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Signing Applets Using RSA Certificates

Java Rich Internet Applications Guide > Security > Signing Applets Using RSA
Certificates

The following topics are covered:

Introduction
Signing Tools
Getting RSA Certificates
Getting Certificates With Jarsigner
Bundling Java Applets as JAR Files
Signing Java Applets
Signing Applets Using jarsigner
Signing Applets Using Netscape Signing Tool
Converting Old Netscape-Signed Applets
Microsoft Authenticode
Common Problems
Introduction
RSA-signed applets are supported to make deployment of signed applets easier.
However, signing applets through RSA is still difficult for most novice applet
developers and prevents them from taking full advantage of this Java Plug-in
feature. This document provides step-by-step instructions for signing applets using
RSA certificates, allowing novice applet developers to sign their applets without
having to wade through the many complex security issues involved.

Signing applets requires the following :

Signing tools
An RSA keypair and a certificate chain for the public keys
The applet and all its class files, bundled as JAR files
Signing Tools
Java Plug-in supports the format of the following tools for signing applets using
RSA:

jarsigner: Signing tool shipped as part of the Java SDK


signtool: Signing tool provided by Netscape for signing applets in
Navigator/Communicator. For more details on the sign tool and downloading it, see
NSS Security Tools.
Getting RSA Certificates
RSA certificates may be purchased from a Certificate Authority (CA) that supports
RSA, such as VeriSign and Thawte. Some CAs, such as VeriSign, implement different
protocols for issuing certificates, depending on the particular signing tool you
are using.

Getting Certificates With Jarsigner


Jarsigner is known to work with VeriSign and Thawte certificates and may work with
Certificate Authorties. To use Jarsigner to sign applets using RSA certificates,
obtain code signing certificates for Java from VeriSign, Thawte, or similar
certificates from other CAs. During the process of certificate enrollment, you will
be asked to provide the certificate signing request (CSR). To generate the CSR,
follow these steps:

Use keytool to generate an RSA keypair (using the "-genkey -keyalg rsa" options).
Make sure your distinguished name contains all the components mandated by
VeriSign/Thawte. For example:
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin\keytool -genkey -keyalg rsa -alias MyCert
Enter keystore password: *********
What is your first and last name?
[Unknown]: XXXXXXX YYY
What is the name of your organizational unit?
[Unknown]: Example Software
What is the name of your organization?
[Unknown]: New Technology Company
What is the name of your City or Locality?
[Unknown]: Cupertino
What is the name of your State or Province?
[Unknown]: CA
What is the two-letter country code for this unit?
[Unknown]: US
Is <CN=XXXXXXX YYY, OU=Example Software, O=New Technology Company,
L=Cupertino, ST=CA, C=US> correct?
[no]: yes

Enter key password for <MyCert>


(RETURN if same as keystore password): *********
Use "keytool -certreq" to generate a certification signing request. Copy the result
and paste it into the VeriSign/Thawte webform. For example,
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin\keytool -certreq -alias MyCert

Enter keystore password: *********


-----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
MIIBtjCCAR8CAQAwdjELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxCzAJBgNVBAgTAkNBMRIwE
AYDVQQHEwlDdXBlcnRpbm8xGTAXBgNVBAoTEFN1biBNaWNyb3N5c3RlbX
MxFjAUBgNVBAsTDUphdmEgU29mdHdhcmUxEzARBgNVBAMTClN0YW5sZXk
gSG8wgZ8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADgY0AMIGJAoGBALTgU8PovA4y59eb
oPjY65BwCSc/zPqtOZKJlaW4WP+UhmebE+T2Mho7P5zXjGf7elo3tV5uI
3vzgGfnhgpf73EoMow8EJhly4w/YsXKqeJEqqvNogzAD+qUv7Ld6dLOv0
CO5qvpmBAO6mfaI1XAgx/4xU/6009jVQe0TgIoocB5AgMBAAGgADANBgk
qhkiG9w0BAQQFAAOBgQAWmLrkifKiUYtd4ykhBtPWSwW/IKkgyfIuNMML
dF1DH8neSnXf3ZLI32f2yXvs7u3/xn6chnTXh4HYCJoGYOAbB3WNbAoQR
i6u6TLLOvgv9pMNUo6v1qB0xly1faizjimVYBwLhOenkA3Bw7S8UIVfdv
84cO9dFUGcr/Pfrl3GtQ==
-----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
The CA (for example, VeriSign/Thawte) will send you a certificate reply (chain) by
email. Copy the chain and store it in a file. Use "keytool -import" to import the
chain into your keystore. For example:
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.6.0\bin\keytool -import -alias MyCert -file
VSSStanleyNew.cer
Your RSA certificate and its supporting chain have been validated and imported into
your keystore. You are now ready to use jarsigner to sign your JAR file.
Note:

You must use the same alias name for all the above steps or no alias name, in which
case the alias name defaults to "mykey".

Bundling Java Applets as JAR Files


To use Jarsigner to sign applets with RSA certificates, the applets must be bundled
as JAR files. The Jar tool (command jar ...), which comes wiht the Java SE SDK, can
be used for that purpose. For example:

C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin\jar cvf C:\TestApplet.jar .


added manifest
adding: TestApplet.class (in = 94208) (out= 20103)(deflated 78%)
adding: TestHelper.class (in = 16384) (out= 779)(deflated 95%)
This example creates a JAR file C:\TestApplet.jar, and it contains all the files
under the current directory and its sub-directories.
After the JAR file is created, you should verify its content using the jar tool
again, e.g.,
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin\jar tvf TestApplet.jar
0 Mon Mar 06 18:02:54 PST 2000 META-INF/
68 Mon Mar 06 18:02:54 PST 2000 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
94208 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 TestApplet.class
16384 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 TestHelper.class
This ensures that the class files are stored with the proper path within the JAR
file.
To sign an applet with an RSA certificate using the Netscape Signing Tool, the
applet must be placed in a directory, e.g., C:\signdir. The Netscape Signing Tool
will bundle it as JAR file after the signing process.

Signing Java Applets


Once you have the RSA certificates, the signing tool and the applet's JAR files,
you are ready to sign the applets.

Signing Applets Using jarsigner


To sign applets using jarsigner, follow these steps:

Use jarsigner to sign the JAR file, using the RSA credentials in your keystore that
were generated in the previous steps. Make sure the same alias name is specified.
E.g.,
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin\jarsigner C:\TestApplet.jar MyCert
Enter Passphrase for keystore: ********
Use "jarsigner -verify -verbose -certs" to verify the jar files
C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.8.0\bin\jarsigner -verify -verbose
-certs d:\TestApplet.jar

245 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 META-INF/manifest.mf


187 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 META-INF/MYCERT.SF
968 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 META-INF/MYCERT.RSA
smk 943 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 TestApplet.class
smk 163 Wed Mar 10 11:48:52 PST 2000 TestHelper.class

X.509, CN=XXXXXXX YYY, OU=Example Software,


O=New Technology Company, L=Cupertino,
ST=CA, C=US (mycert)
X.509, CN=New Technology Company, OU=Java Plug-in QA,
O=New Technology Company, L=Cupertino, ST=CA, C=US
X.509, EmailAddress=server-certs@thawte.com,
CN=Thawte Server CA, OU=Certification
Services Division, O=Thawte Consulting cc,
L=Cape Town, ST=Western Cape, C=ZA

s = signature was verified


m = entry is listed in manifest
k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
i = at least one certificate was found in identity scope

jar verified.
Your applet has been signed properly. You are now ready to deploy your RSA signed
applet.
Signing Applets Using Netscape Signing Tool
To sign applets using signtool, follow these steps:

Use "signtool -L" to determine the certificate nickname that should be used in
signing. E.g.,
C:\signtool13WINNT40\signtool -L -d a:\cert
using certificate directory: a:\cert

