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The Challenge:

Innovation for sustainability, access and opportunity

2017 Design Brief

East Santo Communities, Vanuatu


Introduction 3

Design considerations explained 4

Design Area 1 Water Supply 5

Design Area 2 Sanitation 7

Design Area 3 Energy 9

Design Area 4 Farming and Food Production 10

Design Area 5 Shelter 12

Design Area 6 Waste Management 13

Design Area 7 Information Communications Technology 14

Design Area 8 Transport 16

Design Area 9 Environment and Conservation 17

The 2017 Challenge program is delivered in partnership with Live & Learn Environmental Education in
Vanuatu. This years Challenge focuses on the east coast of the island Espiritu Santo and ten communities
working with Live & Learn Vanuatu under the Lataro Community Development Program.

The Lataro Community Development Program East Santo

The aim of the Lataro Community Development Program is to support villages along the east coast of Santo
so they are no longer dependent on harvesting and selling endangered coconut crabs. Under the current
program, ten communities can access funding for appropriate projects that are clearly defined and can
demonstrate community benefit. There is particular interest around projects that are income generating and
provide alternative opportunities for communities who were reliant on income from coconut crabs.

The role of Live & Learn Vanuatu is to provide a link between the funding and the communities, specifically
around project management, support and reporting. Each of the ten communities engaged in the Lataro
Project is represented by a committee of five people; these individuals are generally leaders such as the Chief,
womens leaders, youth leaders, teachers, and pastors. Live & Learn is supporting each committee with
access to the funds, identifying capacity and existing networks on Santo, and articulating community
priorities and needs.

Live & Learn and Engineers Without Borders

Live & Learn and Engineers Without Borders have a long relationship working together across South East
Asia and the Pacific. The 2017 EWB Challenge Program demonstrates this strong, values-aligned relationship,
with support and coordination provided by EWB Australia, EWB New Zealand, Live & Learn International,
and Live & Learn Vanuatu.

In October 2016, EWB and Live & Learn Vanuatu held workshops with representatives from each of the ten
community committees engaged in the Lataro Community Development program along with Live & Learn
staff. The workshops investigated the current state of projects and explored ideas around what participants
would like to see in the communitys future. These discussions formed the basis of this 2017 Challenge design
brief an outline of priority issues and opportunities as identified by residents and those working in the
community. This years Challenge looks at developing engineering and technical solutions to support
community development in East Santo, with particular consideration around potential for income

The Challenge Program

The Challenge requires students to create a design report which addresses one or more of the design areas
detailed in this document. The Challenge is an open-ended learning experience and the breadth and depth of
design is left to individual universities and design teams to scope within the context of the submission
requirements. All reports submitted to EWB will be shared with Live & Learn to support their programs.

Further detail around the Challenge program rules and submission requirements as well as more contextual
supporting resources to supplement this design brief on the Challenge website:

Design Considerations Explained

Consideration of the following factors will help ensure design is appropriate to the communities in East
Santo and the Vanuatu context:

Sustainability of design Consider the long-term sustainability of the project and what measures
will need to be put in place to ensure the successful continuation of the project into the future.

Impacts to the community What impact will your design have on members of the community?
Consider all stakeholders in the community.

Cultural and social factors Is your design appropriate and aligned with the cultural and social
practices of people within the East Santo communities of Vanuatu?

Community engagement How would you propose that EWB and Live & Learn engage and
consult the community throughout the design project, from initial design right through to
implementation? What avenues are there for the community committees to become involved?

Environment What impact, both positive and negative, will your design have on the local
environment? What measures can you put in place to mitigate any negative impacts?

Cost and economic benefits What is the cost of the project, i.e. initial costs, material costs,
implementation, operation/program delivery costs, and maintenance costs? Consider if there are
any potential economic benefits to the community that could result from the project. Previous EWB
Challenges show that the most successful designs are those that are low cost, allowing community
members to implement them without additional financial aid.

