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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

FIBRETESTING

IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING:

Rawmaterialrepresentsabout50to70%oftheproductioncostofashort­stapleyarn.Thisfactis

sufficienttoindicatethesignificanceoftherawmaterialfortheyarnproducer.Itisnotpossibleto

useaproblem­freerawmaterialalways,becausecottonisanaturalfibreandtherearemany

propertieswhichwillaffecttheperformance.Ifallthepropertieshavetobegoodforthecotton,the

rawmaterialwouldbetooexpensive.Toproduceagoodyarnwiththisdifficulties,anintimate

knowledgeoftherawmaterialanditsbehaviourinprocessingisamust.

Fibrecharacteristicsmustbeclassifiedaccordingtoacertainsequenceofimportancewithrespect

totheendproductandthespinningprocess.Moreover,suchquantifiedcharacteristicsmustalsobe

assessedwithreferencetothefollowing

whatistheidealvalue?

whatamountofvariationisacceptableinthebalematerial?

whatamountofvariationisacceptableinthefinalblend

Suchvaluableexperience,whichallowsonetodeterminethemostsuitableusefortherawmaterial,

canonlybeobtainedbymeansofalong,intensifiedanddirectassociationwiththerawmaterial,

thespinningprocessandtheendproduct.

Lowcostyarnmanufacture,fulfillingofallqualityrequirementsandacontrolledfibrefeedwith

knownfibrepropertiesarenecessaryinordertocompeteontheworld'stextilemarkets.Yarn

prodcutionbeginswiththerawmaterialinbales,wherebysuccessorfailureisdeterminedbythe

fibrequality,itspriceandavailability.Successfulyarnproducersoptimiseprofitsbyaprocess

orientedselectionandmixingoftherawmaterial,followedbyoptimisationofthemachinesettings,

productionrates,operatingelements,etc.Simultaneously,qualityisensured

bymeansofaclosedloopcontrolsystem,whichrequirestheapplicationofsupervisorysystemat

spinningandspinningpreparation,aswellasameansofselectingthemostsutablebalemix.

BASICFIBRECHARACTERISTICS:

Atextilefibreisapeculiarobject.Ithasnottrulyfixedlength,width,thickness,shapeandcross­

section.Growthofnaturalfibresorprodctionfactorsofmanmadefibresareresponsibleforthis

situation.Anindividualfibre,ifexaminedcarefully,willbeseentovaryincross­sectionalarea

alongitlength.Thismaybetheresultofvariationsingrowthrate,causedbydietary,metabolic,

nutrient­supply,seasonal,weather,orotherfactorsinfluencingtherateofcelldevelopmentin

naturalfibres.Surfacecharacteristicsalsoplaysomepartinincreasingthevariablityoffibreshape.

Thescalesofwool,thetwistedarrangementofcotton,thenodesappearingatintervalsalongthe

cellulosicnaturalfibresetc.

Followingarethebasicchareteristicsofcottonfibre

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fibrelength2017­8­1 fineness strength maturity Rigidity fibrefriction structuralfeatures

fineness2017­8­1 fibrelength strength maturity Rigidity fibrefriction structuralfeatures

strength2017­8­1 fibrelength fineness maturity Rigidity fibrefriction structuralfeatures

maturity2017­8­1 fibrelength fineness strength Rigidity fibrefriction structuralfeatures

Rigidity2017­8­1 fibrelength fineness strength maturity fibrefriction structuralfeatures

fibrefriction2017­8­1 fibrelength fineness strength maturity Rigidity structuralfeatures

structuralfeaturesfineness strength maturity Rigidity fibrefriction FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

STANDARDATMOSPHEREFORTESTING:

Theatmosphereinwhichphysicaltestsontextilematerialsareperformed.Ithasarelativehumidity

of65+2percentandatemperatureof20+2°C.Intropicalandsub­tropicalcountries,an

alternativestandardatmospherefortestingwitharelativehumidityof65+2percentanda

temperatureof27+2°C,

maybeused.

