Dynamics
Mechanics
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
1.3.1311
What you can learn about …
Angular velocity
Rotation
Moment
Torque
Moment of inertia
Rotational energy
Principle:
If a constant torque is applied to a body that rotates without friction around a fixed axis, the changing angle of rotation increases propor tionally to the square of the time and the angular velocity proportional to the time.
What you need: 

Cobra3 Basic Unit Power supply, 12 V RS232 cable Translation/Rotation Software Light barrier, compact Blower Pressure tube, l = 1,5 m Air bearing Turntable with angle scale Holding device with cable release Aperture plate for turntable Slotted weight, 1 g, polished Slotted weight, 10 g, black Slotted weight, 50 g, silver bronze Silk thread, l = 200 m Weight holder, 10 g Bench clamp PASS Tripod PASS Stand tube Support rod, l = 250 mm Measuring tape, l = 2 m Circular level Boss head Connecting cord, l = 100 cm, red Connecting cord, l = 100 cm, blue Connecting cord, l = 100 cm, yellow PC, Windows® 95 or higher 
12150.00 
1 
12151.99 
1 

14602.00 
1 

14512.61 
1 

11207.20 
1 

13770.97 
1 

11205.01 
1 

02417.01 
1 

02417.02 
2 

02417.04 
1 

02417.05 
1 

03916.00 
9 

02205.01 
3 

02206.02 
2 

02412.00 
1 

02204.00 
1 

02010.00 
2 

02002.55 
1 

02060.00 
1 

02031.00 
1 

09936.00 
1 

02122.00 
1 

02043.00 
1 

07363.01 
1 

07363.04 
1 

07363.02 
1 

Complete Equipment Set, Manual on CDROM included Moment of inertia and angular acceleration 

with Cobra3 
P2131311 
Potential energy and additionally the rotational energy.
Tasks:
1. Measurement of the laws of angle and angular velocity according to time for a uniform rotation move ment.
2. Measurement of the laws of angle and angular velocity according to time for a uniformly accelerated rotational movement.
3. Rotation angle is proportional to the time t required for the rota tion.
PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D37070 Göttingen
Laboratory Experiments Physics
29
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
Related topics 
Air bearing 
02417.01 
1 
Angular velocity, rotation, moment, torque, moment of inertia, 
Tur ntable with angle scale 
02417.02 
2 
rotational energy 
Holding device with cable release 
02417.04 
1 
Aperture plate for turntable 
02417.05 
1 

Principle 
Slotted weight, 1 g, polished 
03916.00 
9 
If a constant torque is applied to a body that rotates without 
Slotted weight, 10 g, black 
02205.01 
3 
friction around a fixed axis, the changing angle of rotation 
Slotted weight, 50 g, silver bronze 
02206.02 
2 
increases proportionally to the square of the time and the 
Silk thread, l = 200 m 
02412.00 
1 
angular velocity proportional to the time. 
Weight holder, 10 g 
02204.00 
1 
Bench clamp PASS 
02010.00 
2 

Task 
Tripod PASS 
02002.55 
1 
1. Measurement of the laws of angle and angular velocity 
Stand tube 
02060.00 
1 
according to time for a uniform rotation movement. 
Support rod, l = 250 mm 
02031.00 
1 
2. Measurement of the laws of angle and angular velocity 
Measuring tape, l = 2 m 
09936.00 
1 
according to time for a uniformly accelerated rotational 
Circular level 
02122.00 
1 
movement. 
Boss head 
02043.00 
1 
3. Rotation angle w is proportional to the time t required for the 
Connecting cord, l = 100 cm, red 
07363.01 
1 
rotation. 
Connecting cord, l = 100 cm, blue 
07363.04 
1 
Connecting cord, l = 100 cm, yellow 
07363.02 
1 
Equipment Cobra3 Basic Unit 
12150.00 
1 
PC, WINDOWS ^{®} 95 or higher 
Power supply, 12 V 
12151.99 
1 

RS232 cable 
14602.00 
1 
Alternative experimental setups are to be found at the end of 
Translation/Rotation Software 
14512.61 
1 
this experimental description. 
Light barrier, compact 
11207.20 
1 