Technical design Is the technical design the most appropriate for the community? Take the time
to show what alternatives were considered and why you are proposing your design as the most
appropriate. Previous EWB Challenges show that the most successful designs are often ones that
are simple in design and can be implemented / prototyped rapidly in the community.

Materials It is recommended to use locally available materials that are culturally acceptable and
environmentally friendly where possible. This should also assist in reducing costs and allowing for
the designs to be tested, prototyped and implemented quickly in the community.

Construction / Implementation and ongoing running of the program Who will be constructing
and or implementing the project? Where possible, make recommendations for how you would
utilise local labour and program managers. What skills are required and how will you build the
capacity of the local community in these skills?

It is recommended that a response to each of the above is included in the design report submitted to EWB

Design Area 1: Water Supply
Ensuring Water Availability

The availability of water in East Santo is highly dependent on the season. In the dry season, which usually
lasts about three to four months, water is tightly managed and used sparingly. In most communities,
everyone will go to the sea to bathe and to wash clothes to ensure water from higher quality sources is
saved for drinking and cooking.

Water is generally sourced via four different mechanisms: rainwater tanks, wells, springs or rivers. Factors
that influence how a community will get water include the time of year and availability of rainwater,
distance to rivers or springs, and finance available.

Rainwater tanks are shared at both a household and community level, located at community hubs such as
churches, schools, or Nakamals. Tanks are plastic and guttering is used to collect water from corrugated
iron sheeting, which is sometimes but not always, the roof of a structure (sometimes the sheeting will be
put up just to collect water). Community representatives shared that rainwater tanks are currently not
connect to houses with traditional thatched roofs, which presents an additional financial barrier for
households who need to purchasing sheeting in addition to the tank itself. Rainwater tanks are available for
purchase from Luganville, however they are viewed as quite expensive and out of the financial reach of
many households.

Wells are partially underground structures that are also used to collect rainwater from corrugated iron
sheeting installed above. Wells are constructed by the community from materials such as blocks, cement,
local stones, coral, and sometimes iron rods. Some wells are covered, but most are open to air.

While most households prefer to use rainwater sourced from tanks and wells, springs and rivers run
between communities and are shared sources of water as well. For example, the Natawa river runs year-
round, and in addition to providing water to the Natawa community, is also a source for other communities
during the dry season when rainwater in tanks and wells has been used up. Individuals from other
communities will walk to the river with buckets or community leaders will organise a truck to drive a larger
number of containers to be filled. The walk to source water during the dry season can take a community
member 2 hours every day as there are not many trucks available. As the springs are at sea level, the walk to
access water from this location is up and down a very steep slope on a thin dirt track.

Design Project 1.1 - Increasing water availability during dry season

During the dry season, after the rainwater in tanks and wells is used up, it is laborious and time consuming
to access water from outside the community. This project will look at opportunities to improve access to
water within communities for either drinking, cooking, washing, watering gardens, or other appropriate

Design Project 1.2 - Multiple use systems

This project will look at designing devices and processes to assist residents with recycling water for multiple
uses. The aim will be to reduce the necessity of households collecting water from the further, lower quality
water sources during the dry season.

Ensuring Water Quality

Some communities and households have clear systems in place for keeping drinking water separate from
other uses or ensuring water is boiled first. For example, in Lorum community, the Chiefs household
maintains two adjacent water storage systems - one covered tank for drinking and one open well for
flushing toilets, washing, or water gardens. However, other community representatives shared that only
some households knew to boil water if it was not from a rainwater tank and expressed doubt that this was
always practiced. There is no other method of water treatment currently practiced.

Most community representatives preferred rainwater tanks to any other water source as this was said to be
the cleanest source of water and best for drinking. For example, in Kole community, representatives shared
that rainwater tanks are preferred because they are protected, whereas the water in the river is dirty so only
used when the tanks are empty and it is necessary. This was echoed by the Lorum community committee,
who shared that, we take care that we drink clean water, but when the dry season comes there is no choice,
we have to use water from the rivers for everything.