FIBRELENGTH:

The"length"ofcottonfibresisapropertyofcommercialvalueasthepriceisgenerallybasedon

thischaracter.Tosomeextentitistrue,asotherfactorsbeingequal,longercottonsgivebetter

spinningperformancethanshorterones.Butthelengthofacottonisanindefinitequantity,asthe

fibres,eveninasmallrandombunchofacotton,varyenormouslyinlength.Followingarethe

variousmeasuresoflengthinuseindifferentcountries

meanlengthvariousmeasuresoflengthinuseindifferentcountries upperquartile effectivelength Modallength 2.5%spanlength

upperquartilevariousmeasuresoflengthinuseindifferentcountries meanlength effectivelength Modallength 2.5%spanlength 50%spanlength

effectivelengthmeanlength upperquartile Modallength 2.5%spanlength 50%spanlength Meanlength:

Modallengthmeanlength upperquartile effectivelength 2.5%spanlength 50%spanlength Meanlength:

2.5%spanlengthmeanlength upperquartile effectivelength Modallength 50%spanlength Meanlength:

50%spanlengthupperquartile effectivelength Modallength 2.5%spanlength Meanlength:

Meanlength:

Itistheestimatedquantitywhichtheoreticallysignifiesthearithmeticmeanofthelengthofallthe

fibrespresentinasmallbutrepresentativesampleofthecotton.Thisquantitycanbeanaverage

accordingtoeithernumberorweight.

Upperquartilelength:

Itisthatvalueoflengthforwhich75%ofalltheobservedvaluesarelower,and25%higher.

Effectivelength:

Itisdifficulttogiveaclearscientificdefinition.Itmaybedefinedastheupperquartileofa

numericallengthdistribution

eliminatedbyanarbitraryconstruction.Thefibreseliminatedareshorterthanhalftheeffective

length.

Modallength:

Itisthemostfrequentlyoccurringlengthofthefibresinthesampleanditisrelatedtomeanand

medianforskewdistributions,asexhibitedbyfibrelength,inthefollwingway.

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

(Mode­Mean)=3(Median­Mean)

where,

Medianistheparticularvalueoflengthaboveandbelowwhichexactly50%ofthefibreslie.

2.5%Spanlength:

Itisdefinedasthedistancespannedby2.5%offibresinthespecimenbeingtestedwhenthefibres

areparallelizedandrandomlydistributedandwheretheinitialstartingpointofthescanninginthe

testisconsidered100%.Thislengthismeasuredusing"DIGITALFIBROGRAPH".

50%Spanlength:

Itisdefinedasthedistancespannedby50%offibresinthespecimenbeingtestedwhenthefibres

areparallelizedandrandomlydistributedandwheretheinitialstartingpointofthescanninginthe

testisconsidered100%.Thislengthismeasuredusing"DIGITALFIBROGRAPH".

TheSouthIndiaTextileResearchAssociation(SITRA)givesthefollowingempiricalrelationships

toestimatetheEffectiveLengthandMeanLengthfromtheSpanLengths.

Effectivelength=1.013x2.5%Spanlength+4.39

Meanlength=1.242x50%Spanlength+9.78

FIBRELENGTHVARIATION:

Eventhough,thelongandshortfibresbothcontributetowardsthelengthirregularityofcotton,the

shortfibresareparticularlyresponsibleforincreasingthewastelosses,andcauseunevennessand

reductioninstrengthintheyarnspun.Therelativeproportionsofshortfibresareusuallydifferent

incottonshavingdifferentmeanlengths;theymayevendifferintwocottonshavingnearlythe

samemeanfibrelength,renderingonecottonmoreirregularthantheother.Itisthereforeimportant

thatinadditiontothefibrelengthofacotton,thedegreeofirregularityofitslengthshouldalsobe

known.Variabilityisdenotedbyanyoneofthefollowingattributes

1.Co­efficientofvariationoflength(byweightornumber)

