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Module 2

Pharmacognosy

Plant Chemistry, Biochemistry

Kathreen Mae D. Cascabel


BSPharmacy
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOGNOSY
Pharmacognosy knowledge of drugs and pharmaceuticals | Greek: pharmakon (drugs) and gnosis (knowledge)

BRIEF HISTORY
Babylonians made clay models of man
Egyptians very apt in the practice of embalming
Greeks
Pedanios Dioscorides De materia medica libre cinque (five volumes), 600 plants
(Rome) Galen described the method of preparing formulas containing plant and animal drugs and the term
Galenical pharmacy originated (Cold cream Galens cerate)
Germans
C.A. Seydler coined the term pharmacognosy in his dissertation in 1815 (title: Anaclectica pharmacognosthica)
Fluckiger most comprehensive definition of pharmacognosy : simultaneous application of various scientific
disciplines with the object of acquiring knowledge of drugs from every point of view
J.A. Schmidt Lerbuch der Materia medica

Pharmacognosy an applied science that deals with the biologic, biochemical and economic features of natural drugs and
their constituents that originate in the plant and animal kingdom
Appropriate Solvents:
General Process of Extraction 1. Fats - Hexane
Removes substances that can be dissolved by the solvent/menstruum 2. Resins - Alcohol
The undissolved portion of the drug is known as the marc 3. Chlorophyll - Acetone
Product of extraction process: Percolate/Extractive 4. Chrysarobin - Hot benzene

Crude Drugs undergone only collection and drying


Natural Substances have not had changes made in their molecular structure as found in nature
Derivatives/ Extractives chief constituents obtained by extraction
Geographic source & Habitat region in which the plant or animal yielding the drug grows
Indigenous growing in their native countries
Naturalized growing in foreign land

PREPARATION OF DRUGS FOR THE COMMERCIAL MARKET


1. Collection (small scale) collection time: part of the plant that constitutes the drug is highest in its content of AI

2. Harvesting (large scale) Collection time


Mechanical devices : pickers, mowers, binders, swath, steel Pectin citrus fruits
Manual for potent constituents Unripe fruits - protopectin
Just ripe - pectin
Overripe - pectic acid
3. Drying (Air Drying and Artificial Air Drying)
remove moisture fixes the constituents Marijuana
prevent molding facilitate grinding and milling Young leaves - cannabidiol
prevent action of bacteria prevent environmental hydrolysis Mature leaves - cannabinol (THC)

4. Garbling final stage; removal of extraneous matter (other parts of the plant, dirt, added adulterants)

5. Packaging, Storage and Preservation


To avoid insect attacks:
a. SIMPLEST METHOD: Expose the drug to 65C
b. Fumigation with methyl bromide
c. Add adrop of chloroform or carbon tetrachloride
Examples of Plants in De Materia Medica
Aloe Emollient, tx for burns
Belladonna (beautiful lady) Atropine mydriatic (SE: cycloplegia) Bioassay
Tamoxifen For breast CA (SE: endometrial CA) Digoxin - pigeon
Colchicum Acute gout Atropine - cats
Allopurinol Chronic gout (Xanthine Oxidase inhibitor) Glucagon - cats
Ergot (fingers Claviceps purpurea) Ergotamine (migraine), Ergonovine (oxytocic), Oxytocin - chicken (F)
LSD (hallucinogen) Head drop test - rabbits/rats
Opium (stone of immortality) PTH - dogs
Premarin Estrogen derivative from MARE Heparin - sheep plasma
Digoxin (Digitalis lanata) Insulin - rabbit
Digitoxin (Digitalis purpurea) Lipid soluble, Long half life

Street names of illegal drugs


1. Shabu Ice, Meth
2. Ecstacy Sky
3. Marijuana Hashish, MJ/Maryjane, Pot, Grass, Weed, Cannabis, Indian hemp

EVALUATION OF DRUGS (determine the quality (intrinsic property) and purity (absence of adulterants) of drugs)
1. Organoleptic - by means of the organs of sense; macroscopic appearance
2. Microscopic - essential in the study of adulterant in powdered plants (identity and purity)
3. Biologic - pharmacologic activity of certain drugs has been applied to their evaluation or standardization
4. Chemical - assay of AC using chemicals (titration); best method of determining official potency
5. Physical - physical constants (solubility, spec grav, optical rotation, congealing point, refractive index, MP)

CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
Morphology forms
Taxonomy phylogeny (natural relationship or among plants and animals)
Pharmacologic or Therapeutic based on effect on the body
Chemical classification based on active constituents; Preferred Method of Classification

CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL DRUG PRODUCTS


1. Pharmaceutically active cause chemical changes in the preparation
2. Pharmacologically active responsible for the therapeutic activity
3. Inert constituents no definite pharmacologic activity
4. Secondary plant substance extracted, crystallized and purified; presence of inert matter which may modify
or prevent absorbability or potency of AC

Drug biosynthesis/Biogenesis study of the biochemical pathways leading to formation of secondary constituents (drugs)

Primary metabolites to Secondary metabolites

Carbohydrates Glycosides
BIOGENESIS
Proteins OR Tannins
DRUG BIOSYNTHESIS
Fats Volatile oils or
Fixed oils

3 Principal factors that influenced the secondary constituents of drug plants


1. heredity (genetic composition)
2. ontogeny (stage of development)
3. environment (soil, climate, associated flora and method of cultivation)
CHO 4 cal/g
CARBOHYDRATES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS CHON 4 cal/g
Fats 9 cal/g
polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones containing C, H and O; same ratio as in H2O (2:1)
1st products of photosynthesis (glucose)
General formula: CnH2nOn | Cn(H2O)n | (CH2O)n

MONOSACCHARIDES
Cannot be hydrolyzed to simple sugar substances that is ketonic or aldehydic substitution product of a polydroxy alcohol

C Name Aldose Ketose


2 Diose Hydroxyacetaldehyde
3 Triose Glyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone
4 Tetrose Erythrose Erythrulose
5 Pentose Arabinose, Xylose, Ribose Ribulose
6 Hexose Glucose, Galactose Fructose
7 Heptose Sedoheptose
8 Octulose D-glycero-D-mannoctulose

HEXOSES (most important monosaccharides found in plants)


Other names Uses Identification Test
Glucose D-glucose Nutrient (parenteral), Excipient Moores Test
(aldohexose) Dextrose Ca gluconate/gluceptate/levulinate Ca replenisher (caramel)
Blood sugar Ferrous gluconate hematinic
Grape sugar
Physiologic sugar
Fructose Fruit sugar Food for diabetics Seliwanoffs Test
(ketohexose) Levulose (sweetest Ingredient in infant feeding formula
monosaccharide) Ingredient in fructose injection, nutrient

PENTOSES
Xylose (D-xylose, Wood Sugar)
obtained by boiling corn cobs, straw or similar materials with dilute acid to hydrolyze the xylan polymer
diagnostic aid in intestinal malabsorption

OLIGOSACCHARIDES
DISACCHARIDES
Other N Origin Uses
Sucrose Saccharum Saccharum officinarum (cane) Demulcent, Sweetening, Coating, Preservative,
Glu + Fru Cane sugar Beta vulgaris (beets) Production of syrups, Retards oxidation
(non-reducing) Beet sugar Acer saccharum (maple)
Table sugar
Maltose Malt sugar From germination of barley
Glu + Glu
Lactose Milk sugar Cows milk (Bos Taurus) Isolation of Lactose
Glu + Gal Butter cream, united fat globules
Lactulose (Alkaline lactose)
(reducing) Buttermilk liquid separating from butter
lactic & acetic acid
Skimmed milk left after cream separates
(irritation, catharsis)
Dec serum NH3 in encephalopathy Cheese coagulum, skimmed m. + rennin
Whey liquid separated from coagulum
POLYSACCHARIDES
Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides (sugar) linked together through glycosidic(ether) linkages
Temporary storage form of photosynthetic products
systematic nomenclature are given the ending an, glycan is another word

Amylose Amylopectin
Linear Branched
250-300 glucose units 1000 or more glucose units
25% 75-80%
-1,4 glucosidic bonds -1,4 and -1,6 (every 25 glucose)
Soluble Insoluble (paste forming)
Blue Blue-violet or purple

HOMOGLYCANS
Use
Starch (Glucosan) Tablet filler, binder, and disintegrant Enzymes that break down starches:
Zea mays (corn) Antidote for iodine poisoning amylase pancreatic juice and saliva
Triticum aestivum (wheat) Permanent reserve food material in plants amylase hydrolyzes it to maltose
Solanum tuberosum (potato)
Starch
Gluten tachy proteins
Pregelatinized Starch binder Soluble starch
Na Starch Glycolate disintegrant
Hetastarch plasma expander Dextrin

Maltose

2 glucose
Inulin (Fructosan) Ingredient in culture media
Used in evaluation of renal function
Dextran (Glucosan) dextran sucrase (from Leuconostoc mesenteroides)
- plasma expander Sucrose Dextran
Cellulose Purified/Absorbent Cotton from the hair of the seeds of Gossypium hirsutum
Use: mechanical protection against bacteria; absorb mucus, pus, and blood

Soluble guncotton/Pyroxylin formed by action of nitric acid & sulfuric acid on cotton
Other ingredients: Castor oil (flexibility) | Camphor (proof)
Use: topical protectant

Other derivatives:
Cellulose Acetate Pthalate (CAP) film coating, Methyl/Ethylcellulose
HETEROGLYCANS (yield more than one type of monosaccharide units upon hydrolysis)
Gums and Mucilages
Natural plant hydrocolloids that may be classified as anionic or non-ionic polysaccharides
Produced by plants as a protective after injury
Upon hydrolysis, they yield arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, and other uronic acid derivatives
USES: suspending agents, dental adhesives, laxatives

PLANT EXUDATES
Tragacanth Astragalus gummifer Bassorin (swells) Suspending agent,
Best mucilage Tragacanthin (thickener) Emulsifier, Adhesive,
(resistant to Demulcent, Emollient
acid hydrolysis) 5-6% dispersion in H2O
Acacia Gum arabic Acacia senegal Arabin Incompatible with OH
35-36% dispersion
Ghatti Indian Gum Anogeissus latifolia Acacia substitute

Karaya Sterculia Gum Sterculia urens D-galacturonic acid Laxative, Suspending


(fetid odor) D-glucoronic acid agent, Adhesive
MARINE GUMS
Agar Japanese Gelidium cartilagineum Agarose Laxative, tablet
Insinglas/Gelatin (Red algae) Agaropectin diluents/disintegrant
Algin Macrocystis pyrifera Sodium alginate Suspending agent, tablet
(brown seaweed) binder, thickener
Carageenan Irish Moss, Chondrus crispus Kappa- & Iota- Demulcent, bulk laxative
Chrondus Gigartina mamillosa carageenan (swelling)
Lambda-carageenan
(nonswelling)
Danish agar Furcerallan Furcellaria fastigiata k-carrageenan Suspending agent

SEED GUMS
Plantago Psyllium, Plantago psyllium (Spanish) Bulk laxative
Plantain Seed P. ovate (Blonde/Indian)
Cydonium Quince seed Cydonia vulgaris

Guar Gum Guaran Cymopsis tetragonolobus 1,4 linked D- Laxative, thickener, binder
mannopyranosyl
Locust Bean Carob pulp Ceratonia siliqua Chocolate substitute
Gum St. Johns bread
MICROBIAL GUM
Xanthan Xanthomonas campestris Peudoplastic activity
Gum which enables toothpaste
and ointment both to hold
shape and spread readily

PECTIN purified carbohydrate product obtained from the dilute acid extract of inner portion of the rind of citrus fruits or
from apple pomace
Active Constituent : linear 1,4 linked D-galacturonan
Uses : protectant, s.a., ingredient in many antidiarrheal formulations
[O] PLANT ACIDS
a. Cherry Juice or Succus cerasi
Ripe fruit of Prunus cerasus
Contains pectin (incompatible with OH)
Constituent: Malic acid (present in cherry, apple, pear)
Use: preparation of cherry syrup

b. Plant Acids
Uses: Acidulants in effervescent formulations, Component of buffer systems
a. Citric acid - (2-hydroxy 1,2,3, propane trioic acid) isolated by Scheele from lemon juice in 1784
b. Lactic acid - (alpha-hydroxy propionic acid) acidulant in infant feeding formula
c. Tartaric acid - (1,2,3, dihydroxy butane dioic acid) by product of wine industry
d. Fe fumarate - hematinic

c. Alcohol or Ethanol
95% ethanol by volume @15.56C
Product of fermentation
Undergo the process of distillation to concentrate the alcohol content to 40-55%
brandy - distilled wine
whiskey - malted grain
rum - molasses
wine - mild stimulant and tonic

[H] SUGAR ALCOHOLS

Mannitol (D-mannitol)
From Manna, Fraxinus ornus
Osmotic diuretic and Osmotic laxative

Sorbitol (D-glucitol)
From the ripe berries of mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia
half as sweet as sucrose
has humectant properties (ingredient in toothpaste, chewing gums and various dietetic products)
not absorbed on oral ingestion that is why it is used in the manufacture of chewing gums

TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES


Test for Composition Positive result
Molischs General for carbohydrates -naphthol Purple/Red
Fehlings Reducing sugars A CuSO4 Brick red ppt
B K Na tartrate
Benedicts Reducing sugars NaOH + CuSO4 Brick red ppt
Barfoeds Reducing sugars; Cupric acetate + acetic acid Brick red ppt
Monosaccharides
Tollens Reducing sugars (Aldehydes) Silver + Ammonia Silver mirror
Picric acid Reducing sugars Picric acid Mahogany red
Nylanders Reducing sugars Na K tartrate + K/NaOH + Bi Brown
Osazone/Kowarsky Mannose Phenylhydrazine Yellow ppt (ozone)
Seliwanoffs Ketohexose (Fructose) Resorcinol Red
Keller-Killiani Test Deoxysugars (cardiac glycosides) Acetic acid, Fe chloride, Sulfuric acid Reddish brown
Moores Reducing sugars (Glucose) Heat with alkali Caramel
Mucic acid Test Galactose Nitric acid Insoluble ppt
Bials Pentoses Resorcinol + Fe Blue green
GLYCOSIDES
Heteroglycans (yield one ore more sugars among the products of hydrolysis); simple glycosides: sugar ethers
The most frequently occurring sugar is Beta-D-glucose (plants)
Aglycone or genin nonsugar component, Glycone sugar component

CARDIOACTIVE OR CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES


MOA: inhibits Na/K/ATPase pump increased influx of Ca2+ ions (+) inotropy
2 types of steroidal aglycones or genin:
Cardenolides - most prevalent in nature
Bufadienolides - are homologs of the cardenolides and an unsaturated 6-membered lactone ring
DOC: control rapid ventricular rate in px with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter
Keller-Killiani Test - Detects presence of 2-deoxysugars

Other Names Origin Active Constituent


Grecian Foxglove Digitalis lanata Digoxin
Foxglove Digitalis purpurea Digitoxin (lipid soluble, long t)
Convallaria Lily-of-the-Valley Convallaria majalis Convallatoxin
Adonis Pheasants eye Adonis vernalis Adonitoxin
Strophanthus Strophanthus kombe k-strophanthoside/Strophanthidin
Apocynum Black Indian Hemp Apocynum cannabinum Cymarin
Dog bane, Canadian Hemp
Oleander/Adelfa Rose bay Nerium oleander Oleandrin
Squill Urginea maritime Scillaren A
Cactus Night blooming cereus Selenicereus grandiflorus
Grandiflorus
Black Hellebore Christmas rose Hellebborus niger hellebrin

ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDES
Cathartics (except chrysarobin)
Aglycone: Anthracene
ID test: Borntragers test

Origin Active Constituent


Cascara Sacred bark Rhamnus purchianus D glycosides based on emodin
Sagrada C glycosides based on aloin
Cascarosides A&B barbaloin isomers
Cascarosides C&D chrysaloin isomers
Lane's Pill
Casanthranol purified mixture of
Present in Movicol = Karaya + Frangula anthranol glycosides from cascara sagrada
Frangula Buckthorn bark Rhamnus frangula Frangulin A & B
Aloe Aloe barbadensis/Aloe vera (Curacao) Barbaloin from the latex
A. ferox + africana + spicata (Cape) Aloe-emodin
Rhubarb Rheum/Chinese Rheum officinale (Chinese) medicinal Rhein anthrones
Rhubarb R. emodi, R. webbianum (Indian/Himalayan) ornamental
Senna Cultivated on wet Cassia angustifolia (Tinnevelly) Sennosides A, B, C, and D
lands resembling Cassia acutifolia (Alexandria) Derivatives of Senna: Blue Coloration
rice paddies *More potent than cascara
Chrysarobin Andira araroba Keratolytic agent
(Goa powder; hot benzene)
SAPONIN GLYCOSIDES
-hemolytic substances destroys RBC by hemolysis and are toxic to cold blooded animals (used as fish poison)
Soap-like (foam upon shaking)
o Steroidal in nature (cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene/CPPP nucleus)
o Sapotoxin toxic aglycone Sternutatory - irritating the mucous membrane; people normally sneeze
o Sapogenin aglycone portion,
2 types: Steroid (neutral saponin) and Triterpenoid (acid saponin)
Identification tests:
1. Froth test - (+) honeycomb froth that persists for 10 mins
2. Capillary test
3. BAM (Blood Agar Media) Test or Hemolysis Test
hemolysis partial hemolysis
hemolysis complete hemolysis
hemolysis no hemolysis

Origin Active Constituent Use


Glycirrhiza Glycyrrhiza glabra Glycyrrhizin/glycyrrhic acid Peptic ulcer and Addisons
Licorice root (50x as sweet as sugar) Increases foaminess of beer.

Glycyrrhetic acid CI: cardiac problems & HTN


(anti-inflam) Na retention and K
Ginseng Panax quinquefolius (American) Ginsenosides Aphrodisiac
fave remedy in Panax ginseng (Asian/Korean) Panaxosides Adaptogen (antistress)
Chinese medicine Chikusetsusaponins
Dioscorea D. floribunda best source of steroid Botogenin Cortisone precursor
Mexican Yam D. spiculiflora contains diosgenin Diosgenin Costisol

CYANOPHORE OR CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDES (Bound Poisons)


yeilds hydrocyanic acid as one of the products found in Rosaceae plants
amygdalin is the most widely distributed
derivatives of mandelonitrile (benzaldehyde-cyanohydrin)
Cyanide-containing compounds: Prunasin, Laetrile/Vitamin B17, Amygdalin

Guinards Test: Brick Red / Red Coloration Amygdalin


Amygdalase *Amygdalase + Prunase = EMULSIN
Mandelonitrile glucose
Prunase
Mandelonitrile + Glucose

Benzaldehyde + HCN

Origin Active Constituent Use


Bitter Almonds Amygdalus communis Amygdalin
Wild Cherry Prunus serotina Prunasin sedative expectorant
prunus virginiana,
wild black cherry tree
Apricot Pits Prunus armeniaca, Laetrile/Vit. B17 controversial treatment for sickle cell
Rosaseae anemia (antiCA)
Cassava Manihot esculenta Mannihotoxin
GLUCOSINATES/ISOTHIOCYANATES (From family Cruciferae/Brassicaceae)
Black Mustard White mustard
Synonym Sinapis nigra Sinapis alba
Origin Brassica nigra Brassica alba
Active Sinigrin Sinalbin
Constituent myrosin myrosin
Allyl isothiocyanate Acrinyl isothiocyanate
Uses Local irritant and emetic, Rubefacient, vesicant, and condiment

FLAVONOL Rutin &Hisperidin (Vitamin P or Tx of capillary bleeding secondary to capillary fragility


Hesperitin & Naringen Permeability Factors) Tx of symptoms of common colds

ALCOHOL Salicin Salix purpurea Saligenin (salicyl alcohol)


(Salix and Populus) Salix fragilis - antirheumatic (closely resembles salicylic acid)

ALDEHYDE Vanilla Vanilla plantifolia Vanillin


(4-hydroxy-3- methoxy benzaldehyde or methylprocatechuic aldehyde)

Other sources of Vanillin:


Coniferin - glycoside present in cambium sap of pine
trees
Eugenol - phenol present in clove oil
Lignin - by product of the pulp industry

Gluco-vanillin (avenein) and glucovanillic alcohol


hydrolyzed into glucose and vanillin and
glucovanillic alcohol which is oxidized to vanillic
aldehyde

PHENOL Uva Ursi (Bearberry) Arctotaphylos uva- Arbutin antiseptic and astringent
ursi

LACTONE GLYCOSIDES
Origin Use
Coumarin Dicumarol, Dipteryx odorata Anticoagulant
Bishydroxycoumarin (tonka beans)

Cantharides Spanish flies, Cantharis vesicatoria AC : Cantharidin


Russian flies,
Blistering flies Effects:
Blisters irritant, vesicant, rubefacient
Priapism (used as aphrodisiac)
Psoralens Ammi majus Methoxsalen repigmentation in vitiligo
(photosensitizing Trioxsalen
furocoumarins)
TANNINS
A group of complex phenolic compounds capable of combining with proteins
Polypeptides that are difficult to separate because they do not crystallize
Precipitates proteins from solutions and can combine with proteins, rendering resistant to proteolytic enzymes
Medicinal use : astringent
Industrial use : manufacture of leather
tannin
Skin and Hides Leather
Tanning of leather

CHEMICAL CLASSES OF TANNINS

Hydrolyzable Nonhydrolyzable/Condensed/Proanthocyan
idin
(from condensation of catechin and
leucocyanidin)
Heating Gallic acid Pyrogallol Catechol

Hydrolyzation Phenolic acids and Sugar Polymerization Plobaphenes (insoluble,


Boil with HCl red colored products)
FeCl3 Test Bluish black precipitate Greenish black precipitate
Br Water No precipitate Precipitate
Lead Acetate Soluble
Leather Type Bloom Tanners red

Tests for presence of Tannins: Tannins can precipitate:


1. Goldbeater test Proteins
2. Gelatin test Alkaloids
Glycosides
Characteristics of Tannins
1. Acidic Tannic acid antidote for alkaloidal poisoning
2. Sharp puckering taste
3. Precipitates alkaloids Universal antidote :
4. Precipitates proteins (tanning industry) Tannic acid - precipitant
5. Astringents GI and skin Activated charcoal - adsorbent
6. Treatment of burns Magnesium Oxide - cathartic

Origin Active Constituent Use


Hamemelis Leaf Hammemelis virginiana Hamamelitannin Astringent
Hazel leaves Incorporated in
hemorrhoidal preparations
Tx: insect bites and stings
Nutgall Excrescence from the young twigs Tannic acid/Gallotannic acid Used in tanning industry
of Quercus infectoria, Fagaceae Astringent
Manufacture of inks
Insect: Cynips tinctoria
LIPIDS
ester of long chain of fatty acids and alcohols
Uses:
emollients SATURATED FATTY ACIDS
vehicles for IM injection Corn Cottonseed Peanut Sesame 10C Capric
cathartic castor oil 12C Lauric
soap production 14C Myristic
increase caloric value TPN 16C Palmitic (most abundant FA)
18C Stearic
20C Arachidic
CLASSES OF LIPIDS
1. Fixed Oils - Long chain fatty acids + Glycerol UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS
o From vegetables 18:1 Oleic
o Liquid at room temperature (except theobroma) 18:2 Linoleic
18:3 Linolenic (dietary precursor of PGE)
2. Fats - Long chain fatty acids + Glycerol 18:4 Arachidonic (precursor of PGE)
o From animals
o Solid at room temperature (except cod liver oil) Vitamin F (essential FAs): Oleic, Linoleic, Linolenic

3. Waxes long chain fatty acids + High MW alcohol such as cetyl or stearylalcohol

4. Sterols alcohols containing cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus (cholesterol)

5. Phospholipids (Phosphatides) Ester consisting of glycerol in combination with fatty acids, phosphoric acid and
nitrogenous compounds (Lecithin)

6. Glycolipids (Cerebrosides) Substances isolated from the brain and various sources which on hydrolysis yield fatty
acids, galactose and nitrogenous compounds (Phrenosin and kerasin)

Tests or constants based on the chemical constitution of the fatty acids:

1. Acid value or acid number


# of mg. of KOH required to neutralize the free fatty acids in 1 g of substance
Indicates the presence of free fatty acids

2. Saponification value , saponification number or Koettsdorfer number


# of mg. of KOH required to neutralize the free acids and saponify the ester contained in 1 g. of substance
serves to detect the presence of the glycerides of acids

3. Iodine number
# of grams of iodine absorbed by 100g of the substance
indicates the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids

Classification of Fixed oils base on Iodine Value


1 drying oils >120 Linseed, cod liver oil
2 semidrying 100-120 Cottonseed, sesame
3 nondrying oils < 100 Olive, almond
FIXED OILS
Origin Active Constituent Use

Coconut Oil Cocos nucifera Lauric & Myristic acid Solvent for IM injection

Palm Oil Elaeis guincenss Shortening, frying, soap & candle manu

Ricin (toxic) Stimulant cathartic (ricinoleic acid) from


Castor Oil Ricinus communis Ricinine (alkaloid) Tricinolein hydrolysis by lipase (duodenum)
Azeleic acid (anti-acne) CI: Pregnancy
Olive oil grades (extracted with):
1. First Grade Virgin less pressure
Olive Oil 2. Second Grade Virgin more P
Olea europaea Oleic acid
Sweet oil 3. Technical Oil hot water
4. Sulfur Grade CS2; low quality
5. Tournant Oil fallen, decomp fruits
Peanut Oil
Arachis hypogaea Oleic acid, Linoleic acid Solvent for IM injection
Arachis Oil
Rapeseed Oil Brassica campestris Salad oil
Erucic acid
Canola Oil Brassica napus Shortening
Lecithin useful in controlling deranged
lipid and cholesterol metabolism.
Soybean Oil Glycine soja Linolenic Acid
Stigmasterol from lipid fraction of
soybean; steroid hormone precursor
Linoleic, Oleic, Palmitic
Cottonseed Oil Gossypium hirsutum Make substitues for lard, soap
Myristic, Arachidonic
Sesamol phenolic constituent which
Sesame Oil Oleic acid
Sesamum indicum owes the excellent stability of the oil
Teel oil, Benne oil Linoleic acid
produced by the hydrolysis of sesamolin
Almond Oil Oleic, Linoleic
Prunus amygdalus Emollient
Palmitic, Stearic
Persic Oil Prunus armeniaca
Apricot/Peach kernel oil Prunus persica

