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THOMAS WHITHAM SIXTH FORM

Additional Mathematics
Revision Guide

S J Cooper

The book contains a number of worked examples covering the topics needed in the Additional
Mathematics Specifications. This includes Calculus, Trigonometry, Geometry and the more advanced
Algebra. Plus the topics required for Mechanics and statistics.
Algebra
Indices for all rational exponents

a m a n a m n , a m a n a mn , a m n
a mn , a 0 1 ,
n n
1 1
n 1 1 a b
a a , a a , a
2 n n
n , n
an ,
a a b a

a
m
n
n am a
n
m

1
12 1 1 1
Example 83 3 8 2 Example 9 1

9 2 9 3

4 4
3
2 2 3 3
x 4 x x 8
2
Example 3 3 2

Simplify 2 x 1 3x 6 x 3
2
Example

18 x 2
2 x 1 3x 6 x 3
2 1 3
9x 2 3 2
2
4
x 6x 6x x

Quadratic equations ax 2 bx c 0
Examples (i) 4 x 2 9 (ii) 4 x 2 9 x (iii) 4 x 2 9 x 2

(i) (ii) (iii)


9 4x 2 9x 0 4x 2 9x 2 0
x2
4
x(4 x 9) 0 (4 x 1)( x 2) 0
3
x 9 1
2 x 0 or x x 2 or x
4 4
Example Solve (i) 2 x 2 x 5 0 using the method of CTS
(ii) 5x 2 7 x 1 0 using the formula.
(i) 2 x 2 x 5 0
x 5
x2
2 2
2 2
x 1 5 1
x
2

2 4 2 4
x 14 2 52 161
x 14 2 1641
x 14 41
16

x 14 41
16

x 1.35, 1.85
Simultaneous equations
Example Solve simultaneously 2 x 3 y 8, y x 2 x 2
Here we substitute for y from the second equation into the first

2 x 3 y 8 2 x 3 x 2 x 2 8 3x 2 x 2 0

3x 2x 1 0 x 23 , 1

x 23 , y 28
when x 23 , y 94 23 2
}
28
9
Solutions, 9
x 1, y 2
when x 1 , y 1 1 2 2
The geometrical interpretation here is that the straight line 2 x 3 y 8 and the

parabola y x 2 x 2 intersect at points 23 , 28


9
1, 2
y

23 , 28
9
(1,2)

0 x

Intersection points of graphs to solve equations. There are many equations which can
not be solved analytically. Approximate roots to equations can be found graphically if
necessary.
Example What straight line drawn on the same axes as the graph of y x 3 will give

the real root of the equation x 3 x 3 0 ?

x3 x 3 0 x3 3 x
draw y 3 x
0 x
As can be seen from the sketch there is
only one real root .
Expansions and factorisation extensions
Example
2 x 1x 2 x 3 2 x 3 2 x 2 6 x
x2 x 3 Expanding
2 x 3 3x 2 7 x 3

Example x 3 9 x xx 2 9 xx 3x 3 Factorising

The remainder Theorem


If the polynomial p(x) be divided by ax b the remainder will be p ba

Example When p( x) 2 x 3 3x 5 is divided by 2 x 1 the remainder is

p 12 14 32 5 154

Example Find the remainder when 4 3 3 2 + 11 2 is divided by 1.

f 1 413 312 111 2 10 remainder is 10


The factor theorem Following on from the last item
p ba 0 ax b is a factor of p(x)

Example Show that x 2 is a factor of 6 x 3 13x 2 x 2 and hence solve the

equation 6 x 3 13x 2 x 2 0
Let p( x) 6 x 3 13x 2 x 2

p(2) 62 132 2 2 48 52 2 2 0
3 2

x 2 is a factor of p(x)


p( x) x 2 6 x 2 x 1 by inspection
x 23x 12 x 1

Solutions to the equation are x 2, 13 , 1


2

Expansion of a b where n is a positive integer.


n

This has the same coefficients as the expansion of 1 x . Each term will have degree
n

n, powers of a descending from a n

Example 1 x8 1 8x 28x 2 .......


a b8 a 8 8a 7 b 28a 6b 2 .......
The general term will be n C r a n r b r
Example

Use the binomial theorem to expand 3 2 x 4 , simplifying each term of your expansion.
a b4 a 4 4a 3b 6a 2 b 2 4ab 3 b 4

