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for the

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Abstract

The National Policy for Solid Waste moves the theme solid residue to another level,
extrapolating discussions focused exclusively on forms of final disposal in landfills. The
new legal framework incorporates the consciousness of wealth and potential possibili-
ties in waste management, italso reveals the errors and omissions that have been ac-
cumulated over the past 30 years.
The Project Capacity Building and Fundamental Research to Develop and Implement
a Mechanical Biological Treatment Facility with an Integrated Fermentation Stage in
Jundia-SP, Brazil aimed to open a multidisciplinary discussion integrating several
market segments, in order to allow the design of tools for the implementation of a
sustainable management of municipal solid waste.
During the project implementation it was possible to enter into debates that spanned
from the technologies in the form of fermentation, composting, recycling, and energy
recovery up to the provision of information, advice on the introduction of a sustainable
waste management and, still, the engineering and scientific content, as well as the
relevant aspects for the implementation of the projects, such as trends and challenges
of management, among other aspects of the market.
This project also provided comprehensive knowledge about this new market for Brazil
and also the construction of an inter-relationship with the sector of waste within Bra-
zil-Germany, establishing an exchange with iconic German institutions on best practic-
es to ensure climate protection and the preservation of natural resources, thus provid-
ing a continuous exchange of experiences, through vocational and technological edu-
cation.
It is with immense joy that we provide this publication that will enhance the way best
practices in the management of municipal solid waste are discussed, recognizing the
unmeasured efforts on the part of the City of Jundia in its realization that transcend-
preliminary aimsbyprovision of technical staff and infrastructure, and create opportu-
nities to democratize the information for promotingpurposes of a holistic view as dif-
ferentiated waste management.These efforts will cause a cultural change that will pro-
tect our natural resources and climate, ensuring a better future for next generations.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures ........................................................................................................... 6

List of Tables ............................................................................................................ 9

List of Abbreviations ............................................................................................... 12

1 Background Information ................................................................................... 13

2 General Problems and Barriers ......................................................................... 15

3 Project Approach .............................................................................................. 17

4 Realization Team .............................................................................................. 20

5 Waste Management Legislation ........................................................................ 22


5.1 National Policy .......................................................................................................... 22
5.2 Federal State of So Paulo Policy .............................................................................. 24
5.3 City of Jundia Waste Framework ............................................................................. 25

6 Brazilian Waste Market .................................................................................... 27

7 Jundia Characterization ................................................................................... 33


7.1 Geography................................................................................................................. 33
7.2 Population and Demography .................................................................................... 35
7.3 Socio-Economic Situation ......................................................................................... 37

8 Waste Management in Jundia .......................................................................... 40


8.1 Actual waste management ....................................................................................... 40
8.1.1 GERESOL ................................................................................................................. 40
8.1.2 LANDFILL ................................................................................................................ 42

9 Waste Quantities .............................................................................................. 44


9.1 Mixed household waste (MHW) quantities .............................................................. 44
9.2 Quantities of Recycled Fractions .............................................................................. 45
9.3 Future Waste Quantities ........................................................................................... 47

10 Financial Aspects ............................................................................................ 49

11 Household Waste Characterization ................................................................. 50


11.1 Sampling Routes ..................................................................................................... 50

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11.2 Sampling and Sample Quantity............................................................................... 52
11.3 Sampling Period ...................................................................................................... 52
11.4 Sieve Analysis (Granulometric Analysis) ................................................................. 53
11.5 Material Analysis .................................................................................................... 55
11.6 Laboratory Analysis................................................................................................. 57
11.7 Results..................................................................................................................... 58
11.7.1 Waste composition .............................................................................................. 58
11.7.2 Sieve Analysis ....................................................................................................... 60
11.7.3 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Analytics ........................................................ 62
11.8 Recommendations .................................................................................................. 74
11.9 Material Recycling .................................................................................................. 75
11.10 Biotechnology for Valorization ............................................................................. 75
11.11 Energetic Recovery / Thermal Waste Treatment ................................................. 76
11.12 Disposal ................................................................................................................ 76

12 Large Generators Characterization.................................................................. 77


12.1 Procedure ............................................................................................................... 79
12.2 Results..................................................................................................................... 80
12.3 Conclusion............................................................................................................... 88

13 Capacity Building ............................................................................................ 89

14 Technical Cooperation .................................................................................... 91

15 CREED of Brazil ............................................................................................... 92


15.1 Specialized Solid Waste Laboratory ........................................................................ 93
15.2 Pilot Projects Aerobic Treatment......................................................................... 94

