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The World Copper Factbook 2014

ThecurrentmembersofICSGare:
AboutICSG

Australia Japan
Belgium Luxembourg
TheInternationalCopperStudyGroup(ICSG)wasformallyestablished Chile Mexico
as an autonomous intergovernmental organization on 23 January
China Peru
1992,followingaseriesofAdHocmeetingssponsoredbytheUnited
European
Nations (UNCTAD) in 1986 and 1987 to review the world situation of Poland
Union
copperanddiscusstheneedforsuchabody.ICSGservestoincrease
Finland Portugal
copper market transparency and promote international discussions
France RussianFederation
andcooperationonissuesrelatedtocopper.
Germany Serbia
In order to fulfill its mandate, the Study Group has three main Greece Spain
objectives: India Sweden
Iran UnitedStates
Increase market transparency by promoting an exchange of
Italy Zambia
informationonproduction,consumption,stocks,trade,andprices
of copper, by forecasting production and consumption, and by

assessing the present and future capacities of copper mines,
plants,smeltersandrefineries. As part of its mandate to provide a global forum where industry and
Promoteinternationalcooperationonmattersrelatedtocopper, governmentscanmeetanddiscusscommonproblemsandobjectives,
such as health and the environment, research, technology ICSGmeetingsareheldtwiceperyear,typicallyintheSpringandFall
transfer,regulationsandtrade. at ICSG Headquarters in Lisbon, Portugal. The meetings of the Study
Provideaglobalforumwhereindustryandgovernmentscanmeet Groupareopentogovernmentmembers,theirindustryadvisorsand
and discuss common problems/objectives. The ICSG is the only invitedobservers.
intergovernmentforumsolelydedicatedtocopper.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

ICSGOfficersandSecretariat
INTERNATIONAL COPPER STUDY GROUP OFFICERS FOR 2014 STATISTICAL COMMITTEE

Chairman Mr Salim Bhabhrawala (U.S.A.)


Chairman Mr Daniel Edelstein (U.S.A.)
Vice-Chairman Mr Bian Gang (China)
Vice-Chairman Ms Marion Finney (Aurubis)
Vice-Chairman Mr Li Yusheng (China)
STANDING COMMITTEE
INDUSTRY ADVISORY PANEL
Chairman Mr Henrique Santos (Portugal)
Vice-Chairman Vacant Chairman Mr Mark Loveitt (IWCC)
Finance Committee Chairman Mr Henrique Santos (Portugal)
SECRETARIAT
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMMITTEE
Secretary-General Mr Don Smale
Chairman Mr Piotr Krawczyk (Poland) Director of Market Research and Statistics Ms Ana Rebelo
Vice-Chairman Mr K D Diwan (India) Director of Economics and Environment Mr Carlos Risopatron
Manager of Statistical Analysis Mr Shairaz Ahmed

Secretary Ms Fatima Cascalho


Contacts:
AcknowledgementsandCopyright:
InternationalCopperStudyGroup
ICSG would like to thank the International Wrought Copper Council, the
RuaAlmiranteBarroso,386
International Copper Association, the Copper Development Association,
1000013Lisbon,Portugal
the European Copper Institute, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S.
Tel:+351213513870
National Park Service, the British Museum and Mr Luis Hernn Herreros
Fax:+351213524035
InfantefortheircontributionstotheFactbook.
email:mail@icsg.org
website:www.icsg.org TheInternationalCopperStudyGroup'sWorldCopperFactbook2014is
publishedbytheICSG.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

ICSGPublications DIRECTORY OF COPPER & COPPER ALLOY FABRICATORS (FIRST USE)


(2014 edition). This directory provides a global overview of companies
COPPERBULLETIN(monthly).TheICSGCopperBulletinincludesannual and plants involved in the first use of copper. First users are mainly
andmonthlystatisticsoncopperandcopperproducts,theirproduction, semisfabricatorsthatprocessrefineryshapesintosemifinishedcopper
usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, andcopperalloyproducts.PublishedSeptember2014.
providing a global view of supply and demand. Subscribers to the SURVEY OF BRASS MILLS, COPPER PRODUCTS AND FOUNDRIES IN
Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual CHINA (2014). The survey provides a detailed overview of Chinas
subscription. industrial use of refined copper and scrap in the brass mills and
ICSG2014STATISTICALYEARBOOK(September2014).TheICSGCopper foundriessectors.PublishedMarch2014.
Bulletin yearbook includes annual statistics on copper and copper MARKETSTUDY:FABRICATIONANDCOPPERUSEINTHEMIDDLEEAST
products,theirproduction,usageandtradebycountry,aswellasstocks ANDNORTHAFRICA.Astudyfocusingonprovidingacompletepicture
andexchangeprices,providingaglobalviewofsupplyanddemandfor of fabrication and copper use in the Middle East, Egypt and India.
thepast10years.TheYearbookservesasausefultoolforconsultations PublishedJuly2014.
and analysis on the longer term evolution of world copper production, SURVEYOFWIRERODPLANTSANDSECONDARYCOPPERSMELTERSIN
usage,stocksandprices.SubscriberstotheCopperBulletinreceivethe CHINA(2013).ThefirstlargescaleICSGSurveyofcopperwirerodplants
Yearbookaspartoftheirannualsubscription. inChina.Areviewofwirerodplants,secondarysmeltersandrefineries
DIRECTORY OF COPPER MINES AND PLANTS (July 2014 edition). The underconstructionin2012andexpansionplansupto2015isincluded.
Directory of Copper Mines and Plants highlights current capacity and COPPER AND COPPER ALLOY SCRAP SUPPLY SURVEY IN EU27 (2013).
provides a five year outlook of forecasted capacity for over 1,000 The study compares scrap trade statistics of EUROSTAT and UN
existingandplannedcoppermines,plantsandrefineriesonacountryby COMTRADE databases. Differences in numbers are revealed and
countrybasis,includingseparatetablesforSXEWplants.Salientdetails explained by EUROSTAT and selected interviews with scrap collectors
foreachoperationareincludedandtheDirectoryseparatesoperations and traders. It also gives an analysis on material availability, copper
between Operating & Developing and Exploration & Feasibility stages. contentintradeandtheeconomiclogicofcopperscrapdismantling.
TheDirectoryispublishedtwiceperyear. TAXATION,ROYALTIESANDOTHERFISCALMEASURESAPPLIEDTOTHE
ICSG STATISTICAL DATABASE. The ICSG maintains one of the world's NONFERROUS METALS INDUSTRY (2013). A joint report by the ICSG,
mostcompletehistoricalandcurrentdatabaseswithstatisticsoncopper ILZSG and INSG, providing information on fiscal measures applied to
productioncapacities,dataoncopperproduction,consumption,stocks, miningandmetalsacrossvariousjurisdictionswithaparticularfocuson
prices, recycling and trade for copper products. In 2012 ICSG launched copper,lead,zincandnickel.
itsonlinestatisticaldatabasethatgivessubscribersdirectaccesstoICSG
historicaldata.Italsoprovidessubscriberswithspecificextractiontools FormoreinformationaboutICSGandICSGpublications,pleasevisitour
fordownloadingthedata. websiteatwww.icsg.org

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TableofContents
CopperandCopperAlloySemisProductionbyRegion,1980&2013 28
AboutICSG i CopperandCopperAlloySemisCapacitybyRegion&Product2014 29
ICSGOfficersandSecretariat ii CopperandCopperAlloySemisProductionbyCountry:Top20 30
ICSGPublications iii Countries,2014

TableofContents 1 Chapter4:CopperTrade 31
MajorInternationalTradeFlowsofCopperOresandConcentrates 32
Chapter1:CuBasics 2
MajorInternationalTradeFlowsofCopperBlisterandAnode 33
WhatisCopper? 2
MajorInternationalTraeFlowsofRefinedCopper 34
CopperPropertiesandBenefits 3
LeadingExportersandImportersofSemiFabricatedCopper 35
SelectedCopperDefinitions 4
Products,2013
CopperinHistory 5
TheGlobalCopperMarketandtheCommodity"Copper" 36
CopperToday 6
CopperStocks,PricesandUsage 37
Chapter2:CopperResourcesandLongTermAvailabilityofCopper 7
Chapter5:CopperUsage 38
CopperReservesandResources 7
HowisCopperUsed? 38
AreWeGoingtoRunOutofCopper 9
WorldRefinedCopperUsage,19002013 39
Chapter3:CopperProduction 10 RefinedCopperUsagebyRegion,1960,1980&2013 40
HowisCopperProduced? 10 WorldRefinedCopperUsageperCapita:19502013 41
CopperMineProduction:WorldCopperMineProduction,19002013 11 IntensityofRefinedCopperUsage 42
CopperMineProductionbyRegion:1960,1980&2013 12 TotalCopperUsage,IncludingCopperScrap,20022012 43
CopperMineProductionbyCountry:Top20Countriesin2013 13 MajorUsesofCopper:Electrical 44
TrendsincopperMiningCapacity,19972017 14 MajorUsesofCopper:ElectronicsandCommunications 45
Top20CopperMinesbyCapacity,basis2014 15 MajorUsesofCopper:Construction 46
ConstraintsonCopperSupply 16 MajorUsesofCopper:Transportation 47
CopperSmelterProduction:WorldCopperSmelterProduction1980 17 MajorUsesofCopper:IndustrialMachineryandEquiptment 48
2013 MajorUsesofCopper:ConsumerandGeneralProducts 49
TrendsinCopperSmeltingCapacity,19972017 18 MajorUsesofCopper:UsagebyEndUseSectorandRegion,2013 50
CopperSmelterProductionbyRegion,19902013 19
Chapter6:CopperRecycling 51
CopperSmelterProductionbyCountry:Top20Countriesin2013 20
CopperRecyclingRateDefinitions 52
Top20CopperSmeltersbyCapacity,basis2014 21
GlobalCopperRecyclablesUse,20042012 53
WorldRefinedCopperProduction,19602013 22
ICSGGlobalCopperScrapResearchProjectandrecentscrapreports 54
TrendsinRefinedCapacity,19972017 23
TheFlowofCopper 55
RefinedCopperProductionbyRegion,19902013 24
IndustryGlobalFlowsofCopper(2012)andDerivedRecyclingRates 57
RefinedCopperProductionbyCountry:Top20Countriesin2013 25
Top20CopperRefineriesbyCapacity,basis2014 26 ANNEX
WorldCopper&CopperAlloySemisProduction,19802013 27 WorldCopperProductionandUsage,19602013 58