3 2 x 3 43 2 x 63 2 x 432 x 2 x
4 4 3 2 2 3 4

81 216 x 216 x 2 96 x 3 16 x 4

Geometry
Gradient/ intercept form of a straight line Equation y mx c
y

Gradient = m (= tan )
c

0 x

Distance between two points


Given A x1 , y1 B x2 , y 2 then

AB 2 x2 x1 y 2 y1
2 2

Gradient of a line through two points Ax1 , y1 and Bx2 , y 2 say

y 2 y1
m
x 2 x1

Equation of a line through (x, y) of gradient m


y y mx x

Equation of a line through two points


y 2 y1
Find the gradient using m and use the formula as above.
x 2 x1

Parallel and perpendicular lines


Let two lines have gradients m1 and m2

Lines parallel m1 m2
1
Lines perpendicular m1m2 1 or m1
m2

Mid-point of line joining Ax1 , y1 and Bx2 , y 2 coordinates are

12 x1 x2 , 1
2
y1 y2
General form of a straight line
ax by c 0. To find the gradient, rewrite in gradient/intercept form.

Example Given points A 2, 3 and B1, 1 find


(a) distance AB
(b) the coordinates of the mid-point M of AB
(c) the gradient of AB
(d) the equation of the line through C 5, 2 parallel to AB

AB 2 1 2 1 3 9 16 25 AB = 5
2 2
(a)

(b) M 12 , 1

1 3 4
(c) Gradient AB =
1 2 3

(d) Point 5, 2 Gradient = 43

Equation y 2 43 x 5
3 y 6 4 x 20
3 y 4 x 26

Example Find the gradient of the line 2 x 3 y 12 and the equation of a

perpendicular line through the point 0, 4

2 x 3 y 12 3 y 2 x 12 y 23 x 4 grad = 23

1
Gradient of perpendicular = 3
23 2

Equation y 32 x 4 y mx c

The Circle

Angles in semicircle is 90

Perpendicular to a chord from centre of circle bisects the


chord.
Centre, radius form of equation

x a2 y b2 r 2
Centre (a, b) radius = r

Centre (2, -1) radius 3 equation x 2 y 1 9


2 2
Example

Centre (1, 2) touching 0x Equation x 1 y 2 4


2 2
Example

(1, 2)

General form of equation

x a2 y b2 r 2 Circle centre , with radius


To find centre and radius, use the method of CTS to change into centre/radius form.

Example x 2 y 2 2x 3 y 3 0

x 2 y 2 2x 3y 3 0
x 2

2x y 2 3y 3
x 2

2x 1 y 2 3y
3 2
2
3 1 3 2
2

x 12 y 32 2 254
Centre 1, 32 radius = 5
2

Tangents

Angle between tangent and radius drawn to point of contact is


90

Tangents drawn from extended point

Line of symmetry
Example Find the equation of the tangent to the circle x 2 y 2 2 x 4 y 5 0 at
the point P(2, 1)

x 2 y 2 2x 4 y 5 0
x 2
2 x y 2 4 y 5
x 2
2 x 1 y 2 4 y 4 5 1 4
x 12 y 22 10
Centre at 1, 2 , radius 10

2 1 1
Gradient CP =
(-1, 2) 1 2 3
gradient of tangent at P = 3
Equation
y 1 3 x 2
0 P(2, 1)

y 3x 5

Calculus
Differentiation by rule Examples

dy
d
dx
x dxd x
1
2 1
2 x
12

1
2 x
y
dx
xn nx n 1
d 4 d

dx x dx
4
4 x 1 4 x 2 2
x
ax n anx n 1
d x d 1
ax a 2 x 1
dx 2 dx 2
a 0
du dv dw
d
10 0
uvw dx

dx dx dx d
3x 2 x 5 6 x 1
dx

Vocabulary and more notation


dy
is the derivative of y (with respect to x)
dx
dy
is the differential coefficient of y (with respect to x).
dx
Example = 3 4 2 + 3 1

= 3 2 8 + 3

x2 2 x2 2 3 1

Example f ( x) x 2 2x 2
x x x

f ( x) 32 x 2 12 2 x
1
32 1 1 3 1
32 x 2 3
x
x 2 2 x x

dy
The gradient of a curve at any point is given by the value of at that point.
dx
Example Find the gradient at the point P(1, 5) on the graph of y x 2 2 x 2 . Hence
find the equation of the tangent at P.

y y x 2 2x 2
dy
2x 2
dx
P(1, 5)
At P(1, 5) gradient = 4
Tangent at P
y 5 4x 1
0 x

y 4x 1

Stationary points on the graph of a function are points where the gradient is zero.
STATIONARY POINTS

TURNING POINTS POINTS OF INFLEXION


_ + _
+
_
+
+
_

MAXIMUM POINT MINIMUM POINT TANGENT PASSING THROUGH THE CURVE

To obtain coordinates of a SP. on the graph of y f (x)


(i) Put f ( x) 0 and solve for x.

