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Table of Specification (TOS)

with an Overview on Test Construction Presented to the teachers of DepEd Bacoor City June
with an Overview on Test
Construction
Presented to the teachers of
DepEd Bacoor City
June 6, 2016
Presented by:
Arnel O. Rivera
Faculty Member
BNHS-Villa Maria
CAS, LPU-Cavite

http://www.slideshare.net/sirarnelPHhistory

OUTLINE:

OUTLINE:  Reading Diet  Introduction  Table of Specification  Situational Judgment Tests (SJT) 

Reading Diet

Introduction

Table of Specification

Situational Judgment Tests (SJT)

Workshop

Wrap-up

Chinkee Tan Chink Positive
Chinkee Tan
Chink Positive

For every problem there is a solution. If you are not part of the solution then you are part of the PROBLEM.

13% of students who got low grades in exams are caused by faulty test questions

13% of students who got low grades in

exams are caused by faulty test questions.

WORLDWATCH, The Philadelphia Trumpet (August 2005)

Common observation of students on test questions

Common observation of students on test questions Hindi kasama sa lessons. Masyadong mahaba ang question at

Hindi kasama sa lessons.Common observation of students on test questions Masyadong mahaba ang question at mga pagpipilian. Hindi maayos

Masyadong mahaba ang question at mga pagpipilian. Hindi maayos ang layout ng test, putol- putol ang mga sentence.
Hindi maayos ang layout ng test, putol- putol ang mga sentence.Masyadong mahaba ang question at mga pagpipilian.

Nakakalito ang mga tanong. Minsanat mga pagpipilian. Hindi maayos ang layout ng test, putol- putol ang mga sentence. wala sa

wala sa pagpipiliaan ang sagot.

Possible reasons for faulty test questions:

Possible reasons for faulty test questions: Questions are copied verbatim from the book or other resources.

Questions are copied verbatim from thePossible reasons for faulty test questions: book or other resources. Not consulting the course outline. Much

book or other resources. Not consulting the course outline. Much consideration is given to reduce printing cost.reasons for faulty test questions: Questions are copied verbatim from the No TOS or TOS was reasons for faulty test questions: Questions are copied verbatim from the No TOS or TOS was

No TOS or TOS was made after makingor other resources. Not consulting the course outline. Much consideration is given to reduce printing cost.

the test.

Factors to consider in preparing test

questions (Oriondo & Antonio, 1984)

in preparing test questions (Oriondo & Antonio, 1984) Purpose of the test Time available to prepare,

Purpose of the testin preparing test questions (Oriondo & Antonio, 1984) Time available to prepare, administer and score the

Time available to prepare, administer and score the test. Number of students to be tested. administer and score the test.
Number of students to be tested.Time available to prepare, administer and score the test.

Skill of the teacher in writing the test.prepare, administer and score the test. Number of students to be tested. Facilities available in reproducing

Facilities available in reproducing theadminister and score the test. Number of students to be tested. Skill of the teacher in

test.

“To be able to prepare a GOOD TEST, one has to have

“To be able to prepare a GOOD TEST , one has to have a mastery of

a mastery of the subject matter, knowledge of the

pupils to be tested, skill in

verbal expression and the use of the different test

format

Evaluating Educational Outcomes (Oriondo & Antonio,1984)

Characteristics of Good Tests

Characteristics of Good Tests Validity – the extent to which the test measures what it intends

Validity – the extent to which the the extent to which the

test measures what it intends to measure

Reliability – the consistency with the consistency with

which a test measures what it is supposed to measure

Usability – the test can be the test can be

administered with ease, clarity and uniformity

Other Things to Consider

Other Things to Consider Scorability – easy to score Interpretability – test results can be properly

Scorability – easy to score easy to score

Interpretability – test results can be properly interpreted and is a test results can be properly interpreted and is a

major basis in making sound

educational decisions

Economical – the test can be the test can be

reused without compromising the

validity and reliability

General Steps in Test Construction

T.O.S.
T.O.S.
T.O.S.
T.O.S.

T.O.S.

