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Genetics Unit Test Study Guide

DNA base pair practice

1. Remember the DNA


Rules!

TA

AT

CG

GC

mRNA rules

TA

2. AU

CG

GC

tRNA rules

UA

AU

CG

GC

3.

4.
Transcription/ Translation
Sexual Reproduction/Asexual Reproduction

Copy the chart below onto a sheet of paper and fill it in appropriately.
Gregor Mendel
Genetic Disorders
What is the difference between a dominant pattern of inheritance and a recessive pattern of
inheritance? Which is more common and how can you see this in a pedigree chart?

What is the difference between an autosomal genetic disorder and a sex-linked disorder? Which
one is more common and why?
Pedigree Charts
Pedigree 1 1. Using the clues, make an educated guess as to the correct pattern of inheritance
(autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant, or sex-linked recessive)

Pedigree 2 2. Using the clues, make an educated guess as to the correct pattern of inheritance
(autosomal recessive, or autosomal dominant, or sex-linked recessive)
Terms

1. Autosome: Any chromosome other than the sex chromosomes (X & Y). Chromosome designated 1-
22.

2. Sex chromosome: X or Y.

3. Allele: Alternate forms of the same gene.

4. Dominant: Trait will be expressed if one allele is present.

5. Recessive: Trait will be expressed only if two alleles are present (one from each parent).

6. Homozygous: Having two copies of the same allele for a particular gene.

7. Heterozygous: Having two different alleles for a particular gene.

8. Carrier: Person with only one copy of the disorder allele.

9. Genotype: Actual alleles a person inherited from the mother and father

10. Phenotype: Outward expression of the trait.

11. Punnett Square: A grid used to determine potential genotypes and phenotypes of offspring by
combining the parents gametes.