Corn Oil Zea mays embryo Solvent for IM injection

Safflower Oil Carthamus tinctoria Linoleic acid Dietary supp (False claim: cholesterol)

Sunflower Oil Helianthus annus Alternative to corn oil and safflower oil

Linseed Oil Linileic acid inedible Linum means thread;


Linum usitatissimum
Flaxseed oil (drying oil in paint & varnish) usitatissimum means most useful
Theobroma Oil Cocoa syrup, Beverage
Theobroma cacao
Food for the Gods Cocoa butter supp base
Iodine addition product of ethyl ester of the fatty
Ethiodized Oil Injection Diagnostic aid
acids of poppy seed
FATS
Origin Active Constituent Use
Lanolin Wool of Ovis Aries Hydrous Lanolin: 25% water H2O absorbable ointment base
Anhydrous lanolin/wool fat: Emollient
0.25% water
Cod Liver Oil Gadus morrhua Myristic acid Sodium morrhuate - sclerosing agent
- liquid animal fat (fresh livers) Palmitic acid (varicose)
Source of Vit. A and D
Undecylenic Acid Pyrolysis of Ricinoleic Antifungal
acid from castor oil

WAXES stiffening agents


Origin Active Constituent Use
Spermaceti head of sperm whale, Synthetic Spermaceti (Cetyl Ester Wax) Emollient, Cold cream
Physeter macrocephalus
Jojoba Oil Simmondsia chinensis Eicosenoic acid Emollient
Beeswax Honeycomb of Myricyl palmitate Stiffening agent
Yellow wax Apis mellifera
Carnauba wax Copernicia prunifera Myricyl cerotate Candles, wax varnishes

Prostaglandins class of natural products with potent and diverse biological activities
Lipid metabolites formed in the body from essential, unsaturated fatty acids from the diet.
Linoleic most important dietary precursor of the prostaglandins
converted by elongation and desaturation in the liver to arachidonic acid

Prostanoic acid parent compound of all natural prostaglandins


Elcosonoids arachidonic acids and most of the metabolites contain 20 carbon atoms
3 Main Classes of Major Prostaglandins
1 Prostaglandin A
2 Prostaglandin E
3 Prostaglandin F
VOLATILE OILS
(Ethereal oils/Essences)
Physical Characteristics
Possess characterisctic odor
Evaporate when exposed to air
High refractive index
Optically active
Immiscible in water but they can be sufficiently soluble to impart their odor in water
May act as insect repellants or insect attractants

May occur in specialized secretory structures:


glandular hairs Labiatae Lamiaceae
modified parenchymal cells Piperaceae
oil tubes called vittae Umbelliferae Apiaceae
lysigenous or schizogenous passages Pinaceae, Rutaceae

Formed by: Decomposition of resigenous layer of cell wall


Hydrolysis of certain glycosides

2 classes:
Terpene derivatives - via acetate-mevalonic acid pathway
Aromatic compounds - via schikimic acid-phenylpropanoid route

Medicinal Uses: Carminative, Antiseptic , Antipruritic (camphor), Counterirritant (methyl salicylate)

Fixed Oil Volatile Oil


Ester of Glycerol + Fatty Acid Made up of terpenes
Can be saponified Cannot be saponified
Permanent spot on brown paper No permanent spot on brown paper
Cannot be isolated by distillation Can be distilled from natural source
Become rancid Resinify on long standing

METHODS OF OBTAINING VOLATILE OILS


1. Distillation
a. Water distillation - for those not injured by boiling (turpentine oil)
b. Water and steam distillation - for those injured by boiling (clove oil, cinnamon oil)
c. Steam distillation - for fresh plant drugs (peppermint, spearmint)
d. Destructive distillation - empyreumatic oils (heat without the access of air)

2. Enzymatic Actions mustard oil

3. Expression
a. Ecuelle - rolling the fruit over a trough lined with sharp projections (citrus oils)
b. Enfleurage - expression with the use of cold fat (perfume)

4. Extraction using solvent systems based on volatile solvents (petroleum ether/benzene)


MEDICINAL AND COMMERCIAL USES
1. Fabrication of Perfumes

Definition Examples
Top Notes Most volatile products Lemon oil, Lavender oil, Anise oil
Leave the skin readily
Middle Notes Intermediate tenacity Thyme oil, Neroli oil, Rose oil
and volatility
Base Notes Low volatility and high Musk
aka Fixatives tenacity Dried secretion from the preputial follicles of
the male musk deer of Asia (Moschus spp)
Civet
A glandular secretion appearing in an outwardly
discharging pockets of Civet cats (Paradoxurus
hermaphroditus)
Ambergris
Most valuable material
Pathologic product formed in the stomach of
spermwhale when it feeds on squid or cattlefish

Volatile oils generally consist of:


Eloptene hydrocarbon portion, liquid
Stearoptenes oxidized hydrocarbon portions, solid (generally obtained by freezing the oil)

CONSTITUENTS OF VOLATILE OILS


Terpenes natural products whose structures may be divided into isoprene units
C5H8

Monoterpenes most abundant in nature 2 isoprene units C10H16


Sesquiterpenes 3 isoprene units C15H24
Diterpenes 4 isoprene units C20H32
Triterpenes 6 isoprene units C20H48

Phenylpropanoids
contain C6 phenyl ring with an attached C3 propane side chain
those in volatile oils are phenol or phenol ethers

BIOSYNTHESIS OF VOLATILE OIL CONSTITUENTS

Isoprene units building blocks for terpenes


Synthetically active isoprene units:
isopentyl pyrophosphate
dimethylallyl pyrophosphate
Geranyl pyrophosphate C-10 precursor of terpenes
Principal precursors of phenylpropanoid compounds:
cinnamic acid
p-hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid)
These compounds arise from phenylalanine and thyrosine, which in turn synthesized via shikimic acid pathway.
HYDROCARBON
1. Turpentine Oil (Spirit of Turpentine)
BO : Pinus palustris and from other species of Pinnus Linne
Use : Disinfectant, Deodorant, Counterirritant in Vicks Vaporub

Rectified turpentine oil - rectified by distillation from an aqueous solution of NaOH


Terpin hydrate/Terpinol/cis-p-menthane-1,8-diol hydrate
- formed by action of nitric acid on rectified turpentine oil in the presence of alcohol
- expectorant

ALCOHOL
Peppermint Oil Mentha piperita Menthol

Japanese Peppermint Mentha arvensis High menthol concentration than M. piperita but it has an
Oil inferior flavor
Cardamom Oil Elettaria cardamomum Flavor, carminative

Coriander Oil Coriandum sativum Flavor, carminative


Rose Oil Rosa gallica, R. damascena, Perfume
Otto of Rose R. alba, R. centifolia
Orange Flower Oil Citrus aurantium Perfume, flavor
Neroli Oil
Juniper Oil Juniperus communis Flavor, diuretic in the OTC drug, Odrinil

ALDEHYDE
Cinnamon Oil Cinnamomum loureirii Flavoring, carminative, pungent aromatic. Antiseptic
Cassia Oil
Cinnamaldehyde
Natural: cassia oil
Synthetic: benzaldehyde + acetaldehyde (action of NaOH)

Lemon Peel Citrus limon Limonene & Citral (neral & geranial)

Lemon Balm Melissa officinalis Citral

Orange Oil Citrus sinensis Limonene

Cymbopogon winterianus,
Citronella Oil Perfume, insect repellant
C. nardus

Hamamelis Water Hamamelis virginia Astringent in the OTC hemorrhoid preparations


KETONE
Camphor Cinnamomun camphora Carvone Antipruritic

Synthetic: racemic
Natural: dextrorotatory
Spearmint Mentha spicata (+)Carvone has the same Flavor, carminative
odor as that of caraway Gums, toothpaste, mouthwash
Caraway Oil Carum carvi (+)Carvone Flavor, carminative
Barosma betulina, Diuretic in OTC drugs for
Buchu B. Crenulata *Diosphenol menstrual problems, Fluidex,
B. Serratifolia Odrinil
Wormwood Oil
Artemisia absinthium Thujone Counterirritant in Absorbine Jr.
Absinthe Oil
Cedar Leaf Oil Thuja accidantalis Thujone, Fenchone Counterirritant in Vicks Vaporub

PHENOL VOLATILE OILS


Clove Oil Eugenia caryophyllus Eugenol (4-allyl-2- Dental analgesic
methoxyphenol)
Thymol Thymus vulgaris Thymol Antifungal
- synthetically from m-cresol Antibacterial
or p-cymene
CREOSOTE Fagus grandiflora Gualacol, Creosol disinfectant in Dewitts
Beachwood creosote Toothache drops, expectorant in
Creomulsin
JUNIPER TAR Pinus palustris Antieczematic and anti-psoriasis
Cade oil (Packers Pine Tar, Polytar),
Expectorant
Myrcia oil Pimenta racemosa

PHENOLIC-ETHER VOLATILE OILS


Biosynthesis of Phenolic Ethers takes place from phenylalanine (schikimic acid-phenylpropanoid pathway)
Methionine methyl donor for methoxylation reaction

Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Safrole Flavoring, Carminative


Myristica Oil Myristicin
Fennel Oil Foeniculum vulgare Anethole Flavoring, Carminative

Anise Oil Pimpinella anisum Anethole Flavoring, Carminative


(anise or aniseed),
Illicium varum (chinese
anise or star anise)

OXIDE VOLATILE OILS


1. Eucalyptus Oil/Cineole
BO : Eucalyptus globulus
AC : Cineole/Eucalyptol/Cajuputol
Use : flavor, antiseptic, diaphoretic, expectorant
2. Ascaridol
ESTER VOLATILE OILS
Biosynthesis of Esters - terpene esters are generally formed from the respective alcohols by reaction with
aliphatic acid moieties (commonly acetic acid)

Gaultheria Oil Gaultheria procumbens Methylsalicylate Flavor (aromatic cascara sagrada


Wintergreen/Betula/ Betula lenta fluidextract
Sweet birch local irritant, antiseptic, antirheumatic
Lavender Oil Lavandula angustifolia Perfume

Pine Needle Oil


Pinus mugo Perfume
Dwarf pine needle oil
Allyl isothiocyanate
Mustard Oil Brassica nigra Rubefacient in Musterolew
Acrinyl isothiocyanate

SESQUITERPENES
1. Chamomile Matricaria chamomila Carminative, spasmolytic
2. Artemisinin Artemisia annua Antimalarial
Quinghaosu
3. Valerian Valeriana officinalis Sedative and anxiolytic
4. Feverfew Tanasetum parthenium Antipyretic, migraine tx

DITERPENES
1. Taxol Taxus brevifolia Antineoplastic
2. Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba Increases blood fluidity

TRITERPENES
Quassinoids pediculocide
1. Neem Tree Azadirachta indica Antifeedant properties (mosquito repellant)
RESIN AND RESIN COMBINATIONS
Amorphous products with complex chemical nature
Hard transparent or translucent and when heated they soften and melt

Resin Combinations:
1. Oleoresins resins + volatile oils
2. Oleo-gum-resins resins + volatile oils + gum
3. Balsams contain cinnamic acid, benzoic acid, or both
4. Glucoresins or glycoresins glycosidal combinations (ex. jalap and podophyllum)

Resin Acids (abietic acid, copaivic & oxycopaivic acid, commiphoric acid)
contain large proportion of oxyacids, usually combining the properties of carboxylic acids and phenols
resinates metallic salts of resin acids (some are used in soaps and varnishes)

Resin Alcohols (benzoresinol, storesinol)


do not give a tannin reaction with iron salts
occur in free state and as esters in combination with simple aromatic acids

Resinotannols (aloeresinotannol, peruresinotannol, siaresinotannol and sumaresinotannol, and toluresinotannol)


gives a tannin reaction with iron salts

Resenes B-complex natural substances devoid of characteristic chemical properties

Glycoresins yields sugars and complex resin acids on hydrolysis

Pharmaceutic Resins are usually obtained by:


- extracting with alcohol & precipitating the resins in water (jalap & podophyllum)
- separating the oil from oleoresin by distillation (copaivic resin)
- collecting the natural product throught natural or artificial punctures (mastic)

RESINS
Other Name Origin Constituent Use
Rosin Colophony Pinus Palustris Stiffening agent
Podophyllum peltatum
Mayapple Drastic purgative
Podophyllum Indian Podophyllum Podophyllin
Mandrake Antimitotic (papilomas)
rhizome of P. emodi
Eriodictyon Disguise Quinine bitterness
Eriodictyon Yerba santa
californicum Stimulating expectorant (1g)

Jalap Jalap root Exogonium purga Jalap resin Hydragogue cathartic

Mastic Mastiche, Mastich Pistacia lentiscus Dental varnish to seal cavities

Centrally acting muscle relaxant


Kava Kava-kava Piper methysticum
Antipyretic, local anaesthetic
Indian hemp THC euphoric agent
Cannabis Cannabis sativa Hashish
Marihuana, Pot Cannabidiol manuf of rope
OLEORESINS
Other Name Origin Constituent Use
Gum turpentine
Turpentine Pinus palustris Counterirritant
Gum thus
Irritant, carminative, Rubefacient,
Capsicum Cayenne pepper Capsicum frutescens Capsaicin
Stimulant, Condiment
Flavor, condiment, stimulant,
Ginger Zingiber Zingiber officinale
carminative, ginger ale