Water from the springs is also known to be very salty in a least two of the three primary locations. This
water is not used for drinking as a result. Community representatives expressed strong interest in methods
for removing the salt and contaminants from groundwater as this could significantly increase the
availability of drinking water.

Design Project 1.2 - Purification of water from open sources

This project will investigate the design of a simple, low cost water purification method to treat water to safe
drinking standards. Additional considerations could include comparing the process to the current method of
boiling water and methods to communicate when the water is safe to drink.

Design Area 2: Sanitation and Hygiene
Appropriate Toilet Design

There are a variety of toilet facilities in use in the communities in East Santo and open defecation is not an

At the most basic, households will set up a bush toilet - a hole with a structure around it for privacy.
Communities with bush toilets all expressed a desire for improved facilities that would be cleaner, produce
less smell and attract fewer flies. Bush toilets are also negatively affected by the wet season, when floors
would quite often become mud.

Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines (VIP) were in use in a number of communities, with a wide spectrum of
satisfaction. Many communities commented that the VIP toilets were too similar to bush toilets in that they
still attracted smells and flies. However, it was observed that many of the toilets that were labelled VIP
were not functioning as complete systems - for example, the ventilation pipe was missing or no wire mesh
was installed to stop flies from escaping. In the communities where VIP toilets were perceived positively,
there was pride in the local construction, materials and maintenance.

The perception of flush toilets as the healthiest, cleanest, and overall best type of toilet was shared across
communities. The pour flush and mechanical flush systems in use were all either constructed by community
leaders or with external financial assistance. The pour flush systems constructed by the community were
viewed as a success and functioning well; in Lorum community the Chief was in the process of showing his
community how his was constructed, and encouraging households to save for materials and start building
wells to store the necessary water. Of the mechanical flush systems, however, none were functioning
correctly and all had to be flushed with buckets. The users of these systems enjoyed that they were clean
and didnt attract smells or flies, however were disappointed that the water pressure was never high enough
for the toilets to flush correctly.

Design Project 2.1 - Appropriate and hygienic toilet design

This project challenges students to design a low-cost, sanitary toilet that could be constructed and
maintained by the community members in East Santo. Projects might address improvements to the
existing systems or propose a new appropriate solution. Consideration of the Live & Learn Sanitation
Marketing Western Pacific project and the water situation in Vanuatu is recommended.

Sanitation and Hygiene Awareness

Training or awareness-raising workshops have been well received by the communities in East Santo. Past
workshops have been run by organisations such as local NGOs, the local agriculture school, and
government health staff.

The Chief of Bene community shared that in his community, handwashing became very important after
hospital staff encouraged this behaviour while visiting to treat numerous cases of diarrhea in children and
adults. He is pleased to now see that most people will wash their hands, however he would like if the
workshops were able to continue or if people were to receive reminders in some way. He would also like to
learn more in the area as he thinks there is more the community could be doing to keep each other healthy.

Other types of community training and awareness that were proposed include looking at where put waste
and where to locate your toilet.

Schools currently play a large role in developing positive habits in children. For example, a teacher and
community leader in Lorethiakarkar community shared that in school the children will always wash their
hands before eating or after using the restroom so they this will become routine.

Design Project 2.2 - Handwashing stations and hygiene awareness

The communities have identified training and awareness around sanitation and hygiene as a priority. This
design project will look at appropriate facilities for hand washing with particular consideration given to cost,
maintenance and water requirements. These facilities should be partnered with communication around
health and hygiene.

Design Area 3: Energy
Alternative Energy Supply

There are two electricity grids on the island of Santo, in the main town of Luganville and in the north in Port
Orly. Neither of these grids extend far beyond the towns themselves. They do not reach to the communities
on the east coast.

Within the communities on the east coast of Santo, solar is a very popular source of electricity. Community
members will save to buy solar panels from Luganville, however the cost still makes solar inaccessible to
many households. There is also a quite wide spectrum in terms of quality and price; there was agreement
around the fact that you get what you pay for. Those who had solar panels or aspired to buy them soon
appreciated that they could pay for electricity access once and it would be free in the future.