(ii) If x a is a solution of (i) the SP will be a, f (a) .


(iii) If f (a) 0 there will be a minimum point at x a

If f (a) 0 there will be a maximum point at x a

If f (a) 0 there could be max or min or inflexion so the second derivative rule
fails. Investigate the gradient to the immediate left and right of the stationary point. (see
the + and - signs on the diagrams in the previous section).

Example Find the stationary points on the graphs of

(i) y x 2 2x 2

(ii) y x 3 3x 2
and sketch the graphs.

(i) Here we have a quadratic function, which will have a true max or min.
y x 2 2x 2
dy
2x 2 y
dx

SP at 2 x 2 0
2 Check point (0, 2)
i.e. at x 1
(-1, 1)

i.e. at 1, 1 0 x

d2y
20
dx 2

SP is a minimum.
y

(ii) y x 3 3x 2 (-1, 4) (2, 4)

dy
3x 2 3 2
dx

For SP 3x 2 3x 0 (-2, 0) 0 (1, 0) x

x2 1
x 1

SPs at (1, 0) (-1, 4)

d2y
6x
dx 2

d2y
At (1, 0) 6 0 Min
dx 2
d2y
At (-1, 4) 6 0 Max
dx 2

Check points (0, 2) (2, 4) (-2, 0)

Note that the turning points are Local Max and Local Min

d2y
6x
dx 2

d2y
At (1, 0) 6 0 Min
dx 2

d2y
At (-1, 4) 6 0 Max
dx 2

Check points (0, 2) (2, 4) (-2, 0)

Note that the turning points are Local Max and Local Min

Integration
Indefinite integrals

Indefinite integration is
y ydx
the reverse of x n 1
x n
c n 1
differentiation. Every n 1
ax n 1
indefinite integral must ax n c
n 1 Special cases worth
have an arbitrary constant 2 remembering
c
x
added. x
2
a ax c
uvw udx vdx wdx
f ( x)dx reads the (indefinite) integral of f (x) with respect to x

f (x) is called the integrand. dx is the differential of the integration and must never be

omitted.
x 1
3x 1 dx x
2 dx
Example Find (i) (ii) dx (iii) 2
x


3
6x 2

9x
xc
2 2
3 x 1 dx 9 x 6 x 1 dx
(i) 3 2
3x 3x x c
3 2
x dx
3 1
x 1 x 1

1
12 x2 x2
dx dx 2
x c
x x 3 1
(ii) x 2 2

23 x x 2 x c

dx 1 x 1
x2 x2
2
(iii) Not a misprint! .dx x dx c
1
1
c
x

Definite integrals


b
If I f ( x)dx F ( x) c , then the definite integral a
f ( x)dx is the difference in the

value of I when x b and x a .

f ( x)dx F (b) F (a)


b
i.e. no constant!
a

The limits of the definite integral are a (lower limit) and b (upper limit).

Note the use of square brackets. F ( x)a F (b) F (a)


b

1

3
Example Evaluate x 3 dx
1 x
3
x2 x 2
x x
1

3 3
3
x 3 dx dx
1 x 1 2 2 1
3
x2 1 9 1 1 1 40
2
2 2 x 1 2 18 2 2 9

Area on a graph as a definite integral


(i)
y


b
A ydx
a

A
0 a b x
y

a b

ydx A
b
0
x
a
A
i.e. the value of the definite integral will be
negative if y is negative for a x b
y
(iii)

A b

ydx A B
b
0 a
x
a
B

(iv)
y

b
xdy A
a b

A
a

0
x

y
(v) y2

y1 y2 dx A
b

a
A
NB y1 y 2 for a x b a
0 b
x

y1

NB (i) most certainly will be tested, and (iv) could be.


(ii) and (iii) most unlikely to be included.
(iv) most likely area between a line and a curve.