2.irregularitypercentage

3.Dispersionpercentageandpercentageofshortfibres

4.Uniformityratio

Uniformityratioisdefinedastheratioof50%spanlengthto2.5%spanlengthexpressedasa

percentage.Severalinstrumentsandmethodsareavailablefordeterminationoflength.Following

aresome

shirleycombsorteraresome Baersorter A.N.Staplingapparatus Fibrograph

Baersorteraresome shirleycombsorter A.N.Staplingapparatus Fibrograph

A.N.Staplingapparatus

Fibrographaresome shirleycombsorter Baersorter A.N.Staplingapparatus uniformityration=(50%spanlength/2.5%spanlength)x100

uniformityration=(50%spanlength/2.5%spanlength)x100

uniformityindex=(meanlength/upperhalfmeanlength)x100

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SHORTFIBRES:

FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

Thenegativeeffectsofthepresenceofahighproportionofshortfibresiswellknown.Ahigh percentageofshortfibresisusuallyassociatedwith, ­Increasedyarnirregularityandendsdddownwhichreducequalityandincreaseprocessingcosts ­Increasednumberofnepsandslubswhiiichisdetrimentaltotheyarnappearance ­Higherflyliberationandmachinecontttaminationinspinning,weavingandknittingoperations. ­Higherwastageincombingandotheroppperations. Whilethedetrimentaleffectsofshortfibreshavebeenwellestablished,thereisstillconsiderable debateonwhatconstitutesa'shortfibre'.Inthesimplestway,shortfibresaredefinedasthosefibres

whicharelessthan12mmlong.Initially,anestimateoftheshortfibreswasmadefromthestaple

diagramobtainedintheBaerSortermethod

diagramobtainedintheBaerSortermethod Shortfibrecontent=(UB/OB)x100

Shortfibrecontent=(UB/OB)x100

Whilesuchasimpledefinitionofshortfibresisperhapsadequateforcharacterisingrawcotton samples,itistoosimpleadefinitiontousewithregardtothespinningprocess.Thesettingofall spinningmachinesisbasedoneitherthestaplelengthoffibresoritsequivalentwhichdoesnottake intoaccounttheeffectofshortfibres.Inthisregard,theconceptof'FloatingFibreIndex'definedby

Hertel(1962)canbeconsideredtobeabetterparametertoconsidertheeffectofshortfibreson

spinningperformance.Floatingfibresaredefinedasthosefibreswhicharenotclampedbyeither

pairofrollersinadraftingzone.

FloatingFibreIndex(FFI)wasdefinedas

FFI=((2.5%spanlength/meanlength)­1)x(100)

Theproportionofshortfibreshasanextremelygreatimpactonyarnqualityandproduction.The proportionofshortfibreshasincreasedsubstantiallyinrecentyearsduetomechanicalpickingand hardginning.Inmostofthecasestheabsoluteshortfibreproportionisspecifiedtodayasthe

percentageoffibresshorterthan12mm.Fibrographisthemostwidelyusedinstrumentinthetextile

industry,someinformationregardingfibrographisgivenbelow.

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

FIBROGRAPH:

Fibrographmeasurementsprovidearelativelyfastmethodfordeterminingthelengthuniformityof

thefibresinasampleofcottoninareproduciblemanner.

Resultsoffibrographlengthtestdonotnecessarilyagreewiththoseobtainedbyothermethodsfor

measuringlengthsofcottonfibresbecauseoftheeffectoffibrecrimpandotherfactors.

Fibrographtestsaremoreobjectivethancommercialstaplelengthclassificationsandalsoprovide

additionalinformationonfibrelengthuniformityofcotoonfibres.Thecottonqualityinformation

providedbytheseresultsisusedinresearchstudiesandqualitysurveys,incheckingcommercial

staplelengthclassifications,inassemblingbalesofcottonintouniformlots,andforotherpurposes.