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals. It is our ability to


Chapter1:CuBasics recycle metals over and over again that makes them a material of
choice.Recycledcopper(alsoknownassecondarycopper)cannotbe
WhatisCopper? distinguished from primary copper (copper originating from ores),
once reprocessed. Recycling copper extends the efficiency of use of
Copperisamalleableandductilemetallicelementthatisanexcellent
themetal,resultsinenergysavingsandcontributestoensuringthat
conductor of heat and electricity as well as being corrosion resistant
wehaveasustainablesourceofmetalforfuturegenerations.
and antimicrobial. Copper occurs naturally in the Earths crust in a
variety of forms. It can be found in sulfide deposits (as chalcopyrite, The demand for copper will continue to be met by the discovery of
bornite, chalcocite, covellite), in carbonate deposits (as azurite and new deposits, technological improvements, efficient design, and by
malachite), in silicate deposits (as chrysycolla and dioptase) and as taking advantage of the renewable nature of copper through reuse
pure"native"copper. and recycling. As well, competition between materials, and supply
and demand principles, contribute to ensuring that materials are
Copper also occurs naturally in humans, animals and plants. Organic
usedefficientlyandeffectively.
life forms have evolved in an environment containing copper. As a
nutrient and essential element, copper is vital to maintaining health. Copper is an important contributor to the national economies of
Lifesustainingfunctionsdependoncopper. mature, newly developed and developing countries. Mining,
processing, recycling and the transformation of metal into a
Copper and copperbased alloys are used in a variety of applications
multitude of products creates jobs and generates wealth. These
that are necessary for a reasonable standard of living. Its continued
activities contribute to building and maintaining a country's
productionanduseisessentialforsociety'sdevelopment.Howsociety
infrastructure, and create trade and investment opportunities.
exploitsandusesitsresources,whileensuringthattomorrow'sneeds
Copperwillcontinuetocontributetosocietysdevelopmentwellinto
are not compromised, is an important factor in ensuring society's
thefuture.
sustainabledevelopment.

ImagescourtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociation.

International Copper Study Group 1


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The World Copper Factbook 2014

Key Physical Properties of Copper


CopperPropertiesandBenefits
Chemical Symbol Cu
Atomic Number 29

Atomic Weight 63.54

Density 8960 kg m-3

Melting point 1356 K

Specific Heat cp (at 293 K) 0.383 kJ kg-1 K-1

Thermal conductivity 394 W m-1 K-1

Coefficient of linear expansion 16.5 x 10-6 K-1

Young's Modulus of Elasticity 110 x 109 N m-2

Electrical Conductivity (% IACS) 1.673 x 10-8 ohm-m Butcoppersbenefitsextendbeyondmechanicalcharacteristics:


Crystal Structure Face-Centered Cubic Copper is essential to the health of plants, animal and humans.
Coppermakesvitalcontributionstosustainingandimprovingsociety. Deficiencies,aswellasexcesses,canbedetrimentaltohealth.
Copper'schemical,physicalandaestheticpropertiesmakeitamaterial Antimicrobial Properties. Due to coppers antimicrobial
ofchoiceinawiderangeofdomestic,industrialandhightechnology properties, copper and copper alloy products can be used to
applications. eliminatepathogensandreducethespreadofdiseases.
Recycling. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals.
Alloyed with other metals, such as zinc (to form brass), aluminum or Virtually all products made from copper can be recycled and
tin (to form bronzes), or nickel, for example, it can acquire new recycledcopperlosesnoneofitschemicalorphysicalproperties.
characteristics for use in highly specialized applications. In fact, Energy Efficiency. Copper can improve the efficiency of energy
society'sinfrastructureisbased,inpart,oncopper. productionanddistributionsystems.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

Electrowinning.Anelectrolyticrefiningprocesswheretheanode
SelectedCopperDefinitions is inert, and rich (copperloaded) electrolyte continually replaces
lean (copperdepleted) electrolyte as copper is plated at the
Anode. The positive terminal in an electrolytic cell where cathode.
electrons leave a device to enter the external circuit. A copper Firerefinedcopper.Theproductofafirerefiningfurnace.Itisan
anodeat99percentpuritywilldissolve. intermediate, more concentrated (with respect to the desired
Blister.Theproductofaconvertingfurnace.Itisanintermediate, metal) material than blister, from which it is made. Firerefined
more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material copper contains about 99 percent copper, the exact percentage
than matte, from which it is made, and is usually transferred to dependingontheprocessparameters.
anotherfurnaceforfurtherconcentration. Primary copper. Copper extracted from ores and recovered as
Cathode. The negative terminal in an electrolytic cell where coppermetalorcopperbearingchemicals.
copper is plated during electrowinning or electrolytic refining. Secondary refined material. Secondary refined material
Copper so plated is referred to as cathode and is generally represents scrap that has been firerefined, or that has been
about99.99percentpure. converted toanodeatthesmelterlevelandthenelectrolytically
ContainedCopper.Containedcopperisdefinedastheanalytical refined.
amountofcopperoutputtedinconcentratesandprecipitates. Solvent extraction. A method of separating one or more metals
Copper concentrate. A product of flotation milling. It composes from a leach solution by treating with a solvent that will extract
sulfide minerals and entrained material and contains onethird the required metal, leaving the others. The metal is recovered
each copper, iron, and sulfur. It can be processed fromthesolventbyfurthertreatment.
pyrometallurgically in a smelter to produce matte or Stocks. ICSG reports refined copper stocks as those held by the
hydrometallurgically (pressure leaching) to produce pregnant exchanges, consumers, producers and governments. Merchant
leach solution, both products requiring further processing to stocks are included where it is certain that these are
obtaincoppermetal. nonduplicativetothosealreadyreported.Onlyrefinedproducts
Direct melt scrap. Directmelt, or remelt scrap is secondary atplantsitesareincluded.Itemssuchaswirerod,tubeandother
material that can be used directly in a furnace without cleanup semifabricatedformsarenotincluded.
throughtheuseoffluxesandpolingandrerefining. Usage. Copper usage represents refined copper used by
Electrorefining. An electrolytic refining process where less pure semifabricators. Usage data is either directly reported, or ICSG
copperanodeisdissolvedandhighpuritycopperisplatedatthe estimatesanapparentusageusingthefollowingformula:Refined
cathode. copper production + refined imports refined exports + refined
beginningstocksendingstocks.

Sources:ICSGandUSGS.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperinHistory
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that copper was one of the first metals used by humans and was used at least 10,000
years ago for items such as coins and ornaments in western Asia. During the prehistoric Chalcolithic Period (derived from
chalkos, the Greek word for copper), man discovered how to extract and use copper to produce ornaments and implements. As
early as the 4th to 3rd millennium BC, workers extracted copper from Spain's Huelva region.

The discovery that copper, when alloyed with tin, produces bronze, led to the Bronze Age, c. 2,500 BC. Israel's Timna Valley
provided copper to the Pharaohs (an Egyptian papyrus records the use of copper to treat infections and to sterilize water).
Cyprus supplied much of the Phoenician, Greek and Roman needs for copper. "Copper" is derived from the latin Cyprium,
literally Cyprian metal. The Greeks of Aristotle's era were familiar with brass as a valued copper alloy. In South America, the
pre-Columbian Maya, Aztec and Inca civilizations exploited copper, in addition to gold and silver. During the Middle Ages,
copper and bronze works flourished in China, India and Japan.

The discoveries and inventions relating to electricity and magnetism of the late 18th and early 19th centuries by scientists
such as Ampere, Faraday and Ohm, and the products manufactured from copper, helped launch the Industrial Revolution
and propel copper into a new era. Today, copper continues to serve society's needs. Although copper has been in use for at
least 10,000 years, innovative applications for copper are still being developed as evidenced by the development of the copper
chip by the semi-conductors industry.

ImagescourtesyoftheBritishMuseum,theCopperDevelopmentAssociation andICSG.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014


CopperToday

Theglobaldemandforcoppercontinuestogrow:worldrefinedusagehasmorethantripledinthelast50yearsthankstoexpandingsectorssuchas
electrical and electronic products, building construction, industrial machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, and consumer and

general products. Some of the highlights of 2014 copper production and usage are listed below. In the chapters that follow, more indepth
information is presented on copper production, trade, usage, and recycling. For the most uptodate information on the global copper market,
pleasevisitourwebsiteatwww.icsg.org.

