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THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS

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94-GT-115
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after the meeting.

Printed in U.S.A. Copyright 1994 by ASME

SOLAR TURBINES INCORPORATED "TAURUS 60"


GAS TURBINE DEVELOPMENT

Vern Van Leuven


Department of Mechanical Design Engineering
Solar Turbines Incorporated
San Diego, California

ABSTRACT Program Objectives


The Taurus gas turbine was first introduced in 1989 with Industrial gas turbine designs in all size ranges are
ratings of 6200 HP for single shaft and 6500 HP for twin shaft continually responding to evolving application demands for higher
configurations. A new design of the single shaft third stage engine performance and the Taurus 60 is no exception.
turbine rotor and exhaust diffuser brought its power to 6500 HP Competitive challenges and the potential for design improvement
in 1991. A program was initiated early in 1992 to identify using advances in design and analysis technology motivated Solar
opportunities to further optimize performance of the Taurus. to initiate a development program for the Taurus 60. Goals of the
Thorough investigation of performance sensitivity to program were to deliver a product to the market in 18 months,
thermodynamic cycle parameters has resulted in significant maintain existing cost normalized by power, incur no sacrifice in
improvement over the original design with no change in firing durability and produce performance shown in Table 2.
temperature. Aerodynamic and mechanical design changes were
implemented in 1993 which raised Taurus performance to 7000 Program Summary
HP and 32% thermal efficiency. Selection of the final design The program objectives provided a tough challenge to the
configuration was the outcome of performance maximization new product introduction (NPl) teaming approach newly
versus cost increase, durability risk and loss of commonality with implemented at Solar. The basis of NPI teaming is to assign
previous engines. This paper details these changes and the design responsibility for product development to a cross functional team
selection process. so that communication and participation throughout all disciplines
are maximized. An NPI team was assigned by management and
INTRODUCTION the team's first task was to complete conceptual product design.
Fundamentally there are two ways to improve the
History performance of a gas turbine. The cycle (pressure ratio and firing
The Taurus 60 gas turbine (Figures 1 and 2) was originally temperature) can be changed or the component efficiency can be
introduced to the market in 1989. Table 1 summarizes original increased (this includes reducing cooling air flow and leakage).
ISO performance and significant features of the single and two Brainstorming sessions were held to create a list of options to
shaft versions. The engine configuration is similar to the Solar achieve the program objectives with the criteria used in the
Centaur 50 with the most important changes being an additional evaluation being performance, durability risk, cost, development
stage at the front of the compressor and a new design two stage time and product commonality.
power turbine for the two shaft version. The compressor stage is Once preliminary design was completed and the optimum
a scale of the Solar Mars first stage blade while the two shaft configuration determined detail design work was initiated. A
power turbine was a new design. In 1991 the third stage turbine timeline was prepared summarizing the program, and tasks were
and exhaust diffuser for the single shaft version was redesigned. organized with consideration to component lead times, manpower
Engine performance improved by 390 HP and -534 BTU/HP-hr. and test rig availability. More refined performance, temperature
Quantities of engines produced from 6/90 to 10/93 were (22) 6200 and stress evaluations were begun and definition for necessary
HP single shaft, (27) 6500 HP single shaft and (39) 6500 HP two testing was created. Previous experience from Centaur 50 and
shaft engines. original Taurus 60 were also heavily utilized in this program.

Presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition
The Hague, Netherlands June 13-16, 1994

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FIGURE 1. TAURUS 60 SINGLE SHAFT ENGINE CROSS SECTION

RE93133

FIGURE 2. TAURUS 60 TWO SHAFT ENGINE CROSS SECTION

Both the single and two shaft designs were completed on the performance goal but most involved compromises in cost,
schedule and the cost target was achieved. Performance of engines schedule and risk.
tested to date (Table 2) show that performance goals were also A configuration which increased firing temperature and
exceeded. pressure ratio was seriously considered in the beginning of the
conceptual stage. This required additional stages added to the aft
DISCUSSION end of the compressor and a new gas producer turbine design. The
compressor stages would be scaled form existing Solar Mars
Conceptual Design engine stages and would not require a lengthy development.
A substantial period of time was spent identifying all However, the new GP was to have new nozzles and would require
potential design changes which might be made to achieve the a directionally solidified first stage GP turbine blade. The third
performance goal. A list of options was compiled and evaluated stage nozzle would also have to be redesigned to provide the
using the established criteria as illustrated in Table 3. Several connect flow characteristics. Although this configuration met the
different combinations of the potential modifications would satisfy performance goals, the increased engine cost of about 15%,