16 Market Situation for Secondary Resources in Brazil ........................................ 96


16.1 Market for Dry Fractions......................................................................................... 98
16.2 Market for Compost and Other Organic Fractions ................................................. 98
16.3 Market for Secondary Refuse-Derived Fuels (RDF) ................................................ 99
16.4 Market for Biogas ................................................................................................. 100
16.5 Market for Stabilized Fractions in Landfill Operations ......................................... 101

17 Technological Panorama............................................................................... 102


17.1 General Aspects .................................................................................................... 102
17.2 Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) .............................................................. 104

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17.3 Mechanical Treatment.......................................................................................... 104
17.4 Biodigestion Technology Anaerobic Biological Treatment ................................ 105
17.5 Classification of the Biodigestion Process ............................................................ 105
17.6 Technology of Composting Aerobic Biological Treatment ................................ 108

18 Technological Route for Jundia .................................................................... 114


18.1 Justification ........................................................................................................... 114
18.2 Technology Estimated Impact .............................................................................. 116
18.3 Mass Balance ........................................................................................................ 117
18.3.1 Production of RDF .............................................................................................. 117
18.3.2 Production of Recyclables ................................................................................. 118
18.3.3 Production of Compost ...................................................................................... 119
18.4 Technological Impact Matrix ................................................................................ 119
18.5 Operational Description........................................................................................ 124
18.5.1 Delivery Area ..................................................................................................... 124
18.5.2 Mechanical Treatment 01 Conditioning for Biological Treatment ................. 125
18.5.3 Anaerobic Treatment Focus Energy Recovery ................................................ 126
18.5.4 Aerobic Treatment Focus Drying .................................................................... 127
18.5.5 Mechanical Treatment 02 Conditioning of RDF.............................................. 130

19 Contribution for the Protection of the Environment and Natural Resources .. 131
19.1 Contribution for Climate Protection ..................................................................... 131
19.2 Contribution for Groundwater ............................................................................. 134
19.3 Contribution for the Protection of Natural Resources ......................................... 134

20 CER Campus of Eco-Efficiency in Residues .................................................. 135

21 Reached Impacts .......................................................................................... 136

22 Externalities ................................................................................................. 136

23 Technical and Institutional Recommendations .............................................. 137

24 Conclusion ................................................................................................... 139

25 Attachment .................................................................................................. 142


25.1 Large Generators Characterization Complete Report in Portuguese ................ 142
25.1.1 Participating Companies in Jundia .................................................................... 143
25.2 Capacity Building Events .................................................................................... 145

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26 References ................................................................................................... 161

Authorized use with the following source reference:

PEREIRA, C.; i-NoPa:Capacity Building and Fundamental Research to Develop and


Implement a Mechanical Biological Treatment Facility with an Integrated Fermenta-
tion Stage in Jundia-SP, Brazil. With participation of: FRICKE, K.; HEUSSNER, C.; FOEL-
STER, A.; LEITE, A.; CAMPOS, T. Braunschweig: Technische Universitaet Braunschweig,
2015.

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List of Figures

Figure 1: Timetable for the i-NOPA project .................................................................... 14

Figure 2: Technical, operational, and administrative activities i-NoPa project ............. 21

Figure 3: State of So Paulo and Jundia ........................................................................ 33

Figure 4: Population growth during the last decades in Jundia and Brazil ................... 35

Figure 5: Population forecast for Jundia until 2020 ...................................................... 36

Figure 6: Waste treatment area GERESOL overview ................................................... 40

Figure 7: Standard layout of a new Eco-Point in Jundia ................................................ 42

Figure 8: Waste generation in Jundia 2014 .................................................................. 44

Figure 9: Collected quantities of MHW in Jundia in 2013 and 2014 ............................. 45

Figure 10: Collected quantities of recyclables in Jundia in 2013 and 2014 .................. 46

Figure 11: Quantities and revenues of recyclables according to Jundia experience .... 46

Figure 12: Population growth and prognosis for 2030................................................... 47

Figure 13: Methodology schedule .................................................................................. 52

Figure 14: Sieve cuts and methodology of the sieving analysis ..................................... 54

Figure 15: Vibratory deck sieve ...................................................................................... 55

Figure 16: Waste composition in the sampled neighborhoods (Campaign 1 and 2) ..... 58

Figure 17: Waste composition in the City of Jundia (Campaign 1 & 2 incl. average) ... 59

Figure 18: Grain size distribution and cumulative values .............................................. 61

Figure 19: Waste composition by grain size classes ....................................................... 61

Figure 20: Water content in the different grain sizes in % fm. ................................... 62