Solar panels in use at the moment most commonly enable access to light, mobile phone charging. They are
also used for cd players and to play videos, especially for small children.

In some communities, a small generator will provide power to a communal location, such as the school. Fuel
can be sourced from Luganville, however it is relatively expensive so the generators are used sparingly (one
price given was approximately 5000 vatu for 12kgs gas).

Water supply and energy are significant challenges in East Santo, and there is interest in linking the two.
Chiefs from different communities are interested in and investigating the potential for energy and water
projects to work together, for example, to pump water and increase supply.

Design Project 3.1 - Affordable, alternative energy sources to increase supply

Every community expressed interest in improved access to electricity at a reasonable cost. This project will
focus on designs to supplement the existing solar panels and generators using a cheap, reliable and
alternative energy source.

Efficient Cookstove Design

Food preparation in the communities in East Santo usually takes place in enclosed kitchen spaces on open
fires. Firewood is free when collected from the surrounding bush, so is currently the preferred fuel source
for cooking. Traditional cooking over an open fire also allows for a variety of cooking methods including in
pots, flat pans and lap lap.

When cooking over open fires, especially indoors, health issues inevitably arise. Constant inhalation of
smoke has serious respiratory effects impacts on primarily women and children inside homes while cooking.
When proposing this challenge, community members noted that they heard other types of stoves could be
possible and are interested in how these might work in their community.

Design Project 3.2 - Reducing smoke from cookstoves

Community members have shared that smoke from cooking consistently irritates eyes and causes
coughing. This design project will look at alternative cook stove designs that address concerns around the
smoke produced during cooking and potentially speed up the cooking process.

Design Area 4: Farming and Food Production
Coconut Plantations and Copra

The primary income generating activity for every household in East Santo is the production of copra. Copra
is the dried meat from inside a coconut and production in East Santo takes place year-round. Every family
has a coconut plantation of some size and these will be passed through generations.

The drying of coconut meat into copra is a labour-intensive process. First, the coconuts will be piled into
heaps on the plantation, firewood will be collected, and everything will be transported to a hot air dryer.
Hot air dryers are owned by individuals in the community, and access is scheduled and shared between
individuals. At the facility, the coconuts are cracked and the meat is removed in chucks. These are placed on
the hot air dryer and will take three days to dry, with turning required using a large shovel. As the fire must
be monitored to ensure the temperature is correct, farmers drying their copra will stay at the facility for the
three days it takes for copra to finish drying. Dried copra is sold to companies outside of East Santo.

Households will take turns using the hot air dryers in the community, paying the owner an average of about
2000 vatu to dry 30 bags of copra. One challenge with these shared facilities is the current demand -
community representatives highlighted that often there is not enough time for everyone in a community to
dry their copra before school fees are due. Children will have to wait to attend school until the copra has
been dried and sold, and school fees can be paid.

Design Project 4.1 - Efficiency and ease of copra production

Using the current process, copra takes three days to dry and involves heavy labour to crack and remove the
meat and turn it while it is drying. A quicker drying process would save the community time and reduce the
amount of firewood required. This project looks at opportunities to make copra production more efficient,
easier and safer for the residents of East Santo. Projects may look at the drying process itself, the removal
of meat from the coconut, or another part of the production process.

Farms and Ensuring Climate Change Resilience

East Santo is known for its very fertile land and diverse array of produce. Most households are engaged in
farming activities and land is shared for this purpose. As one farmer and landowner in Kole 1 bragged, you
cant find crops like this in Port Vila thats why we call it Espiritu Santo, because there is so much good
food. The most common foods are root crops including taro, yam, manioc/cassava, and kumala; these
crops will be found on every farm as they are eaten with every meal. Farms may also include pomelos,
bananas, peanuts, pawpaws, pineapples, watermelons, spring onions, cucumbers, island cabbage, kava
plants, sugarcane and capsicum.