S Certificates
- ------------
AT&T Certificate Services
Thawte Personal Premium CA
GTE CyberTrust Secure Server CA
Verisign/RSA Commercial CA
AT&T Directory Services
BelSign Secure Server CA
BelSign Class 1 CA
GTIS/PWGSC, Canada Gov. Web CA
Thawte Personal Freemail CA
Thawte Server CA
GTIS/PWGSC, Canada Gov. Secure CA
MCI Mall CA
VeriSign Class 3 Primary CA
VeriSign Class 4 Primary CA
KEYWITNESS, Canada CA
BelSign Class 2 CA
BelSign Object Publishing CA
* Sun Microsystems, Inc.
VeriSign Class 3 CA - Commercial Content/Software
Publisher - VeriSign, Inc.
Verisign/RSA Secure Server CA
VeriSign Class 1 Primary CA
BBN Certificate Services CA Root 1
Thawte Personal Basic CA
* Sun Microsystems, Inc.'s VeriSign, Inc. ID
CertiSign BR
VeriSign Class 2 Primary CA
Canada Post Corporation CA
Integrion CA
IBM World Registry CA
BelSign Class 3 CA
Uptime Group Plc. Class 1 CA
Uptime Group Plc. Class 2 CA
Thawte Premium Server CA
Uptime Group Plc. Class 3 CA
GTE CyberTrust Root CA
Uptime Group Plc. Class 4 CA
- ------------

Certificates that can be used to sign objects


have *'s to their left.

Create an empty directory. E.g.,


mkdir signdir
Put all the applet class files into it.

Use "signtool -Z" to sign the applet. E.g.,


C:\signtool13>signtool -k "Sun Microsystems, Inc.'s VeriSign, Inc. ID"
-d a:\cert -Z c:\TestApplet.jar c:\signdir
using certificate directory: a:\cert
Generating c:\signdir/META-INF/manifest.mf file..
--> TestApplet.class
adding c:\signdir/TestApplet.class to c:\TestApplet.jar...
(deflated 57%)
--> TestHelper.class
adding c:\signdir/TestHelper.class to c:\TestApplet.jar...
(deflated 43%)
Generating zigbert.sf file..
adding c:\signdir/META-INF/manifest.mf to c:\TestApplet.jar...
(deflated 44%)
adding c:\signdir/META-INF/zigbert.sf to c:\TestApplet.jar...
(deflated 46%)
adding c:\signdir/META-INF/zigbert.rsa to c:\TestApplet.jar...
(deflated 40%)
tree "c:\signdir" signed successfully

Use "signtool -w" to verify the archive. E.g.,


C:\signtool13>signtool -w c:\TestApplet.jar -d a:\cert
using certificate directory: a:\cert

Signer information:

nickname: Sun Microsystems, Inc.'s VeriSign, Inc. ID


subject name: C=US, ST=CA, L=Palo Alto, OU=Example Software,
CN=Sun Microsystems, OU=Digital ID Class 3 - Netscape
Object Signing, OU="www.verisign.com/repository/RPA Incorp.
by Ref.,LIAB.LTD(c)99", OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
O="VeriSign, Inc."
issuer name: CN=VeriSign Class 3 CA - Commercial Content/Software
Publisher, OU="www.verisign.com/repository/RPA Incorp.
by Ref.,LIAB.LTD(c)98", OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
O="VeriSign, Inc."
Your applet has been signed properly. You are now ready to deploy your RSA signed
applet. See How to Deploy RSA Signed Applets for deployment information.

Converting Old Netscape-Signed Applets


Existing RSA signed applets designed for Netscape may use Netscape-specific
security APIs. These Netscape-specific APIs are not supported in Java Plug-in.
Instead, the Plug-in supports the standard Java security APIs in both Netscape
Navigator and Internet Explorer.

To migrate Netscape-signed applets using the Netscape security APIs to run in Java
Plug-in:

Comment or remove all netscape.security.* related statements from the Java applet.
Compile and archive the applet as a JAR file.
Re-sign the JAR file using Object Signing.
This ensures that an RSA signed applet will run in both Netscape Navigator and
Internet Explorer with Java Plug-in.

Microsoft Authenticode
Authenticode is a proprietary signing technology used in Microsoft Internet
Explorer on Win32 for supporting signed applets in IE's JVM. Authenticode is not
supported in Java Plug-in. Instead, the Java Plug-in supports use of RSA signed
applets in both IE and Netscape.
Common Problems
If the JAR file is not signed properly, if the RSA certificate has expired, or if
the RSA certificate is a self-generated, self-signed certificate, Java Plug-in may
fail silently and not pop up the security dialog. The applet will be treated as
unsigned.