Figure 21: Volatile solids in the different grain sizes in % dm. .................................... 63

Figure 22: Gas formation potential (GB21) in the different grain sizes in NI/kg fm and
dm. .................................................................................................................................. 64

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Figure 23: Cadmium concentration in the fine grain ..................................................... 67

Figure 24: Arsenic concentration in the fine grain ......................................................... 68

Figure 25: Lead concentration in the fine grain ............................................................. 68

Figure 26: Chromium concentration in the fine grain .................................................... 69

Figure 27: Nickel concentration in the fine grain ........................................................... 69

Figure 28: Zinc concentration in the fine grainlimiting value German Bio Waste
Ordinance (BioAbfV 1998) .............................................................................................. 70

Figure 29: Copper concentration in the fine grainlimiting value German Bio Waste
Ordinance (BioAbfV 1998) .............................................................................................. 70

Figure 30: Higher heating values (HHV) and lower heating values (LHV) in different
grain sizes ....................................................................................................................... 72

Figure 31: Current and future waste management systems.......................................... 79

Figure 32: Categories of the questionnaire .................................................................... 80

Figure 33: Question 3. In what industry does your business operate? ......................... 81

Figure 34: Question 5. Does your company offer a cafeteria? ...................................... 82

Figure 35: Question 6. Does your company have official certificates proving sustainable
corporate management? ................................................................................................ 82

Figure 36: Question 12. Do you know the current national laws on waste
management? ................................................................................................................. 83

Figure 37: Question 21 a). Evaluate the service of traditional collection performed by
the municipality. ............................................................................................................. 84

Figure 38: Question 24. How many people are employed in the department of waste
management? ................................................................................................................. 85

Figure 39: Question 25. Does your company have a waste plan? When was this drawn
up? .................................................................................................................................. 85

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Figure 40: Question 29. Have you established waste separation in the company? If so,
how? ............................................................................................................................... 86

Figure 41: Question 31. How high is the recycling rate?................................................ 86

Figure 42: Which are your proposals to increase the waste management at the city? 87

Figure 43: Question 37. Is there an interest in a partnership with the City of Jundia to
promote continuing education on the subject of eco-efficient waste management? .. 87

Figure 44: Area of GERESOL including the area destined to CREED............................... 93

Figure 45: Specialized laboratory for MSW .................................................................... 94

Figure 46: Aerobic technologies ..................................................................................... 94

Figure 47: Technologies Implementation in Jundia.................................................... 95

Figure 48: Pyramid hierarchy for sustainable waste management ............................. 103

Figure 49: Level of produced biogas by different types of fermentation .................... 106

Figure 50: Composting windrow, mounted and crimped by loader ............................ 110

Figure 51: Model of composting systems with forced aeration .................................. 111

Figure 52: Composting tunnels..................................................................................... 112

Figure 53: Model of the profile of such composting windrow ..................................... 113

Figure 54: Composting in a plane resolvable windrow ................................................ 113

Figure 55: Waste recovery technologies for Jundia .................................................... 114

Figure 56: Technological Matrix Summary ................................................................ 120

Figure 57: Technological matrix Economic aspects ................................................... 121

Figure 58: Technological matrix Environmental aspects ........................................... 122

Figure 59: Technological matrix Operational aspects ............................................... 123

Figure 60: Operational discharge area ......................................................................... 124

Figure 61: Operational Mechanical Treatment 01 .................................................... 126

Figure 62: Operational flow after biodrying ................................................................. 128

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Figure 63: Operational flow for Mechanical Treatment 02 ......................................... 130

Figure 64: GHG emissions for different scenarios ........................................................ 133

List of Tables

Table 1: Technical team for the i-NoPa project.............................................................. 20

Table 2: Waste panorama for Brazil ............................................................................... 28

Table 3: Goals of the National Solid Waste Plan ............................................................ 28

Table 4: Contracts for waste treatment technologies (2010 2014) ............................ 29

Table 5: Waste management prices ............................................................................... 29

Table 6: Import procedures ............................................................................................ 29

Table 7: Market situation for secondary resources ....................................................... 31

Table 8: Monthly values of rainfall in Jundia ................................................................. 34

Table 9: Structures of industry and commerce in Jundia .............................................. 37

Table 10: Population forecast for 2030 .......................................................................... 47

Table 11: Waste generation forecast for 2030............................................................... 48

Table 12: Overall budget of the City of Jundia .............................................................. 49

Table 13: Sampling routes .............................................................................................. 51

Table 14: Parameters of the waste characterization in Jundia ..................................... 53