Fibrographmeasurementsarebasedontheassumptionsthatafibreiscaughtonthecombin

proportiontoitslengthascomparedtotoallengthofallfibresinthesampleandthatthepointof

catchforafibreisatrandomalongitslength.

catchforafibreisatrandomalongitslength. FIBREFINENESS:
catchforafibreisatrandomalongitslength. FIBREFINENESS:

FIBREFINENESS:

Fibrefinenessisanotherimportantqualitycharacteristicwhichplaysaprominentpartin

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

determiningthespinningvalueofcottons.Ifthesamecountofyarnisspunfromtwovarietiesof

cotton,theyarnspunfromthevarietyhavingfinerfibreswillhavealargernumberoffibresinits

cross­sectionandhenceitwillbemoreevenandstrongthanthatspunfromthesamplewithcoarser

fibres.

Finenessdenotesthesizeofthecross­sectiondimensionsofthefibre.ASthecross­sectional

featuresofcottonfibresareirregular,directdeterminationoftheareaofcroo­sectionisdifficultand

laborious.TheIndexoffinenesswhichismorecommonlyusedisthelineardensityorweightper

unitlengthofthefibre.Theunitinwhichthisquantityisexpressedvariesindifferentpartsofthe

world.Thecommonunitusedbymanycountriesforcottonismicrogrammesperinchandthe

variousair­flowinstrumentsdevelopedformeasuringfibrefinenessarecalibratedinthisunit.

Followingaresomemethodsofdeterminingfibrefineness.

Followingaresomemethodsofdeterminingfibrefineness. gravimetricordimensionalmeasurements air­flowmethod

gravimetricordimensionalmeasurements

air­flowmethod

vibratingstringmethod

Someoftheabovemethodsareapplicabletosinglefibreswhilethemajorityofthemdealwitha

massoffibres.Asthereisconsiderablevariationinthelineardensityfromfibretofibre,even

amongstfibresofthesameseed,singlefibremethodsaretime­consumingandlaboriousasalarge

numberoffibreshavetobetestedtogetafairlyreliableaveragevalue.

Itshouldbepointedoutherethatmostofthefinenessdeterminationsarelikelytobeaffectedby

fibrematurity,whichisananotherimportantcharacteristicofcottonfibres.

AIR­FLOWMETHOD(MICRONAIREINSTRUMENT):

Theresistanceofferedtotheflowofairthroughaplugoffibresisdpendentuponthespecific

surfaceareaofthefibres.FinenesstesterhavebeenevolvedonthisprinciplefordetermininG

finenessofcotton.Thespecificsurfaceareawhichdeterminestheflowofairthroughacottonplug,

isdependentnotonlyuponthelineardensityofthefibresinthesamplebutalsoupontheir

maturity.Hencethemicronairereadingshavetobetreatedwithcautionparticularlywhentesting

samplesvaryingwidelyinmaturity.

Inthemicronaireinstrument,aweighedquantityof3.24gmsofwellopenedcottonsampleis

compressedintoacylindricalcontaineroffixeddimensions.Compressedairisforcedthroughthe

sample,atadefinitepressureandthevolume­rateofflowofairismeasuredbyarotometertype

flowmeter.ThesampleforMicronairetestshouldbewellopenedcleanedandthoroughlymixed(by

handfluffingandopeningmethod).Outofthevariousair­flowinstruments,theMicronaireis

robustinconstruction,easytooperateandpresentslittledifficultyasregardsitsmaintenance.

FIBREMATURITY:

Fibrematurityisanotherimportantcharacteristicofcottonandisanindexoftheextentof

developmentofthefibres.Asisthecasewithotherfibreproperties,thematurityofcottonfibres

variesnotonlybetweenfibresofdifferentsamplesbutalsobetweenfibresofthesameseed.The

causesforthedifferencesobservedinmaturity,isduetovariationsinthedegreeofthesecondary

thickeningordepositionofcelluloseinafibre.