Farming activities such as breaking ground for planting or weeding are done by hand using locally made
tools. For example, wood from the Namamao tree is strong and can be sharped into a type of spade used
for planting. Local tools are effective, but metal tools from Luganville will be purchased when money is
available as these make work go faster. As a community representative from Lorum shared, we are handy
with our local materials, but its time consuming and metal makes us go faster.

Common animals kept in the community include chickens, pigs and dogs. Chickens in particular will roam
freely around the community, but are marked to indicate ownership.

Design Project 4.2 - Equipment for farming and food production

Farm tools such as shovels and spades are made locally, but are not as efficient as the equivalent, more
expensive metal tool bought from town. Community members are interested in tools or techniques to
reduce the intensity of farm labour and/or increase the efficiency of these activities so gardens can be

Design Project 4.3 - Wild animal deterrents for farm plots

There are many wild pigs living around the communities in East Santo that get into the farm plots at night
and dig up root vegetables such as kumala and cassava. Some fences are in place to keep pigs from
destroying gardens, however the farm plots are large and it is difficult to securely fence the entire
perimeter. This project looks at how the root crops on farm plots might be protected from wild animals.

Design Project 4.4 - Mitigation of climate change impacts on farming

Vanuatu is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, including changing rainfall patterns and an increase
in average temperatures. Projects in this area may choose to look at drought proofing farms in order to
minimise the impact of dry seasons, methods for protecting crops from intense sun, or other management
techniques to increase the resilience of the farms on East Santo.

Design Area 5: Shelter
Ensuring Disaster Resilience

In March of 2015, Vanuatu experienced what is widely regarded as one of the worst natural disasters in the
countrys history. Tropical Cyclone Pam devastated large parts of the country and recovery is still underway
today. Rebuilding and preparation in the face of future natural disasters is evident across Vanuatu and
strong in the public consciousness.

Government departments, aid organisations, and communities are integrating disaster resilience into all
projects. In particular, many organisations are looking to learn from what structures and systems survived
the cyclone in order to build on existing strengths.

In the communities in East Santo, individual homes are constructed by each family and particular individuals
will build the community shared spaces such as the church, womens centre or Nakamal. Building materials
are generally sourced from the surrounding environment. For example, bamboo can be used for wall
panelling and guttering, the Namamao tree can be used for structural supports and posts, grasses provide
thatch for roofing. Building materials that are not sourced locally are bought from Luganville.

Design Project 5.1 - Increase disaster resilience of structures using local materials

Vanuatu experiences a severe cyclone season which is expected to become more frequent and extreme due
to climate change. This project focuses on increasing the capacity of local structures to withstand the
effects of storms, particularly using traditional knowledge and techniques. Students may look at the
improving the disaster resilience of individual homes or one particular community facility (which often serve
as evacuation centres), or both.

Appropriate Market Storage

Markets are an important source of income for families in East Santo. Women, and sometimes families, will
travel to markets to sell crops from their gardens or items such as cassava chips and peanuts.

There is one large market in Luganville and many smaller road markets between the communities along the
east coast. While prices are generally higher at the larger market in Luganville, transportation can be difficult
given the roads and lack of trucks in the communities. Road markets are smaller but more accessible as they
are more dispersed along the coast - especially important when transporting large crops.

Design Project 5.2 - Storage facilities for road markets

Most markets are open every day apart from Sunday, and women will stay with their goods until they are all
sold. In this design project, students will design a storage facility for women and families who travel to
markets to sell their products. The facility can operate for individuals or groups; the priority is that it will
keep the goods safe so people can travel home in the evening if they would like.

Design Area 6: Waste Management
There is no formal or coordinated waste management system in place in East Santo, which makes the
sustainable disposal of waste a challenge. A waste collection service operates in the main town of
Luganville, however this service does not extend to the communities beyond the town.