PRODUCE A

DRAFT

ORDER

TEST

ANALYZE

SUBMISSION
SUBMISSION

Table of Specifications (TOS)

Table of Specifications (TOS) A two way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course

A two way chart that relates theTable of Specifications (TOS) learning outcomes to the course content It enables the teacher to prepare

learning outcomes to the course content

It enables the teacher to prepare a test containing a representative sample ofA two way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course content student knowledge in

student knowledge in each of the areas

tested.

Sample TOS

Sample TOS

KPU Paradox

KPU Paradox Knowledge (Remembering) – answers the question what, where and when ? ( ano, saan

Knowledge (Remembering) – answers answers

the question what, where and when? (ano, saan at kailan)

Process (Application & Analysis) – answers the question how ? ( paano ) answers the question how? (paano)

Understanding (Analysis) – answers the question why ?( bakit ) answers the question why ?(bakit)

THE LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DOMAIN

THE LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DOMAIN The levels are the guiding posts in constructing test items. Regardless

The levels are the guiding posts in constructing test items. Regardless of what type of teacher-made tests the

teacher will prepare, the items must follow

the pattern set for evaluation. The following items are features of

levels with regards to the objectives of the

lessons.

1. KNOWLEDGE (Remembering) – includes those objectives that deal with recall, recognize facts, terminology, etc.

1. KNOWLEDGE

(Remembering)

includes those objectives that deal with recall, recognize facts, terminology, etc.

Example: Sino ang kauna-unahang

bayani ng Pilipinas na nakipaglaban sa

mga Kastila?

2. COMPREHENSION (Understanding) – includes some level of understanding. It requires the learners to change

2. COMPREHENSION (Understanding)

includes some level of understanding. It requires the learners to change the

form of communication to see the

connection or relations among parts of a

communication (interpretation) or draw a

conclusion (inference).

Example: Bakit sa tabing dagat naninirahan ang mga sinaunang Pilipino?

3. APPLICATION (Applying) – it requires the pupils to use previously acquired information in a

3. APPLICATION (Applying) it

requires the pupils to use previously acquired information in a setting other

than the one in which it was learned.

Example:

Alin sa mga sumusunod ang uri ng pamumuhay noong panahon ng Martial Law?

4. ANALYSIS (Analysing) – It requires the pupils to identify the logical errors (point out

4. ANALYSIS (Analysing) It requires

the pupils to identify the logical errors (point out the prediction or erroneous inference), differentiate among facts,

opinions, assumptions, hypothesis or

conclusions, draw relationships among

ideas or to compare and contrast.

Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang

dapat ginawa ng mga Pilipino upang makamit ang inaasam na kalayaan laban

sa mga Kastila?

5. SYNTHESIS (Creating) – objectives at this level require the pupils to [produce something unique

5. SYNTHESIS (Creating) objectives at this level require the pupils to [produce something unique or original. Test questions at this level require the pupils to solve unfamiliar problems or combine parts to form a unique or novel whole. Example: Bilang mag-aaral, paano ka makakatulong sa pagpapanatili ng kalinisan n gating kapaligiran?

6. EVALUATION (Evaluating) – Under this objective, the learners are required to form judgments about

6. EVALUATION (Evaluating) Under

this objective, the learners are required to form judgments about the value of

methods, ideas, people or products that

have a specific purpose. Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang higit na mabisang paraan ng pagsugpo sa ipinagbabawal na gamot?

Tips in Preparing the Table

of Specifications (TOS)

Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications (TOS) Don’t make it overly detailed. It's best to

Don’t make it overly detailed.Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications (TOS) It's best to identify major ideas and skills

It's best to identify major ideas and skills rather than specific details.of Specifications (TOS) Don’t make it overly detailed. Use a cognitive taxonomy that is most appropriate

Use a cognitive taxonomy that is most cognitive taxonomy that is most

appropriate to your discipline.

Weigh the appropriateness of the distributiontaxonomy that is most appropriate to your discipline. of checks against the students' level, the importance

of checks against the students' level, the importance of the test, the amount of time

available.

General Rules in Writing Test

Questions

General Rules in Writing Test Questions Number test questions continuously. Keep your test question in each

Number test questions continuously.General Rules in Writing Test Questions Keep your test question in each test group uniform. Make

Keep your test question in each test group uniform. Make your layout presentable.
Make your layout presentable.Keep your test question in each test group uniform.

