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CONCRETE

CONCRETE i n c o n s t r u c t i o n

i n

c o n s t r u c t i o n

CEMENT CONCRETE flo ur c a ke
CEMENT
CONCRETE
flo ur
c a ke

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n

CONCRETE

is a mixture of

Ce m e nt

Ag g re g a te

Wa te r

3

4

5

+

+

:

:

:

Ratio

1

:

2

1

:

2

1

:

3

 

+

Adm ix ture s

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n CEMENT § is a manufactured

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n

CEMENT

§ is a manufactured material and serves as a

§ raw materials are found from quarry or mines

§ cement is made up of a mixture of :

binder

in the concrete mix

- calcium , silicone, aluminum , iron and small amounts of other ingredients

§ the mixture (in right proportion) is heated up to 1260GC/2300GF until this mixture fuses together

§ the mixture is then cooled off quickly and grinded into power (cement)

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n AGGREGATE § general term referring

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n

AGGREGATE

§

general term referring to any inert materials :

sand

gravel

rocks

, that are being added to the cement paste to make concrete

§ aggregate makes up 60% to 80% of concrete volume

§ aggregate properties are important to the strength , weight and fire resistance of hardened concrete

§ must be hard, dimensionally stable and free of clay , silt or organic matter that can prevent the particles to properly bind together

§ reduces drying shrinkage

,

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n WATER § water use in

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n

WATER

§ water use in concrete mix must be free of organic material, clay and salts (water must be clean enough for drinking)

§ water turns the mix into ‘paste’ – setting and binding the aggregate particles together

§ water is needed to chemically react with the cement (hydration) and too provide workability with the concrete. The amount of water in the mix in pounds compared with the amount of cement is called the water/cement ratio. The lower the w/c ratio, the stronger the concrete. (higher strength, less permeability)

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n ADMIXTURE § added to concrete

Co nc re te Co m po s itio n

ADMIXTURE

§ added to concrete mix to alter the properties of the hardened mix

§ Function:

To speed of/ retard setting & hardening. To improve workability of fresh concrete. To reduce segregation of aggregate. To improve durability of hardened concrete. To impart colour.

§ Types:

§ Accelerator: - Speed up setting. - For concreting at low temperature or for urgent repair.

§ Retarder: - Slow down the rate of hydration.

§ Air-entraining agents:

- Forming agents entrap millions of stable & closely spaced air bubbles.

§ BATCHING

Pro duc tio n Pro c e s s

§ A process of measuring the quantities of materials in their correct proportions before mixing.

§ May be by volume or by weight.

of measuring the quantities of materials in their correct proportions before mixing. § May be by
of measuring the quantities of materials in their correct proportions before mixing. § May be by
of measuring the quantities of materials in their correct proportions before mixing. § May be by

Pro duc tio n Pro c e s s

§

MIXING - Is to coat the surfaces of all aggregates w/ cement paste & blend into a uniform mass. - May be by hand-mixing or machine mixing.

the surfaces of all aggregates w/ cement paste & blend into a uniform mass. - May
the surfaces of all aggregates w/ cement paste & blend into a uniform mass. - May
the surfaces of all aggregates w/ cement paste & blend into a uniform mass. - May

§ TRANSPORTING

Pro duc tio n Pro c e s s

§ Should be transported in such a way there is no segregation.

§ Under no circumstances should water be added to concrete during its passage from mixer to formwork.

is no segregation. § Under no circumstances should water be added to concrete during its passage
is no segregation. § Under no circumstances should water be added to concrete during its passage
is no segregation. § Under no circumstances should water be added to concrete during its passage

§ Physical Properties Concrete

Phys ic a l Pro pe rtie s

§ Plasticity - capable of being moulded into and shape and form - variety of surface finish and texture

§ Good fire resistance

§ Durability - Ability of concrete to withstand surrounding condition w/out deterioration.

- Dependent on:

§ Water-cement ratio

§ Cement content

§ Degree of compaction

Phys ic a l Pro pe rtie s

§ Physical Properties of Hardened Concrete

§ Strength

- Strong in compression but weak in tension.

- Compressive strength is a measure of the ability of concrete to resist crushing (concrete quality).