At a household level, waste will generally be collected in buckets or bags. Food waste is usually given to
household animals like dogs, pigs, or chickens. Leaves and other organic waste from gardens will be burned.
Though rubbish is often collected into specific location within communities or households, no is no system
for disposal or recycling beyond this. Items which cannot be burned, such as plastics, tins and batteries, will
be dumped in the bush. The community is particularly concerned about this waste which is unattractive,
unhealthy and often ends up in garden plots or near rivers.

The system in place in Lonnoc community was identified by other communities as currently the most viable.
Adjacent to Lonnoc is a former quarry, which is now simply a large hole where people will informally dispose
of their rubbish. Adjacent communities, such as Hog Harbour, are interested in using this location to put
waste as well, however it is too far to walk and there is limited access to trucks for this purpose.

Communities noted the health of individuals and the environment as well as a general need to keep spaces
tidy as reasons for waste management to be addressed. Some community representatives also pointed out
that if their communities want to attract more tourism, waste management must be a priority. There is
awareness and energy around this topic; for example, teachers and young students in Hog Harbour have
been placing signs in public spaces to educate the community on the proper management of waste.

Design Project 6.1 - Solid waste management system

Solid waste is generally collected at the household level and is either burnt or disposed of in the bush. This
project looks at a system for the coordinated management of solid waste that prioritises the health of the
community and the environment. The communities in East Santo have identified the importance of
establishing more clearly designated mechanisms for waste collection and systems for its removal.

Design Project 6.2 - Opportunities for recycling

There are no formal recycling programmes in the area. This design project will look at ideas for recycling
programmes in addition to investigating up-cycling, or transforming waste into useful products. This project
may also address developing community awareness around waste including what waste materials are
recyclable, what different varieties of recyclables exist, and as what waste products are biodegradable as
this is an important step in addressing the encompassing issues of waste creation within a community.

Design Project 6.3 - Opportunities for organic waste

This design area will look at opportunities to harness organic waste for productive use, specifically that
which is produced by gardens and farms.

Design Area 7: Information Communications
Most people in the larger towns of Vanuatu, such as Port Vila and Luganville, will regularly use mobile
phones for calls, sms messages and internet access. Mobile phone use decreases outside of these urban
areas, as does the network coverage. While many people in the communities in East Santo regularly use
mobile phones, particularly those in certain roles such as the Chief, teachers and other leaders, this will
generally just be for calls and text messages.

Phone reception varies throughout the communities in East Santo. In many communities, you cannot get
reception in the home or in community spaces but everyone in the community knows where to walk to get
service. For example, one of the womens leaders in Maniock community shared that everyone in her village
walks to the top of a nearby hill and will stay there while making phone calls. She estimated that she goes
up the hill about once per week and will spend one to two hours talking to family on other islands.

Live & Learn staff noted that mobile phones are beginning to replace the need for computers at a
household level in Vanuatu. People will access the internet and communicate via their phone Facebook is
very popular and used as a communication tool by all ages. In East Santo, computers are present in some
schools, at the boarding school in Natawa for example, however these are usually just used for lessons and
not connected to the internet.

One traditional communication channel still in place in East Santo is an individual known as the Messenger
Man. The Messenger Man has been voluntarily sharing community news between villages for decades. He
is known as an excellent observer and listener, but quite quiet unless he is passing on information! When
important news needs to be shared, the Messenger Man will walk and run to the adjacent communities to
pass it on. The most urgent news is around those who are sick or dying.

Due to limitations around mobile phone access, coverage and charging facilities, it can be challenging for
Live & Learn staff to communicate with the community committees involved in the Lataro Community
Development Project, and vice versa. For example, during the day, community representatives will usually
be out in gardens or on coconut plantations without access to a charged phone and coverage. At night,
phones may also not be with the owner as they will be set aside to charge. Currently, to reliably share
information and project updates Live & Learn staff will drive to each community to visit a committee
representative in person. In person visits support strong relationships between Live & Learn and the
committees, but are very time consuming and require a driver and fuel. Communication and project
management can be especially challenging with communities who have do not have long-term committee
members experienced with leadership roles.