CopperProductionHighlights CopperUsageHighlights
Preliminary figures indicate that global Refinedcopperusage(usagebysemisplantsorthe
copper mine production in 2013 reached first users of copper) in 2013 reached 21.2 million
18.1 million tonnes. The largest producer tonnes. China was also the largest consumer of
of mined copper was Chile (almost 5.8 refinedcopperin2013withapparentusageofover
milliontonnes). 9.5milliontonnes.


Smelter production in 2013 reached According to the International Copper Association
around16.8milliontonnes.Chinawasthe (ICA), equipment was the largest copper enduse
largestproducerofblister&anodein2013 sector last year, followed by building construction
(over5.7milliontonnes) andinfrastructure.


New copper applications being developed include
Refinery Production in 2013 increased to
antimicrobialcoppertouchsurfaces,leadfreebrass
20.9 million tonnes, including 3.8 million
tonnesofsecondaryrefinedproduction. plumbing, high tech copper wire, heat exchangers,
andnewconsumerproductsaswell.

ImagescourtesyofCDAandLuisHernnHerrerosfromwww.visnu.cl,CopyrightAngloAmerican(FaenaLosBroncesyMantosBlancos Chile)

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

Chapter2:CopperResourcesandLongTermAvailabilityofCopper

CopperReservesandResources 2013WorldCopperReserves&MineProduction1/
(undiscoveredresourcesnotincludingdeepseanodulesandlandbasedand
Typically, the future availability of minerals is based on the concept of submarinemassivesulfidescontainedcopper)
reserves and resources. Reserves are deposits that have been discovered,
evaluatedandassessedtobeeconomicallyprofitabletomine.Resourcesare
far bigger and include reserves, discovered deposits that are potentially

TotalResources
profitable, and undiscovered deposits that are predicted based on (identifiedandundiscovered)
preliminarygeologicalsurveys.(seedefinitionsbelow) 5,600milliontonnes(Mt)

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), copper reserves



amount to 690 million tonnes (Mt) and identified and undiscovered copper
resources are currently estimated to be around 2,100 Mt and 3,500 Mt, IdentifiedResources
respectively (basis 2013). The latter does not take into account the vast 2,100Mt
amountsofcopperfoundindeepseanodulesandlandbasedandsubmarine
massivesulphides.Currentandfuture explorationopportunitieswillleadto
increasesinbothreservesandknownresources.
Reserves
Definitions(http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/mcs/2014/mcsapp2014.pdf) 690Mt

Resource:Aconcentrationofnaturallyoccurringsolid,liquid,orgaseousmaterialinoron
theEarthscrustinsuchformandamountthateconomicextractionofacommodityfrom
theconcentrationiscurrentlyorpotentiallyfeasible. MineCapacity
IdentifiedResources:Resourceswhoselocation,grade,quality,andquantityareknown
20.8Mt
or estimated from specific geologic evidence. Identified resources include economic,
marginallyeconomic,andsubeconomiccomponents.
Mine
Undiscovered Resources: Resources, the existence of which are only postulated, Production
comprisingdepositsthatareseparatefromidentifiedresources.Undiscoveredresources (nottoscale)
18.1Mt
may be postulated in deposits of such grade and physical location as to render them

economic,marginallyeconomic,orsubeconomic.
Reserves: That part of the reserve base (part of an identified resource that meets

specified minimum physical and chemical criteria related to current mining and
productionpractices,includingthoseforgrade,quality,thickness,anddepth)whichcould 1/Source:USGS(resources/reservesdata)andICSG(capacity/productiondata)
beeconomicallyextractedorproducedatthetimeofdetermination.Thetermreserves
neednotsignifythatextractionfacilitiesareinplaceandoperative.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

GlobalDistributionofIdentifiedandUndiscoveredCopperResources

inPorphyryandSedimenthostedStrataboundCopperDeposits1/

In2013theU.S.GeologicalSurvey(USGS)completedageologybased,cooperativeinternationalassessmentofcopperresourcesoftheworld 2/.
TheUSGS
assessedundiscoveredcopperintwodeposittypesthataccountforabout80%oftheworldscoppersupply.Porphyrycopperdepositsaccountforabout

60%oftheworldscopper.Inporphyrycopperdeposits,copperoremineralsaredisseminatedinigneousintrusions.Sedimenthostedstrataboundcopper
deposits,inwhichcopperisconcentratedinlayersinsedimentaryrocks,accountforabout20%oftheworldsidentifiedcopper.Themeanundiscovered

totalsforporphyryandsedimenthosteddepositsare3,100and400Mtrespectively,resultinginaglobaltotalof3,500Mtofcopper.Withidentifiedcopper

resourcescurrentlyestimatedat2,100Mt,totalcopperresources(undiscovered+identified)areestimatedat5,600Mt.

A.IdentifiedCopperResources B.UndiscoveredCopperResources
Africaandthe
Africaandthe WesternEurope,
WesternEurope, MiddleEast,8% EasternEurope MiddleEast,5%
3%
4% and SouthAmerica,
EasternEurope Southwestern 21%
and Asia,7%
Southwestern Australia,1%
Asia,6% SouthAmerica,
39%
Australia,1%
SoutheastAsia
SoutheastAsia Archipelagos,9% CentralAmerica
Archipelagos,6% andthe
Caribbean,5%
SouthCentral
Asiaand
Indochina,3%
NorthCentral SouthCentral
Asia,8% Asiaand NorthAmerica,
Indochina,15% 13%
NortheastAsia,
>1%0% CentralAmerica
NorthAmerica, NortheastAsia,
andthe NorthCentral
23% 7%
Caribbean,2% Asia,14%

1/UndiscoveredCopperResourcesAGlobalAssessment,April2014,PresentationatICSGmeeting,Lisbon,byMrsJaneM.Hammarstrom(USGSGlobalMineralResourceAssessmentTeam)

2/Supportingstudies,includingdocumentationoftheassessmentmethodologyanddescriptionsofindividualtracts,areavailableontheUSGSMineralResourcesProgramWebsite,at
http://minerals.usgs.gov/global/.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

AreWeGoingtoRunOutofCopper1?
Technology has a key role to play in addressing many of the challenges
It is highly improbable. Since 1950, based on the then current rate of facedbynewcopperproduction.Knownandasyetunknowninnovations
will ensure new mine production continues to provide vital copper
demand, there has always been, on average, 40 years of reserves, and
supplies.
significantly greater amounts of known resources (USGS data). In
addition, recycling, innovation and mining exploration continue to Inadditioncopperrecyclingplaysanimportantroleincopperavailability
contributetothelongtermavailabilityofcopper. since todays primary copper is tomorrows recycled material. Unlike
other commodities such as energy or food, copper is not consumed.
Despiteincreaseddemandforcopperproducedfromoreinrecentyears,
Copperisoneofthefewrawmaterialswhichcanberecycledrepeatedly
increases in reserves have grown more, and there is more identified
without any loss of performance, and key stakeholders such as policy
copperavailabletotheworldthanatanyothertimeinhistory.
makers,scrapcollectors,copperproducersandrecyclersmustallfocuson
USGS Reported World ensuringthatyesterdaysmetalisrecycledandreused.
Copper Reserves While this will ensure a progressive move towards a more sustainable
700
economy,theloopcannotbecompletelyclosedfortworeasons.Firstly,
600
demand will continue to increase due to population growth, product
Million Tons Cu

500
innovation and economic development. Secondly in most applications,
400
copperstaysinusefordecades.
300
Consequently, meeting future metals demand will continue to require a
200
combination of primary raw materials, coming from mines, as well as
100
recycled materials, while innovative policies and technology should
0
1930 1960 1980 2000 2013 continue to contribute to improvements in recycling performance and

resourceefficiency.
Intheperiod20042013,160milliontonnesofcopperhavebeenmined.
Inthatsameperiodhowever,reserveshavegrownby220milliontonnes. Based on the latest knowledge on geological availability and continuous
industry innovation there are good reasons to believe that copper will
This reflects additional exploration, technological advances and the
continue to be a vital and positive contributor to society well into the
evolvingeconomicsofmining. future.
1/BasedontheInternationalCopperAssociationbriefingnoteoncopperslongtermavailability.Seemoreathttp://copperalliance.org/coreinitiatives/sd/availability/

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

The output of electrorefining is refined copper cathodes, assaying over


Chapter3:CopperProduction 99.99%ofcopper.

HowisCopperProduced? Alternatively, in the hydrometallurgical route, copper is extracted from


mainly low grade oxide ores and also some sulphide ores, through leaching
Geologistslookforsignsand/oranomaliesthatwouldindicatethepresence (solvent extraction) and electrowinning (SXEW process). The output is the
of a mineral deposit. Under the right geological, economic, environmental sameasthroughtheelectrorefiningrouterefinedcoppercathodes.ICSG
andlegalconditions,miningcanproceed. estimates that in 2013, refined copper production from SXEW represented
18%oftotalcopperrefinedproduction.
Primarycopperproductionstartswiththeextractionofcopperbearingores.
There are three basic ways of copper mining: surface, underground mining Refined copper production derived from mine production (either from
and leaching. Openpit mining is the predominant mining method in the metallurgicaltreatmentofconcentratesorSXEW)isreferredtoasprimary
world. copper production, as obtainable from a primary raw material source.
However,thereisanotherimportantsourceofrawmaterialwhichisscrap.
After the ore has been mined, it is crushed and ground followed by a
Copper scrap derives from either metals discarded in semis fabrication or
concentration by flotation. The obtained copper concentrates typically
finishedproductmanufacturingprocesses(newscrap)orobsoleteendof
containaround30%ofcopper,butgradescanrangefrom20to40percent.
life products (old scrap). Refined copper production attributable to
In the following smelting process, sometimes preceded by a roasting step,
recycledscrapfeedisclassifiedassecondarycopperproduction.Secondary
copperistransformedintoamattecontaining5070%copper.Themolten
producers use processes similar to those employed for primary production.
matte is processed in a converter resulting in a socalled blister copper of
ICSGestimatesthatin2013,attherefinerylevel, secondarycopperrefined
98.599.5%coppercontent.Inthenextstep,theblistercopperisfirerefined
productionreached18%oftotalcopperrefinedproduction.
in the traditional process route, or, increasingly, remelted and cast into
anodesforelectrorefining.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperMineProduction
WorldCopperMineProduction, 19002013
(thousandmetrictonnes)
Source:ICSG
20,000

18,000

16,000

14,000

12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Concentrates SX-EW

Since1900,whenworldproductionwaslessthan500thousandtonnescopper,worldcoppermineproductionhasgrownby3.2%peryearto18.1
milliontonnesin2013.SXEWproduction,virtuallynonexistentbeforethe1960s,reachednearly3.8milliontonnesin2013.