- Steel reinforcements made up of steel bars, strands or wires may be added to improve the strength of concrete under tension, to tie horizontal and vertical elements and also to reinforce openings , minimize shrinkage cracking

to tie horizontal and vertical elements and also to reinforce openings , minimize shrinkage cracking Steel

Steel Reinforcements

flooring
flooring

§ Setting & hardening:

Curing Co nc re te

- Hydration (chemical reaction) occurs when mixed w/ water.

- Hydration of cement paste gives cement its bonding properties.

- Is a process of stiffening ~ gradually changes from semi-fluid to rigid state w/ rapid gain in strength.

- It continues onto another stage called hardening.

§ Concrete sets in a matter of hours & takes up to a month to achieve the max. strength.

§ The action of mixing water w/ cement activates a chemical reaction w/ causes the concrete to harden.

Curing Co nc re te

WHAT IS CURING AND WHAT DOES IT DO TO CONCRETE ?
WHAT IS CURING AND WHAT DOES
IT DO TO CONCRETE ?

§ it is a process to give concrete what it needs to gain strength properly. Concrete strength depends on the growth of crystals within the matrix of the concrete.

§ These crystals grow from a reaction between Portland cement and water—a reaction known as hydration. If there isn't enough water, the crystals can't grow and the concrete doesn't develop the strength it should.

§ If there is enough water, the crystals grow out like tiny rock-hard fingers wrapping around the sand and gravel in the mix and intertwining with one another.

§ Air temperature during curing - should not be less that 10 GC

Hydrated Cement Paste Depending on the time of hydration and the Portland cement composition, several

Hydrated Cement Paste Depending on the time of hydration and the Portland cement composition, several crystalline pictures can be observed in hydrated cement paste. A typical one contains C-S-H, calcium hydroxide and ettringite as shown in this picture (photo courtesy of Mr. Jim Margeson, NRC- IRC).

this picture (photo courtesy of Mr. Jim Margeson, NRC- IRC). Crazing ( Appearance of fine cracks

Crazing ( Appearance of fine cracks ) When not cured properly, the surface of the

concrete will be subjected to crazing. When used, these surfaces will have low strength that can result in a dusting surface that has little

resistance to

abrasion

.

Water is being sprinkled to prevent lost of moisture from the surface of curing concrete.

Water is being sprinkled to prevent lost of moisture from the surface of curing concrete.

lost of moisture from the surface of curing concrete. Colored slabs can be wet cured without

Colored slabs can be wet cured without resulting in a mottled surface with special wicking curing blankets, like this HydraCure wet curing cover. PNA Construction Technologies.

Curing agent—or cure & seal—can be applied with a sprayer or a roller. L.M. Scofield Co.

Curing agent—or cure & seal—can be applied with a sprayer or a roller. L.M. Scofield Co.

Co nc re te Applic a tio n

§ Concrete Blocks

i. Solid concrete blocks

§ Solid block > 75% of total volume of the block calculated from overall dimensions.

ii. Hollow concrete blocks

§ One/ more large holes or cavities passing through the block.

§ Solid material between 50 – 75% of total volume of the block calculated from overall dimensions.

through the block. § Solid material between 50 – 75% of total volume of the block
through the block. § Solid material between 50 – 75% of total volume of the block

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§ In-situ Concrete

Co nc re te Applic a tio n

§ Concrete being mixed & set at the site itself.

§ In-situ Concrete Co nc re te Applic a tio n § Concrete being mixed &
§ In-situ Concrete Co nc re te Applic a tio n § Concrete being mixed &
§ In-situ Concrete Co nc re te Applic a tio n § Concrete being mixed &

§ Reinforce Concrete

§ Steels rods, wire or mesh transforms concrete into structural material.

§ It is moulded into place by form work ~ made of timber, metal or other materials.

Co nc re te Applic a tio n

material. § It is moulded into place by form work ~ made of timber, metal or
Co nc re te Applic a tio n

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§ Pre-cast Concrete

Co nc re te Applic a tio n

§ Made w/ concrete cast in a reusable mould/ form & cured in a controlled environment.

§ Laid in bedding in a mortar mix.

§ Used external paving but thinner varieties can be used indoors, provided the base or sub-floor can bear the weight.

§ Used external walling.

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The End