PA

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TABLE 1. ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE OF TAURUS 60 ENGINES

Parameter Original Single Shaft Taurus 60 Original Two Shaft Taurus 60

Power (1) 6200 HP (Pre 1992) 6500 HP


6450 HP
Cycle Efficiency (1) 29.6% (Pre 1992) 31.0%
30.3%
Mass Flow 46.0 Lbm/s 46.0 Lbm/s

TR1T 1850F 1850F

Pressure Ratio 11.2 11.2


Exhaust Temperature 901F 910F

Speed 14950 RPM 15000 RPM GP


14300 RPM PT (max)

Compressor Stages 12 12
Variable Comp Stages 4 4

Turbine Stages 3 4

Note: 1. All values represent no duct losses, natural gas fuel and 59F, sea level, 60% relative humidity air.

TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF UPRATED TAURUS 60 ENGINES

Engine Power Efficiency

Single Shaft Taurus 60 6900 HP 32.0%


Program Goal
Two Shaft Taurus 60 6950 HP 32.0%
Program Goal
Single Shaft Taurus 60 6947 HP 32.0%
Average 8 Engines
-

Two Shaft Taurus 60 7007 HP 31.9%


-1 Engine

Note: 1. All values represent no duct losses, natural gas fuel and 59F, sea level, 60% relative humidity air.

longer program development time, and loss of commonalty with finish and the guide vane settings were optimized. The turbine
the current fleet of Taurus engines led to closer evaluation of also had the tip clearances reduced as well as leakage and cooling
other options. flow reduction. One option that was in the concept initially was
The most attractive configuration was found by improving a longer exhaust diffuser for both single and two shaft engines.
component efficiencies. This could be accomplished in a shorter This option was eliminated because the performance gain did not
time while maintaining fleet commonalty, low engine cost, and outweigh the significant package changes required and loss of
without increased durability risk. Efficiency improvements were opportunity for customers wishing to uprate their units. In this
made for both compressor and turbine components in the new instance, the early design conceptualization involving Solar
Taurus 60. In the compressor, the 0-stage blade was modified, tip Package Engineering and Customer Services groups facilitated by
clearances were reduced, improvements were made in surface the NPI process was of great benefit.

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TABLE 3. MATRIX OF PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS

Modification Performance Cost Risk Duration


Sensitivity

Raise TRIT High High Med 24 M


New 1 st, 2nd GPT
Blade Mat.

