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Masterproject CiTG CEG 4061 - 09

LNG development, Jakarta, Indonesia


Summary market could supply many emerging economies with
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a global commodity growing energy demands and archipel structures and
has become increasingly popular worldwide due to opens up new storage opportunities for Vopak.
fewer emissions compared to fuels like diesel, LPG
and coal, the potential of LNG as a transitional fuel Storage solutions that are considered include ISO
towards renewables, its suitability for transport over containers, pressurized bullet tanks, atmospheric flat
large distances and its ability to provide energy bottom tanks and floating solutions for offshore LNG
independency (political). The global LNG market is storage and regasification. The entire LNG supply
transitioning from a pull- towards a push-market; with chain must generate a competitive price compared to
increased supply from Australia and the United States other fuels, such as diesel and LPG. Therefore,
and the lack of infrastructure to accommodate purchase price and transport costs are taken into
demand. The mobility of LNG poses a solution for account as well to evaluate the profitability of
areas where pipeline infrastructure is not viable, such coupled small-scale LNG demand in Central Indonesia.
as archipelago structures with remote and scattered
demand and emerging markets where such Transport costs is the outcome of a logistic
infrastructure is not yet existent. However, to serve optimization, as executed in this research. Various
this demand, construction of small scale LNG carrier sizes are considered within different
infrastructure is required with investments scenarios, namely 7.500, 15.000 and 30.000 m. In
throughout the entire supply chain, including order to connect the international market in the
transport, storage and regasification facilities. The network, LNG is considered to originate from various
drop in LNG prices and technological developments locations, like Singapore, Pengerang and Bontang,
have opened up the market for small scale LNG, with where either liquefaction plants are located or
potential to double the total demand in the LNG international LNG storage facilities. In case of small
market. scale LNG, uncertainties around investment decisions
are large. Flexibility and a shorter production ramp-up
Vopaks key service consists of providing large-scale time are favorable in such an environment.
LNG storage, but as the LNG market matures it may
be necessary to explore opportunities in growing and
emerging markets. The upcoming small-scale LNG
market could supply many emerging economies with
growing energy demands and archipel structures and
Website
opens of storage
up new company:opportunities for Vopak.
www.vopak.com

Students:
Roderick Buijs
Jenneke Evers
Tyrtza Hogewoning
Maarten Vrouenraets

Period:
Summer 2016