International Copper Study Group 11


The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperMineProductionbyRegion,1960versus2013
Thousandmetrictonnescopper
Source:ICSG

1960 2013
Oceania
3% 6%
19% 10%

25% Africa

6% 42% Europe
13%

NorthAmerica

Asia
11%
13%
36%
16% LatinAmerica

Fromlessthan750,000tonnescopperin1960,coppermineproductioninLatinAmericasurgedtoover7.5milliontonnesin
2013,representing42%oftheglobaltotal.Asiahasalsoexhibitedsignificantgrowth.Theregionsshareofglobalproduction
hasincreasedfromjust6%to16%overtherespectiveperiod.

International Copper Study Group 12


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2013


(Thousand metric tonnes)
Source: ICSG

Chile
China
Peru
United States
Australia
Congo, D.R.
Zambia
Russian Fed.
Canada
Indonesia
Mexico
Kazakhstan
Poland
Brazil
Iran
Mongolia
Laos
Papua New Guinea
Scandinavia
Turkey

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000

Chileaccountedforalmostonethirdofworldcoppermineproductionin2013withmineoutputofalmost5.8milliontonnescopper.

International Copper Study Group 13


The World Copper Factbook 2014

TrendsinCopperMiningCapacity,19972017
Thousandmetrictonnes(Bars)andAnnualpercentagechange(Line)
Source:ICSGDirectoryofCopperMinesandPlants July2014

12.0% 25,000 25.0% 7,000


Concentrates SXEW
6,000
10.0%
20,000 20.0%

Thousandmetrictonnescopper

Thousandmetrictonnescopper
5,000
8.0%
20142017: 15,000 15.0%

%growth
4,000
%growth

19972002:
+8.1% +10.2%
6.0% 20092013:
+2.3% 20032008:
+5.4% 3,000
20032008: 10,000 10.0%
+3.7% 20092013:
4.0% 19972002: +2.7%
+2.6% 2,000
20142017:
5,000 5.0% +6.1%
2.0% 1,000

0.0% 0.0%
1997 2001 2005 2009 2013 2017 1997 2001 2005 2009 2013 2017

Copperminingcapacityisestimatedtoreach27.5milliontonnescopperin2017,with21%beingSXEWproduction.Thiswillbe
around30%higherthancapacityof21.0milliontonnescopperrecordedin2013.Asthechartsillustrate,growthinconcentrate
capacityhasgenerallybeenrising,whilegrowthinSXEWcapacityhasbeenfalling.Thistrendshouldreversegoingforwardasnew
capacityisaddedatexistingandsomenewoperations.

International Copper Study Group 14


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Top20CopperMinesbyCapacity(basis2014)
Thousandmetrictonnescopper
Source:ICSG DirectoryofCopperMinesandPlants July2014

Rank Mine Country Owner(s) Source Capacity


1 Escondida Chile BHP Billiton (57.5%), Rio Tinto Corp. (30%), Japan Escondida (12.5%) Concs & SX-EW 1,050
2 Grasberg Indonesia P.T. Freeport Indonesia Co. (PT-FI), Rio Tinto Concentrates 790
3 Collahuasi Chile Anglo American (44%), Glencore plc (44%), Mitsui + Nippon (12%) Concs & SX-EW 520
4 Los Bronces Chile Anglo Amercian 75.5%, Mitsubishi Corp. 24.5% Concs & SX-EW 490
5 Codelco Norte Chile Codelco Concs & SX-EW 450
BHP Billiton (33.75%), Teck (22.5%), Glencore plc (33.75%), Mitsubishi Corp.
6 Antamina Peru Concentrates 450
(10%)
7 Morenci United States Freeport-McMoRan Inc 85%, 15% affiliates of Sumitomo Corporation Concs & SX-EW 450
8 El Teniente Chile Codelco Concs & SX-EW 443
Taimyr Peninsula (Norilsk/
9 Russia Norilsk Nickel Concentrates 430
Talnakh Mills)
10 Los Pelambres Chile Antofagasta Plc (60%), Nippon Mining (25%), Mitsubishi Materials (15%) Concentrates 400
11 Radomiro Tomic Chile Codelco SX-EW 400
12 Andina Chile Codelco Concentrates 300
13 Kansanshi Zambia First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%), ZCCM (20%) Concs & SX-EW 285
14 Bingham Canyon United States Kennecott Concentrates 280
15 Batu Hijau Indonesia Pt Newmont Nusa Tenggara (PT Pukuafu 20%, Newmont 41.5%, Sumitomo Concentrates 250

16 Sarcheshmeh Iran National Iranian Copper Industry Co. Concs & SX-EW 249

Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.53.5%, Compaia de Minas


17 Cerro Verde II (Sulphide) Peru Concentrates 240
Buenaventura 18.5%, Sumitomo 21%
18 Olympic Dam Australia BHP Billiton Concs & SX-EW 225
19 Cuajone Peru Grupo Mexico (54.1%), Marmon Corp. (15%), Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Concs & SX-EW 212
20 Konkola Zambia Konkola Copper Mines (Vedanta 79.4%, ZCCM 20.6%) Concentrates 200

International Copper Study Group 15


The World Copper Factbook 2014


ConstraintsonCopperSupply
Other environmental issues: governments are becoming more
Withcopperconcentrateinstrongdemand,therehasbeengrowinginterest awareoftheimpactofminingtothesurroundingenvironmentin
in understanding the obstacles that can prevent copper mine supply from recent years. In countries like Peru and the Philippines, the
coming onstream. Below are some of the operational and financial relationshipwithindigenouscommunityisalsoakeyfactor.
constraints identified from the study. For more information about ICSG Resource nationalism: It has become a priority for certain
research related to constraints on copper supply, please contact the ICSG governments to develop their mineral resources that have not
Secretariatatmail@icsg.org been exploited until now. While willing to develop their natural
resources, countries might be seeking to extract strong revenue
Declining ore grades: a serious issue in developed copper areas flowsfromthem.Itwillbeimportanttobalanceroyalty/taxation
suchastheUSAandChile levels with the need to encourage capital investment to develop
theirrisingindustries.
Projectfinance:prolongedeconomicandpricevolatilitymayhave
Sulphuricacidsupplyandprice:16%costfactorforSXEWprojects
significantimpactoncostofcapital
Skilled labor: open labor markets would help address this
Tax&investmentregimes:recentresearchindicatestheseareless constraint
importantthangeologicalendowments Labor strikes: tend to increase when refined prices are high and
Other cost issues: lower capital expenditure may have adverse GDP is growing faster, but tend to be longer and less frequent
longtermeffectoncoppersupply;operatingcostescalation otherwise
HighdomesticcostsifthereisDutchdisease(resultinginhigher
Watersupply:acriticalissueindryminingdistricts exchangeratesdueinparttostrongexports)
Energy: coal is the fuel chosen to power main copper mines and Ratebetweenimportedinputsanddomesticinputcostsaffected
processesclimatechangemayincreasecosts bythecurrencystrengthoftheproducer
Politicalrisks:Securityandtransportaccessibilityiscrucialtomine

International Copper Study Group 16


The World Copper Factbook 2014

operation
CopperSmelterProduction
World Copper Smelter Production, 1980-2013
Thousand metric tonnes copper
Source: ICSG
17,500

15,000

12,500

10,000

7,500

5,000

2,500

0
1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

Primary Feed Secondary Feed


Smeltingisthepyrometallurgicalprocessusedtoproducecoppermetal.In2013,worldcoppersmelterproductionreached16.8milliontonnes
copper.Recently,thetrendtorecovercopperdirectlyfromoresthroughleachingprocesseshasbeenontheincrease.Primarysmeltersusemine
concentratesastheirmainsourceoffeed(althoughsomeusecopperscrapaswell).Secondarycoppersmeltersusecopperscrapastheirfeed.

International Copper Study Group 17


The World Copper Factbook 2014

TrendsinCopperSmeltingCapacity,1997and2017
Percentageshareoftotalcapacity,bytechnologytype
Source:ICSGDirectoryofCopperMinesandPlants July2014

1997 2017
6.5% 1.1% 4% 0% 1%
9%
14.5%

15%

55.0%
22.9%
71%

Flash/Continuous Reverb/Blast/Rotary
ModifiedReverb/Convert Electric
LowGradeEW Unkown

TheuseofFlash/Continuoustechnologyaccountedfor55%intotalcoppersmeltingcapacityin1997.Thissharerosetoalmost70%in
2013.Itisexpectedtoremainaroundthisleveluntil2017.