Raise Pressure High High Med 18 M


Ratio Add Comp Stages

Redesign GP High High High 30 M


Turbine

Redesign PT High High High 30 M

Improve Diffuser Med High Low 24 M


New Package

Reduce Cooling, High Low Low 12 M


Leakage Flows

Optimize 0 Stg Med Low Low 6M


Comp Blade

New Air Inlet Unknown Med Low 12 M

Reduce Comp High Low Low 4M


Tip CL Med w/Rub Coat

Reduce Turb High Low Low 4M


Tip CL

Improve Comp Low Low Low 4M


Surface Finish

Optimize Comp Med Low Low 2M


Guide Vanes

KWl^zmm flow as much as possible without sacrificing efficiency. The


airfoil incidence angle was modified and back to back engine
Zero Stage Blade . The zero stage blade was a scale of the testing was performed to compare against the original design. One
Mars first stage compressor stage which was originally designed compressor case half was removed, the blades were changed out
in 1975. Recent mechanical analysis of the blade with finite and the engine was rerun all in the same day. By changing out
element methods revealed that the deflections due to centrifugal blades in the test stand a minimum amount of uncertainty was
and aerodynamic loading were slightly different than what was introduced in the evaluation. The result of several tests was a
originally calculated. Today's capability of finite element software blade incidence angle which produced additional airflow and no
to account for large deformations where the load vector relative detriment to compressor efficiency.
to the position of the structure changes significantly with Increase in power is summarized in Table 4. There were no
deflection (Figure 3) was not available at the time of original additional material costs associated with the change in new
design. production and no mechanical risks were introduced.
It is extremely difficult to predict by analysis alone
compressor performance sensitivity to changes in blade incidence Compressor Tip Clearance Reduction
thus rig or engine testing is essential in the evaluation process. Compressor performance is known to be very sensitive to tip
Rather than just correcting a known problem, testing was used to clearances. An optimum value of running clearance is generally
further optimize the stage incidence. The objective was to increase believed to be between 1.2 - 1.5% of chord length. Finite element

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TABLE 4. RESULTS OF PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS

Modification Performance Improvement

Zero Stage Blade Twist 114 HP


0.0% Efficiency
Compressor Tip Clearance Reduction 180 HP
0.7% Efficiency
Compressor Guide Vane Optimization 50 HP
0.4% Efficiency
GP Turbine Tip Clearance Reduction 77 HP
0.37% Efficiency
Single Shaft PT Cooling Reduction 92 HP
0.29% Efficiency
Two Shaft PT Cooling Reduction 157 HP
0.45% Efficiency
Piston Seal Leakage Reduction 110 HP
0.19% Efficiency

sufficiently outweighed the benefit of tighter clearances. It was


decided to reduce tip clearances as near as possible to optimum
without permitting the possibility of tub.
Finite element methods were used to calculate the rotor radial
growth due to thermal and centrifugal loads and static structure
thermal displacements were calculated. Positional tolerance of the
rotor relative to the cases involved a stackup of four features on
the front end and three features on the aft end while diametral
tolerance consisted of two features. Clearance values were then set
so that rubs would never occur. To confirm proper machining and
assembly, clearances were measured during build of each engine
by alternately removing each compressor case half and measuring
gaps with feeler gages. A development test engine was run to
verify analytically predicted minimum clearances by brazing in
small diameter instrumentation tubing to act as rub pins. Worst
U 1 - U2 = Difference in orientation of structure
to load vector after loading. REM1 case thermal transient condition clearance was measured by the
pins and compared favorably with design predictions.
FIGURE 3. ZERO STAGE COMPRESSOR BLADE
DEFLECTION UNDER LOAD
Performance improvement due to tip clearance reduction was
determined both by comparison of test engine performance built
with the tighter clearances against data from previous production
modelling of the compressor rotor and a component tolerance engines, as well as a back-to-back test with the compressor
stackup study showed that there was potential for optimization of returned to original clearances. The measured performance
tip clearances. Adequate margin of safety must be included in the sensitivity to tip clearance compared well with analytical
design because heavy nibs in the compressor cannot be tolerated. predictions. No cost and minimal durability risk are associated
A rub can result in material build up at the contact area which with this change.
may not clear away. If this happens, the rubbed material buildup
can continue to grow resulting in damage to the blading. Also, if Air Inlet Evaluation
a stationary airfoil rubs against the rotor heating from friction can Another area for potential performance improvement analyzed
cause distortion, further tubbing, loss of material strength and was the air inlet collector and duct. Previous testing with
possible component failure. A tub tolerant coating could be traversing probes showed a potential flow distortion in the air
introduced to permit occasional rubs by design, however the entering the compressor inlet guide vane. Computational fluid
expense of a rub coating and the risk of it not adhering dynamics (CFD) modeling with the ACE (copyright CFD