White Pine Pinus srobus Coniferin Expectorant

Genitourinary disinfectant,
Copaiba Balsam of Copaiba Copaifera spp.
Diuretic, Expectorant, Laxative

OLEO-GUM-RESINS
1. Myrrh/Gum myrrh Commiphora molmol Astringent, Embalming
2. Asafetida/Devils Dung

BALSAMS
Origin Use
Storax Liquidambar orientalis Pharmaceutic aid for compound benzoin tincture
Liquid Storax Stimulant, Expectorant, Antiseptic
Styrax
Peru Balsam Myroxylon pereirae Local protectant and rubefacient, Antiseptic
Tolu Balsam Myroxylon balsamum Pharmaceutic aid in compound benzoin tincture
occurs as plastic solid Expectorant, Flavoring in syrups, confectionery, chewing gum,
that gradually hardens perfumery
Benzoin Styrax benzoin Antiseptic
Compound Benzoin Tincture (benzoin, aloe, storax, tolu)
Benzoic acid (synthetic product; first obtained by sublimation
from Sumatra benzoin; antifungal)
ALKALOIDS
Bitter, basic nitrogenous compounds, sparingly soluble in water
Most of them end in ine
All are solids except:
o Coniine
o Nicotine
o Sparteine
Form double salts with compounds of mercury, gold, platinum, and other heavy metals

Alkaloidal reagents/precipitants:
1. Mayers Mercuric potassium iodide White or slightly yellow ppt.
2. Marmers Potassium-cadmium iodide White ppt.
3. Dragendorffs Potassium-bismuth iodide Orange
4. Wagners Iodine TS Reddish brown or red brown ppt.
5. Scheiblers Phosphotungstic acid
6. AuCl
7. Valsers KI and mercuric iodide White ppt.
8. Tannic acid
9. Hagers Picric acid Yellow
10. Sonnenscheins Phosphomolybdic acid

CHARACTERISTICS OF ALKALOIDS
1. Free alkaloids - sparingly soluble in H2O
2. + acids --> salts
3. + salts of heavy metals --> highly insoluble precipitates
4. nitrogenous, physiologically active
5. alkaloidal salt + Na2CO3 --> free base
6. Solid alkaloid - white, soluble or slightly soluble in H2O, soluble in organic solvents
7. Pure alkaloids - insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents
8. alkaloids + acids = alkaloidal salts (soluble in water)

Alkaloid yielding plants: Pharmacologic Action of Alkaloids


1. Leguminosae 1. Analgesic and narcotics -morphine, codeine
2. Solanaceae 2. Central stimulant - strychnine, brucine
3. Rubiaceae 3. Mydriatics - atropine
4. Ranunculaceae 4. Miotics - physostigmine, pilocarpine
5. Papaveraceae 5. Cause a rise in B.P - ephedrine
6. Berberidaceae 6. Excessive hypertension - reserpine

The names of the alkaloids are obtained in various ways:


1. generic name (Hydrastine, Atropine)
2. specific name (Coccaine, Belladona)
3. common name (Ergotamine)
4. physiologic activity (Emetine, morphine)
5. discoverer (Pelletietine)

FUNCTIONS OF ALKALOIDS IN PLANTS


1. poisonous agents protect plants againts insects & herbivores
2. end products of detox representing metabolic locking up of compounds otherwise harmful to the plant
3. Regulatory growth factor
4. Reserve substance capable of supplying nitrogen or others
PYRIDINE-PIPERIDINE
Origin Use
Nicotine Nicotiana tabacum Nicotine (smoking deterent)
Arecoline Anthelminthic
Areca Betel nut Areca Catechu
Tannin content causes esophageal CA
Lobelia Indian tobacco Lobelia inflata Lobeline (smoking deterent)

TROPANE/SOLANACEOUS
Origin Use
Atropa belladonna Parasympathetic depressant
Belladonna Deadly nightshade
Atropos fate that cuts the thread of life Adjunct in tx of peptic ulcer

Hyoscyamus Henbane Hyoscyamus niger Hog + Bean toxic to swine

Jimson Weed Datura stramonium


Stramonium Treatment of asthma (vapor)
Jamestown Weed D. metel (Talumpunay/Thorn apple)

Mandragora European mandrake Mandragora officinarum Has folkloric uses

Psychomotor stimulant with a strong


Cocaine Coca Erythroxylum coca
abuse potential, vasoconstrictor

Principal Solanaceous Alkaloids:

1. Atropine
o Antispasmodic
o Antisialogogue decrease production of secretion
o Mydriatic and cycloplegic
o Antidote for cholinesterase inhibitors

2. Scopolamine or Hyoscine
o Hyoscyamus niger
o Treatment of motion sickness
o Trans-scoop or transderm Scop 4 hours before anti-emetic effect

QUINOLINE
Cuprea
o Remijia purdieana

Cinchona or Peruvian bark


o Cinchona succirubra (Red cinchona)
Cinchona calisaya (Yellow cinchona)
o Quinidine - anti-arrthythmic
Quinine - antimalarial
o Identification of the quinine /quinidine by Thalleioquin test
ISOQUINOLINE emerald green color of thalleioquin (Joseph Caventou with Pelltier)
Other Name Origin Constituent Use
Ipecac syrup emetic
Ipecac Cephalis ipecacuanha Emetine Fluidextract 14x more potent
Ipecac + Opium - diaphoretic
Sanguinaria Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis Sanguinarine Expectorant & emetic

Tubocurarine Curare Strychnus toxifera Tubocurarine Skeletal muscle relaxant

Astringents in inflammation of
Hydrastis Golden seal Hydrastis canadensis Hydrastine
the mucous membrane

Opium Stone of immortality Papaver somniferum Stimulate and depresses CNS

Alkaloids of Opium
1. morphine - most abundant, most important
2. codeine methyl morphine - most widely used; antitussive
3. heroin diacetylmorphine - hallucinogen
4. Papaverine - relief of ischemia & arrhythmias
5. Hydromorphine
6. Hydrocodone
7. Apomorphine - emetic
8. Narcotine/Noscapine - ANARCOTINE, antitussive
9. Paregoric - camphorated opium tincture
10. Dovers powder - Ipecac + opium

IMIDAZOLE
Pilocarpine (Pilocarpus, Jaborandi)
BO : Pilocarpus jaborandi
Use : Cholinergic drug used in the Tx of glaucoma; miotic

STEROIDAL
Veratum Viride (American or Green hellebore)
BO : Veratrum viride
Uses : hypotension, cardiac depressant, Black hellebore cardiac stimulant

White Hellebore (European hellebore)


BO : Veratrum album
Use : Hypotensive, Insecticide (crude drug)
INDOLE
Other Name Origin Constituent Use
Rauwolfia Rauvolfia serpentina Reserpine Snake bites
serpentina Insanity
Rescinnamine (Psychotherapy)
Deserpidine (II- Hypotensive
desmethoxyreserpine) Sedative,
Yohimbine - TX: Tranquilizing
impotence (Serpasil)
Catharanthus Vinca Catharanthus roseus Vincristine and Vinblastine -
Chichirica antineoplastic/oncolytic
Nux Vomixa Strychnos nux-vomica Strychnine toxic central stimulant
Brucine alcohol denaturant
Physostigmine Calabar bean Physostigma venenosum Physostigmine/Eserine - Tx glaucoma, miotic
Ordeal bean
Ergot Rye ergot Claviceps purpurea Ergonovine oxytocic
Secale cornutum Ergotamine migrane
Lysergic acid Diethylamide (LSD)
most specific and most active hallucinogen
discovered by A. Hoffman in 1943

ALKALOIDAL AMINES
Constituent Use
Ephedrine Ephedra, Mahuang Ephedra sinica Sympathomimetic

Plant genetics: doubles the chromosomes


Colchicine Colchicum autumnale
Gout suppressant: Acute

Khat Abyssinian tea Catha edulsis Cathinone - alleviate sensation of hunger and fatigue

Mescaline (3,4,5 trimethoxy--phenylethylamine)


Peyote Mescal buttons Lophophora williamsii
Hallucinogen and euphoric

PURINE OR METHYLXANTHINES
1. Caffeine 1,3,7 trimethylxanthine
o Does not react with or ppt with alkaloidal reagnents
o Kola (dried cotyledon of Cola nitida) Caffeine is detected by
o Cofee bean (dried seeds of Coffea arabica) means of a Murexide test
o Guarana (Paullinia cupana) purple color
o Mate/Paraguay tea (Ilex paraguariensis)

2. Theophylline 1,3 dimethylxanthine


o Camella sinensis
o Treatment of bronchial asthma, Tocolytic agent
o Aminophylline semisynthetic theophylline derivative

3. Theobromine 3,7 dimethyl xanthine


o Theobroma cacao
o Diuretic in cardiac & pulmonary edema (preferred over caffeine - little action on the CNS)
Types of Immunity
BIOLOGICS 1.
2.
Natural (Innate) Immunity
Acquired Immunity
Active Immunity
Any product derived from a living plant or animal source a. Naturally Acquired Active
Any virus, therapeutic serum, toxin, antitoxin or analogous product b. Artificially Acquired Active
Not chemotherapeutic nor an antibiotic Passive Immunity
Uses of biologics: a. Naturally Acquired Passive
o Prophylactic or Preventive Therapy b. Artificially Acquired Passive
o Therapeutic or Curative Measures

2 GENERAL CATEGORIES Epitope


Antigen simplest form of antigenic
provokes the immune response determinant present on a
complex antigenic molecule
Chemically: Antigens are usually protein
Biologically: causes formation of antibodies when introduced to tissue Haptens
Physically: H molecular weight (more than 10,000 daltons) compounds with m.w lower
2 properties: than 10,000 daltons
Immunogenicity capacity to induce Ab formation partial antigens
Specificity lack immunogenicity but can
attach to host proteins to
Antibody form a complete antigen
predominant in the serum fraction of the blood
4 fractions obtained when serum proteins are separated by electrophoresis:
1. serum albumin
2. alpha globulin
3. beta globulin
4. gamma globulin 4 subsets of T cells

Immunoglobulins/Antibodies/Serum Globulin Cell-mediated immunity:


Ab that occur predominately in the gamma globulin fraction TC cells cytotoxic, attack cell membranes
Attacks antigens bearing their specific antigen
TD cells delayed hypersensitivity cells
5 subclasses of Ig: releases lymphokines, which
recruit & activate macrophages
IgA External secretions (tears, saliva, respiratory, GI)
IgD Found in surface of B lymphocytes (no fxn yet) Immunoregulatory:
IgE Allergy TH (helper) cells interaction with B cells is
IgG Smallest (passes through placenta) essential for optimal humoral immunity
IgM Largest TS (supressor) cells diminish activity of B cells
First Ig to be formed during infection (newborn)

Macrophages and Major cellular components of immune system


Lymphocytes
B cells Orgin of serum antibodies (humoral immunity)
T cells originate in bone marrow but depend on thymus gland for differentiation
cellular immunity, delayed hypersensitivity
sentinels of immune surveilance against cancer and mediators of graft rejection
B memory cells some progeny of the selected clones that remain as circulating B cells
serve as immune systems memory
Plasma cells other member of selected B-cell clones
grow larger, stop reproduction, & continuously secrete large quantities of Ab
AE: fever, malaise, soreness at injection site
VACCINES rubella vaccine: arthralgia and arthritis
living, attenuated, or killed viruses, killed rickettsiae, or attenuated or killed bacteria pertussis vaccine: convulsions
must be induced prior to infection (prophylactic) exception: rabies vaccination swine flu, 1976: Guillain-Barre syndrome
Nonliving vaccines provide protection for a limited time: typhoid fever, cholera, plague, typhus
With living agents (single vaccination): measles, rubella, or mumps vaccine
Multiple immunizations: polio
CI: immunosupressed patients

VIRAL VACCINES cultures: chick embryo, monkey kidney, or human diploid cells
Description Grown on
Smallpox Vaccine (Dr. Edward Jenner) Living virus of vaccinia (cowpox) Skin of a vaccinated bovine calf
Rabies Vaccine Sterile lyophilized preparation of: Human diploid embryo lung tissue
Human Diploid Cell Rabies Vaccine Whole virion (Wistar rabies (whole virion)
(HDCV) virus) Human diploid cell cultures (subvirion)

(Imovax , WYVAC ) Subvirion rabies virus (Pasteur- *Brain tissue formerly used for
Pasteur was able to fix rabies derived Pitman-Moore virus) preparing the vaccine; myelin
virus (paralytic factor)
Yellow Fever Vaccine Attenuated strain of living yellow Living embryo of domestic fowl
(YF-VAX) fever virus (Vector: Aedes mosq) (Gallus domesticus)
Influenza Virus Vaccine Sterile, aqueous solution of Extra-embryonic fluid of influenza
(Fluzone, Fluogen) suitably inactivated influenza virus virus-infected chick embryo
high strain specificity and genetic types A and B
instability (reevaluated regularly)
Poliovirus Vaccine Inactivated Sterile suspension of inactivated Rhesus monkey kidney tissues
IPV, Salk poliomyelitis virus types 1, 2 and 3
Type 1 (Brunhilde) poliovirus responsible for major epidemics
Landsteiner and Popper first transmitted
Type 2 (Lansing) poliovirus sporadic
Type 3 (Leon) poliovirus less frequent epidemics
poliovirus
John F. Enders originated a method of
Improved strains: cultivating poliovirus
Type 1 Mahoney strain Jonas Salk perfected the roller-tissue
Type 2 MEF-1 strain method, as well as the detoxified form of
Type 3 Saukett strain vaccine