International Copper Study Group 18


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Copper Smelter Production by Region, 1990-2013


Thousand metric tonnes
Source: ICSG
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

Africa America Asia Europe Oceania

Asiasshareofworldcoppersmelteroutputjumpedfrom27%in1990to57%in2013assmelterproductioninChinaexpandedrapidly.

International Copper Study Group 19


The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperSmelterProduction byCountry:Top20Countriesin2013
Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSG
China
Japan
Chile
Russian Fed.
India
Korean Rep.
Poland
Zambia
United States
Germany
Australia
Bulgaria
Kazakhstan
Peru
Canada
Indonesia
Brazil
Mexico
Spain
Iran

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000

In2013,Chinaaccountedforoverathirdofworldcoppersmelterproduction,followedbyJapan(9%),Chile(8%)andtheRussian
Federation(5%).

International Copper Study Group 20


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Top20CopperSmeltersbyCapacity(basis2014)
Thousandmetrictonnescopper
Source:ICSG DirectoryofCopperMinesandPlants July2014
Rank Smelter Country Operator/Owner(s) Process Capacity
1 Guixi (smelter) China Jiangxi Copper Corp. Outokumpu Flash 900
Outokumpu Flash, Ausmelt, Mitsubishi
2 Birla Copper (Dahej) India Birla Group 500
Continuous
3 Codelco Norte (smelter) Chile Codelco Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter 450
3 Hamburg Germany Aurubis Outokumpu, Contimelt, Electric 450
3 Besshi/ Ehime (Toyo) Japan Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. Outokumpu Flash 450
3 Saganoseki/ Oita (smelter) Japan Pan Pacific Copper Co. Ltd Outokumpu Flash 450
7 El Teniente (Caletones) Chile Codelco Chile Reverberatory/ Teniente Conv. 400
7 Jinchuan (smelter) China Jinchuan Non- Ferrous Metal Co. Reverberatory/ Kaldo Conv. 400
7 Xiangguang Copper China Xiangguang Copper Co. Ltd. Outokumpu Flash 400
( lt )
7 Norilsk (Nikelevy, Medny) Russia Norilsk G-M Reverb, Electric, Vanyukov 400
7 Sterlite Smelter (Tuticorin) India Vedanta Isasmelt Process 400
7 Jinguan (smelter) China Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group Flash Smelter 400
13 Ilo Smelter Peru Southern Copper Corp. (Grupo Mexico 75.1%) Isasmelt Process 360
Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (49.29%), Dowa
14 Onahama/ Fukushima Japan Metals & Mining Co. Ltd.(31.15%), Furukawa Reverberatory 354
Metals & Resources Co. Ltd. (12.67%)
15 Altonorte (La Negra) Chile GlencoreXstrata plc Noranda Continuous 350
Tongling Nonferrous Metals Corp. (57.4%),
15 Jinlong (Tongdu) China Flash Smelter 350
Sumitomo (35%), Pingguo Aluminium Co.
Yunnan Copper Industry Group (Local
15 Yunnan China Isasmelt Process 350
Government)
15 Tongling China Tongling Nonferrous Metals Group Outokumpu Flash 350
19 Naoshima/ Kagawa Japan Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Mitsubishi Continuous 342
( lt )
20 Baiyin China Baiyin Non-Ferrous Metals Flash Smelter 340

International Copper Study Group 21


The World Copper Factbook 2014

RefinedCopperProduction
WorldRefinedCopperProduction,19602013
Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSG
20,000

17,500

15,000

12,500

10,000

7,500

5,000

2,500

0
1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012

Refinery Primary Refinery Secondary Refinery SX-EW

Withtheemergenceofsolventextractionelectrowinning,(SXEW)technology,refinedcopperproducedfromleachingoreshasbeenontherise,
increasingfromlessthan1%ofworldrefinedcopperproductioninthelate1960sto18%ofworldoutputin2013.

International Copper Study Group 22


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Trends in Refined Capacity, 1997-2017


Thousand metric tonnes copper
Source: ICSG Directory of Copper Mines and Plants - July 2014
30,000

28,000

26,000

24,000

22,000

20,000

18,000

16,000

14,000

12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

-
1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017

Electrolytic Electrowinning Fire Refining

Thischartshowsworldcopperrefinerycapacitybyrefiningprocess.Theratiobetweenproductionandcapacityiscalledthecapacityutilizationrate.
Theworldrefinerycapacityutilizationratewasaround79%in2013.

International Copper Study Group 23


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Refined Copper Production by Region, 1990-2013


Thousand metric tonnes
Source: ICSG
25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

Africa America Asia Europe Oceania

Regionwiththehighestoutputofrefinedcopperin1990:theAmericas(4,250kt),followedbyEurope(3,000kt)
Leadingregionintheworldin2013:Asia(10,340kt)ascomparedto2,500ktin1990.

International Copper Study Group 24


The World Copper Factbook 2014

RefinedCopperProductionbyCountry:Top20Countriesin2013
Thousand metrictonnes
Source:ICSG
China
Chile
Japan
United States
Russian Fed.
Germany
Congo
India
Korean Rep.
Zambia
Poland
Australia
Belgium
Mexico
Peru
Spain
Kazakhstan
Canada
Brazil
Bulgaria
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000

International Copper Study Group 25


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Top20CopperRefineriesbyCapacity(basis2014)
Thousandmetrictonnescopper
Source:ICSG DirectoryofCopperMinesandPlants July2014

Rank Refinery Country Owner(s) Process Capacity


1 Guixi China Jiangxi Copper Corporation Electrolytic 900
2 Jinchuan China Jinchuan Non Ferrous Co. Electrolytic 650
3 Daye/ Hubei (refinery) China Daye Non-Ferrous Metals Co. Electrolytic 600
3 Chuquicamata Refinery Chile Codelco Electrolytic 600
5 Yunnan Copper China Yunnan Copper Industry Group (64.8%) Electrolytic 500
5 Birla India Birla Group Hidalco Electrolytic 500
5 Pyshma Refinery Russia Uralelectromed (Urals Mining & Metallurgical Co.) Electrolytic 500
8 Toyo/Niihama (Besshi) Japan Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. Electrolytic 450
8 Amarillo United States Grupo Mexico Electrolytic 450
10 Onsan Refinery I Korean Republic LS-Nikko Co. (LS, Nippon Mining) Electrolytic 440
11 Hamburg (refinery) Germany Aurubis Electrolytic 416

12 El Paso (refinery) United States Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Electrolytic 415

13 Baiyin China Baiyin Nonferrous Metals Electrolytic 400


13 Jinguan (refinery) China Tongling Non-Ferrous Metals Group Electrolytic 400
Tongling NonFerrous Metal Corp. 52 %, Sharpline International
13 Jinlong (Tongdu) (refinery) China Electrolytic 400
13%, Sumitomo Corp. 7.5%, Itochu Corp. 7.5%
13 Xiangguang Copper (refinery) China Yanggu Xiangguang Copper Co Electrolytic 400
13 Shandong Fangyuan (refinery) China Dongying, Shandong Electrolytic 400
13 Sterlite Refinery India Vedanta Electrolytic 400
13 Las Ventanas Chile Codelco Electrolytic 400
13 Radomiro Tomic (SX-EW) Chile Codelco Electrowinning 400

International Copper Study Group 26


The World Copper Factbook 2014


WorldCopperandCopperAlloySemisProduction

P
WorldCopperandCopperAlloySemis Production,19802013
Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSG
27,000
WorldCopperandCopperAlloySemis
24,000 ProductionBreakdown2013P
21,000
CopperSemis
26%
18,000

15,000

12,000

9,000

6,000 Notspecified CopperAlloy


64% Semis
3,000 10%

0
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Source:ICSG Totalsemisproduction: 24.06mtonnes

Semisfabricatorsprocessrefineryshapessuchascathodes,wirebar,ingot,billetslabandcakeintosemifinishedcopperandcopperalloyproductsusing
bothunwroughtcoppermaterialsanddirectmeltscrapasrawmaterialfeed.Semisfabricatorsareconsideredtobethefirstusersofrefinedcopper
andincludewirerodplantsandbrassmills.

P/Preliminary.Forsomecountriesstillincomplete

International Copper Study Group 27


The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperandCopperAlloySemisProductionbyRegion,1980&2013P
Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSG
20,000

18,000
1980 2013
16,000

14,000

12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania South America
Asiaaccountedfor77%(oralmost18.5millionmetrictonnes)ofsemisoutputin2013,comparedto23%in1980.

P/Preliminary.Forsomecountriesstillincomplete

International Copper Study Group 28


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Copper&CopperAlloySemisProductionCapacitybyRegion&Product
Source:ICSGDirectoryofCopperandCopperAlloyFabricators2014

SemisProductionCapacitybyRegion,2014(%) Semis Production Capacity by Product,


Source:ICSG 2013 vs 2014 (million tonnes gross weight)
Source: ICSG
OtherAfrica
1%
60
Asia(ex.China)&
Oceania 50
20%

40
China
40%
MiddleEast&North 30
Africa
4%
20

10
Americas
13% -
2013 2014
Wire Rod PSS RBS
EasternEurope WesternEurope Tubes Alloy Wire Ingots
6% 16% Foil Powder Not Classified

In2014,Chinaaccountsforthelargestshareofworld Wirerodplantsareestimatedtoaccountfor53%of
semisproductioncapacity(40%)andthelargest worldfirstusecapacityin2014,orover28.0million
numberofsemisplants(563). tonnes.

