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Course Title : Discrete Mathematics

Assignment Number : MCA(1)/013/Assignment/16-17

Last Dates for Submission : 15th October, 2017 (For July 2017 Session)

This assignment has twenty questions in all and carries 80 marks. The rest of the 20 marks are

for viva-voice. Answer all the questions. All questions carry equal marks (i.e. 4 marks each).

Please go through the guidelines regarding assignments given in the Programme Guide for the

format of presentation.

Disclaimer: This Assignment is prepared by our students. The Institution and publisher are not

responsible for any omission and errors.

A proposition is that part of the meaning of a clause or sentence that is constant,

despite changes in such things as the voice or illocutionary force of the clause.

relations, such as temporal relations and logical relations.

false.

x-y > 5

True.

false.

Another way,

Because x-y > 5

Always true for x={6,7,8,9,10,} or y ={0,1,2,3,4,.. }

And

Always false for { x < y , x = y or y+5=x }

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A.1.(b)

(i) p (~q ~ r) (~p r)

FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE

TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE

TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE

TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE

TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE

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(i) (A U B) U ( B C )

(ii) (A U B) ( C ~ A )

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B : are birds

F : are fly

So

Neglect of above sentence

(~B) - >F

A : all things

B : correct

A->B

And neglected of sentence

So nothing is correct.

In propositional logic, modus tollens (or modus tollendo tollensand also denying the

consequent) (Latin for "the way that denies by denying") is a valid argument form and a rule of

inference. It is an application of the general truth that if a statement is true, then so is its

contra-positive.

"If you have a current password, then you can log on to the network"

Therefore:

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pq

This form of argument is calls Modus Ponens (latin for "mode that affirms")

Note that an argument can be valid, even if one of the premises is false. For example, the

argument above doesn't say whether you do or don't have a current password. Maybe you do,

and maybe you don't . But either way, the argument is still valid.

If you have a current password, then you can log into the network

Therefore

Now, in real life, we might say: that's not a valid argument. For example, maybe you can't log

into the network because your Ethernet cable is bad, or because the network is down for

maintenance, or any one of a zillion other reasons.

But in fact, this is a valid argument in logic. If we accept the two premises, then the conclusion

follows. One of the premises is "If you have a current password, you can log into the network".

There are no ifs, ands, or buts.

So, this illustrates an important point: when working with logic problems it is important to take

the statements literally and at face value. Don't read things into the problems that aren't there.

We sometimes use problems that seemto be about the real worldwe do this to make the

problems more interesting and relevant, and to give us some insight into what the symbols

mean. But the problems, ultimately are not in the real worldthey are about amathematical

model of the real world, where we make a lot of simplifying assumptions. For example, the

hard and fast absolute statement:

If you have a current password, then you can log into the network

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According to this statement, a current password is sufficient for you to be able to log in.

So, if we assume this to be true, as we do in the argument below, and we assume that you

can't log into the network, then we can definitely conclude: you don't have a current password.

So here it is again:

If you have a current password, then you can log into the network

Therefore

pq

This form of argument is called modus tollens (the mode that denies).

x((P(x)Q(x))

Q(a)

E.g. All fish have scales. This salmon is a fish. Therefore, this salmon has scales.

x((P(x)Q(x))

P(a)

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E.g. All surfers are hot. Conrad is not hot. Therefore Conrad is not a surfer.

A relation between two sets is a collection of ordered pairs containing one object from each

set. If the object x is from the first set and the object y is from the second set, then the objects

are said to be related if the ordered pair (x,y) is in the relation.

A function is a type of relation. But, a relation is allowed to have the object x in the first set to

be related to more than one object in the second set. So a relation may not be represented by

a function machine, because, given the object x to the input of the machine, the machine

couldn't spit out a unique output object that is paired to x.

Equivalence Relation

of , satisfying certain properties. Write "" to mean is an element of , and we say " is related to

," then the properties are

where these three properties are completely independent. Other notations are often used to

indicate a relation, e.g., o

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A.4.(c)

Set theory is an important branch of mathematics. It is the study of mathematical logic and its

applications. Set theory defines a term "set". A set is defined as the collection of elements,

such as numbers or other objects, which are arranged in a group. The set contains the

elements of similar type or category. The set with any numbers can be denoted in the symbol

braces { }.

For example, the set of numbers may be represented as {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. We can also write this

set as {x : 1 < x < 7}. A totally bounded set is defined as a set which is having a definite or

finite size. The bounded set consists of the numbers which are the set of real numbers. A

bounded set has both the upper and lower bounds that exists within a particular interval. The

bounded numbers in a set are having a definite or fixed size and it always lies between the

given intervals. The bounded set contains a bounded sequence form.

Set theory basically deals with set and set operations. Though, it includes a quite vast study of

logic and reasoning. In this page, we are going to focus on introduction of set theory, basic

formulas used in set theory, some basic properties and introduction to the Venn diagram. So

students, go ahead with us and gain knowledge about set theory in this chapter.

The two basic properties to represent a set are explained below using various examples.

1. The change in order of writing the elements does not make any changes in the set.

In other words the order in which the elements of a set are written is not important. Thus, the

set {a, b, c} can also be written as {a, c, b} or {b, c, a} or {b, a, c} or {c, a, b} or {c, b, a}.

For Example:

2. If one or many elements of a set are repeated, the set remains the same.

In other words the elements of a set should be distinct. So, if any element of a set is repeated

number of times in the set, we consider it as a single element. Thus, {1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4} =

{1, 2, 3, 4}

For Example:

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There are two os in the word moon but it is written in the set only once.

Solution:

Set V = {U, I, E}

2. For each statement, given below, state whether it is true or false along with the

explanations.

Solution:

True, since the change in order of writing the elements does not change the set.

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A.5.(d)

Proof:

1 =1(1 + 1)/2

1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + k = k(k + 1)/2

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1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + k + (k + 1) ?= (k + 1)(k + 2)/2

We have

1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + k + (k + 1) ST.2 =

k(k + 1)/2

+ (k + 1) = (k + 1) k/2+ 1= (k + 1)(k + 2)

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vv

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A.7.(a)(b)(c)(d)

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A.8.(a)(b)(c)

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Course Title : Discrete Mathematics

Assignment Number : MCA(1)/013/Assignment/16-17

Last Dates for Submission : 15th October, 2017 (For July 2017 Session)

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