Poliovirus Vaccine Live Oral (Orimune) Preparation of one or a Monkey kidney tissue
Trivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (TOPV) combination of the 3 types of live,
Albert Sabin, Harold Cox, Hilary
attenuated polioviruses
Koprowski developed procedures for
manufacturing the vaccine (separately)

Measles virus vaccine live Attenuated viruses derived from Chick embryo tissue
Rubeola vaccine (Attenuvax) the original Edmonston B strain
Rubella virus vaccine live (Meruvax II) Wistar Institute RA 27/3 strain Human diploid cell tissue
- For German measles, CI:Pregnancy
Mumps Virus Vaccine Live (Mumpsvax) B-level Jeryl Lynn strain Chicken embryo tissue
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Heptavax-B) chemically inactivated hepatitis B plasma of healthy chronic HbsAg
surface antigens (HbsAg) particles carriers by plasmaphresis
Combination Virus Vaccines
o Live measles and rubella (M-R-Vax II), Live rubella and mumps (Biavax II), Live measles, mumps,
and rubella (M-M-R II)
RICKETTSIAL VACCINES
G : chick embryos or monkey kidney tissue cultures
Use : murine typhus, tsutsugamushi fever, rickettsial diseases, epidemic typhus

BACTERIAL VACCINES
suspensions of attenuated, more commonly, killed pathogenic bacteria in isotonic NaCl soln
S/smooth strains are more antigenic than R/rough strains

Typhoid Vaccine (Enteric vaccine) Killed Salmonella typhi (Type 2)

Cholera Vaccine Killed Vibrio cholerae (Inaba & Ogawa strains)

Plague Vaccine Killed Yersinia pestis (Reservoir: rats | Vector: fleas)


Killed Bordetella pertussis
Pertussis Vaccine
Adsorbed Pertussis Vaccine pertussis vaccine + of AlOH3 or Al2(PO4)3
Tuberculosis Vaccine (BCG Vaccine) Dried, living M. Tuberculosis(Calmette-Guerin strain)
Meningitis Vaccine Capsular polyssacharides for Neisseria meningitidis (A, C, Y, and W-135)
Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent Polysaccharide antigens from Streptococcus pneumoniae

Haemophilus b Polysaccharide Vaccine Capsular polyvalent polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

TOXINS AND TOXOIDS


o Toxins (exotoxins) bacterial waste products that are considered poisonous to the animal body
o Toxoid toxin whose toxicity has been inactivated or suppressed either by chemical (formalin) or heat
o Act as antigens because they stimulate certain cells of the body to produce antitoxins
o Culture medium: beef broth medium
o Clostridium botulinum source of the most poisonous poison

Fluid Toxoids
- formaldehyde (reduces or eliminates toxic properties w/o affecting antigenicity)
- induces artificial active immunity

Adsorbed Toxoid
- precipitated or adsorbed with alum, aluminum hydroxide, or aluminum phosphate
- slower release of antigen, subsequent production of higher & more prolonged Ab titers
- more prone to produce local reactions at the injection site

ANTITOXINS (From blood of toxin-immunized animals, usually horses)


o Standardized in terms of antitoxin units
o Admin: prepare a syringe containing epinephrine injection and torniquet to counter anaphylactic reactions

Use
Diphtheria Antitoxin Passive immunity, curative
Tetanus Antitoxin Treatment & prophylaxis of tetanus if Tetanus Ig is not available (passive immunity)
Botulism Antitoxin (multivalent) treat all cases of toxemia caused by types of botulinus bacteria used
type A, B, E strains
VENOMS AND ANTIVENINS (From blood of venom-immunized animals, usually horses)
o Venoms poisonous excretions produced by animals; equivalent to exotoxins in bacteria
o Snake venins or venoms obtained by holding a poisonous snake over a conical glass container covered
with a sheet of thin rubber

Synonym Against venom of


Antivenin North and South American Crotalus atrox (Western diamondback)
(Crotalidae) antisnakebite serum C. adamanteus (Florida diamondback)
Polyvalent C. durissis terrificus (S. American rattlesnake)
Bothrops atrox (S. Amarican fer-de-lance)
Antivenin North American coral snake Micrurus fulvius (eastern coral snake)
antivenin M. fulvius tenere (Texas coral snake)
Spider-Bite Antivenin (Latrodectus mactans) Latrodectus mactans (black widow spider)
Antivenin Black widow spider antivenin

ANTISERUMS (From blood of bacteria/virus-immunized animals, usually horses)


Antirabies Serum (more effective if administered with rabies vaccine)
D : sterile, nonpyrogenic solution containing antiviral substances
From : blood serum or plasma of a healthy horse immunized against rabies by vaccination

IMMUNE GLOBULINS (From immune humans (survived an attack or immunized)


Use
Immune Globulin Prophylactic in chickenpox, hepatitis A, and other diseases
Immune serum globulin
Immune globulin intramuscular Immune Globulin Intravenous/IGIV
Gamma globulin provides immediate Ab levels
tx of immunodeficiency syndrome
Pertussis Immune Globulin Prophylaxis and treatment of pertussis
Passive immunization against tetanus in individuals with wounds that
Tetanus Immune Globulin
may have been contaminated
Rabies Immune Globulin Used with rabies vaccine (best postexposure prophylaxis)
Hepatitis B Immune Globulin

Varicella-Zoster Immune Globulin Restricted to immunodeficient individuals


For unsensitized Rh-negative women who give birth to RH0 (D)- or Du-
RH0 (D) Immune Globulin
positive infant
Lymphocyte Immune Globulin Lymphocyte selective immunosuppresant
DIAGNOSTIC ANTIGENS
positive response: localized, well-defined wheal accompanied by erythema

From Positive Response


Human or bovine strains of tubercle
Tuberculin redness or inflammation
bacillus
inflammation and palpable induration
Old Tuberculin M. tuberculosis
or edema (5 mm)
Purified Protein Derivative of
M. tuberculosis (free from protein) palpable induration (10 mm or more)
Tuberculin
Histoplasmin Histoplasma capsulatum (mycelial phase)
Coccidioidin Fungus Coccidioides immitis
Diphtheria Toxin Corynebacterium diphtheriae
circumscribed area of redness (1 cm)
(nlt 400 MLD/min lethal doses)
Formaldehyde-inactivated mumps virus
Mumps Skin Test Antigen
grown on extra-embryonic fluids of the erythema (at least 1.5 cm)
mumps virus-infected chicken embryo

BIOLOGICS RELATED TO HUMAN BLOOD

Whole Blood (human) From donor (+ citrate/heparin as anticoagulant) Blood replenisher


Red Blood Cells Whole blood minus plasma Blood replenisher in anemia
Plasma Protein Fraction Selected proteins derived by fractionating Blood volume restoration (in shock)
(human) material (source blood plasma, or serum)
Sterile protein from prothrombin (bovine)
Thrombin Hemostatic
+ thromboplastin in the presence of calcium

Antihemophilic Derivatives control of 2 types of hemophilia

Antihemophilic factor sterile, freeze-dried concentrate of human Hemophilia A (classic


antihemophilic factor (prepared from the factor VIII-rich hemophilia)
cryoprotein fraction of human venous plasma)
Antihemophilic factor IX dried plasma fraction comprising coagulation factors IX, Prevent dangerous
complex II, VII, X bleeding or to perform
surgery
Albumin Human sterile, nonpyrogenic preparation of serum albumin blood-volume supporter
obtained by fractionating material (source blood plasma,
serum, or placentas) from healthy human donors

Radio-Iodinated Serum Albumins


contains serum albumin iodinated using mild conditions with either 125I or 131I
sterile, buffered, isotonic solutions prepared to contain nlt 10 mg of radio-iodinated normal human
albumin per ml & adjusted to provide nmt 1 millicurie of radioactivity per ml

Iodinated 125I albumin injection and diagnostic aid to determine blood volume and cardiac output
Iodinated 131I albumin injection
Iodinated 131I aggregated injection diagnostic aid for determination of pulmonary clearance
HERBS AND HEALTH FOODS
Natural identifies only a source, not necessarily degree of superiority or inferiority
Organic the produce was grown under conditions utilizing only natural fertilizers, no pesticides

Alfalfa lucerne Medicago sativa


Aloe A. barbadensis(Aloe vera) or Curacao, A. spicata (Cape aloe)
Angelica Angelica archangelica
Apricot Pits Prunus armeniaca
Arnica Arnica montana
Asafetida gum asafetida, devils dung Ferula assafoetida, F. rubricaulis, F. Foetida
Aveloz killwart Euphorbia heterodoxa
Black Cohosh Cimicifuga racemosa
Blessed Thistle Cnicus benedictus
Blue Vervain wild hyssop Verbena hastata
Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum
Borage common borage Borago officinalis
Bran Triticum aestivum
Broom Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius
Buchu Barosma betulina, B. crenulata, B. Serratifolia
Burdock lappa Arctium lappa
Butchers-Broom box holly Ruscus aculeatus
Calamus sweet flag Acorus calamus
Canaigre wild red American ginseng Rumex hymenosepalus
Catnip Nepeta cataria
Chamomile Matricaria chamomilla (German), Anthemis nobilis (Roman)
Chaparral creosote bush Larrea tridentata
Chicory Cichorium intybus
Cholecystokinin CCK secreted by the duodenal mucosa
Cocillana Guarea rusbyi
Collinsonia stoneroot Collinsonia canadensis
Coltsfoot farfara Tussilago farfara
Comfrey Symphytum officinale
Cucurbita Seed Cucurbita pepo, C. maxima, C. moschata
Damiana Turnera diffusa
Devils Claw Harpagophytum procumbens
Echinacea Cone/purple cone flower Echinacea angustifolia
Eleuthero Siberian ginseng Acanthopanax senticosus/Eleutherococcus s.
Evening Primrose Oenothera biennis
Eyebright Euphasia officinalis
Fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum
Feverfew Chrysanthemum parthenium
Fo-ti-tieng Vitamin X Centella asiatica, Gillena trifoliata (meadowsweet), C. nitida
Garlic Allium sativum
Onion Allium cepa
Gentian ( gentian root Gentiana lutea
Ginseng Panax quinquefolius, P. Pseudoginseng
Glucomannan Konjac mannan Amorphophallus rivieri
Glycyrrhiza licorice
Goldenseal Hydrastis canadensis
Gotu Kola Hydrocotyle, Indian pennywort Centella asiatica
Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna
Hedge Hyssop Gratiola officinalis
Hibiscus Sudanese tea Hibiscus sabdariffa
Honey mel Apis mellifera
Hops homulus Humulus lupulus
Horehound Marrubium vulgare
Horse Chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum
Horsetail Equisetium arvense
Hydrangea Hydrangea arborescens
Hyssop Hyssopus officinale
Kelp Macrosystis, Nereocystis, and Laminaria spp.
Lecithin Phosphatide mixture that yield - or -glycerophosphoric
acid, fatty acids, and choline on hydrolysis
Life Root golden ragwort Senecio aureus
Linden Flowers Tilia species
Lovage Levisticum officinale
Marigold Calendula officinalis
Mistletoe American or European mistletoe Phoradendron tomentosum, P. serotinum, flavescens
Mormon Tea Mexican/teamster/squaw tea, popotillo Ephedra nevadensis
Muira Puama potency wood Ptychopetalum olacoides, P. uncinatum
Oregano wild marjoram Origanum vulgare
Pangamic Acid Ca pangamate, pangamic acid, vit B15 blood abnormalites, asthma, emphysema, alcoholism
Parsley Petroselinum crispum
Passiflora Passiflora incarnata
Pau d Arco taheebo, ipe roxo Tabebuia impetiginosa
Pennyroyal
Poke Root Phytolacca americana
Pollen microspores of seed-bearing plants
Propolis bee glue natural antibiotic
Red Bush Tea rooibos tea Aspalathus linearis
Rose Hips Rosa canina
Royal Jelly secretion from the paired salivary glands of Apis mellifera
Sarsaparilla Smilax aristolochiaefolia, S. regelii, S. Febrifuga
Sassafras sassafras bark Sassafras albidum
Schisandra schizandra Schisandra chinensis
Senega Snakeroot Polygala senega
Senna senna leaves Cassia spp. Leaflets
Spirulina Spirulina maxima
Super Oxide Dismutase SOD metal lipoprotein from the liver or RBC of ox, Bos taurus
Tamarind Tamarindus indica
Tarragon Artemisia dranunculus
Tienchi titnchi-ginseng, sanchi Panax notoginseng
Tonka Beans Dipteryx odorata
L-Tryptophan sleep-onset insomnia
Turmeric Curcuma longa
Valerian Valeriana officinalis
Wild Lettuce Lactuca virosa
Wormwood Artemisia absinthium
Yarrow midfoil Achillea millefolium
Yohimbe Pausinystalia yohimbe
Yucca Yucca spp.
BIOCHEMISTRY/MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Parts of a Cell basic functional and structural unit of life

1. CELL MEMBRANE CELL WALL


1. Phospholipds
2. Glycoproteins and Glycolipids Plants Cellulose
3. Cholesterol Bacteria Peptidoglycan
Fungi Chitin
4. Arachidonic Acid