1
Example Find the area enclosed between the graph of y 1 the x-axis and the
x
ordinates at x = 1 and x 9
4
1 x dx
1
9 9


4 4 12
y A 1 dx
sketch 1 x 1
9

x2

1 4
9

x 1 x 2 x 14
A 2
1
0 9
1 x
9 3
2 1 2
4 9
4 2 4

Example The diagram shows the sketch of graph of y x 2 2 x 3 and y x 1 . Find


the x coordinates of the points of intersection P and Q of the graphs.
Calculate the shaded area.

y
For P, Q

y x 2 2 x 3 2 Q
x 2x 3 x 1
y x 1

x 2 3x 4 0
P
x 1x 4 0 0 x

x 1, 4

Shaded area =
y y dx
1 2

x 1 x 3x 4 x dx
4 4
2
2 x 3 dx 2

1 1
4
3x x
2
64 3
3
1
4 x 24 16 4
2 3 1 3 2 3
21 16
Trigonometry
Trig ratios for 30, 60, 45

30 2
2 2 1
3

60 45
1 1 1

sin 30 cos 60 1
2 sin 45 cos 45 1
2

sin 60 cos 30 2
3
tan 45 1

tan 60 3 tan 30 1
3

Trig ratios for all angles NB the CAST DIAGRAM


For the sign of a trig ratio
S A
All positive in first quadrant
Sine (only) in second quadrant C
T
Etc

Example Without using a calculator find


(i) cos 150 (ii) tan 210
(iii) sin 240
(i) (ii) (iii)
S A S A S A
150 210
30 60
30
-240

T C T C T C

cos 150 cos 30 tan 210 tan 30 sin 240 sin 60


2
3 1
3 2
3
Trig of Scalene triangles
Sine rule
B
a b c

A sin A sin B sin C
a

Given AAS use it to find a second side


Given SSA use it to find a second angle (but take care to choose the angle size appropriately
it could be acute or obtuse).

Cosine rule
c B a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A
A b2 c2 a2
cos A
a 2bc

b Both formulae with two more sets.

Given SAS use it to find the third side


Given SSS use it to find an angle (no possible ambiguity here).

Example Triangle PQR has PR = 3cm, QR = 7cm and QP R 36

Find (i) QR using the cosine rule and then (ii) PQ R using the sine rule.

Q
(i) QR 2 9 49 42 cos 36 24.021...

3
QR 4.901.. 4.90
R
7 4.901..
(ii)
36 7 sin PQR sin 36
7 sin 36
P sin PQR 0.8394...
4.901..
PQR 57.086.. or PQR 122.914..
It cant be 57.08.. since R would be 86.92.. and would be the largest angle in the triangle,
but R faces the smallest side so is the smallest angle. Hence PQR 122.91
Area 12 absin C rule given SAS

Area of triangle = 12 absin C

Graphs of trig functions (all periodic)


1. Graph of y sin x

y
1
Period 2

sin(2 x) sin x
0 2 sin x 1
2
2
3
2 x

-1

2. Graph of y cos x
y
1
Period 2

cos(2 x) cos x
0 2

2

2
3
2 x cos x 1

-1

3. Graph of y tan x

Period
y
tan( x) tan x

Vertical asymptotes at

x 2 , x 32 , etc
2 0
2
3
2
2 x

Vertical asymptotes
Boundary values of trig ratios
S=1
T- C=0 T

Verify these from graphs


S=T=0 S=T=0
C= -1 C=1

T S= -1 T-
C=0

Two important trig identities


sin
tan sin 2 cos 2 1
cos

Example Given is obtuse and sin 178 find the values of cos and

tan .
sin 2 cos 2 1 cos 2 1 sin 2
S A
1 289
64


225
289

cos 17
15

T C
sin 8
tan tan 17
8
cos 15
17
15

NB Learn how to rearrange the identities


sin
sin cos tan cos
tan
cos 2 1 sin 2 sin 2 1 cos 2

Trig equations Remember that from your calculator sin 1 , cos 1 and tan 1 give the
principal value (p.v.)
Example Solve the equations
(i) tan 1.5 for 0 360
(ii) sin 2 0.5 for 180 180

(iii) 2 cos 2 1 sin for 0 360

(iv) 2 sin 2 sin cos for 0 360

(v) sin 80
3
for 180 180
2
(i) A
S

tan 1.5 PV = -56.30


124 , 304 T C

(ii) sin 2 0.5 ..first solve for 2 for 360 360


S A
2 30, 150; 210, 330

PV = 30
15 , 75 ; 105 , 165
T
C

(iii) (In this example, use cos 2 1 sin 2 )

