Sei sulla pagina 1di 26

CHAPTER2OPERATIONALAMPLIFIERS

ChapterOutline
2.1TheIdealOpAmp
2.2TheInvertingConfiguration
2.3TheNoninverting Configuration
2.4DifferenceAmplifiers
2.5IntegratorsandDifferentiators
2.6DCImperfections
2.7EffectofFiniteOpenLoopGainandBandwidthonCircuitPerformance
2.8LargeSignalOperationofOpAmp

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 21
2.1IdealOpAmp

Introduction
Theirapplicationswereinitiallyintheareaofanalogcomputationandinstrumentation
Opampisverypopularbecauseofitsversatility
Opampcircuitsworkatlevelsthatarequiteclosetotheirpredictedtheoreticalperformance
Theopampistreatedabuildingblocktostudyitsterminalcharacteristicsanditsapplications

Opampsymbolandterminals
Twoinputterminals:invertinginputterminal()andnoninverting inputterminal(+)
Oneoutputterminal
TwodcpowersuppliesV+ andV
Otherterminalsforfrequencycompensationandoffsetnulling

Circuitsymbolforopamp Opampwithdcpowersupplies

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 22
Idealcharacteristicsofopamp
Differentialinputsingleendedoutputamplifier
Infiniteinputimpedance
i1 =i2 =0(regardlessoftheinputvoltage)
Zerooutputimpedance
vO=A(v2 v1)(regardlessoftheload)
Infiniteopenloopdifferentialgain
Infinitecommonmoderejection
Infinitebandwidth

Differentialandcommonmodesignals
Twoindependentinputsignals:v1 andv2
Differentialmodeinputsignal(vId):vId =(v2 v1)
Commonmodeinputsignal(vIcm):vIcm =(v1 +v2)/2
Alternativeexpressionofv1 andv2:
v1 =vIcm vId /2
v2 =vIcm +vId /2

Exercise2.2(Textbook)
Exercise2.3(Textbook)
NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 23
2.2TheInvertingConfiguration

Theinvertingcloseloopconfiguration
ExternalcomponentsR1 andR2 formacloseloop
Outputisfedbacktotheinvertinginputterminal
Inputsignalisappliedfromtheinvertingterminal
Invertingconfigurationusingidealopamp
Therequiredconditionstoapplyvirtualshortforopampcircuit:
Negativefeedbackconfiguration
Infiniteopenloopgain
Closedloopgain:G vO /vI = R2 /R1
Infinitedifferentialgain:v2 v1 =vO /A =0
Infiniteinputimpedance:i2 =i1 =0
Zerooutputimpedance:vO =v1 i1 R2 = vI R2 /R1
Voltagegainisnegative
Inputandoutputsignalsareoutofphase
Closedloopgaindependsentirelyonexternalpassive
components(independentofopampgain)
Closeloopamplifiertradesgain(highopenloopgain)
foraccuracy(finitebutaccurateclosedloopgain)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 24
Equivalentcircuitmodelfortheinvertingconfiguration
Inputimpedance:Ri vI /iI =vI /(vI /R1)=R1
Forhighinputclosedloopimpedance,R1 shouldbelarge,butislimitedtoprovidesufficientG
Ingeneral,theinvertingconfigurationsuffersfromalowinputimpedance
Outputimpedance:Ro =0
Voltagegain:Avo =R2/R1

Othercircuitexampleforinvertingconfiguration

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 25
Application:theweightedsummer
Aweightedsummerusingtheinvertingconfiguration

n Rf Rf Rf
vO 0 R f ik ( v1 v2 ... vn )
k 1 R1 R2 Rn

Aweightedsummerforcoefficientsofbothsigns

R R R R R Rc
vO v1 a c v2 a c v3 c v4
R1 Rb R2 Rb R3 R4
Exercise2.4(Textbook)
Exercise2.6(Textbook)
Exercise2.7(Textbook)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 26
2.3Noninverting Configuration

Thenoninvertingcloseloopconfiguration
ExternalcomponentsR1 andR2 formacloseloop
Outputisfedbacktotheinvertinginputterminal
Inputsignalisappliedfromthenoninvertingterminal
Noninverting configurationusingidealopamp
Therequiredconditionstoapplyvirtualshortforopampcircuit:
Negativefeedbackconfiguration
Infiniteopenloopgain
Closedloopgain:G vO /vI =1+R2/R1
Infinitedifferentialgain:v+ v =vO /A =0
Infiniteinputimpedance:i2 =i1 =v /R1
Zerooutputimpedance:vO =v + i1R2 =vI (1+R2 /R1)
Closedloopgaindependsentirelyonexternalpassive
components(independentofopampgain)
Closeloopamplifiertradesgain(highopenloopgain)
foraccuracy(finitebutaccurateclosedloopgain)
Equivalentcircuitmodelforthenoninverting configuration
Inputimpedance:Ri = (1+R2/R1)vi
Outputimpedance:Ro =0
Voltagegain:Avo =1+R2/R1