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Research Corp.) computer code also showed some potential flow the results are summarized in Table 5. The 5380 DP coating
field distortion (Figure 4). However, the flow velocities in this unfortunately did not meet its roughness objective. Still, the finish
area are low and the influence of this distortion on compressor was better than previous coating so evaluation continued.
performance was not known. A back-to-back test was designed to
show the potential for compressor performance improvement TABLE 5. SURFACE ROUGHNESS TEST RESULTS
before changing the production design. Static pressure taps along
with Kiel Probes were used to show the flow distortion, and
engine performance was tested, first with the inlet collector then Sermatel
with the collector removed (see Figures 1, 2). There is adequate Component Seimatel 725 5380DP
space on the engine package so that negligible flow distortion
occurs entering the compressor with the collector removed. This Compressor Blade 65 pin 60 on
simulates the lowest flow distortion expected from a collector
Compessor Vane 51 pin 36 pin
redesign. The test revealed that any flow distortion created in the
air-inlet was not reducing engine performance. Therefore, no Note: Roughness measure ment made using 0030.in cutoff
change to the existing air intake was made for the new Taurus 60. length profilometer.

Back to back performance testing without introducing


variables more significant than the predicted benefit from the
coating could not be performed. To be conservative, no
performance increase was predicted from the new coating. Since
cost and durability risk were low and there may also be a benefit
of improved dirt fouling resistance the new coating was
implemented in the design.

Compressor Guide Vane Optimization


Recent expertise gained by the aerodynamic group in the use
of a powerful multivariable optimization routine which is part of
the RS1/Discover (copyright BBN Software Products Corp.)
computer program permitted fast and accurate optimization of the
guide vane settings. Optimization variables were individual
positions of the four guide vane stages and the objective variables
were engine horsepower and specific fuel consumption. A matrix
of the variables was first generated using 17 different
combinations of guide vane settings. The computer program fits
RE93135 a regression to the data and then solves for the vane settings at
maximized objective variables. Some iteration around the solution
FIGURE 4. STATIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION is required as the regression fit improves with more data. Figure
IN COMPRESOR INLET 5 displays the Taurus 60 compressor efficiency as a function of
flow with isometric lines shown for power and cycle thermal
Compressor Surface Finish efficiency. Points were plotted on this curve during the
The compressor flowpath materials are stainless steel and optimization to graphically show how the compressor flow and
ductile iron which require coating for optimum corrosion efficiency are interelated and what tradeoffs must be made when
protection. The fact that the surface finish of the compressor has choosing cycle power or efficiency as an objective.
a significant effect on performance is obvious to anyone that has Optimization was performed using two different production
ever washed a dirty gas turbine in service. However, the engines to improve accuracy of the result as compared to the
relationship of uniform surface roughness measured with a average of production engines. Results from this testing is shown
profilometer to compressor performance is not well quantified. in Table 4. No durability impact or cost increase is incurred with
Taurus 60 compressors had previously been coated with Sermatel the change of guide vane settings.
725 coating with a typical surface roughness of 65 pin. Sermatel
also offers a coating with a surface roughness objective of 10 pin Turbine Tip Clearances
(0.010 in cutoff) called Sermatel 5380 DP ([Mosser, 1988]. Since In the attempt to reduce turbine tip clearances, teaming
the difference in cost was not great and the corrosion protection between the design and manufacturing engineers proved
was expected to be as good as the 725 coating, the team chose to beneficial. Manufacturing suggested an improved machining
pursue the 5380 DP coating. Surface roughness testing was process that would reduce the tolerance on the first and second
performed on a Solar airfoil uncoated and with both coatings and stage turbine nozzle tip shoes. Previously the rub tolerant coating

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0.005 inches, without reducing the minimum clearance. Previous
analytical work, testing and field experience had already
+0.75 demonstrated that the minimum clearance should not be reduced.
o +2 'Sv Tip clearances of the power turbine stages had been fully
>- x +0.50 optimized in the original development program.
C
Z 0 o`y x?o0
w
Turbine Cooling Flow Reduction
xr0
LL +1 +0.25
4U- The evaluation of reducing cooling flow began with a cycle
w
U 0 0 analysis showing the sensitivity of cooling air use and leakage at
I each stage. Figure 7 and Table 6 show the sensitivity of cycle
m 0 ^
power and efficiency on cooling flows and leaks. With these
-0.25
0 results the team established a very high priority for evaluating
moo -0.50 flow reductions in the power turbine. The analytical investigation
0 began with an extensive network flow analysis using previous test
C -1
w data to correlate the model. Cooling and leakage changes could
- 0 . 75 G Thermal Efficiency %
then be quickly evaluated. Table 3 summarizes the potential flow
-1.00 reductions that were identified from this study.
0 -2

