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Design of Defected Ground Structures for Harmonic

Control of Active Microstrip Antenna

lnrik Chang* and Bomson Lec
Department of Radio Engineering, Kyunghee University
Suwon, Korea

1. Introduction
Photonic bandgap (PBGj stm~tures usually mean the periodic sfm~lures in which
propagation of a ccnain band of frequencies is prohibited. Thc research on PBG ~ t r u ~ t u r e 6
was originally carried out in the optical frequency region, but it can be applied Lo wide
frequency ranges including microwave ficqucncics by a proper frequency scaling [Il-L3].
PBG S~IIICIU~CS for microwave frequencies are applied in planar circuits such an microstrip
line and CPW (coplanar wavcguidcj. In !his case, they are more frequently termed the
Defected Ground Structures [4], [SI. Most of L e researches on DGS have been performed
based on the equivalent circuit consisting of lumped elements, L a n d C. cxtncted from EM
simulations [I]. In addition, we also consider radialion effect by including the rcsislmnce R
in the equivalent circuit. The general ID periodic SINUCIURS with N unit cclls arc analyzed
using ABCD matrix formulation. Thc effccts of RLC clemcnl~of the unit cell, Spacing
between <heunit cell, and cell number N are investigated in detail. For a design example, a
simple ID DGS with N 4 is designed for harmonic control through a modeling using
transmiision line theoly'Ris I D DGS with N-2 is much simpler than thc one proposed in
161. The proposed apDmach enabler us 10 desizn the required DGS quit< easily and quickly

2. Analysis of Unit DCS

Thc unit DGS we have choscn IO use is that proposed by Drl Ahn [I]. In the paper [I], the
proposed DGS was shown to bc madded by a parallcl LC cizuic cunnrctcd in ~ e r i c swith a
tmnsmisrion line. One of the good properties of this S~NUCIUE is that L and C can bc
independently controlled by the aperture area and gap spacing, respectively.
Thc proposed DGS Lhrf efchcd on the ground plane of a microstrip lransmission line is
s h o w in Fig. I where w, g. d. a, b, and h arc width ofthe microstrip lint. gap between thc
CUI edges of the microstrip line. lcngth of DGS unit cell, horizontal and venical length of
the apenure, and thickness of Ihe substrale, rcspeciivcly. From the EM simulsfion for thc
DGS m i 1 cell, we c m obtain thc equivalent c i i ~ u i tas shown in Fig 2. The lumped
capacitance C is the gap capacivance. ,he inductance L i s relutcd with the extra magnctic
flux passing through the aprnures on the gmund plase. and the mdiarion effcei i s cxplvined
by i c ~ l s l a n ~R.
The element values L, C ofthe equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2 arc givcn by (I)from the
EM simulation using the centcr angular frequency of thc stopband ooand 3 6 8 cutoff
angular frequcncy faken from the S I , cuwc.
c= ,L=- (1)
2Z&' - "c3 4s 2/o>c
Using Sii(o) obtained rrom EM simulation. the resistancc R is detcrmincd by equating
S,,(o)=(Z,-~)/(Z,,t) and is gwcn by
- = R (2)

When R-, it conesponds io no radiation loss. h g . 3 shows (he unit cell ofthe DGS. This
S ~ N C ~ U coosists
~C of Ihe parallcl RLC el~menucunnecied in scries with the transmiision
line of lrngih elecirical M i 2 on both sides. The ABCD matrix of the unit DGS is given
by I21


cos M i -sin kd
-cos k d i i s i n kd-- 2 cos kd+/i-sin kd
20 22;

3. Parameter study of DCS

For the basic DFS shown in Fig. I, we a ~ ~ u mchat c e,=4.7 (&=3.6), h=1.6mm,w=2.2mm,
g=0.2mm and a=h=3.hmm. From the EM simulation using HFSS Ver J.0 for this hasic PBC
, c ohmin S,, shown m Fig. 4 and S I ,(not shown). The stopband conlei frequency
S I N L I U ~ ~w

x,,ZdB , S,, (m0 = I I=)