Do not put too many test questions in one test group.in each test group uniform. Make your layout presentable.  T or F: 10 – 15

T or F: 10 15 questions

Multiple Choice: max. of 30 questions

Matching type: 5 questions per test group

Others: 5 10 questions

Some additional guidelines to consider

when writing items are described below:

to consider when writing items are described below: 1. Avoid humorous items. Classroom testing is very

1. Avoid humorous items. Classroom testing is very important and humorous items may cause students to either not take the exam seriously, become confused or anxious.
2. Items should measure one’s knowledge of the item context not their level of interest.

3. Write items to measure what students know, not what they do not know. (Cohen & Wallack)

Anatomy of a Perfect

Multiple Choice Tests

Anatomy of a Perfect Multiple Choice Tests What is the effect of releasing a ball in

What is the effect of releasing a ball in

positive gravity?

a)

b)

c)

d)

It will fall “down.” correct It will retain its mass. true but unrelated

It will rise. false but related

Its shape will change. false and unrelated

Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple Choice Questions 1. Use negatively stated stems sparingly and when using negatives such as NOT

1. Use negatively stated stems sparingly and when using negatives such as NOT, underline or bold the print.
2. Use none of the above and all of the above sparingly, and when you do use them, don't always make them the right answer.

3. Only one option should be correct or clearly best.

Multiple Choice Questions:

  4. All options should be homogenous and   nearly equal in length.   5.
 

4.

All options should be homogenous and

 

nearly equal in length.

 

5.

The stem (question) should contain only

 

one main idea.

 

6.

Keep all options either singular or plural.

7.

Have four or five responses per stem (question).

Multiple Choice Questions:

Multiple Choice Questions: 7. When using incomplete statements place the blank space at the end. When

7.

When using incomplete statements place

the blank space at the end. When possible organize the responses.

8.

9.

Reduce wordiness.

10. When writing distracters, think of incorrect responses that students might make.

Situational Judgment Tests (SJT)

Situational

Judgment Tests (SJT)

Situational Judgment Tests (SJT)

Situational Judgment Tests (SJT) Is a type of test which presents realistic scenarios similar to those

Is a type of test which presents realistic scenarios similar to those that would be encountered in real life.

(http://blog.careerbuilder.co.uk/2015/06/11/what-

you-need-to-know-about-situation-judgement-

tests/)

Situational judgment tests (SJT)

Situational judgment tests (SJT) Situational judgment tests present the test-taker with realistic, hypothetical scenarios

Situational judgment tests present

the test-taker with realistic, hypothetical scenarios and ask the individual to

identify the most appropriate response or

to rank the responses in the order they feel is most effective.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_judgeme

nt_test)

Why use SJTs?

Why use SJTs? Situational judgment test’s are designed to clarify the difference between average from superior

Situational judgment test’s are designed to clarify the difference between average from superior response.

The most effective response will look at

the situation from various angles, consider a wider range of action, and

take account the long-term consequences

of action. (Sharpley, 2010)

Formats in SJT questions

Formats in SJT questions Ranking questions ask you to rank in order your response to a

Ranking questions ask you to rank in order your response to a situation. Multiple choice questions ask you to

choose the most appropriate action or

decision to take in a given situation.

(http://www.foundationprogrammeguru.co.uk/the-

situational-judgement-test.html)

Things to remember in making SJT

Questions

Things to remember in making SJT Questions Since SJT questions require learners to identify the best

Since SJT questions require learners to identify the best or worst answer, the stem should be presented in a manner in which the test taker will choose the correct answer by eliminating the distractors.

Things to remember in making SJT

Questions

Things to remember in making SJT Questions In making the choices, the correct answer should always

In making the choices, the correct

answer should always be the one that

actually solves the problem or answer the question. Logically, the correct” answers

need to be distinct from the other answer options. Hence if two answer options

seem very similar, it would be very

difficult to identify the “distractor”.