Table 15: Sorted main fractions and fractions ............................................................... 56

Table 16: Analyzed physical, chemical, and biological parameter ................................. 57

Table 17: Grain size distribution and cumulative values ................................................ 60

Table 18: Heavy metal values in fine fractions in the original substance under
consideration of two concentration stages through the degradation of organic
substance during compost ............................................................................................. 66

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Table 19: Compost with 25 % organic matter degradation ........................................... 66

Table 20: Compost with 50 % organic matter degradation ........................................... 66

Table 21: Maximum values for contaminants in substrates for plants and soil
conditioning .................................................................................................................... 66

Table 22: Maximum values for contaminants in substrates for organic fertilizer ......... 67

Table 23: Heavy metal limit values for compost and fermentation product Quality
Class I .............................................................................................................................. 71

Table 24: Heavy metal limit values for organic soil improvement and Quality Class II
(Fricke and Pereira, 2015) .............................................................................................. 71

Table 25: RDF cement industry specification for the Brazilian market (Votorantim 2015)
and analysis values from waste in Jundia ...................................................................... 74

Table 26: Current legal framework................................................................................. 77

Table 27: Objective of the waste management plan of the State of So Paulo ............ 78

Table 28: Objectives of the waste management plan in Jundia ................................... 78

Table 29: Parameters of the survey large generators .................................................... 80

Table 30: Events and professional qualifications ........................................................... 90

Table 31: Equipment for the CREED Excellence Laboratory of Brazil ............................ 93

Table 32: Market risk analyses ....................................................................................... 97

Table 33: Comparison of principal characteristics of wet and dry fermentation


techniques .................................................................................................................... 108

Table 34: Aerobic technologies in comparison ............................................................ 109

Table 35: Mass balance considering RDF recovery ...................................................... 117

Table 36: Quality of RDF fractions ................................................................................ 118

Table 37: Recyclable products generation ................................................................... 118

Table 38: Technical comparison ................................................................................... 129

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Table 39: Baseline for traditional landfills and refuse landfills with the CO2-eq.
emissions ...................................................................................................................... 132

Table 40: Balance of total reduction in t CO2-eq. Due to deposition of less mass,
energetic recovery, and recycling ................................................................................ 132

Table 41: 1st Technical Congress Brazil & Germany ................................................. 145

Table 42: Workshop PUC-RJ ......................................................................................... 146

Table 43: Capacity planning.......................................................................................... 147

Table 44: Workshop CIESP Eco-efficient management of MSW ............................... 148

Table 45: 2nd Technical Congress Brazil & Germany ................................................ 149

Table 46: Meeting technical high level: Composting ................................................... 150

Table 47: Training for the characterization of large generators .................................. 151

Table 48: RWM event ................................................................................................... 152

Table 49: 1st connective dialogue on Latin American cities ........................................ 153

Table 50: Gravity study of urban solid waste ............................................................... 154

Table 51: Visit to Cooperlinia Environmental Brazil ..................................................... 155

Table 52: 1st Technical Seminar on Sustainable Management of MSW...................... 156

Table 53: Technical visit to LOGA ................................................................................. 157

Table 54: Specialized training in analytical interventions for the characterization of


MSW ............................................................................................................................. 158

Table 55: Capacity building on composting and drying of solid waste and organic waste
separated with the system ON FLOOR AERATION WITH GORE COVER. ...................... 159

Table 56: Closing workshop for the i-NOPA project..................................................... 160

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List of Abbreviations

ASA Arbeitsgemeinschaft Stoffspezifische Abfallbehandlung

BMZ Bundesministerium fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit der

Bundesrepublik Deutschland

BOT Build Operate Transfer

BS Biological Stabilisation

BW Bulky Waste

CHP Combined Heat Power

GHG Greenhouse Gases

KfW KfW-Entwicklungsbank

MBT Mechanical Biological Treatment

Mg ton of weight (System international SI)

MHW Mixed Household Waste

MT Mechanical Treatment

PE-HD Polyethylene-High Density

PET Polyethylene terephthalate

RDF Refuse Derived Fuel

SWM Solid Waste Management

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1 Background Information

The community of Jundia, which is located in the State of So Paulo, intends to build a
Mechanical Biological Treatment facility (MBT) with an integrated fermentation stage.
The MBT is supposed to be used for the treatment of municipal waste, such as certain
industrial waste and, if required, also for the residues of sewage treat-
ment.Furthermore, a training and education center for waste management, with a
main focus on the topic of the fermentation stage, is to be built at the site of the waste
treatment facility. A political resolution concerning both proposals has been approved.