2 cos 2 1 sin

2 1 sin 2 1 sin
2 2 sin 1 sin
2

2 sin sin 1 0
2

sin 12 sin 1 0
S A
PV = -30

sin 1 sin 12
or T
C
90 210 , 330

90 , 210 , 330

(iv) Dont cancel out sin . Bring to LHS and factorise

2 sin 2 sin cos


2 sin 2 sin cos 0
sin 2 sin cos 0

sin 0 or 2 sin cos S A


PV = 26.56
sin 1
0 , 180

cos 2 T C

1
tan
2
27 , 207

0 , 180 , 27 , 207
(v) sin 80
3
solve first for 260 100
2
S A
80 60
, 240
PV = 60
140 , 160

T
C

In the next example, angles are in radians. The radian sign c is sometimes omitted, but is
implied when the interval contains .

Example Solve the following equations

(i) cos x 0.3 for 0 x 2 , answers correct to 2d.p.

x
(ii) tan 3 for 2 x 2 , answers in exact form
2

(i) cos x 0.3 put calculator into RAD mode.


S A
x 1.266..., 2 1.266...
PV = 1.2661..
x 1.27, 5.02
T C

(ii) In exact terms means in terms of . The implication is that the angles will be exact
form in degrees. So, work in degrees first and then convert to radians.

x
tan 3 solve first for x
2

x
60 ,120
2 S A
x 120 ,240 PV = 60

2 4 T
x , C
3 3
Mechanics
1. Rectilinear motion with constant acceleration
a

t=0 t

u v

Remember that s is a displacement, is directed, and should be shown with one arrow
head.
v u at
1 2
s ut at
2
v 2 u 2 2as

s
1
u v t
2
Example A cyclist moves along a straight line passing through points O, A and B with
constant acceleration. 2 seconds after passing O he is at A where OA = 9m
and after a further 4 seconds he is at B where AB = 36m. Find his constant
acceleration, his speed at Oaand his speed at B.
t t=2 t=6

A B
9m
u v

45m

1 2
s ut at
2

OA 9 2u 2a
OB 45 6u 18a 18 2a
a 1.5m / s 2 , u 3m / s
v u at

OB v 3 1.5 6 12m / s

Properties of the velocity/time graph


Gradient = acceleration
Area under graph = distance travelled
Example A train starting from rest is uniformly accelerated during the first km of its
run, maintains its acquired speed for the next 1 km, and is then brought to
rest with uniform retardation in the last km. The time for the whole
journey is 5 minutes. Find the acceleration in the first part of the run and the
retardation in the final stage.
velocity
v

500 1500

250

t1 t2 t3 time

1
Area t1v 500 t1v 1000
2
t 2 v 1500

1
t 3 v 250 t 3 v 500
2
t1v t 2 v t 3 v 3000

vt1 t 2 t 3 3000

v 300 3000
v 300 3000
v 10m / s

t1 100 and t 3 50

10 1
Gradient 1st stage acceleration = m / s2
100 10

10 1
3rd stage deceleration = m / s2
50 5

2. Vertical motion under gravity


The assumption here will be that the motion is unrestricted, so that the constant
acceleration formulae can be used with g usually given as having magnitude 9.8 m/s2
Example A ball is thrown vertically upwards with speed 14.7 m/s from a platform
19.6m above level ground. Find the time for the ball to reach the ground (g =
9.8 m/s2) State any assumption that you make.

Notice here how the displacement is


14.7m/s
shown from the platform downwards
2
9.8m/s
and NOT from ground upwards. This is
very important.
19.6m

1 2 1
s ut at 19.6 14.7t 9.8t 2
2 2

t 2 3t 4 0
t 1t 3 0

t 3s

Assume no air resistance during motion.

Probability Distribution Binomial


The binomial random variable X is where the probability of success remains constant from
trial to trial say p. Therefore the probability of failure is q where = 1 . When the
trial is repeated for n trials then a probability can be found using the following formula.

P X r n Cr p r q nr where = 1,2,3,4, .

Example
When a drawing pin is thrown onto a table, the probability that it will fall point upwards is
0.2. Ten drawing pins in a packet are thrown onto a table, work out the probability that
(i) All land point down
(ii) Exactly three land point up
(iii) Less than two land point up.
= 0.2, = 0.8
(i) P(all land point down) = 0.8010 0.107

(ii) P(exactly three land point up) = P X 310 C3 0.2 3 0.87

120 0.2 3 0.87 0.201


(iii) P(less than two land point up) = P X 2 P X 0 P X 1

0.107 10 0.2 0.89


0.375