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GROUNDED NEUTRAL

Dr. S. THANGALAKSHMI

EEE DEPARTMENT

MOHAMED SATHAK A.J. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

CHENNAI

Grounding System

The earthing or grounding is nothing but the connection of neutral point if the supply system to the general mass of earth in such a way

that immediate discharge of electricity can take place without danger. When grounding is provided then it ensures the safety of personnel against electrical shocks and avoids accidents. The equipment is also

protected against lighting and voltage surges. The voltage stress on lines is reduced along with that on the equipment with respect to earth under abnormal conditions.

With earthing, the earth fault currents are controlled for protective relays.

These are two ways in which the three phase systems can be operated.

These are viz. with isolated neutral and with earthed neutral. But presently isolated neutral system is not used as with such system

during fault, large transient voltages with magnitude several times

that of normal value is produced which may cause breakdown of insulation. This results in damage of the concerned equipment and interruption of the supply system. When the system is under earth

fault on one of the phases, the remaining two healthy phases will

continue supplying load for a shorter period.

System grounding is of two types:

Effective grounding: Effective grounding is also called solid grounding that is without resistance or reactance. In this case co- efficient of earthing is less than 80% Non effective grounding: When neutral to earth connection is made

through resistance or reactance than the system is said to be non- effectively grounded. In this case coefficient of earthing is greater

than 80% Coefficient of Earthing (CoE) is the ratio which is measured during single phase to ground fault:

Ce = Highest phase to ground voltage of healthy phase / Phase to phase voltage

Earthed Neutral System : In this system, the neutral is earthed either directly or through resistance or reactance depending on the

requirement. Thus the system neutral can be grounded effectively or non-effectively. In effectively grounded system, the neutral is

grounded directly and hence it is called solid grounding. Following methods are adopted for non-effectively grounded systems. i) Resistance earthing

ii) Reactance earthing iii) Arc supression coil or resonant earthing iv) Voltage transformer earthing

v) Earthing transformer

The advantages of neutral earthing are as follows, i) The arcing grounds are prevented from occurring by employing

suitable switchgears.

ii) As the neutral point is not shifted in this system, the voltages of healthy phases remains nearly constant.

iii) The static charges which are induced are grounded immediately and are thus prevented from causing any disturbance.

iv) The faulty part of the system can be isolated from the remaining

system with the help of earth fault relays. v) The magnitude of transient voltage is small in this system.

vi) The discriminative type fault indicator can be installed on such

systems.

vii) This system is more reliable, provides safety to personnel and

equipment with reduced operational and maintenance cost than ungrounded system.

To determine the earthing mode a compromise between three following requirements should be made:

1.

Damping the over voltages

2.

Limiting damage & disturbances caused by earth fault

3.

Providing simple selective protection devices

Solid Grounding or Effective Grounding

In this method of earthing, neutral is directly connected to earth

by a metallic connection or a wire of negligible resistance and reactance. The charging currents flows through the system under

normal condition similar to ungrounded system. Because of the connection of system neutral point to earth, it

always remains at earth potential at all operating conditions and

under faulty conditions voltage of healthy phase will not exceed. The solid grounding us represented in the Fig. below.

Solid Grounding or Effective Grounding

Solid Grounding or Effective Grounding

Whenever there is earth fault on any one phase (phase B in this case),

the phase to earth voltage of faulty phase is zero while voltage to earth of the remaining two healthy phases will be normal phase

voltages as neutral in this case is not shifted. The phasor diagram corresponding to this condition is shown in the Fig.

voltages as neutral in this case is not shifted. The phasor diagram corresponding to this condition

Let the capacitive currents flowing in the healthy phases be I R and I Y . the resultant capacitive current is vector sum of I R and I Y . The alternator in addition to capacitive current also provides the fault

current. This current flows from fault point through faulty phase and then return to the alternator through earth and neutral connection. The resistance of earth fault is negligible. The

magnitude of fault current after the analysis is given by,

connection. The resistance of earth fault is negligible. The magnitude of fault current after the analysis

This current is mainly dependent on zero sequence impedance of the source of power and that of phase conductor upto fault point. As the resistive component of zero sequence impedance is normally negligible, the fault current which is large can be assumed as lagging the fault phase voltage by 90 o . From the phasor diagram, it can be seen that I F and I C are exactly opposite due to which capacitive current is neutralized by high fault current which eliminates the possibility of arcing grounds and over voltages. The discriminative types of switchgears may be used in this method.

Followings are disadvantages of this method, i) Due to high value pf fault currents, the system may become unstable and there will be greater interference to neighbouring

circuits. Thus this method is employed where system impedance is sufficiently large to limit fault current.

ii) With high values of fault currents, circuit breakers are difficult

to handle and heavy contacts are to be provided in the circuit breakers. The above disadvantages can be overcome by employing high

rupturing capacity and high speed circuit breakers along with fast

operating relays.

This method is used in high voltage systems with voltages below

33 kV with total capacity not exceeding 5000 KVA for the economic reasons.

Resistance Grounding

Resistance Grounding

Advantages

Advantages

Reactance Grounding

Reactance Grounding

Resonant Grounding/ Arc Suppression Coil / Peterson Coil

Resonant Grounding/ Arc Suppression Coil / Peterson Coil

Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR)

Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR)
Neutral Grounding Resistor (NGR)

Neutral Grounding Reactor Dry Type

Neutral Grounding Reactor Dry Type
Neutral Grounding Reactor Dry Type

Peterson Coil (or) Arc Suppression Coil

Peterson Coil (or) Arc Suppression Coil
Peterson Coil (or) Arc Suppression Coil

NGR

NGR
NGR