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Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar

Tools of Theoretical Physics (PH 608), 2017


Home Assignment 1
R.R.Puri

1. Show that 2|z| |x| + |y| where z = x + iy.
p
2. Show that, for Re(z) > 0, |z 1| < |z 2 1| < |z + 1|.

3. For z3 6= z4 show that

|z1 | + |z2 |

z1 + z2
z + z ||z | |z || . (1)

3 4 3 4

4. Show that

|Im(1 z + z 2 )| < 3, for |z| < 1. (2)

5. Show that | sin(z)| | sin(x)|, | cos(z)| | cos(x)|.

6. Let K be the complex conjugation operator such that Kz = z . Show


that K is not a linear operator.

7. (a) Let mi , ni (i = 1, 2) be integers. Let pi = m2i + n2i . Show that p1 p2


can be written as p1 p2 = m2 + n2 where m, n are integers. Find the
value of m and n in terms of mi , ni (i = 1, 2).
(b) Let mi , ni (i = 1, 2, . . . , k) be integers. Let pi = m2i + n2i . Show
that p1 p2 pk can be written as p1 p2 pk = m2 + n2 where m, n are
integers.

8. Show that
N 1
X sin(N /2)
cos(k) = cos((N 1)/2),
k=0
sin(/2)
N 1
X sin(N /2)
sin(k) = sin((N 1)/2).
k=0
sin(/2)

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9. For 1 < p < 1 show that

X 1 p cos()
pk cos(k) = ,
k=0
1 2p cos() + p2

X p sin()
pk sin(k) = .
k=0
1 2p cos() + p2

10. (a) Show that the roots of z n = 1 are 1, n , n2 , . . . , nn1 where

n = exp(2i/n).

(b) Show that


n1
X
nk = 0.
k=0

(b) Show that


n1
Y
nk = ()n .
k=0

(c) Show that 1 + + 2 + . . . + n1 = 0

11. Show that, for a and b real,


ib
ia 1

= exp(2bcot1 a).
ia + 1

12. Find (z0 )1/4 where



z0 = 8 8i 3. (3)

Which is the principal root of (z0 )1/4 ?

13. If a0 , a1 , . . . , an are real and p + iq (p, q are real) is a root of

a0 + a1 z + . . . + an z n = 0, (4)

then show that p iq is also a root.

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14. Show that for m = 2, 3, . . .,

2 (m 1) m
     
sin sin sin = . (5)
m m m 2m1

(Hint: Note that the roots of z m = 1 are 1, exp(2i/m), exp(4i/m),. . .,


exp(2(m 1)i/m). Hence one may write z m 1 = (z 1)(z
exp(2i/m))(z exp(4i/m)) (z exp(2(m 1)i/m)). On di-
viding the two sides by z 1 and taking the limit z 1 we get
m = m1
Qm1
k=1 (1 exp(2ik/m)) =P k=1 exp(ik/m) (exp(ik/m)
Q

exp(ik/m)) = (2i)m1 exp(i m1


Qm1
k=1 k/m) k=1 sin(k/m)).