Blower 
13770.97 
1 
Setup and procedure 
Pressure tube, l = 1.5 m 
11205.01 
1 
In accordance with Fig. 1. 
Fig. 1. Experimental setup with the compact light barrier
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D37070 Göttingen
2131311
_{1}
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
Perform the electrical connection of the compact light barrier to the Cobra3 Basic Unit according to Fig. 2. Ensure that the thread that connects the axis of rotation with the wheel of the light barrier is horizontal. Wind the thread approximately 15 times around the air bearing’s rotation axis. Adjust the tripod’s feet such that the turntable is horizontal. Adjust the air supply in such a manner that the rotor is just lift ed by the air pressure and rotates without vibration on its cush ion of air. Set the measuring perameters according to Fig. 3. Lay the silk thread across the wheel on the light barrier and adjust the experimental setup in such a manner that the 10g weight holder hangs freely. The cord groove on the wheel must be in alignment with the silk thread.
Fig. 3. Measuring parameters
Place the stop plate (aperture plate for turntable) in the starting position and fix it in position with the holding device. Enter the diameter of the turntable’s axle (30 mm), around which the silk thread will be rolled up, in the ”Axle diameter” dialog box so that the differing rotational velocities of the compact light bar rier and the axle of the turn table can be synchronised. The end of the silk thread is loaded with the 10g weight hold er and further additional weights. Switch on the blower, actuate the cable release. The turntable must not begin to vibrate. As soon as the turntable has started to rotate, click on the ”Start measurement” icon. Just before the weight holder reaches the floor, click on the ”Stop mea surement” icon. The mass must not oscillate during measure ment recording. Remarks:
If the turntable does not rotate uniformly, check to see whether allowing it to rotate in the opposite direction improves the sit uation. If necessary, change the air supply at the blower.
Theory and evaluation The relationship between the angular momentum
body in the stationary coordinate system with its origin at the
acting on it (see Fig. 4),
of a rigid
S
L
centre of gravity, and the moment is
S
^{L} ^{.}
S T
^{S}
T
^{d}
dt
(1)
The angular momentum is expressed by the angular velocity
S
v
and the inertia tensor
^{S}
L
ˆ
I
from
I ˆ ·
^{S}
v
.
In the present case, axis (Zaxis), so that
S
v
S L
has the direction of a principal inertia
has only one component:
L _{Z} = I _{Z} · v
where I _{Z} is the Zcompound of the principal inertia tensor of the body. For this case, equation (1) reads
T _{Z} I _{Z}
dv
dt
^{.}
Fig. 4. Moment of a weight force on the rotary plate
_{2}
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D37070 Göttingen
2131311
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
The moment of the force
^{S}
T
F ^{S}
(see Fig. 2)
^{S} r
F ^{S}
gives for
^{S}
r
^{S} :
F
T _{Z} = r · m · g ,
so that the equation of motion reads
mgr I _{Z}
dv
dt
I _{Z} · a .
From this, one obtains
I Z
mgr
a
^{.}
The moment of inertia I _{Z} of a body of density r (x, y, z) is
I _{Z} = ∫∫∫ r (x, y, z)
(x ^{2} + y ^{2} ) dx dy dz
In this experiment the measurement of the angletimelaw and the angular velocitytimelaw of the uniformly accelerated rotary motion verifies the explained theory.
For the evaluation of the measured data do as follows:
After clicking on the ”Autoscale” icon, all measured data are displayed in fullscreen mode (cf. Fig. 5). In addition to the interesting measured points themselves (the rising branch of the velocitytime curve), some points also may have been measured which can be attributed to the termination of move ment phase (possible contact of the accelerating mass with the floor or something similar). These measured points can be deleted before proceeding with the further evaluation.
Fig. 5. Angular velocitytime laws of an accelerated rotational movement with regression line
Fig. 6. Regression line in the a t diagram
<omega (t)> shows the angular velocitytime curve, a straight line which conforms to the relationship v = a · t (Fig. 5). The proportionality factor a represents the angular acceleration
v # a . If the Regression icon is clicked upon, a regression line is drawn through the measured points; the slope m indicates the angular acceleration a. In the example in Fig. 5, for exam ple a = 0.463 rad/s ^{2} . (The very noise onset of the measurement is due to the low resolution of the spoked wheel at low veloci ties!) Fig. 6 shows the time course of the angular acceleration. Here, too, a linear regression line has been drawn. The segment of