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 27
Thevoltagefollower
Unitygainbufferbasedonnoninverting configuration
Equivalentvoltageamplifiermodel:
InputresistanceofthevoltagefollowerRi =
OutputresistanceofthevoltagefollowerRo =0
VoltagegainofthevoltagefollowerAvo =1
Theclosedloopgainisunityregardlessofsourceandload
Itistypicallyusedasabuffervoltageamplifiertoconnectasourcewithahighimpedancetoalow
impedanceload

Exercise2.9(Textbook)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 28
Exercise1:Assumetheopampsareideal,findthevoltagegain(vo/vi) ofthefollowing
circuits.
(1)(2)

(3)(4)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 29
2.4DifferenceAmplifiers

Differenceamplifier
Idealdifferenceamplifier:
RespondstodifferentialinputsignalvId
RejectsthecommonmodeinputsignalvIcm
Practicaldifferenceamplifier:
vO =AdvId +AcmvIcm
Ad isthedifferentialgain
Acm isthecommonmodegain
Commonmoderejectionratio(CMRR):
| Ad |
CMRR 20 log
| Acm |

Singleopampdifferenceamplifier
R4
v v I 2 v
R3 R4
v v R 1 R2 / R1
vO v iR2 v 1 R2 2 vI 1 vI 2
R1 R1 1 R3 / R4


R2
vIcm vId / 2 1 R2 / R1 vIcm vId / 2
R1 1 R3 / R4

1 R2 / R1 R2 1 1 R2 / R1 R2 1 1 R2 / R1 R2 1 R2 / R1 R2
vIcm vId Ad Acm
1 R3 / R4 R1 2 1 R3 / R4 R1 2 1 R3 / R4 R1 1 R3 / R4 R1
NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 210
Superpositiontechniqueforlineartimeinvariantcircuit
SetvI2 =0 vO1 ( R2 / R1 )vI 1 vI1
R R4
SetvI1 =0 vO 2 1 2 vI 2
vO1
R1 R3 R4
R 1 R2 / R1
vO vO1 vO 2 2 vI 1 vI 2
R1 1 R3 / R4
1 R2 / R1 R2 1 1 R2 / R1 R2
vIcm vId
1 R3 / R4 R1 2 1 R3 / R4 R1

1 1 R2 / R1 R2 1 R2 / R1 R2
CMRR 20 log /
2 1 R3 / R4 R1 1 R3 / R4 R1 vI2 vO2
1 1 R2 / R1 R2 1 R2 / R1 R2
Ad Acm
2 1 R3 / R4 R1 1 R3 / R4 R1

Theconditionfordifferenceamplifieroperation:R2 /R1 =R4 /R3 vO =(R2/R1)(v2 v1)


Forsimplicity,theresistancescanbechosenas:R3 =R1 andR4 =R2
DifferentialinputresistanceRid:
Differentialinputresistance:Rid =2R1
LargeR1 canbeusedtoincreaseRid
R2 becomesimpracticallylargetomaintainrequiredgain
GaincanbeadjustedbychangingR1 andR2 simultaneously

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 211


Instrumentationamplifier

vO R R
Ad 4 1 2
vI 2 vI 1 R3 R1

DifferentialmodegaincanbeadjustedbytuningR1
Commonmodegainiszero
Inputimpedanceisinfinite
Outputimpedanceiszero
Itspreferabletoobtainalltherequiredgaininthe1st stage,leavingthe2nd stagewithagainofone

Exercise2.15(Textbook)
Exercise2.17(Textbook)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 212


2.5IntegratorsandDifferentiators

Invertingconfigurationwithgeneralimpedance
R1 andR2 ininvertingconfigurationcanbereplacedbyZ1(s)andZ2(s)
Theclosedlooptransferfunction:Vo(s)/Vi(s)=Z2(s)/Z1(s)
Thetransmissionmagnitudeandphaseforasinusoidinput
canbeevaluatedbyreplacings withj
Invertingintegrator
Timedomainanalysis:
t t
1 1 vI (t )
C 0 C 0 R
vC (t ) VC i1 (t ) dt VC dt
t
1
RC 0
vO (t ) vC (t ) vI (t )dt VC