Design Project 7.1 - Streamlined project coordination and monitoring

Project management and the recording of the infrastructure and community information is completed
manually and often requires personal visits to each community by Live & Learn staff. This challenge will grow
as more projects are initiated and different projects are working to different timelines. This project looks at
designs for remote project reporting and communication tools to streamline project management and

Design Project 7.2 Training packages

Training and awareness workshops have been well received by communities in East Santo, and there is a
desire for increased access to new knowledge. Currently, workshops are run on an ad hoc basis by
government departments, NGOs and schools. Knowledge is also organically shared from community to
community; for example, the Chief in Lorum learned how to build his new pour flush toilet from his wifes
brother, who had just built one in Hog Harbour. This project looks at opportunities for training packages to
facilitate knowledge sharing between communities and/or other organisations.

Design Area 8: Transport
The communities along the east coast of Santo are connected by one paved, two-lane road which runs from
Luganville in the south to Port Orly in the north. None of the roads or tracks leading off the main road are
paved and the quality varies significantly.

Vanuatu has an intense wet season and over these months the unpaved roads turn to muddy tracks with
many pot holes. Even in the dry season, truck owners will not always drive into some communities because
of the large pot holes and uneven terrain. Residents will have to walk the few kilometres to meet a truck on
the main road; this was highlighted as a particular challenge for pregnant women and people who are ill.

As the most common destination is the main town of Luganville, communities will share rides whenever a
truck makes the trip. If an individual needs to get to town and no truck is available from their community,
they can ask the adjacent communities or walk a few kilometres up to the main road wait to catch a truck
there. Not all communities have access to truck, while some communities have three to four.

Design Project 8.1 - Management of connecting roads linking main roads and community

Apart from the the main road, roads linking communities are unpaved and sometimes very rough and
rugged 4WD tracks. These roads are destroyed in the wet season when large volumes of water turn the
tracks to mud, leaving large holes and uneven terrain for the dry season. Road maintenance, drainage
systems and management plans could assist the community to improve accessibility at all times of year.

Design Project 8.2 Opportunities for coordinated transport

Households require transportation to access markets, especially to stock up smaller local stores with
products from Luganville. This design area will look at opportunities to improve access to transportation to
all with low cost shared or public transport devices and programmes.

Design Area 9: Environment and Conservation
Community-led initiatives

Recent success advocating for the conservation of coconut crabs has inspired many communities in East
Santo to look at what other conservation efforts could work in their villages. In particular, Maniock
community noted that they are aware the forest around their community is being degraded as trees are
increasingly sold for lumber.

Another great example of conservation on Santo is the Live & Learn Vanuatu Loru Community
Conservation Area Project. The Loru project covers 350 Ha and focuses on avoiding deforestation for copra
production, regeneration of degraded forest and establishing agro-forestry plots to provide income and
address drivers of native forest degradation.

Communities in East Santo are advocating for more conservation areas, however it can be difficult to access
government support for these initiatives and appropriate funding. One opportunity being investigated is a
possible link to tourism and creating conservation incentives through this alternative income source.

Design Project 9.1 - Community led conservation and resource management programs

This project looks are opportunities for conservation initiatives managed and led by the community
committees or other local organisations.

Alternative Livelihood Opportunities

The primary income generating activities for the communities in East Santo are copra production and
market stalls. Some communities also have successful tourism businesses, including beach bungalows and
restaurants. There is a strong push by government organisations to increase tourism and community
representatives are interested in what activities might generate more tourism interest.

More generally, Live & Learn Vanuatu is interested in what other livelihood opportunities might be possible
for the communities in East Santo and what alternatives can be created with the existing resources in the

Design Project 9.2 Fish Farming

This project looks at low cost, sustainable design for community fish farms in East Santo. Projects should
consider the technical design along with management proposals and maintenance considerations.

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