cutofl f r e q u e n ~ y f ~and (no, shown) are 5.36GHz. 4.20 GHz,
and 0.8957, respectively. The exiracted circuit elcment v ~ l l l c susing ( I ) and (2) are
R=SSS.SIR. C=O.S096pF, L=1.463nH, re~peclively. The S,, curves based on EM
silnulamn and transmission line theory are shown IO be ~n excellent agreement. We 2.1~0
show ~nFig. 4 two mare S2, cuwcs ofwhich slophand cenier lrcquencler are fa X I. I and
/, I I,I, respccri\vely. We fixed CIL ratio for the same bandwidth for three cases. I n Fig. 5,
wc changc lhc susceptance slope paramcler dcIL maintaining the product o f L and C lo
he identical. In Fig. 6, we assume rho1 N=2, and d is increased from Imm 10 l0Omm. In Fig
7. wc assume thai C=0.4123pF, L=O.S196nH.R=682.30?3 CI, d=imm, and N i s increased
from I 10 3. As N is Increased. we obtain !he sharper S2, c u m s . In the paper 161, i t w-
expcrimsnlally shown that the harmonics in the output of an active antenna could be
suppressed using I2D PBG S L ~ U C I U Iconsirling
C o f 12 circis-shaped unit cells. However, it
xas no! obvious what kind of mechanism Icd 10 such T~SUIIS. The 2 0 circle PBG also
rcnulied in almost bi-direclionul antenna pallem.
In this paper. i t is demonitrated using ~imulationlhrr the ID DCS with N=2 may take the

4. Design Example
Fig. 8 shows [he microslrip anlenna connectcd wilh lhc ID DGS with N=2. The
fundamonla1 rcsooant frequency of ,he anlama is S.~?SGHL.Since this antenna a160
resonales ai 11.55GHr and 17.32SGH1, the second and third harmonics, which occur at the
ouipul o f a power amplifier, causes the problem ofspurious radiation. Fig. 9 shows SI, and
S1, for h e designed DGS with N=2 using the different DGS cell, re~peclively.The relative
permiltivily oiik suhstratc is &,=4.7 (s.=3.6).Fer the deagn m Fig. 9. the cixuif element
valuss arc: C=0.81114pF, L=0.3976nH. R=500.546SQ. d=3mm, a,=bl=1.45mm, g,=0.4mm,
a2=br=1.94mm, g,= 0.3".
Using vsnsmission line theory. the design of DGS is considerably facilitated. With h i s
initial design, the acted dimensions of DGS can he delermined much easier.

5. Conclusion
Afler modeling and analyzing the ID DGS based on ABCD formulation, a simple DGS
with N=Z has been derignsd for harmonic ~ontroi.The designed DGS with N=2 shows
widehand stopband characlerislics and takes a rolc o f thc 2D DGS with N=12 (3x4)
designed for the samc pumare.

111 D Ahn. Park. I S. Park. C -S. Kim. I. Kim. Y. Qlan. 7 Itoh. " A drrign ofthc Iow-paIs filter
using Ihc novel microhtrip defccfsd ground SINCIUT~."
IEBE MTr. Val 49. Jan, 2001
(21 Roben E. Collio. Foundvrionr Jsr M~cmvwov~ tnpineeriiig. Scc-d Editim, McGrsw~llill.N.Y..

I31 David M. Polar. ,Miooiwvr Engiorri-iiig. Sccond Cdilion, JOHN WiLEY SONS. INC., 1998
141 v Rrdiric. Y pian. R. Coccmi. T. Itoh. "No\rl 2.U photonic handgnp stmcturc h c n'icroitnp
IEEE Microravc and Ghtidcd Wave Lcltrrs. Vol 8. Feb 199R
15) T. Y. Yun. K . Chmg. "Uniplmar oncdmcnsiand pholonic~hsndgapsImc1urc1 and rc~onrlors,''
iEEE MTT. Vol. 46. March. 2001
(e] Y a m h i Horii. Makoio Trutsmi, "Harmonic Control by Photonic Bandgap on Microatrip
Paich A n l e n d IEEE MCiV.zI., vol. 9. no. I . pp. 1x95-189R. I a n 1999.

d 2

,I - I.rOltdI,Ll".

, . . -8.- er
ClD""d P b x z,,
Fig. I , The shape OS Unit DCS m h e d on thc ground xig. 1. eqUilaicDf
CireUiffor DCS
piane o r a mifrostrip linc

! kd i
i kd
; T i

:-i ..., .:.. L i
i - :
- 0
. .
--+i I,, I ,

y, ,,,,A :..........................
":, , I
Sectlo" 1
-- secmn * r
sec,,on 3
0 0

Pig. 3. unit tell "SDCS

Fig. 9. SI,Bnd S T , fer DGS using different DGS cell (N=2)