International Copper Study Group 29


The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperandCopperAlloySemisProduction Capacity byCountry:


Top20Countries, 2014
Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSGDirectoryofCopperandCopperAlloyFabricators2014
China
United States
Japan
Germany
Korean Rep.
Italy
India
Russian Fed.
Taiwan (China)
Brazil
Turkey
France
BENELUX
Mexico
Thailand
Spain
Indonesia
United Arab Emirates
Poland
Malaysia
0 4,000 8,000 12,000 16,000 20,000

International Copper Study Group 30


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Chapter4:CopperTrade World Copper Imports by Product Category, 2013


Thousand metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise noted)
Source: ICSG
Copper products across the value chain are traded internationally. Often,
countrieswhereupstreamcopperproductioncapacityexceedsdownstream
Concentrates
production capacity will import the raw materials needed to meet their
productionneeds,andviceversa.Majorproductcategoriesofcoppertraded Blister & Anode
internationallyinclude:
Refined Copper
Copperconcentrates
Copperblisterandanode Copper Scrap /1
Coppercathodeandingots
Copper & Copper
Copperscrapand Alloy Semis /1
Coppersemis 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000

Copper powders and compounds are also traded globally, but typically in
much smaller quantities. In additional, copper is contained in enduse World Copper Exports by Product Category, 2013
products that are traded globally including automobiles, appliances, Thousand metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise noted)
Source: ICSG
electronicequipmentandotherproducts.Changesintraderegulations,such
as import duties or export quotas, can have significant impacts on the
internationaltradeofcopper.Formoreinformationabouttheinternational Concentrates
trade of copper and changes in regulations that can affect the trade of
copper,pleasecontacttheICSGSecretariatatmail@icsg.org1
Blister & Anode

Refined Copper

Copper Scrap /1

Copper & Copper

Alloy Semis /1

1 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000


Gross metal weight.

International Copper Study Group 31


The World Copper Factbook 2014

1
Major International Trade
Major Trade Flows
FlowsofofCopper
CopperOres and Concentrates
Ores and Concentrates1

MajorExporters of MajorImportersof
CopperOresand CopperOresand
Concentrates,2013 Concentrates,2013

1. Chile 1. China
2. Peru 2. Japan
3. Australia 3. India
4. Canada 4. KoreanRep.
5. Indonesia 5. Spain
6. UnitedStates 6. Germany
7. Brazil 7. Bulgaria
8. Spain 8. Brazil
9. Mexico 9. Finland
10. Mongolia 10. Philippines

ImagecourtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociation.

1
Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Detailed trade matrices are available in ICSG Statistical Yearbook.

International Copper Study Group 32


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Major International Trade of Copper Blister


Major International
1 Trade Flows of Copper Blister and Anode1
and Anode

MajorExporters of MajorImportersof
CopperBlisterand CopperBlisterand
Anode,2013 Anode,2013

1. Chile 1. China
2. Bulgaria 2. Belgium
3. Spain 3. Germany
4. Belgium 4. Australia.
5. Netherlands 5. KoreanRep.
6. Finland 6. Canada
7. UnitedStates 7. Austria
8. Armenia 8. Netherlands
9. Peru 9. India
10. Germany 10. Sweden

1
Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Detailed trade matrices are available in ICSG Statistical Yearbook.

International Copper Study Group 33


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Major International Trade Flows of Refined


Major International
1 Trade Flows of Refined Copper1
Copper

MajorExporters of MajorImportersof
RefinedCopper, RefinedCopper,
2013 2013

1. Chile 1. China
2. Japan 2. UnitedStates
3. Australia 3. Germany
4. Kazakhstan 4. Italy
5. Poland 5. Malaysia
6. China 6. Taiwan
7. Peru 7. Turkey
8. Malaysia 8. KoreanRep.
9. India 9. Thailand
10. Belgium 10. Brazil

1
Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Detailed trade matrices are available in ICSG Statistical Yearbook.

International Copper Study Group 34


The World Copper Factbook 2014

LeadingExportersandImportersofSemiFabricatedCopperProducts,2013
Thousandmetrictonnes,Source:ICSG
1,500
Importers
1,200

900

600

300

1,200
Exporters
1,000

800

600

400

200

International Copper Study Group 35


The World Copper Factbook 2014

Exchanges also provide for the trading of futures and options contracts.
TheGlobalCopperMarketandthe These allow producers and consumers to fix a price in the future, thus
CommodityCopper providingahedgeagainstpricevariations.Inthisprocesstheparticipation
of speculators, who are ready to buy the risk of price variation in
Copper,asanyothergoodormerchandise,istradedbetweenproducers exchangeformonetaryreward,givesliquiditytothemarket.Afuturesor
and consumers. Producers sell their present or future production to options contract defines the quality of the product, the size of the lot,
clients, who transform the metal into shapes or alloys, so that delivery dates, delivery warehouses and other aspects related to the
downstream fabricators can transform these into different enduse tradingprocess.Contractsareuniqueforeachexchange.Theexistenceof
products.Oneofthemostimportantfactorsintradingacommoditysuch futures contracts also allows producers and their clients to agree on
as copper is the settlement price for the present day (spot price) or for differentpricesettlingschemestoaccommodatedifferentinterests.
futuredays.
Exchanges also provide for warehousing facilities that enable market
Exchanges participants to make or take physical delivery of copper in accordance
witheachexchange'scriteria.
The role of a commodity exchange is to facilitate and make transparent
AverageAnnualCopperPrices(LME,GradeA,Cash),19602013
the process of settling prices. Three commodity exchanges provide the
facilities to trade copper: The London Metal Exchange (LME), the

US$pertonne
Source:ICSG
10,000
Commodity Exchange Division of the New York Mercantile Exchange 9,000
(COMEX/NYMEX) and the Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE). In these 8,000

exchanges, prices are settled by bid and offer, reflecting the market's 7,000
6,000
perceptionofsupplyanddemandofacommodityonaparticularday.On
5,000
the LME, copper is traded in 25 tonne lots and quoted in US dollars per 4,000
tonne;onCOMEX,copperistradedinlotsof25,000poundsandquoted 3,000

in US cents per pound; and on the SHFE, copper is traded in lots of 5 2,000
1,000
tonnesandquotedinRenminbipertonne.Morerecently,minicontracts
0
ofsmallerlotssizeshavebeenintroducedattheexchanges. 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012

Current $ Constant 2009 $

International Copper Study Group 36


The World Copper Factbook 2014

CopperStocks,PricesandUsage(Jan2001Jun2014)
ThousandmetrictonnesandUScents/pound
Source:ICSG

3,375 450

3,000 400

2,625 350

2,250 300

1,875 250
Thousand metric tonnes, copper

Price LME (US cents/pound)


1,500 200

1,125 150

750 100

375 50

0 0
Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan Jul Jan
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14

Exchanges Producers Merchants Consumers 3 mth moving average copper usage seasonally adjusted Price LME (UScents/pound)

International Copper Study Group 37


The World Copper Factbook 2014


Chapter5:CopperUsage
HowIsCopperUsed?
Copper is shipped to fabricators mainly as cathode, wire rod, billet, cake (slab) or ingot. Through extrusion, drawing, rolling, forging,
melting,electrolysisoratomization,fabricatorsformwire,rod,tube,sheet,plate,strip,castings,powderandothershapes.Thefabricators

oftheseshapesarecalledthefirstusersofcopper.Thetotaluseofcopperincludescopperscrapthatisdirectlymeltedbythefirstusersof
coppertoproducecoppersemis.

Copper and copper alloy semis can be further transformed by downstream industries for use in end use products such as automobiles,
appliances,electronics,andawholerangeofothercopperdependentproductsinordertomeetsocietysneeds.Thissectionprovidesa

rangeofinformationaboutrefinedcopperusage,totaluse,majorusesofcopperandenduse.

Forthemostuptodateinformationonrefinedcopperusage,pleasevisittheICSGwebsiteatwww.icsg.org

International Copper Study Group 38


The World Copper Factbook 2014

WorldRefinedCopperUsage,19002013
Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSG
24,000
22,000
20,000
18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0

Since1900,apparentusageforrefinedcopperhasincreasedfromlessthan500thousandtonnesto21.2millionmetrictonnesin2013as
usageovertheperiodgrewbyacompoundannualgrowthrateof3.4%peryear.

International Copper Study Group 39


The World Copper Factbook 2014

RefinedCopperUsagebyRegion,1960,1980&2013

Thousandmetrictonnes
Source:ICSG
14,000
Thousand Metric Tonnes Copper

12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
1960 1980 2013
Europe Africa Asia Latin America North America Oceania

ThekeydrivertoglobalrefinedcopperusagehasbeenAsia,wheredemandhasexpandedmorethanfivefoldoverthelast30years.

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WorldRefinedCopperUsage*perCapita:19502013
Sources:ICSGandUSCensusBureau

8 3.5

7 3.0

6
2.5
Population (bln)

kg per person
5
2.0
4
1.5
3

1.0
2

1 0.5

0 0.0
1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
World Population Refined Copper Usage per Capita

*Refinedcopperistypicallyconsumedbysemisfabricatorsorthefirstusersofrefinedcopper,includingingotmakers,masteralloyplants,wirerod
plants,brassmills,alloywiremills,foundriesandfoilmills.Asaresult,percapitaconsumptionofrefinedcopperreferstotheamountofcopper
consumedbyindustrydividedbythetotalpopulationanddoesnotrepresentconsumptionofcopperinfinishedproductsperperson.