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

Acottonfibreconsistsofacuticle,aprimarylayerandsecondarylayersofcellulosesurrounding

thelumenorcentralcanal.Inthecaseofmaturefibres,thesecondarythickeningisveryhigh,and

insomecases,thelumenisnotvisible.Inthecaseofimmaturefibres,duetosomephysiological

causes,thesecondarydepositionofcellulosehasnottakensufficientlyandinextremecasesthe

secondarythickeningispracticallyabsent,leavingawidelumenthroughoutthefibre.Hencetoa

cottonbreeder,thepresenceofexcessiveimmature

fibresinasamplewouldindicatesomedefectintheplantgrowth.Toatechnologist,thepresenceof

excessivepercentageofimmaturefibresinasampleisundesirableasthiscausesexcessivewaste

lossesinprocessingloweringoftheyarnappearancegradeduetoformationofneps,uneven

dyeing,etc.

Animmaturefibrewillshowalowerweightperunitlengththanamaturefibreofthesamecotton,

astheformerwillhavelessdepositionofcelluloseinsidethefibre.Thisanalogycanbeextendedin

somecasestofibresbelongingtodifferentsamplesofcottonalso.Henceitisessentialtomeasure

thematurityofacottonsampleinadditiontodeterminingitsfineness,tocheckwhetherthe

observedfinenessisaninherentcharacteristicorisaresultofthematurity.

DIFFERENTMETHODSOFTESTINGMATURITY:

MATURITYRATIO:

Thefibresafterbeingswollenwith18%causticsodaareexaminedunderthemicroscopewith

suitablemagnification.Thefibresareclassifiedintodifferentmaturitygroupsdependinguponthe

relativedimensionsofwall­thicknessandlumen.Howevertheproceduresfollowedindifferent

countriesforsamplingandclassificationdifferincertainrespects.Theswollenfibresareclassed

intothreegroupsasfollows

1.Normal:rodlikefibreswithnoconvolutionandnocontinuouslumenareclassedas"normal"

2.Dead:convolutedfibreswithwallthicknessone­fifthorlessofthemaximumribbonwidth

areclassedas"Dead"

3.Thin­walled:Theintermediateonesareclassedas"thin­walled"

Acombinedindexknownasmaturityratioisusedtoexpresstheresults.

Acombinedindexknownasmaturityratioisusedtoexpresstheresults.

Maturityratio=((Normal­Dead)/200)+0.70

where,

N­%geofNormalfibres

D­%geofDeadfibres

MATURITYCO­EFFICIENT:

Around100fibresfromBaersortercombsarespreadacrosstheglassslide(maturityslide)andthe

overlappingfibresareagainseparatedwiththehelpofateasingneedle.Thefreeendsofthefibres

arethenheldintheclamponthesecondstripofthematurityslidewhichisadjustabletokeepthe

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

fibresstretchedtothedesiredextent.Thefibresarethenirrigatedwith18%causticsodasolution

andcoveredwithasuitableslip.Theslideisthenplacedonthemicroscopeandexamined.Fibres

areclassedintothefollowingthreecategories

1.Mature:(Lumenwidth"L")/(wallthickness"W")islessthan1

2.Halfmature:(Lumenwidth"L")/(wallthickness"W")islessthan2andmorethan1

3.Immature:(Lumenwidth"L")/(wallthickness"W")ismorethan2

Aboutfourtoeightslidesarepreparedfromeachsampleandexamined.Theresultsarepresentedas

percentageofmature,half­matureandimmaturefibresinasample.Theresultsarealsoexpressed

intermsof"MaturityCoefficient"