(http://www.foundationprogrammeguru.co.uk/the-situational-

judgement-test.html)

Conceptual Framework

Concept Ideas Situational Judgemental Test (SJT) Answer
Concept
Ideas
Situational
Judgemental
Test (SJT)
Answer

Example:

Ang kalabisan ay dahilan upang Kalabisan magkaroon ng pagbaba ng (Surplus) presyo upang makamit ang
Ang kalabisan ay dahilan upang
Kalabisan
magkaroon ng pagbaba ng
(Surplus)
presyo upang makamit ang
presyong ekwilibriyo.
Sa presyong 1,000, ang demand para
sa cellphone A ay 10,000. Ngunit ang
naprodyus na cellphone A ay 14,000.
Ano ang dapat gawin upang
magkaroon ng ekwilibriyo?
A.
Bawasan ang supply
Answer: D
B.
Bawasan ang demand
C.
Taasan ang presyo
D.
Ibaba ang presyo

Knowledge:

Knowledge: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang nagpapahiwatig na may kakapusan sa bansa? A. B. C. D.
Knowledge: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang nagpapahiwatig na may kakapusan sa bansa? A. B. C. D.

Alin sa mga sumusunod ang

nagpapahiwatig na may kakapusan sa bansa?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Kung mabilis ang paggawa ng produkto.

Kung sagana ang produkto sa pamilihan.

Kung may kaguluhan sa pulitika.

Kung limatado ang suplay ng kalakal sa bansa.

Process:

• Sa papaanong paraan mo maitataguyod ang karapatan sa tamang impormasyon?   A. Pag-aralan ang

Sa papaanong paraan mo maitataguyod ang karapatan sa tamang impormasyon?

 

A.

Pag-aralan ang nakatatak sa etiketa ukol sa sangkap, dami, at komposisyon ng produkto. Palaging pumunta sa timbangang-bayan upang matiyak na husto ang biniling produkto.

B.

C.

Pahalagahan ang kalidad at hindi ang tatak ng produkto o serbisyong bibilhin.

D.

Palagiang gumamit ng recycled na produkto upang

mapangalagaan ang kapaligiran.

Understanding:

•
•

Maituturing na kagustuhan ang isang bagay kapag higit ito sa

batayang pangangailangan. Kailan maituturing na batayang

pangangailangan ang isang produkto o serbisyo?

A. Magagamit mo ito upang maging madali ang mahirap na

gawain.

B. Nagbibigay ito ng kasiyahan at kaginhawaan.

C. Hindi mabubuhay ang tao kapag wala ang mga ito.

D. Makabibili ka ng maraming bagay sa pamamagitan nito.

Understanding:

Understanding: Nagsimula sa maliit na puhunan ang negosyo ni Mang Cenon, hanggang ito ay lumaki at

Nagsimula sa maliit na puhunan ang negosyo ni Mang

Cenon, hanggang ito ay lumaki at nagkaroon ng iba’t ibang

sangay sa Bulacan. Alin ang HINDI dahilan ng kanyang pag- unlad?

A. Maayos ang kanyang pangangasiwa.
B. Marami siyang kabarkada at kaanak

C. Malawak ang kanyang kaalaman sa negosyo.

D. Mahusay siyang makitungo sa kanyang mga tauhan.

Things to Remember:

Things to Remember: Making a good test takes time Teachers have the obligation to provide their

Making a good test takes timeThings to Remember: Teachers have the obligation to provide their students with the best evaluation Tests

Teachers have the obligation toThings to Remember: Making a good test takes time provide their students with the best evaluation

provide their students with the best evaluation

Tests play an essential role in theto provide their students with the best evaluation life of the students, parents, teachers and other

life of the students, parents, teachers and other educators

Break any of the rules whenlife of the students, parents, teachers and other educators you have a good reason for doing

you have a good reason for doing so! (emphasis mine)

(Mehrens, 1973)

POINTS TO PONDER…

POINTS TO PONDER… A good lesson makes a good question A good question makes a good

A good lesson makes a good question

A good question makes a good content
A good content makes a good test

A good test makes a good grade

A good grade makes a good student

A good student makes a good COMMUNITY

Jesus Ochave Ph.D. VP Research Planning & Development

Philippine Normal University

For questions , comments or if you want to download this file, log-on to: www.slideshare.net/sirarnelPHhistory

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