2. ORGANELLES
1. Mitochondrion - powerhouse of the cell; produces ATP (energy)

2. Ribosomes - protein synthesis


Prokaryote: 30s, 50s = 70s
Eukaryote: 40s, 60s = 80s

3. Lysosomes - suicide bag of the cell


- has enzymes and free radicals (when released, will cause APOPTOSIS)

Red blood cells 120 days


*Hemolytic anemia <120

4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


o Smooth ER - lipid synthesis
o Rough ER - protein synthesis
Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)
Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome
5. Golgi Apparatus - packaging and storage of substances in the cell
- Caused by phenytoin

3. NUCLEUS control center of the cell


1. Chromosomes - tightly coiled DNA strands (46 chromosomes)
2. Nucleolus - site of ribosome assembly
3. Nuclear Membrane
CARBOHYDRATES
o Polyhydroxyaldehydes and polyhydroxyketones
o Aldehyde or ketone alcohols that contain C, H, O
o The H and O has the same ratio as that of water, thus they are named as carbohydrates
o First products of photosynthesis

MONOSACCHARIDES Sucrose is a
Sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed further nonreducing sugar
Glucose and Fructose
Characterized by the number of C atoms in the molecules
are invert sugars.
Hexoses most important Enzyme: invertase
1. Glucose
Aldohexose
Dextrose, Blood sugar, Grape sugar, Physiologic sugar
Tests for Hexoses
2. Fructose
Ketohexose 1. Glucose Moores
Reducing sugar 2. Fructose Seliwanoffs
3. Galactose Mucic Acid
Fruit sugar; sweet fruits and honey
4. Mannose Osazone Test
aka Levulose, the sweetest monosaccharide

3. Galactose readily absorbed in the intestines; biosynthesized in mammary glands


4. Mannose

Pentoses Epimers
1. Arabinose - found in Gum Arabic/Acacia (isomers that differ in only 1 C)
2. Ribose - found in RNA
3. Deoxyribose - found in DNA Epimers of Glucose:
C2 mannose
C4 galactose
DISACCHARIDES
1. Sucrose - Glu + Fru
2. Maltose - Glu + Glu (-1,4)
3. Cellybiose - Glu + Glu (-1,4)
4. Lactose - Glu + Gal

OLIGOSACCHARIDES
1. Dextrin - product of starch degradation

POLYSACCHARIDES/GLYCANS
Homopolysaccharides Heteropolysaccharides
Starch -1,4 / -1,6 Hyaluronic acid
Glycogen -1,4 and -1,6 Dermatan (skin)
Cellulose -1,4 Keratan (nails)
Chitin NAG Agarose (seeweeds)
Peptidoglycan (bacterial cell wall)
Schweitzers Reagent: only reagent that can dissolve cellulose
CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
The sum total of all chemical reactions needed to maintain life

Anabolism - building up energy consuming <endergonic>


Catabolism - breaking down energy producing <exergonic>
Amphibolism- combination [ex. Krebs cycle]

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)


o Energy currency of the cell
o Links anabolic and catabolic reactions
o Composed of ADP + P + Energy

Oxidation and Reduction


Oxidation Reduction
+ O2 - O2
-H +H
(dehydrogenation) (hydrogenation)
- e- + e-
In ETC,
Co-enzymes 1 mol NAD = 3
1. NAD (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) - Nicotinamide/Niacin/Vitamin B3 ATP
2. FAD (Flavin Adenosine Dinucleotide) - Riboflavin/Vitamin B2 1 mol FAD = 2 ATP
3. Coenzyme A - precursor: Pantothenic acid/Vitamin B5

Fates of Glucose
1. ATP production
2. Amino acid and triglyceride synthesis
3. Glycogen synthesis

SUBSTRATE LEVEL PHOSPHORYLATION


Entails the formation of 1 unit of ATP per unit of metabolite transformed
Ex. Succinyl CoA succinate
Phosphoenol pyruvate pyruvate
Does not need O2

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
Entails the formation of 2 or 3 units of ATP per unit of metabolite transformed
Uses co-enzymes: FAD and NAD
Substrate + NAD+ Substrate + NADH

Summary of oxidation of 1 mole of glucose


Number of units Number of ATP
Glycolysis Glucose pyruvate 1 6-8
Intermediate step Pyruvate Acetyl CoA 2 6
Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA CO2 + ATP 2 24
GLUCOSE CATABOLISM
1. Glycolysis
2. Formation of Acetyl CoA; Intermediate Reaction
3. Krebs Cycle
4. Electron Transport Chain

Glycolysis/Embden-Meyerhof Pathway
o Aerobic (mitochondria)
o Anaerobic (cytoplasm)
o End product: 2 pyruvic acid
Summary: 1 Glu 2 pyruvic acid
6-8 ATP

Intermediate Reaction: Formation of Acetyl CoA


o In anaerobic reactions, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid
o In aerobic reactions, pyruvic acid is converted to Acetyl CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle
o Removal of carbon dioxide: Decarboxylation
Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle/ Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (mitochondria, aerobic cellular respiration)

Electron Transport Chain


o O2 final electron acceptor
o Complete O2 reduction H2O
o Partial O2 reduction superoxide anions (O2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH-) and peroxides (H2O2)
o Products: ATP + H2O
GLUCOSE ANABOLISM
1. Glycogenesis
o Glucose Glycogen
o Hormone responsible: Insulin

Pancreatic Hormones
2. Glycogenolysis
o Occurs in emergency situations Glucagon
o Glycogen Glucose Insulin
o Hormone responsible: Epinephrine or Adrenaline
o Glycogen glucose supply for 12-14 hours
o Stored in the liver, kidneys, and intestinal epithelium

3. Gluconeogenesis
o Glucose is synthesized from noncarbohydrate materials (lactate, glycerol, amino acids), proteins, fats, and
other sources
Pentose phosphate pathway/Phosphogluconate pathway/Hexose monophosphate shunt
o Occurs in the CYTOSOL
o To produce ribose 5 PO4 for nucleotide/DNA synthesis
o To produce NADPH from NADP+ for FA and steroid synthesis, maintaining reduced Glutathione inside RBCs
o To interconvert pentoses and hexoses
o ENZYME: Glucose 6 PO4 Dehydrogenase
o G6PD Deficiency stops PPP
o production of NADPH failure to maintain glutathione in the reduced state (maintains RBC integrity)
o results to hemolytic anemia upon taking oxidizing drugs (e.g. primaquine, sulfonamides, INH)

GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASES


0 Glycogen synthase
I Von Gierke Glucose-6-phosphatase
II Pompe Acid maltase/-1,4-glucosidase
III Forbes-Cori Debranching enzyme
IV Andersen Branching enzyme
V McArdle Muscle phosphorylase
VI Hers Glycogen phosphorylase
VII Tarui Muscle phosphofructokinase
VIII Liver phosphorylase kinase

TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES


Test for Composition Positive result
Molischs General for carbohydrates -naphthol Purple/Red
Fehlings Reducing sugars A CuSO4 Brick red ppt
B K Na tartrate
Benedicts Reducing sugars NaOH + CuSO4 Brick red ppt
Barfoeds Reducing sugars; Monosaccharides Cupric acetate + acetic acid Brick red ppt
Tollens Reducing sugars (Aldehydes) Silver + Ammonia Silver mirror
Picric acid Reducing sugars Picric acid Mahogany red
Nylanders Reducing sugars Na K tartrate + K/NaOH + Bi Brown
Osazone/Kowarsky Mannose Phenylhydrazine Yellow ppt (ozone)
Seliwanoffs Ketohexose (Fructose) Resorcinol Red
Keller-Killiani Test Deoxysugars (cardiac glycosides) Acetic acid, Fe chloride, Sulfuric acid Reddish brown
Moores Reducing sugars (Glucose) Heat with alkali Caramel
Mucic acid Test Galactose Nitric acid Insoluble ppt
Bials Pentoses Resorcinol + Fe Blue green
LIPIDS
o Fewer covalent bonds due to decrease in oxygen concentration
o Hydrophobic: they are not soluble in plasma, thus, are covered with proteins (LIPOPROTEINS)

GROUPS OF LIPIDS
1. LIPOPROTEINS carrying lipids in the body
Chylomicrons
VLDL
HDL/Good cholesterol - Carries cholesterol from vessels to liver where it is metabolized
LDL/Bad cholesterol - Deposits cholesterol to other parts of the body

2. TRIGLYCERIDES
Energy storage
Excess triglycerides are deposited in adipose tissues
Functions: Protection (visceral organs), Insulation, Source of energy (9 cal/g)
Components: Glycerol + Fatty acids

3. PHOSPHOLIPIDS/PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES
Membrane lipids
Glycerol + Fatty acid + Phosphoric acid + Organic molecule/Polar head group
Hydrogen : Phosphatidic acid (parent compound of all phosphoglycerides
Choline : Phosphatidylcholine (aka Lecithin)
ID Test for choline:
Ethanolamine : Phosphatidylethanolamine (aka Cephalin)
Rosenheim Test
Glycerol : Phosphatidylglycerol (aka Cardiolipin)

4. SPHINGOLIPIDS/GLYCOLIPIDS/GLYCOSPHINGOLIPDS
Component of cell membrane, Component of myelin sheath
Skeleton: Ceramide (Sphingosine + Fatty acid) + Phosphoric acid + Organic molecule/Polar head group
Monosacch : Cerebrosides component of myelin sheath
Disacch : Globoside
Charged group : Gangliosides
Phosphocholine/Phosphoethanolamine: Sphingomyelin

5. STEROIDS Cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene (CPPP) nucleus


STEROLS
A. Cholesterol precursor of other steroids
Animal Cholesterol
B. Bile salts Plant Phytosterol or -sitosterol
Produced by liver, Stored in gallbladder Fungi Ergosterol
Function: emulsification of fats Soybean Stigmasterol

C. Vitamin D Sunshine vitamin, needed for calcium absorption


- Precursors:
1. 7-dehydrocholesterol Cholecalciferol or Vit. D3
2. Ergosterol Ergocalciferol or Vit. D2

D. Sex Hormones
Estrogen, Progesterone - womans secondary characteristics
Testosterone - man

E. Adrenocortical Hormones
Vasopressin regulates hormone & electrolyte imbalance (deficiency Diabetes insipidus)
LIPID METABOLISM Waste products of oxidation:
Lipase
Lipids Glycerol + Fatty Acids (LIPOLYSIS) 1. Acetoacetic acid
2. -hydroxybutyric acid
Acetyl CoA (-oxidation pathway) 3. Acetone
GLyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
* The three are Ketone Bodies (acidic)
DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis
Manifestation: acetone breath
Cholecystokinin (contracts gallbladder to release bile)
Cholelith (medical term for gallstones)

SATURATED FATTY ACIDS Rosenheim Testused to detect the presence of choline


10C Capric Liebermann-Burchard Testmost sensitive, presence of cholesterol
12C Lauric Saklowski double bond
14C Myristic Acrolein glycerol
16C Palmitic (most abundant FA)
18C Stearic
# of mg of KOH required to
20C Arachidic
Acid value Neutralize the free acids in 1g
UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS Ester value Saponify the esters on 1 g
18:1 Oleic SV/Koettsdorfer Neutralize free fatty acids and saponify esters
18:2 Linoleic Hydroxyl value # of KOH equivalent to OH content of 1 g subs
18:3 Linolenic (dietary precursor of PGE) Iodine value # of mg of Iodine absorbed by 100 g substance
18:4 Arachidonic (precursor of PGE) Measures degree of unsaturation

Vitamin F (essential FAs): Oleic, Linoleic, Linolenic Drying >120 (linseed, fish)
Semidrying 100-120 (cottonseed, sesame)
Nondrying <120 (olive, almond)
Most abundant biomolecule
PROTEINS (70% of the body)
C, H, O, N (S,P)

Amino Acids
Building blocks of proteins
Amphoteric; At physiologic pH (isoelectric point, pH 7.4), exists as zwitterions
Peptide bond the bond that joins each amino acid
Uses of Amino Acids
Tryptophan 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)/Serotonin
Glycin Heme (hemoglobin)
Tyrosine Catecholamine (Dopamine, NE, E)
Histidine Histamine

Alcohol Basic (R+) Acidic (R-) Amide


Serine Histidine Glutamate Glutamine
Threonine Arginine Aspartate Aspargine
Lysine

Essential Aliphatic or BCAAs Alkyl Group Nonpolar Uncharged Polar


Amino Acids (Branched Chain)
Valine Leucin Leucin Glycine Serine
Methionine Isoleucin Isoleucin Alanine Threonine
Histidine Valine Valine Valine Tyrosine
Threonine Proline Isoleucine Asparagine
Phenylalanine Alanine Phenulalanine Cysteine
Isoleucine *When in urine, Tryptophan Glutamine
Leucine MSUD Maple Methionine
Lycine syrup urine disease Proline
Arginine
Tryp

Proline (Pro, P) only amino acid without an amino group; It has an imino group (Imino acid)
Glycine (Gly, G) simplest amino acid (R group is Hydrogen); only amino acid that is not optically active