-3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2
AIRFLOW, Ibis
RE93143M

FIGURE 5. TAURUS 60 COMPRESSOR


PERFORMANCE MAP

had been applied to the integral tip shoes (Figure 6) with


dimensional control based on stackup of individual component
tolerances. The .improved process is to machine the coating to a
finish dimension referenced from the locating features of the
nozzle. This allowed the reduction of the nominal tip clearance by
AGE
RE93144M
:OOLING FLOW SCHEMATIC

. It was suspected that there could be


the piston ring seal on the first stage
paint tests confirmed the high leakage
;ak paths inherent in the design. A new
h incorporated several ideas to reduce
us leaks between the nozzle rails and
ur when the nozzle rail distorts under
sized by trapping the rails in a rigid
ised at the top of the rails to further
ing is now assembled into the carrier
ing around the circumference. The new
;ing comprehensive thermocouple
31 paint. Back to back tests of the old
)ns indicated that, as predicted, leakage
Quantification of the performance
accomplished with the instrumented

-rs felt that a field durability test would


iroduction implementation. Since the
program could be met without the
reed to delay implementation of this
i 5000 hour field testing results are

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TABLE 6. TURBINE COOLING FLOW PERFORMANCE SENSITIVITY

Location Horsepower Cost (HP) Cycle Efficiency Cost

A 17 0.085

B 0 0

C 108 0.178

D 108 0.178

E 128 0.279

F 132 0.297

G 148 0.374

H 183 0.546

I 183 0.546

J 176 0.511

Note: 1. See Figure 7 for location schematic.


2. Performance penalties are normalized to 1% compressor mass flow.

1st STAGE CARRIER PISTON


NOZZLE RING SEAL C-SEAL HOUSING

FIGURE 8. GAS PRODUCER TURBINE PISTON RING


SEAL CONFIGURATION
RE93138M

Power Turbine Disk Impingement Flow. The perfor-


mance sensitivity study directed the most in depth optimization of
cooling flows to the power turbine section. Analytical evaluations FIGURE 9. IMPROVED GAS PRODUCER TURBINE
of both single and two shaft turbines and previous testing during PISTON RING SEAL CONFIGURATION

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TABLE 7. DISC METAL TEMPERATURE SUMMARY

Uprate
Disk Location Original Taunts 60 Taunus 60 Change

Single Shaft Rim 950F 960F +16F


3rd Turbine Bore 790F 800F +10F

Two Shaft (1) Rim 975F <1060F + <85F


3rd Turbine Bore 730F <780F + <50F
Two Shaft (1) Rim 960F <1060F + <100F
4th Turbine Bore 490F <540F + <50F

Note: 1. Upper limit temperatures are from preliminary tests. Results of final development testing
were not available at the time of this writing.

the original design phase of the power turbine indicated that


impingement flows to the power turbine disks could be completely
eliminated without significant rise in disk temperatures. The main
reason for the opportunity in the design is that originally the
cooling system was sized for a potential thermal uprate. As
previously mentioned, an increase in firing temperature was not
part of this program. Testing of both the single shaft and two
shaft turbines was performed with instrumentation as shown in
Figures 10 and 11. Disc metal temperature increases from
complete elimination of cooling air is summarized in Table 7.
Performance evaluation could not be performed with the
heavily instrumented test configurations so final confirmation of
the improvements was taken from first production tests. From
Table 4, it can be seen that the cooling air reductions in the
turbine were responsible for a significant portion of the
performance improvement of the program. Excellent agreement of
actual engine performance with predictions thus validates the flow
and sensitivity analyses.
Elimination of impingement flows served to simplify both the
nozzle machining and casting resulting in significant cost
reduction. The cooling passage brazed covers, cast cooling cavity
and impingement holes were eliminated.