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IntensityofRefinedCopperUsage*
Sources:ICSGandInternationalMonetaryFund
2013 data GDP per capita (US$) Intensity (tonnes/US$bln)
Australia 64863 55.871
Belgium 45383 433.315
Brazil 11311 187.839
Canada 51990 85.968 IntensityofCopperUsage2013
Chile 15776 342.630 1600
China 6747 1,033.996
Egypt 3226 498.355
1400
France 43000 76.254 Zambia

Copper usage per GDP (tonnes/ US$ bln)


Germany 44999 312.158
India 1505 243.263 1200
Indonesia 3510 281.516
Iran 4751 365.861 1000 China
Italy 34715 266.318
Japan 38491 203.276 Taiwan
Korean Rep. 24329 589.458 800
UnitedArabEmbirates
Malaysia 10548 646.615
ThailandMalaysia
Mexico 10630 265.386 600 KoreanRep.
Turkey
Poland 13394 462.724 Vietnam
Egypt
Russian Fed. 14819 313.661 Poland Belgium
400
Saudi Arabia 24847 249.240 Iran Chile
Spain 29150 249.393 Indonesia MexicoRussia Italy
Germany
India Spain Sweden
Sweden 57907 218.338 200 Brazil Japan
SaudiArabia
Taiwan 20930 894.242 UnitedStates
France Canada Australia
Thailand 5674 641.003 0
Turkey 10815 565.758 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000
United Arab Emirates 43875 741.984
GDP per capita (US$)
United States 53101 109.228
Vietnam 1902 527.658
Zambia 1474 1,413.491

*Refinedcopperistypicallyconsumedbysemisfabricatorsorthefirstusersofrefinedcopper,includingingotmakers,masteralloyplants,wirerod
plants,brassmills,alloywiremills,foundriesandfoilmills.Asaresult,percapitaconsumptionofrefinedcopperreferstotheamountofcopper
consumedbyindustrydividedbythetotalpopulationanddoesnotrepresentconsumptionofcopperinfinishedproductsperperson.

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TotalCopperUsage,IncludingDirectMeltedCopperScrap,20022012
Thousandmetrictonnescopper
Source:ICSGRecyclablesSurveyMarch2014
30,000
Direct melt scrap Refined usage

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

0
2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012

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MajorUsesofCopper:Electrical sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, fuel cells and other
technologies areall heavily reliant on copperdue to its excellent
Copper is the best non conductivity.
precious metal conductor of
ICSG, in partnership with the Common Fund for Commodities,
electricity as it encounters
the International Copper Association and the International
much less resistance
Copper Promotion Council (India), is supervising the Transfer of
compared with other
TechnologyforHighPressureCopperDieCastinginIndiaproject.
commonlyusedmetals.Itsets
The project is designed to facilitate the transfer of technology
the standard to which other
relatedtothemanufactureofrotors,motorsandmotorsystems
conductorsarecompared.
usingmoreenergyefficienthighpressurecopperdiecastings.
Copper is also used in power cables, either insulated or
uninsulated,forhigh,mediumandlowvoltageapplications.

Inaddition,copper'sexceptionalstrength,ductilityandresistance
to creeping and corrosion makes it the preferred and safest
conductorforcommercialandresidentialbuildingwiring.

Copper is an essential
component of energy
efficient generators,
motors, transformers
and renewable energy
production systems.
Renewable energy
Images courtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociation.

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MajorUsesofCopper:Electronicsand

Communications

Copper plays a key role in Semiconductor manufacturers


worldwide information and have launched a revolutionary
communications technologies. "copper chip." By using copper
HDSL (High Digital Subscriber for circuitry in silicon chips,
Line) and ADSL (Asymmetrical microprocessors are able to
Digital Subscriber Line) operateathigherspeeds,using
technology allows for highspeed less energy. Copper heat sinks
data transmission, including help remove heat from transistors and keep computer
internet service, through the
processors operating at peak efficiency. Copper is also
existingcopperinfrastructureofordinarytelephonewire.
used extensively in other electronic equipment in the

formofwires,transformers,connectorsandswitches.
Copper and copper alloy products are used in domestic
subscriber lines, wide and local area networks, mobile
phonesandpersonalcomputers.

ImagescourtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociationandEuropeanCopperInstitute.

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MajorUsesofCopper:Construction

Copper and brass are the The use of copper


materials of choice for doorknobs and plates
plumbing, taps, valves and exploits copper's
fittings.Thanksinparttoits biostatic properties to
aesthetic appeal, copper helppreventthetransferofdiseaseandmicrobes.
and its alloys, such as
architectural bronze, is Copper roofing, in addition
usedinavarietyofsettings to being attractive, is well
to build facades, canopies, known for its resistance to
doorsandwindowframes. extreme weather
conditions. Major public
Unlike plastic tubing,
buildings, commercial
copperdoesnotburn,melt
buildings and homes use
or release noxious or toxic
copper for their rainwater
fumes in the event of a fire. Copper tubes also help
goods and roofing needs.
protect water systems from potentially lethal bacteria
The telltale green patina
such as legionella. Copper fire sprinkler systems are a
finish, that gives copper the classic look of warmth and
valuablesafetyfeatureinbuildings.
richness,istheresultofnaturalweathering.

ImagescourtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociationandtheInternationalCopperAssociation.

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MajorUsesofCopper:Transportation
Electric and hybrid vehicles can contain even higher
All major forms of transportation depend on copper to
levelsofcopper.Copper'ssuperiorthermalconductivity,
performcriticalfunctions.
strength, corrosion resistance and recyclability make it

ideal for automotive and truck radiators. New


Coppernickel alloys are used on the
manufacturing technologies, processes and innovative
hulls of boats and ships to reduce
designs are resulting in lighter, smaller and more
marine biofouling, thereby reducing
efficientradiators.
dragandimprovingfuelconsumption.


Copper is also used extensively in new generation
Automobiles and trucks rely on copper
airplanes and trains. New highspeed trains can use
motors, wiring, radiators, connectors, brakes and
anywhere from 2 to 4 tonnes of copper, significantly
bearings. Today, the average midsize automobile
higherthanthe1to2tonnesusedintraditionalelectric
contains about 22.5 kg (50 lbs) of copper, while luxury
trains.
cars on average contain around 1,500 copper wires
totalingabout1.6km(1mile)inlength.

ImagescourtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociationandtheEuropeanCopperInstitute.

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The World Copper Factbook 2014

MajorUsesofCopper:IndustrialMachinery

andEquipment

Whereverindustrialmachineryandequipmentisfound,it The corrosion resistant properties of copper and copper


isasafebetthatcopperanditsalloysarepresent.Dueto alloys (such as brass, bronze, and coppernickel) make
theirdurability,machinabilityandabilitytobecastwith them especially suitable for use in marine and other
highprecisionandtolerances,copperalloysareidealfor demandingenvironments.
making products such as gears, bearings and turbine
Vessels, tanks, and piping exposed to seawater,
blades.
propellers, oil platforms and coastal power stations, all
Copper's superior heattransfercapabilitiesandabilityto dependoncopper'scorrosionresistanceforprotection
withstandextremeenvironmentsmakesitanidealchoice
forheatexchangeequipment,pressurevesselsandvats.

ImagescourtesyoftheCopperDevelopmentAssociation.

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Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General
Products
From the beginning of civilization copper has been used Copper and copperbased products are used in offices,
byvarioussocietiestomakecoinsforcurrency. households and workplaces. Computers, electrical
appliances,cookware,brassware,andlocksandkeysare
Today, countries are replacing justsomeoftheproductsexploitingcopper'sadvantages.
lower denomination bills with
copperbased coins, as these
coins last 10, 20 and even 50
timeslonger.


In the United States, one cent
coins and five cent coins contain 2.5% and 75% copper,
respectively,whileotherU.S.coinscontainapurecopper

core and 75% copper face.1 In the recently expanded
EuropeanUnion,theEurocoins,firstintroducedin2002, Inaddition,inareasknowntobecopperdeficient,copper
alsocontaincopper. isusedbyfarmerstosupplementlivestockandcropfeed.

ImagescourtesyoftheInternationalCopperAssociationandtheCopperDevelopmentAssociation.

1
Source: U.S. Department of the Treasury.

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MajorUsesofCopper:UsagebyRegionandEndUseSector,2013
Basis:coppercontent,thousandmetrictonnes
Source:InternationalWroughtCopperCouncil(IWCC)andInternationalCopperAssociation(ICA)

Americas Industrial
14% 12%
Europe
19% Equipment
31%
Transport
12%
ROW
5%

Infrastructure
15%

Asia Building
62% Construction
30%

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Chapter6:CopperRecycling
Copper is among the few Closingmetalloopsthroughincreasedreuseandrecycling
materials that do not degrade or enhancestheoverallresourceproductivityandtherefore
lose their chemical or physical representsoneofthekeyelementsofsocietystransition
properties in the recycling towards more sustainable production and consumption
process. Considering this, the patterns. It is widely recognized that recycling is not in
existing copper reservoir in use opposition to primary metal production, but is a
can well be considered a necessaryandbeneficialcomplement.
legitimate part of world copper reserves. In the recent In 2012, ICSG estimates that more than 30% of copper
decades, an increasing emphasis has been placed on the consumptioncamefromrecycledcopper.Somecountries'
sustainability of material uses in which the concept of copper requirements greatly depend on recycled copper
reuse and recycling of metals plays an important role in to meet internal demands. However, recycled copper
the material choice and acceptance of products. If alone cannot meet society's needs, so we also rely on
appropriately managed, recycling has the potential to copperproducedfromtheprocessingofmineralores.
extendtheuseofresources,andtominimizeenergyuse,
someemissions,andwastedisposal.