Identification Tests Group responsible Example Positive Result


Ninhydrin (General) -amino (except Pro) Blue/Lavender
Biuret Peptide bond Violet
Hopkins-Cole Indole Tryptophan Violet ring
Bromine water Tryptophan Violet layer
Nitroprusside Sulfhydryl Cysteine (thiol) Purple
Met (thioether)
Schiffs Amino Lysine Pink-violet
Xanthoproteic Aromatic Phen (benzyl) Lemon yellow
Tyr (phenol)
Tryp (indole)
Millon-Nase Phenol Tyrosine Red
Sakaguchi Arginine Intense red
Pauly-Diazo Histidine, Tyrosine Red
Basic Lead Test Cysteine Black ppt
Levels of Structural Organization of Proteins

Level Determines Bonds Example


Primary Sequence of AA Peptide
Secondary Twisting and folding H-bond helix, pleated sheet
Tertiary Function Disulfide Fibrous
3D structure H-bond, Ionic Globular
Hydrophobic interaction
Quaternary Specificity
Arrangement of polypeptide chains

Phe-Gly-Try-Tyr-Val-Gly

N terminal Phenylalanine
C terminal - Glycine
CLASSIFICATION OF PROTEINS

A. According to Composition

SIMPLE Salt Dil. Dil. Other


H2O NH3 EXAMPLES
PROTEINS soln acid base
Ovalbumin - egg white
Albumins Lactoalbumin - milk
Serum albumin - blood
Ovoglobulin - egg white
Globulins Serum globulin - blood
Lactoglobulin - milk
Glutenin (wheat)
Glutelins
80% alcohol Zein (corn)
Prolamines
Gliadin (wheat)
Only by Keratin (hair and horny tissue)
Albuminoids boiling in Elastin (Tendons and arteries)
strong acids Collagen (Skin and tendons)
basic in Thymus histone
Histones reaction Hemoglobin
strongly basic Salmine - salmon
Protamines in reaction Sturine - sperms of fish
Scombrine - mackerel

CONJUGATED PROTEIN
PROSTHETHIC GROUP EXAMPLES
nonprotein substances + AA
Phosphoproteins Phosphoric acid Casein (milk), Ovovitellin (egg yolk)
Nucleoproteins Nucleic acid Nuclein (cell nuclei)
Glycoproteins Carbohydrate group Mucins (Vitreous humor and saliva)
Chromoproteins Colred prostethic group Hemoglobin (blood), Flavoproteins
Lipoproteins Lipids Fatty acid, Sterol, Lecithin
Metalloproteins metals Enzymes (tyrosinase, arginase, XO)

PRIMARY DERIVED PROTEIN


CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES
Denatured Proteins
Proteans Acted upon by H2O/enzymes/acid Fibrin, Myosan
Metaproteins Acted upon by acid or alkali Acid or alkali albuminates
Coagulated Proteins Acted upon by alcohol or heat Coagulated albumin, Cooked meat

SECONDARY DERIVED PROTEIN


CHARACTERISTICS
formed from progressive hydrolysis of protein
Proteoses Highest MW group
Peptones Intermediate MW
Peptides Lowest MW group
B. According to Conformation
a. FIBROUS
Polypeptide chain arranged in tightly parallel fibers and sheets
Make up the structural framework of the body
1. Collagen
2. Elastin
3. Keratin

b. GLOBULAR
Polypeptide chains are arranged in compact, spherical forms; insoluble in water
1. Antibodies
2. Hormones
3. Albumin

C. According to Biological Roles


a. STRUCTURAL PROTEINS
1. Collagen - skin and cartilage
2. Elastin - vessels, dermis, tendon
3. Keratin - hair and nails
4. Glycoproteins - cell membrane

b. CONTRACTILE OR MOTILE PROTEINS


1. Actin - thin & moving filament
2. Myosin - thick & stationary

c. NUTRIENT OR STORAGE PROTEINS


1. Ovalbumin - egg white
2. Casein - milk

d. HORMONES
Chemical messengers
1. Insulin
2. Growth hormone/Somatropin

e. PROTECTIVE PROTEINS
1. Immunoglobulins/Antibodies/Serum globulin
o IgA - secretions
o IgG - smallest
o IgD - no function yet
o IgE - allergy
o IgM - largest ; first Ig produced during infection

f. STORAGE AND TRANSPORT


1. Myoglobin/Hgb - oxygen carriers
2. Transferrin - transport form of Fe
3. Ferritin - storage form of Fe
ENZYMES
Common properties:
o Colloids that are soluble in water
o Work best at temperatures between 35-40C (optimal: 37C)
o Activity is dependent on pH of the medium
o Highly selective (follows the principle of Lock and Key)

Co-enzymes vitamin cofactors


Zymogens or Proenzymes inactive form of an enzyme
Apoenzymes protein part of an enzyme
Cofactor nonprotein part of an enzyme
Holoenzyme catalytically active enzyme (P+NP)

PROTEIN + NONPROTEIN
Apoenzyme Cofactor

Oxidation-reduction metabolism
Oxidoreductases Ex. Dehydrogenases, oxidases, peroxidases

Transfer of groups, such as phosphate & amino


Transferases Ex. kinases

Hydrolyze substrates
Hydrolases Proteolytic enzymes, amylases, esterases

Removal of functional groups by means other than


Lyases hydrolysis
Ex. Decarboxylases, deaminases

Catalyze the coupling of 2 molecules


Ligases Ex. DNA ligase

Catalyze various isomerizations, such as the change from


Isomerases D- to L- form
Carbohydrates
o Amylase and Diastase (Ptyalin) found in salivary glands
o Amylopsin pancreas
o Invertase
o Zymase converts CHO to OH and CO2
o Emulsin breaks down cyanogenic glycosides
o Myrosin breaks down isothiocyanate glycosides

Esterases
Uric acid waste product
o Lipase breaks down lipids into glycerol + fatty acids (Lipolysis)
of breakdown of
o Urease Urea (waste product of breakdown of proteins) ammonia
PURINES

Proeolytic Enzymes

Pepsin (stomach) Trypsin (intestine)


Proteins Proteases & Peptones Polypeptides & AA
HCl

Others Found in Use


Rennin stomach of young animals Curdles the soluble casein in milk
Pepsin stomach of Sus scrofa Assist in gastric digestion
Pancreatin
pancreas of Sus scrofa or Bos Taurus Digestive aids
(amylase, lipase, protease)
Relieve symptoms of episiotomy, Cleaning
Papain latex of Carica papaya
solutions of soft contact lenses, Beef tenderizer
Reduce inflammation and edema
Bromelains juice of Ananas comosus
Accelerate tissue repair after episiotomy
Streptokinase group C -hemolytic streptococci Embolism and thrombosis

Urokinase urine or from kidney cells Embolism and thrombosis


Sutilains Bacillus subtilis Wound debribement
Collagenase Clostridium histolytica Topically to debride dermal ulcers and burns

L-asparaginase E. coli Antitumor


NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Nucleic Acids
Made up of chains of nucleotides
Nucleotides consist of:
1. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic base
2. Phosphate
3. Pentose sugar
Two types of nucleic acids in cells
1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
2. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Glycosidic bond links sugar and base
Phosphodiester bond links sugar and phosphate

DNA vs RNA
DNA RNA
Sugar 2-deoxyribose Ribose
Double stranded Single stranded
Purine Bases Guanine, Adenine Guanine, Adenine
Pyrimidine Bases Cytosine, Thymine Cytosine, Uracil

2 Types of Nitrogen Bases


1. Purine (2 rings): Guanine, Adenine
2. Pyrimidine (1 ring)
a. Cytosine
b. Thymine- only found in DNA
c. Uracil - only found in RNA

Nucleoside vs Nucleotide
Nucleoside Nucleotide
Base (N) Base (N)
Sugar Sugar
Phosphate
Nucleosides Nucleotides
Adenine Adenosine cAMP *
Guanine Guanidine cGMP *
Cytosine Cytidine
Uracil Uridine
Tymine Thymidine * secondary messengers

DNA
Double helix Watson and Crick
Coiled strands containing the genetic code

Structural Organization 1. Helicases unwind the DNA double helix.


A. Primary - unique sequence of nucleotide 2. Primase creates a temporary RNA primer.
- base or nucleotide sequence 3. DNA polymerase at the replication fork
synthesizes DNA in a 5 3 direction.
B. Secondary - DNA double helix Leading strand (continuous)
- H bonds Lagging strand (discontinuous)
4. DNA polymerase then removes the RNA
Properties: primer and fills the gaps between the
1. Complementarity Okazaki fragments (short stretches of
discontinuous DNA)
Pur Pyr
5. DNA ligase then joins DNA fragments of
the lagging strand, creating a single DNA
A T 2 H bonds molecule.
6. Further modified by topoisomerase

C G 3 H bonds

2. Antiparallelism
The structure should be arranged in a 3 5 fashion
C1 base
C5 phosphate

C. Tertiary - supercoiling chromosomes


- DNA gyrase/topoisomerase II facilitates supercoiling

Information Transmission
Information stored in DNA is transferred to RNA and then expressed in the structure of proteins
Two steps in process: Transcription, Translation

Types of RNA
o mRNA - messenger; template for transcription
o tRNA - transfer; carrying amino acids to sites of protein synthesis
o rRNA - ribosomal RNA
Translation (Protein Synthesis)
Information in mRNA translated into primary sequence of a protein in 4 steps:
o Activation of tRNA
o Initiation - small ribosomal subunit attaches mRNA at the initiation codon site and the first tRNA attaches
o Elongation - Transfer RNA (tRNA) translates the mRNA into the amino acid sequence
o Termination - Elongation continues until a stop codon is encountered
Start codon: AUG (methionine)
Stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA

MUTATION
A change in shape, structure, and nucleotide sequence

Point Mutation
Transitional Mutation
Transversional Mutation

Results of Point Mutation


Silent Mutation
- Codon containing the changed base may code for the same amino acid
- Example: UCA (serine) UCU (serine)

Missense Mutation
- Codon containing the changed base codes for a different amino acids
- Causes disease
- Example: UCA (serine) CCA (proline)

Nonsense Mutation
- Codon containing the changed base may become a stop codon
- Example: UCA (serine) UAA (stop codon)

Frameshift Mutation
Insertion Mutation
Deletion Mutation
VITAMINS AND VITAMIN-CONTAINING DRUGS
Vitamins
o Organic substances, not synthesized within the body, that are essential in small amounts for the maintenance of
normal metabolic functions
o Do not furnish energy and are not utilized as building units for cellular structure
o Term was derived in 1911 vital amine
o Used as special dietary supplements or as drugs
Vit. B2, B3, B5 coenzymes
Vit. B12, B9 biosynthetic transfer of 1-C units
Vit. C biosynthesis of hydroxyproline
Vit. B1, B6 metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids
Biotin metabolic carboxylation
Vit. D, E influence membrane transport

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS (A, D, E and K)


Absorption from the intestinal tract is associated with that of lipids and a deficiency state may be caused by
conditions that impair fat absorption

Function Source Deficiency


Vitamin A Vision, growth, Tretinoin or all-trans retinoic acid (Retin-A) Fish liver oils Nyctalopia
(-ionine, Retinol) tissue Highly teratogenic Xeropthalmia
- Most toxic vitamin differentiation Treat acne vulgaris Hyperkeratosis
- Most stable vitamin Isotretinoin or 13-cis retinoic acid (Accutane)
For cystic acne
CI: Pregnancy
B-carotene (Solatene)
Precursor (converted in small intestine)
Vitamin D Ca and PO4 Ergocalciferol/D2 - from ergosterol Fish liver oils Rickets
(Sunshine vitamin) absorption Cholecalciferol/D3 - 7-dehydrocholesterol Osteomalacia
Calcifediol and Calcitriol - hypocalcemia
Dihydrotachysterol - tetany, hypoPTH
Vitamin E Antioxidant green veggies, Neurologic
(-tocopherol) whole grains, dysfunctions
Test: Further-Meyer yolk, meat (rare)
Synergistic with Se
Vitamin K Prothrombin Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) Leafy veggies Hemorrhage and
(2-methyl-1,4- formation Vitamin K2 (prenylmenaquinone-7) Dairy Capillary fragility
naphthoquinone) Vitamin K3 (menadione, menaquinone) most
active form
Vitamin K4 (menadiol)
WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Function Deficiency

Beriberi
B1 Thiamine Decarboxylation (CHO, AA)
Wernicke-Korsakoff

Stomatitis
Chelitis
B2 Riboflavin Redox coenzyme, FAD
Glossitis
SE: yellow urine
Pellagra
Niacin/Nicotinic
Dementia
B3 acid/Niacinamide/ Redox coenzyme, NAD
Dermatitis
Nicotinamide
Diarrhea
Paresthesias of the
Pantothenic acid Acetyl CoA
B5 extremities or burning
chick antidermatitis factor Secretion of hormones (cortisone)
foot syndrome
Transamination, Decarboxylation (CHO, AA), RBC
Pyridoxine
metabolism Peripheral neuropathy
B6 RBC fragility
Pyridoxol plants
Pyridoxine antagonists: chloramphenicol, Hypochromatic microcytic
Pyridoxal and pyridoxamine
cycloserine, hydralazine, isoniazid and oral anemia
animals
contraceptives

Folic acid Folate FH2 Tetrahydrofolic acid (liver & Megaloblastic anemia
B9
Pteroylglutamic acid plasma) Macrocytic anemia
Pernicious anemia
Cobalamin
Cyanocobalamin most active RBC synthesis
Rapidly dividing cells of
B12 Hydroxocobalamin for CN Metabolism of Folic Acid
the hematopoietic system
toxicity associated with Na
and irreversible
nitroprusside
neurologic damage

