunnel tests.
Alongwind vibration is caused by turbulence in natural wind, but acrosswind vibration is caused
by wind turbulence as well as by the vortex in the wake of the building. Although there are many study
examples with regard to the behavior of a vortex in the wake of a building, unclear points remain.
Furthermore, since the behavior is greatly affected by building shape, it is difficult on the whole to
theoretically estimate acrosswind vibrations in the same manner as for alongwind vibrations. With
consideration of the first mode, an estimation equation for acrosswind load has been derived from
data of acrosswind fluctuating overturning moment obtained from wind tunnel tests. Subjects for this
estimation equation are structures with rectangular planes (side ratio
D/ B = 0.2 ~ 5 ) from which
many experimental data have been obtained. Moreover, by taking into account the fact that
experimental data for buildings with an aspect ratio
H / BD exceeding 6 are insufficient, and that
aeroelastic instability easily occurs in these buildings, the scope of application is limited to aspect
ratios of 6 or less.
Furthermore, data of acrosswind fluctuating overturning moment for buildings with plane shapes
other than rectangular planes can be obtained from wind tunnel tests. Where it is unnecessary to
consider aeroelastic instability, acrosswind wind loads can be calculated using the method indicated
in the recommendations.
U
H
/(
f
L
BD
)
>
10
A6.4.2 Procedure
(1) Concept of wind load estimation
Since a fundamental mode usually predominates in acrosswind vibration, acrosswind loads are
calculated using the spectral modal method considering only to the first translational mode, in the
same manner as for alongwind loads. For the nonresonance component, the profile of fluctuating
acrosswind force is set to be vertically uniform and the magnitude of the fluctuating wind force is
decided to agree with the fluctuating overturning moment. The resonance component estimates the
in Eq.(A6.33) so as to be
proportioned to the first translational mode.
It is recommended that the critical damping ratio be estimated with reference to “Damping in
buildings” ^{7}^{)} .
(2) Modeling of overturning moment
The overturning moment varies with building shape and wind characteristics, but in the subjective
scope the breadthdepth ratio has the greatest effect on the overturning moment: the effects of other
parameters are slight. Therefore, in the recommendations, the fluctuating overturning moment is set as
a function of only the breadthdepth ratio of a building based on wind tunnel test data ^{5}^{2}^{,} ^{5}^{6}^{)} .
(3) Buildings with circular planes
Acrosswind responses of buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes can be
estimated with the same concept. This section details buildings with circular planes. The parameter
inertia force due to vibration and the vertical profile is determined using
φ
L
– C660 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
'
values used in Eq.(A6.20) need to be set
β =
1
/ B ,
0.2 . These parameter values are in the transcritical critical region of Reynolds number
to
C
L
=
0.06 ,
m =1 ,
κ
1
=
0.9
,
f
S1
=
0.15U
H
(
U
H
D ≥
6 (m
^{2} /s)).
A6.5
Torsional Vibration and Resulting Wind Load
A6.5.1 Scope of application
The procedure described in this section applies to the equivalent static wind load with consideration
of torsional vibration with a design wind speed lower than the nondimensional critical wind speed for
vortexinduced vibration or aeroelastic instability. For the design wind speed expressed by
, aeroelastic instability may well occur and the wind load needs to be calculated
from the wind force or the response in wind tunnel tests.
Torsional vibration is caused by asymmetric wind pressure distribution on the windward face, side
faces and leeward face. This is due to both wind turbulence and the vortex in the building’s wake. The
torsional moment induced wind force is subject to the effects of building shape and wind behavior.
Therefore, the method for assessing the torsional wind load is derived from the fluctuating torsional
moment data obtained from wind tunnel tests as for the acrosswind direction. Subjects for this
estimation equation are buildings with rectangular planes (side ratio D / B = 0.2 ~ 5 ) and aspect ratio
U
H /(
f
T
>
10
H /
of 6 or less, from which many experiment data have been obtained.
Furthermore, data of torsional moment for buildings with plane shapes other than rectangular planes
can be obtained by carrying out wind tunnel tests. Where aeroelastic instability does not need to be
considered, torsional wind loads can be calculated using the method indicated in the
recommendations.
A6.5.2 Estimation equation
(1) Concept of wind load estimation
Since the effects of pressure acting on both sides on the torsional moment are complex, it is difficult
to formulate the power spectral density as a simple algebraic function. However, it is relatively easy to
collect experimental data of the response angle acceleration. Therefore, the equation for computing the
torsional wind load is based on the estimate of the response angle acceleration. With regard to the
nonresonant component, the profile of fluctuating torsional moment is set as vertically uniform and
the magnitude of the fluctuating torsional moment is decided to agree with the fluctuating torsional
moment at the base of the building. The resonant component estimates the inertia force due to
in Eq.(A6.33) so as to be proportioned to the
first translational mode. Buildings with an eccentric factor (eccentric distance / radius of rotation) of
0.2 or less for which any effect of eccentricity can be ignored are subject to the formulation of the
estimation equation. The wind load on a building for which the eccentricity cannot be ignored needs to
be calculated by carrying out wind tunnel tests.
vibration and the vertical profile is determined using
φ
L
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C661 –
It is recommended that the critical damping ratio be estimated with reference to “Damping in
buildings” ^{7}^{)} .
(2) Modeling of torsional moment
The torsional moment varies according to building shape and wind characteristics, but in respect of
buildings in the subjective scope the breadthdepth ratio exerts the greatest effect on the torsional
moment and the effects of other parameters are slight. Therefore, in the recommendations, the
fluctuating torsional moment is set as a function of only the breadthdepth ratio of a building based on
wind tunnel test data ^{5}^{2}^{,} ^{5}^{6}^{)} .
A6.6
Horizontal Wind Loads on Lattice Structural Frames
A6.6.1 Scope of application
This procedure has been prepared for estimating horizontal wind loads on lattice structures built
directly on the ground, and whose members all have small enough sections in comparison with the
width of the structure for the flow field around a member to be dominated by the local wind speed.
The procedure for estimating wind loads on lattice structures is basically the same as that described for
horizontal wind loads on buildings in Section 6.2, and can be applied to lattice structures of varying
widths and solidity ratios in the vertical direction. In addition, the effects of accessory ladders are
considered by the evaluation of wind force coefficients of those obtained from wind tunnel tests and so
on.
A6.6.2 Procedure for estimating wind loads
Horizontal wind loads are estimated by a gust effect factor method. The wind loads are calculated
from the local design velocity pressure because lattice structures often have varying widths and
solidity ratios in the vertical direction.
The projected area in Eq.(A6.22) is the total projected area of all elements on one face normal to the
wind. The area per panel is usually calculated.
A6.6.3
Gust effect factor
In deriving Eq.(A6.23), it is assumed as follow:
i) Solidity ratios in the vertical direction are uniform, that is to say, wind force coefficients
of each panel are uniform.
ii) A fundamental mode shape can be given by Eq.(A6.6.1) where
μ
modes higher than the fundamental one are neglected.
⎛ Z ⎞
⎟
⎠
β
= ⎜
⎝
H
According to the above assumptions, the peak response
of the generalized stiffness K of the fundamental mode by:
x max,Z
at height
Z
β = 2 , and vibration
(A6.6.1)
is given as a function
– C662 –
Recommendations for Loads on Buildings
q H C 
D HB 
0 
2 I H μ 
B
(
1 +
R
)
D
D
Z
is given by:


x max, 
Z 
= g D 
0.95 + α β + 

K 

However, the mean response C H ⎛ B 
X Z at height B − B ⎞ 

X 
= 
q 
H 
D 
⎜ 
0 
− 0 H 
⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 
μ 

Z 
K 
⎜ ⎝ 
1 
+ 
2 α β + 
2 + 2 α β + 
where
and α
factor, the resonance factor and the back ground excitation factor, respectively.
q
H
,
I
H
are the velocity pressure and the turbulence intensity, respectively, at
g
D
,
R
D
and
B
D
is the exponent of the power law in the wind speed profile.
Gust effect factor is given by Eq.(A.6.23).
Figure A6.6.1
Definition of
B
0
,
B
H
,
H
A6.7 
Vortex Induced Vibration 
A6.7.1 
Scope of application 
(A6.6.2)
(A6.6.3)
height,
are the peak
H
This section describes vortexinduced vibration, which can occur in tall slender buildings, chimneys,
and structural components with circular sections.
A6.7.2 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on buildings with circular sections
Shear layers separated from windward corners of both sides of buildings roll up alternately to shed
into wake and form Karman vortex streets behind the buildings. According to the alternate shedding,
the periodic fluctuating wind loads act on the buildings in the acrosswind direction. When the natural
frequency of the building coincides with the vortex shedding frequency, the vibration of the building
can be resonant with the periodic fluctuating wind loads, causing the building to vibrate at large
amplitude in the acrosswind direction. This is vortexinduced vibration, which is a problem for many
structures, particularly chimneys.
The critical wind speed of the resonance is larger than the design wind speed for most buildings, so
these phenomena are not normally important. However, as the critical wind speed is smaller than
CHAPTER 6
WIND LOADS
– C663 –
design wind speed for very slender buildings with small natural frequency and damping like steel chimneys, tall buildings and building components, the effect of vortex induced vibration should be checked carefully in the wind resistance design stage. A lot of research has been done on vortexinduced vibration and a number of methods have been developed in the past decade for estimating vibration amplitude and its equivalent static wind loads, particularly for structures with circular sections. The equivalent wind loads described in the recommendation are based on the spectral modal method in which the Strouhal number of vortex shedding is 0.2, and the power spectrum of the fluctuating wind loads depends on the vibration amplitude ^{6}^{)} and the Reynolds number.
The effects of structural density, damping and Reynolds number are included in the resonant wind
, which is shown in Table A6.2.3 for three categories of Reynolds number region
and for two types of structures with various density and damping. The rows in the table show the
effect of Reynolds number, that is,
force coefficient
C
r
U D
r
m
<
3
is the subcritical region,
3
≤U D <
r
m
6
is critical
region and
6 ≤ U
r
D
m
is super/trance critical Reynolds number region.
ρ
ζ in Table A6.23
depends on the amplitude at the resonant condition.
amplitude, and
ρ
ζ <
0.5 corresponds with the large
ρ
ζ ≥
0.5 corresponds with the small amplitude.
A6.7.3 Vortex induced vibration and resulting wind load on building components with circular sections Occurrence of vortex induced vibration of building components with circular section can be checked by Eq.(A6.26). Most design wind speeds for components like members of truss towers are larger than the critical wind speed, so the effect of vortex induced vibration should be checked carefully. In particular, the vibration amplitude can be very large for components like steel pipes whose mass and damping are small. The equivalent wind loads described in Eq.(A6.27) are introduced in the subcritical Reynolds number region based on wind tunnel tests ^{5}^{9}^{)} . The equation is applicable for various boundary conditions at the ends of components.
A6.8 
Combination of Wind Loads 

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