Frequencydomainanalysis:
Vo ( j ) Z 1
2
Vi ( j ) Z1 jRC
Vo 1
=90
Vi RC

AlsoknownasMillerintegrator
Integratorfrequency(int)istheinverseoftheintegratortimeconstant(RC) int =1/RC
Thecapacitoractsasanopencircuitatdc( =0) openloopconfigurationatdc(infinitegain)
Anytinydcintheinputcouldresultinoutputsaturation

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 213


TheMillerintegratorwithparallelfeedbackresistance
Topreventintegratorsaturationduetoinfinitedcgain,parallelfeedbackresistanceisincluded

G(dB)

w(logscale)
1 1
RF C RC

Vo ( j ) Z ( j ) 1
2
Vi ( j ) Z1 ( j ) R / RF jRC

Closedloopgain=1/(jRF +R/RF)
Closedloopgainatdc=RF/R
Closedloopgainathighfrequency( >>1/RFC)1/jRC
Cornerfrequency(3dBfrequency)=1/RFC
Theintegratorcharacteristicsisnolongerideal
LargeresistanceRF shouldbeusedforthefeedback

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 214


Theopampdifferentiator
Timedomainanalysis
dvI (t )
iC
dt
dvI (t )
vO (t ) RC
dt
Frequencydomainanalysis
Vo ( j ) Z
2 jRC
Vi ( j ) Z1

Vo
RC =90
Vi
Differentiatoroperation:

Differentiatortimeconstant:RC
Gain(=RC)becomesinfiniteatveryhighfrequencies
Highfrequencynoiseismagnified(generallyavoidedinpractice)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 215


Thedifferentiatorwithseriesresistance
Topreventmagnifyinghighfrequencynoise,seriesresistanceRF isincluded

G(dB)

w(logscale)
1 1
RC RF C
Vo ( j ) jRC

Vi ( j ) 1 jRF C

Closedloopgain=jRC /(1+jRFC)
Closedloopgainatinfinitefrequency=R/RF
Closedloopgainatlowfrequency( <<1/RFC) jRC
Cornerfrequency(3dBfrequency)=1/RFC
Thedifferentiatorcharacteristicsisnolongerideal

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 216


Exercise2: ForaMillerintegratorwithR =10k andC =10nF,ashuntresistanceRF is
usedtosuppressthedcgain.FindtheminimumvalueofRF ifaperiodsignalwithaperiod
of0.1sisappliedattheinput.

Example2.4(Textbook)
Example2.5(Textbook)
Exercise2.18(Textbook)
Exercise2.20(Textbook)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 217


2.6DCImperfections*

Offsetvoltage
Inputoffsetvoltage(VOS)arisesasaresultoftheunavoidablemismatches
Theoffsetvoltageanditspolarityvaryfromoneopamptoanother
Theanalysiscanbesimplifiedbyusingthecircuitmodelwithanoffsetfree
opampandavoltagesourceVOS atinputterminal
TypicaloffsetvoltageisafewmV
Effectofoffsetvoltageforaclosedloopamplifier

VO VOS (1 R2 / R1 )

AdcvoltageVOS(1+R2/R1)existsattheoutputatzeroinputvoltage
Inputoffsetvoltageiseffectivelyamplifiedbytheclosedloopgainastheerrorvoltageatoutput
Someopampsareprovidedwithtwoadditionalterminalsforoffsetnulling

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 218


Inputbiasandoffsetcurrent
DCbiascurrentsIB1 andIB2 arerequiredforcertaintypesofopamps
InputbiascurrentisdefinedbyIB =(IB1+IB2)/2
InputoffsetcurrentisdefinedasIOS =|IB1IB2|
TypicalvaluesforopampsthatusebipolartransistorsareIB =100nA andIOS =10nA
Effectofinputbiascurrentforaclosedloopamplifiers
Outputdcvoltageduetoinputbiascurrent:VO =IB1R2 IBR2
ThevalueofR2 andtheclosedloopgainarelimited.

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 219


Effectofinputoffsetvoltageonthethe invertingintegrator
Theoutputvoltageisgivenby
1 t VOS V
vO VOS
C 0 R
dt VOS OS t
RC
Theoutputvoltageincreaseswithtimeuntiltheopampsaturates
Effectofinputbiascurrentontheinvertingintegrator
Theoutputvoltageisgivenby
1 t I
vO I B 2 R
C 0
I OS dt I B 2 R OS t
C
Theoutputvoltagealsoincreaseswithtimeuntiltheopampsaturates

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 220


2.7EffectofFiniteOpenLoopGainandBandwidthonCircuitPerformance

Practicalopampcharacteristics
Opampwithfiniteopenloopgain:A(j)=A0
Opampwithfiniteopenloopgainandbandwidth:A(j)=A0 /(1+j/b)
Frequencyresponseofopamp:

Openloopopamp
ThefrequencyresponseofanopenloopopampisapproximatedbySTCform:
A(j)=A0 /(1+j/b)
Atlowfrequencies( <<b),theopenloopopampisapproximatedby|A(jw)|A0
Athighfrequencies( >>b),theopenloopopampisapproximatedby|A(jw)|A0/b
Unitygainbandwidth (ft =t/2)isdefinedasthefrequencyatwhich|A(jt)|1 t =A0b

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 221


Invertingconfigurationusingopampwithfiniteopenloopgain
Closedloopgain:
vI (vO / A0 ) vI vO / A0
i1
R1 R1
v v v v / A
vO O i1 R2 O I O 0 R2
A0 A0 R1
v R2 / R1
G O
vI 1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A0
ClosedloopgainapproachestheidealvalueofR2 /R1 asA0 approachestoinfinite
TominimizethedependenceofG onopenloopgain,weshouldhaveA0 >>1+ R2/R1
vI vI vI R1
Inputimpedance: Ri
i1 (vI vO / A0 ) / R1 (vI vI G / A0 ) / R1 1 G / A0
Outputimpedance: Ro 0
Invertingconfigurationusingopampwithfinitegainandbandwidth

R2 / R1 R2 / R1
G
1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A( j ) 1 (1 R2 / R1 ) /A0 /(1 j / b )
R2 / R1

1 (1 R2 / R1 ) / A0 j (1 R2 / R1 ) / b A0
ifA0 >>1+R2/R1 G G0 /(1+j/3dB)
whereG0 =R2/R1 and3dB =A0b /(1+R2/R1)(A0 /|G0|)b

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 222


Exercise3: Consideraninvertingamplifierwheretheopenloopgainand3dBbandwidth
oftheopampare10000and1rad/s,respectively.Findthegainandbandwidthoftheclose
loopgain(exactandapproximatedvalues)forthefollowingcases:R2/R1 =1,100,200,and
2000.
Exercise4:Anopamphasanopenloopgainof80dBanda3dBbandwidthof10rad/s.
(1) TheopampisusedinaninvertingamplifierwithR2/R1 =100.Findthecloseloopgain
atdcandat =1000rad/s.
(2) TwoidenticalinvertingamplifierswithR2/R1 =100arecascaded.Findthecloseloop
gainatdcandat =1000rad/s.
(3) Forthecascadedamplifierin(2),findthefrequencyatwhichthegainis3dBlower
thanthedcgain.

Exercise2.26(Textbook)
Example2.6(Textbook)
Exercise2.27(Textbook)
Exercise2.28(Textbook)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 223


2.8LargeSignalOperationofOpAmps

Outputvoltagesaturation
Ratedoutputvoltage(vO,max)specifiesthemaximumoutputvoltageswingofopamp
Linearamplifieroperation(fortherequiredvO <vO,max):vO =(1+R2/R1)vI
Clippedoutputwaveform(fortherequiredvO >vO,max):vO =vO,max
Themaximuminputswingallowedforoutputvoltagelimitedcase:vI,max =vO,max/(1+R2/R1)
OutputistypicallylimitedbyvoltageincaseswhereRL islarge
Outputcurrentlimits
Maximumoutputcurrent(iO,max)specifiestheoutputcurrentlimitationofopamp
Linearamplifieroperation(fortherequirediO <iO,max):vO =(1+R2/R1)vI andiL =vO /RL
Clippedoutputwaveform(fortherequirediO >iO,max):iL =iO,max iF
Themaximuminputswingallowedforoutputcurrentlimitedcase:
vI,max =iO,max[RL||(R1+R2)]/(1+R2/R1)
OutputistypicallylimitedbycurrentincaseswhereRL issmall

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 224


Slewrate
dv
Slewrateisthemaximumrateofchangepossibleattheoutput:(V/sec)
SR O max
dt
Slewratemaycausenonlineardistortionforlargesignaloperation

Inputstepfunction Smallsignaldistortion(finiteBW) Largesignaldistortion(SR)

vO (t ) V (1 e t t )

Fullpowerbandwidth
DefinedasthehighestfrequencyallowedforaunitygainbufferwithasinusoidaloutputatvO,max
vi (t ) Vo sin t vo (t ) Vo sin t vO
dvo (t )
Vo cos t
dt
dv (t ) vO,max
| o |max Vo SR distortionless
dt SR
dv (t )
| o |max Vo SR distortion
dt
w
SR
fM M wM
2 2vO ,max

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 225


Example2.7(Textbook)
Exercise2.29(Textbook)
Exercise2.30(Textbook)

NTUEEElectronics L.H.Lu 226