B17 Laetrile

B15 Pangamic Acid

Impaired fat and CHO


metabolism, Dermatitis
H D-biotin Carboxylation (gluconeogenesis and FA synthesis)
* Biotin deficiency is
usually caused by avidin
Hydroxylation of pro and lysine (collagen synthesis) Scurvy (impaired wound
C Cevitamic acid Anti-oxidant healing, loss of dental
Enhances Fe absorption cement, SQ hemorrahge)
VITAMIN-RELATED FACTORS
Para-aminobenzoic Acid (PABA)
Precursor of folic acid
Added as an accessory food factor
Used for rheumatic fever and other conditions benefiting from salicylate therapy; UV sunscreen in topical
preparations
Interferes with the antibacterial action of sulfonamides

Choline (B-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide)


Occur in egg yolk, animal organs, fish, milk, cereal grains, fruits and root vegetables
Essential nutrient in certain higher animals
USE: lipotropic agent in conditions such as liver cirrhosis, Huntingtons chorea, presenile dementia and
tardive dyskinesia

Inositol (meso-inositol, myoinositol or cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol)


Dietary sources: legumes, cereal grains, nuts and animal organs
Implicated in membrane transport of amino acids and K and Na ions
Large doses may cause moderate diarrhea

MULTIVITAMIN THERAPY
Inadequate vitamin intake can result not only from a poor diet but also from alcoholism, increased needs during
pregnancy and lactation, prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and the course of parenteral nutrition.
Filipino/Tagalog Name English Name Scientific Name
Singkamas Mexican turnip Pachyrhizus erosus
Talong Eggplant Solanum melongena
Sigarilyas Winged beans Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Mani Peanuts Arachis hypogaea
Sitaw String beans Phaseolus vulgaris
Bataw Hyacinth bean Lablab purpureus
Patani Lima beans Phaseolus lunatus
Kundol Winter melon Benincasa hispida
Patola Sponge/vegetable gourd Cucunis acutangulus
Upo Bottle gourd Lagenaria siceraria
Kalabasa Squash Cucurbita maxima
Labanos White radish Raphanus sativus
Mustasa Mustard Brassica integrifolia
Sibuyas Onion Allium cepa
Kamatis Tomato Solanum lycopersicum
Bawang Garlic Allium sativum
Luya Ginger Zingiber officinale
Linga Sesame Sesamum indicum

Halamang Gamot Scientific Name


Lagundi Vitex negundo
Yerba Buena Clinopodium douglasii
Sambong Blumea balsamifera
Tsaang-gubat Ehretia microphylla Lam.
Niyog-niyogan Quisqualis indica
Bayabas Psidium guajava
Ulasimang bato Peperonia pellucida
Akapulko Cassia alata
Bawang Allium sativum
Ampalaya Momordica charantia
Common Name Scientific Name Common Name Scientific Name
Santan Ixora chinensis Avocado Persea americana
Duranta Duranta repens Grapes Vitis vinifera
Gabi-gabi Monochoria hastata Pears Pyrus communis
Talisay Terminalia catappa Olive Olea europaea
Pechay Brassica pekinensis Peanuts Arachis hypogaea
Achuete Bixa orellana Strawberry Fragaria ananassa
Anis Foeniculum vulgare Pineapple Ananas comosus
Balanoy Ocimum basilicum Apple Pyrus mallus
Balatong (soy) Glycine soja Rice Oryza sativa
Balimbing Averrhoa carambola Mango Mangifera indica
Chico Achras zapota Coconut Cocos nucifera
Dalandan Citrus sinensis Durian Durio zibethinus
Dalanghita Citrus nobilis Carrots Daucus carota
Damong maria Artemisia vulgaris Banana Musa acuminata
Duhat Syzygium cumini Gumamela Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Gugo Entada phaseoloides Daisy Bellis perennis
Ikmo Piper betle White orchid Dendrobium afinne
Ipil-ipil Leucaena leucocephala Corn Zea mays
Kalamansi Citrus microcarpa Bougainvillea Bougainvillea glabra
Kamias Averrhoa bilimbi Jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus
Kasoy Anacardium occidentale Mangosteen Garcinia mangostana
Kintsay Apium graveolens Date Phoenix dactylifera
Lansones Lansium domesticum Atis Anona squamosa
Makabuhay Tinospora crispa Papaya Carica papaya
Makahiya Mimosa pudica Potato Solanum tuberosum
Malungggay Moringa oleifera Orange Citrus aurantium
Mansanilya Chrysanthemum indicum San Francisco Codiaeum variegatum
Moras Vetiveria zizanioides Rosy
Catharanthus roseus
periwinkle/chichirika
Pakwan Citrus vulgaris
Turmeric Curcuma longa
Patola Lufa acutangula
Jimson
Sampalok Tamarindus indica Datura spp
weed/talumpunay
Suha Citrus grandis Picapica Mucana pruriens
Tanglad Cymbopogon citratus Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia
Grammatophyllum
Tawa-tawa
scriptum
CARBOHYDRATES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

MONOSACCHARIDES
1 Dextrose (blood sugar, d-glucose, alpha-d (+) glucopyranose)
2 Fructose (d-fructose, levulose. B-D (-) fructopyranose, fruit sugar)
3 Xylose (d-xylose, wood sugar)

DISACCHARIDES
4 Sucrose (saccharum, cane sugar, beet sugar, table sugar)
5 Maltose (malt sugar)
6 Lactose (cows milk, milk sugar)

POLYSACCHARIDES
HOMOGLYCANS
1 Starch
2 Dextran
3 Cellulose

HETEROGLYCANS
1 Tragacanth
2 Acacia (gum Arabic)
3 Ghatti Gum (Indian Gum)
4 Karaya Gum (Sterculia Gum)
5 Plantago Seed
6 Cydonium
7 Guar Gum
8 Locust Bean Gum
9 Agar (red Algae)
10 Sodium Alginate (brown Seaweeds)
11 Carrageenan (red Algae Or Seaweeds)
12 Danish Agar (red Algae)
13 Xanthan Gum (microbial Gum)
14 Pectin

DRUGS CONTAINING COMPOUNDS METABOLICALLY RELATED TO SUGARS


1 Citric Acid ( 2-hydroxy 1,2,3, propane trioic acid)
2 Lactic Acid ( alpha-hydroxy propionic acid)
3 Tartaric Acid ( 1,2,3, dihydroxy butane dioic acid )
4 Mannitol (D-mannitol)
5 Sorbitol (D-glucitol)
6 Alcohol or Ethanol
GLYCOSIDES

CARDIAC
1 Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)
2 Grecian Foxglove (Digitalis lanata)
3 Convallaria (Lily-of-the-Valley)
4 Apocynum (black Indian hemp, dog bane or Canadian hemp)
5 Adonis (pheasants eye)
6 Cactus Grandiflorus (night blooming cereus)
7 Black Hellebore (Christmas rose)
8 Strophanthus
9 Squill (Squill bulb)

ANTHRAQUINONE SCCARF
1 Cascara Sagrada (rhamnus purshiana) Casagaran Shiana
2 Frangula (Frangula or buckthorn bark)
3 Aloe
4 Rhubarb (Rheum, or Chinese rhubarb)
5 Senna (Senna or senna leaves)
6 Chrysarobin

SAPONIN ge SAPOT siya GG na Dis


1 Glycyrrhiza (licorice root) Rhiza = Rice
2 Ginseng
3 Dioscorea (Mexican Yam) aDIOS = Mexico

CYANOPHORE OR CYANOGENIC (bound poisons) JOWA - BIWA Biglang Nawala


1 Bitter Almonds naging bitter si cherry at nag wild
2 Wild Cherry (Prunus Virginiana, Wild Black Cherry Tree)
3 Apricot Pits nag wild pero virgin pa kay pag hubo niya kay na wild ang lalaki kay black iyang cherry tree

GLUCOSINOLATES OR ISOTHIOCYANATES
1 Mustard niger (black mustard, sinapis nigra or brown mustard)
2 White Mustard albino (white mustard or sinapis alba)

LACTONE GLYCOSIDES
1 Coumarin (dicumarol or Bishydroxycoumarin)
2 Cantharides (Spanish flies, Russian flies, blistering flies)
3 Psoralens

ALCOHOL: Salicin
ALDEHYDE: Vanilla (vanilla or vanilla bean)
PHENOL: Uva Ursi
LIPIDS

FIXED OILS
SATURATED
1 Coconut Oil
2 Palm Oil

MONOUNSATURATED
1 Castor Oil
2 Olive Oil (sweet Oil)
3 Peanut Oil (arachis Oil)
4 Rapeseed Oil (canola Oil)

POLYUNSATURATED
1 Soybean Oil
2 Cottonseed Oil
3 Sesame Oil (teel Oil, Benne Oil)
4 Almond Oil (sweet And Bitter Almond)
5 Persic Oil (apricot Kernel Oil, Peach Kernel Oil)
6 Corn Oil
7 Safflower Oil (Safflower Seed Oil)
8 Sunflower Oil
9 Linseed Oil
10 Cod Liver Oil

FATS AND RELATED COMPUNDS


1 Theobroma Oil
2 Lanolin

FATTY ACIDS
1 Stearic Acid
2 Oleic Acid
3 Undecylenic Acid
4 Sodium Morrhuate

WAXES
1 Spermaceti
2 Jojoba Oil
3 Beeswax
4 Carnauba Wax
VOLATILE OILS

HYDROCARBON: Turpentine Oil (Spirits Of Turpentine)


OXIDE: Cineole/Eucalyptol (cajuputol)

ALCOHOL
1 Peppermint Oil
2 Cardamom Oil
3 Coriander Oil
4 Rose Oil (otto Of Rose)
5 Orange Flower Oil (neroli Oil)
6 Juniper Oil
7 Pine Oil

ALDEHYDE
1 Cinnamon Oil (cassia Oil)
2 Lemon Peel
3 Orange Oil
4 Citronella Oil
5 Hamamelis Water

KETONE
1 Camphor
2 Spearmint
3 Spearmint Oil
4 Caraway Oil
5 Buchu
6 Wormwood Oil (absinthe Oil)
7 Cedar Leaf Oil

PHENOL
1 Thymol
2 Clove Oil
3 Myrcia Oil (bay Oil)
4 Creosote (beachwood Creosote)
5 Juniper Tar (cade Oil)

PHENOLIC ETHER
1 Nutmeg Oil (myristica Oil)
2 Fennel Oil
3 Anise Oil

ESTER
1 Gaultheria Oil (wintergreen Oil, Betula Oil, Sweet Birch Oil)
2 Lavender Oil
3 Pine Needle Oil (dwarf Pine Needle Oil)
4 Mustard Oil (allyl Isothiocyanate)
RESIN AND RESIN COMBINATIONS

RESINS
1 Rosin (colophony)
2 Podophyllum (mayapple, Mandrake)
3 Eriodictyon (yerba Santa)
4 Jalap (jalap Root)
5 Mastic (mastiche, Mastich)
6 Kava (kava-kava)
7 Cannabis (Indian Hemp, Marihuana)

OLEORESINS
1 Turpentine
2 Capsicum (cayenne Pepper)
3 Ginger
4 White Pine
5 Copaiba

OLEO-GUM-RESIN: Myrrh

BALSAMS
1 Storax (liquid Storax, Styrax)
2 Peruvian Balsam
3 Tolu Balsam
4 Benzoin
ALKALOIDS

PYRIDINE-PIPERIDINE
1 Areca (Areca Nut, Betel Nut)
2 Lobelia (Indian Tobacco)
3 Nicotine

TROPANE/SOLANACEOUS
1 Belladona (Deadly Nightshade Leaf)
2 Stramonium (Jimson Weed, Jamestown Weed)
3 Cocaine (Coca)

QUINOLINE: Cinchona (Peruvian Bark) QUIN-Chona


IMIDAZOLE: Pilocarpine (pilocarpus , Jaborandi) Si IMILDA walay Piloc

ISOQUINOLINE I-S-O-H
1 Ipecac
2 Hydrastis (Golden Seal)
3 Sanguinaria (Blood Root)
4 Opium (opium Or Gum Opium)

INDOLE Im so Ca-PERN najud


1 Rauwolfia Serpentina Ca-PERN kaayo mag INDOLE (ENROLL)
2 Catharanthus (Vinca)
3 Nux Vomica
4 Physostigma (Physostigma, Calabar Bean, Ordeal Bean)
5 Ergot (rye Ergot, Secale Cornutum)

STEROIDAL
1 Veratum Viride (American Or Green Hellebore)
2 White Hellebore (European Hellebore)
PEYOTE sige ko ug MESCAL ni KHAT kay ABYSSINIAN
ALKALOIDAL AMINES siya ni MAHUANG kay ge arthritis siya
1 Ephedrine (Ephedra, Mahuang)
2 Colchicine (Colchium Seed)
3 Khat (abyssinian Tea) KHA - YOTE ; EPECOL
4 Peyote (mescal Buttons)

PURINE BASES
1 Caffeine (1,3,7 Trimethylxanthine)
2 Theophylline (Thea , Tea , 1,3 Dimethylxanthine)
3 Theobromine (3,7 Dimethyl Xanthine)