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Relationship Between HRM and HRD

Human Resource Management (HRM) covers many

4.Training & functions

1. Orienting & on-boarding Human resource development (HRD) is just one of
the functions within HRM
2. Identification of Trg. needs
3. Methods of Training
4. Management Development
5. Training v/s Development,
6. Evaluating the effectiveness

HRD is a set of systematic and planned activities designed by an

organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet
current and future job demands

Werner & DeSimone (2006)

Training is a systematic process through which
an organizations human resources gain
knowledge and develop skills by instruction
HRD Functions and practical activities that result in improved
corporate performance.
Training and development (T&D)
Career development
Organizational development

Career Development
Organizational Development

Ongoing process by which individuals progress

The process of improving an organizations
through series of changes until they achieve
effectiveness and members well-being
their personal level of maximum achievement
through the application of behavioral science


Differences between Training & Development Education is a lifetime investment. It tends to

Training is short term, task oriented and targeted be initiated by a person in the area of his/her
on achieving a change of attitude, skills and interest
knowledge in a specific area. It is usually job
related. Experience- Learning on the job without
Development is preparing for future
responsibilities, while increasing the capacity to Learning: any relatively permanent change in
perform at a current job focuses on learning and behaviour that results from practice or
personal development experience.


The Gap Concept
1. Employee obsolescence/out-dated Technical
advancements, cultural changes, new systems,
Expected Curve
2. Career plateaus
Need for education and training programs 1,000 Gap
3. Employee turnover 200
Performance Actual Curve
development plan for new employees /Results


Benefits of Training & Development

Customer Organizational Employee
Benefit Benefit Benefit
According to GAP Concept Better
Increased efficiency & Improved
Profitability performance
quality of
Training is simply a means to use activities to fill products & Reduced employee turnover Increase in
(voluntary) employability*
the gaps of performance between the actual Reduced involuntary Enhanced Motivation
results and the expected results. turnover eg termination due Job becomes more
to skill deficiency rewarding
This GAP can be separated into 3 main themes Enhanced productivity Opportunity for
upward mobility in
1. Attitude Makes employee more
the firm
accountable as they gain
2. Skills more knowledge and skills

3. Knowledge


Importance of Training
Forces Influencing Working
Maintains qualified products / services
and Learning
Achieves high service standards Globalization
Provides information for new comers Need for effective Leaders
Refreshes memory of old employees Increased value placed on Intangible
Achieves learning about new things; technology, Asset
products / service delivery
Reduces mistakes - minimizing costs Focus on link to Business Strategy
Opportunity for staff to feedback / suggest Diversity of workforce
improvements Talent Management
Improves communication & relationships -
better teamwork Customer Service and Quality emphasis
New Technology
High Performance Work System

Need for Effective Leadership

Due to Aging workforce and retirement of
Provide training and development baby boomers, many organizations will face
opportunities for global employees. shortage of skilled leaders
Provide cross-cultural training to
prepare employees and their families
to understand the culture and norms
of the country to which they are being

Focus on link to business strategy Intangible assets and Human

Training professional are expected to The value of intangible assets and human capital
design learning activities to help the has the following implication
organisation successfully implement
strategy and reach organizational Focus on knowledge worker - employees who
contribute to the company not through manual
labor but through what they know, perhaps about
customers or a specialized body of knowledge.
Employee engagement - the degree to which
employees are fully involved in their work and the
strength of their commitment to their job and the


Intangible assets and Human

Talent management
attracting, retaining, developing, and
motivating highly skilled employees
Change - the adoption of a new idea or behavior and managers.
by a company. It is becoming increasingly more
important because of:
Learning organization - embraces a culture of occupational and job changes.
lifelong learning, enabling all employees to retirement of baby boomers.
continually acquire and share knowledge. skill requirements.

Customer service and quality New Technology

Total Quality Management (TQM) - a companywide effort to
continuously improve the ways people, machines, and systems
accomplish work. Is changing the delivery of training and makes
Six Sigma process - a process of measuring, analyzing,
improving, and then controlling processes once they have been training more realistic.
brought within the narrow six sigma quality tolerances or Allows training to occur at any time and any place.
Training can help companies meet the quality challenge by Reduces travel costs.
teaching employees statistical process control and engaging in Provides greater accessibility to training and
lean processes.
consistent delivery.
Lean thinking - involves doing more with less effort,
equipment, space, and time, but providing customers with what
they need and want.
ISO 10015 - a quality management tool designed to ensure that
training is linked to company needs and performance.

New Technology Is designed to provide new hires with the
information they need to function comfortably and
Provides the ability to access experts and efficiently in the organisation.
share learning with others.
Provides the possibility of creating a
learning environment with many positive
features such as feedback, self-pacing, and
practice exercises.
Allows companies greater use of
alternative work arrangements.