the y axis b = 0.443 rad/s ^{2} supplies the initial value of the angu lar acceleration a . For a uniformly accelerated rotary move ment, the angular acceleration as a function of time is con stant. Fig. 7 shows the curve of the pathtime law, which exhibits a parabolic course, in which the measured points have been strongly emphasised. The parabolic course of the pathtime law can be verified as follows (Fig. 8):
The time axis is squared to obtain a linearized curve course. Using the Measurement / Channel Manager, the time is placed on the x and the y axes. The is necessary as only the y axes can be mathematically reworked. Using Analysis / Channel modification, the operation x := x * x is performed on the y axis. This new channel is exported into the original measurement (Export Measurement / Measuring Channel). Finally, using Measurement / Channel Manager, the new squared time is assigned to the x axis and the angle j, to the y axis. The regression line in Fig. 8 proves that the curve course is now linear and thus also the original quadratic dependence of the path on the time.
Fig. 7. Angletime diagram with individual measure points
Fig. 8. Angletime ^{2} diagram
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D37070 Göttingen
2131311
_{3}
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
The turntable is accelerated by the vertically moving mass. The effective torque M is calculated according to
M = r · m · g
where:
r Radius of the axle bolt or of the driving wheel used
m
g = 9.81 m/s ^{2}
Accelerated mass Acceleration of gravity
The relationship between the torque impulse M t, the moment of inertia J and angular velocity v is the following:
M · t = J · v .
Thus, for the moment of inertia J the following is true:
J
^{M}
v
>t
r · m · g
v
>
t
^{.}
In an v (t) graph (Fig 5) the v (t) relationship is exactly the slope of the regression line. To calculate J , the accelerating mass m and the radius r (1.5 cm) of the rotational axis around which the thread is wound must be taken into consideration.
Fig. 9. Rotational energy of accelerated rotary movement
Fig. 10. Potential energy and additionally the rotational energy
In this exemplary measurement the following is valid:
m (slope) = 0.463 rad/s ^{2} = v /t
M
= r · m · g = 0.015 m · 0.051 kg · 9.81 m/s ^{2}
= 0.0075 kg m ^{2} /s ^{2}
J
0.0075 kg m ^{2} >s ^{2}
0.463 rad > s ^{2}
^{.}
= 0.0162 kg m ^{2} .
The moment of inertia J is also obtained in another way:
The dynamic action of torques is the angular acceleration.
To rque and angular acceleration are proportional to each other:
therefore
M = J · a .
J
^{M} 
0.0075 kg m ^{2} >s ^{2} 
a 
a 
= 0.0169 kg m ^{2} .
From Fig. 6 one obtains a from the y axis segment of the regression line.
(t) = 0.5 J v ^{2} , in this case J
The rotational energy (Fig. 9): E
= 0.0165 kg/m ^{2} . Conversion by: Analysis / Channel modifica
tion / Operation x := 0.5 * 0.0165 * x * x, where x = v (t).
10): E _{p}_{o}_{t} (t) = m g (h  s (t )), where h =
0.77 m and s (t ) = w(t) r.
Conversion using: Analysis / Channel modification / Operation
x := 0.051 * 9.81 * (0.77  x * 0.015), where x = w(t).
The law of conservation of energy states that the sum of the kinetic and potential energy in this closed system must be con stant. This statement can be easily checked by the addition of potential and kinetic energy (Fig. 11). Remark: The accelerated mass m becomes increasingly more rapid in the course of the experiment and thus receives an increasing kinetic energy. However, this energy is extremely small compared to the two other energy forms present and can thus be neglected in the calculation.
Potential energy (Fig.
rot
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{.} _{1}_{1}_{.} _{E}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{y} _{b}_{a}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} _{E} _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} _{=} _{E} _{r}_{o}_{t} _{+} _{E} _{p}_{o}_{t}
_{4}
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D37070 Göttingen
2131311
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
Remarks At extremely slow angular velocities, signal transients or defor mations can occur. These can be reduced if the sampling rate is changed. Angular velocities that are too small cannot be measured by the wheel on the light barrier and are plotted as a reference line. Instead of the compact light barrier (11207.20), the movement sensor (12004.10) can also be used (see Fig. 12: The thread is horizontal and is placed in the larger of the two cord grooves on the movement sensor.) In this case the following additional equipment is required:
Equipment Movement sensor with cable 
12004.10 
1 
Adapter, BNCsocket/4mm plug pair 
07542.27 
1 
Adapter, socketplug, 4 mm 
07542.20 
1 
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D37070 Göttingen
2131311
_{5}
Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3
_{6}
PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D37070 Göttingen
2131311
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