Single Shaft Exhaust Diffuser Improvements


Although the longer exhaust diffuser concept was determined
to be impractical, other methods of improving the diffuser's
performance were also evaluated. The previous exhaust diffuser
had 0.12 in thick sheet metal that protruded into the flow path.
This causes a detriment to performance because of the upset flow
along the walls and inhibited diffusion. In the quest to eliminate
the flow-path step the manufacturing and design engineering team
worked to improve the design. The shop floor worker who Metal Temperature Air Temperature Pressure
RE93139M
personally manufactures the diffusers provided the most valuable
ideas and a design change was realized that not only eliminated
the step but reduced cost and manufacturing lead time. The FIGURE 10. SINGLE SHAFT TURBINE
success of this effort reveals the value of soliciting design input INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM
through our cross functional teams.

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12,920

11,850

NpT, % of 14,300 rpm


10,770
\SO

9690 60
O
0
8620
1 00
D

= 7540

6460
NGP = 15,000 rpm

[
---fa
5380
T5 = 1400F

4300
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE, OF
RE93145M

FIGURE 12. TWO SHAFT POWER TURBINE THRUST


VERSUS ROTOR SPEED

SHAFT CENTERLINE

Metal Temperature Air Temperature A Pressure


RE9314C 1

FIGURE 11. TWO-SHAFT TURBINE INSTRUMENTATION


DIAGRAM

Two Shaft Version Power Turbine Thrust Bearing


The increase in pressure drop through the power turbine of the
two shaft version of the Taurus 60 resulting from the compressor
performance enhancements mandated a review of the thrust 1-1
COLLAR ,,n HOUSING
bearing load carrying capacity. Figure 12 shows the predicted RE93141 M

thrust as a function of rotor speed. The thrust bearing design must


analytically demonstrate a minimum oil film thickness of 0.0005 FIGURE 13. ORIGINAL POWER TURBINE THRUST
in and a maximum pressure-temperature severity ratio of 0.5 BEARING DESIGN
throughout the design speed range. Pressure-temperature severity
ratio is a measure of the bearing babbitt material yield stress CONCLUSION
margin at a given temperature and pressure. The existing fixed Thorough review of the Taurus 60 design from a team
geometry tapered land thrust bearing (Figure 13) did not satisfy representing all disciplines of Solar's industrial gas turbine
the criteria so a tilting pad bearing with a larger area was business resulted in an improvement in product performance
designed (Figure 14). Film thickness and pressure-temperature which met the program performance goals. The program schedule
severity ratio are plotted against speed for several ambient was met and no increase in product cost or durability risk was
temperatures in Figure 15. Engine testing with load cells and introduced. The performance improvements have been verified by
temperature sensors in the thrust bearing verified analytical 9 production engine tests. The key to the success of the program
predictions. was the NPI teaming concept because it insured continuing
involvement and product ownership from a wide area of expertise.

10

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Responsibility to a focused group rather than as traditionally to a 1.6
functional area contributes primarily to these motivations. As a
result, critical evaluation of the design criteria were applied to 1.4
each concept in a systematic and unbiased fashion. Ta = 120F
E 1.2
J
REFERENCES LL 1 Ta = 68F
J
Mosser, M. F., 1988, "An Improved Coating Process for Steel 0
Compressor Components - SemieTel Process 5380 DP", SAE 0.8
Technical Paper 880879. ^Ta
0.6

0.4

SHAFT CENTERLINE
0.2 I
I I I I
'

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
SPEED, rpm (000)
RE93146M

0
Q 0.5

0.4
w
a
U 0.3
w
)


D
THRUST I ILl PAD 0.2
COLLAR THRUST BEARING w
RE93142M a
w 0.1
FIGURE 14. NEW POWER TURBINE THRUST BEARIN w
DESIGN D 0
W 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
a SPEED, rpm (000)
RE93147M
FIGURE 15. TWO SHAFT POWER TURBINE THRUST
BEARING PERFORMANCE

11

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