The Orientation Process

Feel welcome Begin the INFORMATION
and at ease socialization

Orientation Employee Orientation

Helps New

Understand the Know what is

organization expected in
JOB DUTIES Facilities
work and
behavior tour

Strategic choice before designing Five Principles of Learning

Orientation program
Participation: involve trainees, learn by doing
Repetition: repeat ideas & concepts to help
Formal or Informal people learn
Relevance: learn better when material is
Individual or Collective meaningful and related
Transference: to real world using simulations
Serial or Disjunctive
Feedback: ask for it and adjust training
methods to audience.
Investiture or Divestiture

Model of the Training Process

Training Process

Phase 1 Phase 2
Training Need Training Design

Phase 4 Phase 3
Training Evaluation Training


1.Training Need Assessment

Nine Steps in the Training Process
1. Assessing training needs Person Analysis Task Analysis Analysis
2. Preparing training plan 1 How training
1 What is trainee's 1 What are job will assist to
3. Specifying training objectives skill and responsibilities and achieve
4. Designing the training program(s) knowledge level? duties? organization
2 Which learning 2 What knowledge goals?
5. Selecting the instructional methods style trainees and skills are 2 What cost is
6. Completing the training plan prefer? required to increase expected and
7. Implementing the training program work performance? what is benefit
to the
8. Evaluating the training organization?
9. Planning future training

2.Preparing Training Plan 3.Setting Training

goals and objectives
Ask your self What are we going to achieve in the time
Use a holistic approach by using a calendar for inputting Training Objectives must be specific &
your training activities measurable. Else it will be difficult to
measure effectiveness after course is
What should trainees be able to accomplish
after participating in the training program?
What is the desired level of such
accomplishment, according to industry or
organizational standards?
Do you want to develop attitudes, skills,
knowledge or some combination of these

4. Designing the Training

Team Building Training
1. Program duration
2. Program structure
Objectives 3. Instruction methods
To work effectively in teams and learn how to create 4. Trainers qualification; Who will deliver the training?
Trainers qualifications, experience, expertise and
synergy among group members. background
To acquaint them with attributes and dynamics of 5. Trainees and Trainers manual; contains information on
high performing teams. training contents
6. Nature of trainees
To build up effective teams for enhancing overall
7. Support resources materials, OHP, classroom, furnitures
productivity of the organization.
7. Training location & environment
To expedite effectively team meetings including 8. Criteria & methods for assessing participant learning and
sessions for sharing, reflection and learning. achievement
9. Criteria & methods for evaluating the program


Training & Development Methods

5. Selecting Training Methods
On the Job Methods Off-the job Methods


learn while youre working
Apprenticeship Lectures
Off -the job-training
Job Instruction
In house, training or classroom
Training Seminar & Conferences
External, consultancies or attending external classes
Independent bodies, such as government talks Simulations
Distance learning, from books or notes DEVELOPMENT METHODS Vestibule
Computer-assisted learning Coaching Programmed Learning
Interactive-video training Job Rotation DEVELOPMENT METHODS
Video conferencing, same as classroom except Case Study
teachers and students are in different locations
Special Assignment
Role Playing
Internship Management Games
Action Learning Behaviour Modelling

7. Implementing the Training

6. Completing the Training Plan
Target group assess your audience Besides trainers qualifications and experience:
Topic task, skill or attitude ingredient Group comfort - physical & psychological
Method direct (one way communication) or Trainer enthusiasm & skills
indirect (discussion, games, experimental Effective communication
exercises). Important as evaluation of trainees Feedback mechanism
usually lies on the perception on what they did in
the training session Preparation by trainers
Time length, period, breaks important to
Location away from the office?

Kirkpatrick Model of Training Evaluation

Level Four Levels of Training Evaluation Measures

8. Evaluating the Training

Accidents, Quality
Is the organization Productivity
better because of training?
Three Levels of Evaluation Morale
Profits Turnover
Are trainees behaving differently
Performance, appraisal
1. Pre training Feedback BEHAVIOR
in the job after training? Are they
using knowledge and skills learned
by supervisor, peer,
subordinate, customers
Questionnares in the training?

2. Immediate Feedback To what extent the trainees have

Written Tests,
greater knowledge of skills after the
Survey or interview directly after training training program?
Performance tests
3. Post-Training Test Did the trainees like the program, trainer,
Trainee applying learned tasks in REACTION
facilities, timing? Did they think that training was Questionnaires
useful? What improvement they suggest?



The ROI is calculated using the program benefits and costs.
Level 5 - Return on Investment (ROI): is the ultimate level
of evaluation. It compares the monetary benefits from the
program with the program costs. Expressed as a BCR (Benefit/Cost ratio) = Total Program Benefits
percentage. Total Program Costs

The ROI model isolate the business impact of training from

other potential sources of business improvement, such as
interest rate changes, competitive environment, marketing ROI = Total Program Benefits Total Program Costs x 100%
programs, employee bonus schemes, seasonal effects that Total Program Costs
temporarily contribute to business improvements, etc.

ROI Contd.
9. Planning Future Training
Intangible Benefits from training Last step in the training process
After taking all evaluated comments, trainers
Stress reduction should modify the programs to keep good things
Employee engagement and make suggested improvements
Grievance reduction
Improved customer satisfaction Remember, even with the same topic for different
trainees, trainers should address many parts of the
Complaint reduction training process again and consider new approaches.
Conflict reduction/avoidance