ImagescourtesyoftheEuropeanCopperInstitute.

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Copper Recycling Rate Definitions The Overall Recycling Efficiency Rate (Overall
RER) indicates the efficiency with which end of life
The recycling performance of copper-bearing products (EOL) scrap, new scrap, and other metal-bearing
can be measured and demonstrated in various ways residues are collected and recycled by a network of
depending, among other things, on objectives, scope, collectors, processors, and metal recyclers. The key
data availability and target audience. The three target audiences of this particular indicator are metal
International Non-Ferrous Metal Study Groups in industry, scrap processors and scrap generators.
conjunction with various metal industry associations
agreed on the common definitions of the three following
metal recycling rates: The EOL Recycling Efficiency Rate (EOL RER)
indicates the efficiency with which EOL scrap from
The Recycling Input Rate (RIR) measures the obsolete products is recycled. This measure focuses
proportion of metal and metal products that are on end-of-life management performance of products
produced from scrap and other metal-bearing low- and provides important information to target audiences
grade residues. The RIR is mainly a statistical such as metal and recycling industries, product
measurement for raw material availability and supply designers, life cycle analysts, and environmental
rather than an indicator of recycling efficiency of policy makers.
processes or products. The RIR has been in use in the
metals industry for a long time and is widely available

from statistical sources. Major target audiences for this
type of metallurgical indicator are the metal industry,
metal traders and resource policy makers. However,
given structural and process variables, it may have
limited use as a policy tool.

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ICSG Global Copper Recyclables Use, 2004-2012


Thousand metric tonnes
Source: ICSG Recyclables Survey March 2014

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012


Americas 1,324 1,325 1,395 1,441 1,275 1,143 1,198 1,256 1,213
Asia 3,279 3,468 4,132 4,244 4,706 4,192 4,913 4,951 4,993
Europe 2,624 2,440 2,585 2,556 2,424 1,927 2,226 2,119 2,177
Africa & Oceania 37 37 25 29 24 23 24 33 56
World / Total Scrap Use 7,269 7,279 8,141 8,279 8,437 7,290 8,365 8,366 8445
Scrap use Annual Growth 9% 0% 12% 2% 2% -14% 15% 0% 1%
Secondary refined production 2,069 2,161 2,613 2,738 2,823 2,841 3,250 3,470 3,580
Cu content of Direct Melt 5,199 5,118 5,528 5,541 5,614 4,448 5,116 4,896 4,865
Refined Usage 16,838 16,674 17,034 18,196 18,053 18,070 19,346 19,830 20,550
Total copper usage 22,037 21,792 22,563 23,737 23,667 22,518 24,462 24,726 25,415
Recycling Input Rate (RIR) 33% 33% 36% 35% 36% 32% 34% 34% 33%
Asia 31% 32% 37% 34% 36% 30% 33% 33% 31%
Europe 42% 41% 41% 41% 42% 44% 45% 42% 45%
North America 29% 29% 32% 33% 32% 34% 33% 34% 33%
Rest of the World 13% 15% 15% 18% 16% 14% 12% 14% 14%

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ICSGGlobalCopperScrapResearchProjectandrecentscrapreports

Basedoninterestexpressedbymembercountries,ICSGlaunchedthecopperscrapmarketprojectin2007inordertoprovidegreatertransparencyonan

increasinglyvitalcomponentoftheworldcoppermarketatatimewhenglobalizationisreshapingthecopperscrapandcopperalloyrecyclingbusiness.The
finalreportoftheprojectwaspublishedinAugust2010.Inaddition,ICSGhascompletedanumberofnewdetailedreportsonNAFTA,European,Middle

EasternandChinesescraprecoveryandscrapsupplyinrecentyears.FormoreinformationaboutICSGworkrelatedtocopperscrap,pleasecontacttheICSG
Secretariatatmail@icsg.org


KeyDriversoftheGlobalCopperScrapMarket ICSGGlobalCopperScrapProjectReports
ExpandingCopperMineProductionandRefinedCopper SurveyofBrassMills,CopperProductsandFoundriesinChina
Substitution (2014)
IndustrializationandEconomicGrowth
Prices MiddleEastandNorthAfricaCopperUseStudy(2014)
o CopperScrapPricesandSpreads
CopperandCopperAlloyScrapSupplySurveyinEU27(2013)
o RefinedCopperPricesandtheDemandforScrap
Chinesescrapmarketdevelopments CopperScrapMarketRecoveryinNAFTA(2012)
TheShiftinRegionalScrapProcessingCapacity
RegulationsonRecyclingandTrade CopperScrapSupplySurveyinChina(2012)
Technology
SurveyonNonferrousMetalScrapandRefinedInputs&
ProductioninChineseSemisPlants(2012)

ICSGGlobalCopperScrapResearchProjectFinalReport(2010)

JapanScrapMarketReport

ChinaScrapUsageSurvey

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The Flow of Copper

Trade Concen- Blister/


Refined Alloy Alloy Semis
trates/ Anode Copper Ingot Metals Net Trade
Matte
Fabrication
Mining Production

Wire rod Wire rod plant /
Wire mill
SX/EW
Refined Brass Semis Supply

Usage mill
Mine Smelter Refinery

Foundry
New Scrap

Chemicals Low Grade
Tailings
By-products/
slag/ashes
Other Plants Residues



Scrap Scrap for Scrap for
Hydromet. Direct Ingot
Recycling Smelting Refining Plant Melt Maker

incl. low grade


987 scrap alloys
refined

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The Flow of Copper (cont.)


(EOL Management
Semis Finished Net EOL
Import Products Trade Products
adjusted for
export/reuse after
collection)
Manufacture Product Use End-of-Life Management
(Lifetime)
Construction C&D
Copper
Reservoir INEW
Product E&E Equipment Finished EOL
Supply Products
in Use Products
Ind. equipment IEW

Transport Abandoned/ ELV
Stored/
Consumer/ Gen. Reused
WEEE
End-of-Life
Other Uses
Products
MSW & Other

Low grade Recycling
from Fabr. losses new
scrap
Dissipative
Uses
Disposal/
Other Uses
Recycling
New Old
Scrap Scrap
Scrap &

Recycling
Low grade Other Metal
Loops

Net Trade

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IndustryGlobalFlowsofCopper(2012)andDerivedRecyclingRates

FiguresproducedfortheInternationalCopperAssociationbyFraunhoferISIbasedonEnviron.Sci.Technol.47(12),pp.65646572(freely
availableunderhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es400069b).

Recycling Indicator value


Indicator (10-year avg.)
Recycling Input
35%
Rate
EoL Recycling
19%
Input Rate
EoL Collection
65%
Rate
EoL Processing
68%
Rate
EoL Recycling
44%
Rate
Overall
80%
Processing Rate
Overall Recycling
61%
Efficiency Rate
Old Scrap Ratio 53%

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ANNEX
World Copper Production and Usage, 1960-2013
Thousand Metric Tonnes
Source: ICSG

Mine Refined Refined Mine Refined Refined Mine Refined Refined


Production Production Usage Production Production Usage Production Production Usage
1960 3,924 4,998 4,738 1978 7,306 9,030 9,527 1996 11,099 12,677 12,489
1961 4,081 5,127 5,050 1979 7,371 9,200 9,848 1997 11,538 13,478 13,082
1962 4,216 5,296 5,048 1980 7,230 9,261 9,396 1998 12,251 14,075 13,435
1963 4,286 5,400 5,500 1981 7,721 9,573 9,522 1999 12,775 14,578 14,213
1964 4,443 5,739 5,995 1982 7,745 9,319 9,090 2000 13,206 14,793 15,112
1965 4,769 6,059 6,193 1983 7,843 9,541 9,510 2001 13,633 15,638 14,928
1966 4,987 6,324 6,445 1984 8,137 9,440 9,930 2002 13,577 15,354 15,123
1967 4,743 6,004 6,195 1985 8,288 9,616 9,798 2003 13,757 15,272 15,626
1968 5,010 6,653 6,523 1986 8,266 9,920 10,112 2004 14,592 15,918 16,738
1969 5,682 7,212 7,137 1987 8,592 10,148 10,293 2005 14,923 16,572 16,554
1970 5,900 7,592 7,291 1988 8,775 10,512 10,668 2006 14,984 17,291 16,924
1971 5,941 7,404 7,296 1989 9,084 10,908 11,081 2007 15,516 17,903 18,039
1972 6,541 8,100 7,942 1990 9,226 10,804 10,886 2008 15,571 18,214 17,888
1973 6,915 8,544 8,740 1991 9,372 10,686 10,563 2009 15,950 18,249 17,894
1974 7,097 8,759 8,310 1992 9,497 11,042 10,866 2010 16,038 18,986 19,129
1975 6,735 8,187 7,445 1993 9,553 11,249 10,992 2011 16,053 19,596 19,697
1976 7,289 8,632 8,539 1994 9,549 11,124 11,560 2012 16,700 20,137 20,387
1977 7,444 8,884 9,057 1995 10,085 11,832 12,043 2013p 18,082 20,930 21,230
p - preliminary

International Copper Study Group 58


International Copper Study Group


Rua Almirante Barroso 38 6th

1000-013 Lisbon, Portugal

Tel: +351-21-351-3870 Fax: +351-21-352-4035

e-mail: mail@icsg.org

Web site: www.icsg.org

International Copper Study Group 59