MaturityCoefficient=(M+0.6H+0.4I)/100Where,

MispercentageofMaturefibres

HispercentageofHalfmaturefibres

IispercentageofImmaturefibres

Ifmaturitycoefficientis

lessthan0.7,itiscalledasimmaturecotton

between0.7to0.9,itiscalledasmediummaturecotton

above0.9,itiscalledasmaturecotton

AIRFLOWMETHODFORMEASURINGMATURITY:

ThereareothertechniquesformeasuringmaturityusingMicronaireinstrument.Asthefineness

valuedeterminedbytheMicronaireisdependentbothontheintrinsicfineness(perimeterofthe

fibre)andthematurity,itmaybeassumedthatiftheintrinsicfinenessisconstantthenthe

Micronairevalueisameasureofthematurity

DYEINGMETHODS:

Matureandimmaturefibersdifferintheirbehaviourtowardsvariousdyes.Certaindyesare preferentiallytakenupbythematurefibreswhilesomedyesarepreferentiallyabsorbedbythe immaturefibres.Basedonthisobservation,adifferentialdyeingtechniquewasdevelopedinthe UnitedStatesofAmericaforestimatingthematurityofcotton.Inthistechnique,thesampleisdyed

inabathcontainingamixtureoftwodyes,namelyDiphenylFastRed5BLandChlorantineFast

GreenBLL.Thematurefibrestakeupthereddyepreferentially,whilethethinwalledimmature

fibrestakeupthegreendye.Anestimateoftheaverageofthesamplecanbevisuallyassessedby

theamountofredandgreenfibres.

FIBRESTRENGTH:

Thedifferentmeasuresavailableforreportingfibrestrengthare

1.breakingstrength

2.tensilestrengthand

3.tenacityorintrinsicstrength

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

Coarsecottonsgenerallygivehighervaluesforfibrestrengththanfinerones.Inorder,tocompare

strengthoftwocottonsdifferinginfineness,itisnecessarytoeliminatetheeffectofthedifference

incross­sectionalareabydividingtheobservedfibrestrengthbythefibreweightperunitlength.

Thevaluesoobtainedisknownas"INTRINSICSTRENGTHorTENACITY".Tenacityisfoundto

bebetterrelatedtospinningthanthebreakingstrength.

Thestrengthcharacteristicscanbedeterminedeitheronindividualfibresoronbundleoffibres.

SINGLEFIBRESTRENGTH:

Thetenacityoffibreisdependentuponthefollowingfactors

chainlengthofmoleculesinthefibreorientationofmoleculessizeofthecrystallites

distributionofthecrystallitesgaugelengthusedtherateofloadingtypeofinstrumentused

andatmosphericconditions

Themeansinglefibrestrengthdeterminedisexpressedinunitsof"grams/tex".Asitisseen

thetheunitfortenacityhasthedimensionoflengthonly,andhencethispropertyisalso

expressedasthe"BREAKINGLENGTH",whichcanbeconsideredasthelengthofthe

specimenequivalentinweighttothebreakingload.Sincetexisthemassingramsofone

kilometerofthespecimen,thetenacityvaluesexpressedingrams/texwillcorrespondtothe

breakinglengthinkilometers.

BUNDLEFIBRESTRENGTH:

Inpractice,fibresarenotusedindividuallybutingroups,suchasinyarnsorfabrics.Thus, bundlesorgroupsoffibrescomeintoplayduringthetensilebreakofyarnsorfabrics. Further,thecorrelationbetweenspinningperformanceandbundlestrengthisatleastashighas thatbetweenspinningperformanceandintrinsicstrengthdeterminedbytestingindividual fibres.Thetestingofbundlesoffibrestakeslesstimeandinvolveslessstrainthantesting individualfibres.Inviewofthese considerations,determinationofbreakingstrength offibre bundleshasassumedgreaterimportancethansinglefibrestrengthtests.

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FIBRETESTING:IMPORTANCEOFRAWMATERIALINYARNMANUFACTURING

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