The cooperation established between JUNDIA and TUBS, started in June 2013, aims to
promote the exchange of experience and technical knowledge, scientific and techno-
logical, through the implementation of training programs, seminars, discussion forums,
and technical visits.

Through this cooperation development, the implementation of research projects by


the program i-NoPa (New Integrated Partnerships) that comprise a set of actions for
academic cooperation in partnership between the CAPES, DAAD, and the GIZ was ena-
bled. This finances projects of multidisciplinary research between academic and re-
search institutions in Brazil and Germany, involving groups of teachers and researchers
in both countries.

The project proposed by JUNDIA, in cooperation with the TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF


BRAUNSCHWEIG, PUC-RIO, and UNIANCHIETA, ending in March 2015, was set for the
development of an eco-efficient management of municipal solid waste with the pur-
pose of generating the following results: training of the technical staff of the prefec-
ture, qualitative and quantitative analysis of large generators, planning and implemen-
tation of scientific laboratory for analysis of substrates and secondary resources, char-
acterization and gravimetric particle size of solid waste and household recyclables,
development of a methodology for the analysis of substrates, formation of guidelines
for the development of a technological concept, promotion of pilot plants: biodiges-
tion and composting, mapping the market for secondary resources, promotion of
events to disseminate information, and intensification of international cooperation.

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These measures are not only seen as a massive contribution for the development of a
future-oriented and advanced waste management, but also as a contribution to the
substantial usage of the fermentation stage, including all upstream and downstream
steps of the process.

The progress, important events and trainings as well as other activities during the pro-
ject from December 2013 until today are summarized in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Timetable for the i-NOPA project

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

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2 General Problems and Barriers

The community of Jundia owns large amounts of resources that serve for the
production of biogas but barely are used. Actually, this is the current situation all over
Brazil.

Even though there are various causes for these circumstances, these are not known
sufficiently. Based on the experiences of the applicant, there are certain obstacles in
Brazil which hinder the process of building up biogas technology as an energy
resource. Those barriers are similar to the ones that were present in Germany not
even a decade ago. Thus, the perennial German experiences can be adapted to the
current situation in Brazil and therefore contribute significantly to the project.

Familiar problems regarding the waste recovery in Brazil in general and with special
focus on the community of Jundia are:

The lack of knowledge about the quantity and quality of possible resources
from the sewage treatment and residues sectors

The lack of knowledge regarding the quality and type of the manufacturable
products such as biogas, heating or cooling, composts, liquid fertilizer, fuels,
and others

The lack of market knowledge concerning the manufacturable products,


which are listed above

The lack of qualified human capital necessary to build up a substantial


waste management on all levels, including policy and decision making, plant
permission, design and manufacturing such as plant operation, funding,
legal frameworks, and the use and promotion of the manufactured
products or secondary raw materials

Universitiesonly offera few capacities which have been developed for the
area of mechanical-biological treatment processes and technologies

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Aside from the universities, there are very few non-university training and
education centers, which focus on waste management and mechanical-
biological treatment processes and technologies.

Strategies and methods regarding capacity building and capacities for further
training and education centers as well as for suitable educational methods and
materials especially in the Portuguese language, are missing.

Local Barriers

Ignorance of legal prerogatives

Lack of awareness of the community and the private sector

Need for protection of industrial property

Bureaucratic procedures in practices of the public institutions

Lack of databases

Lack of interaction between the actors

Communication difficulties

Individualization of practices.

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3 Project Approach

The project consists of three main blocks:

The collection and evaluation of data in advance of the implementation of


the fermentation stage

Building and extending the academic and non-academic training and


educational capacities

Extending the research capacities at the PUC-Rio.

The collection and evaluation of data in advance of the implementation of the


fermentation stage

For the concept development and the plant design, it is essential to determine the
potentials of the different feedstock and remnant materials which are available around
the region of Jundia and can be used for fermentation. By conducting a potential
analysis, the possible raw materials can be differentiated into the sectors of municipal
waste and sewage treatment.

At the intended plant site in the community of Jundia, a facility will be provided where
future education and information events can take place. A laboratory with focus on
fermentation and composting will be integrated into this building. In this laboratory,
the personnel of the community of Jundia and the PUC-Rio will analyze the raw
materials, attended by the TU Braunschweig and DFBZ staff (Learning on the Job).
Special analyses, especially regarding contaminants will be carried out by the
universities. With the help of potential and feedstock analyses, information will be
provided, which is needed for the identification of technologies for the plant design.

In addition, a market analyses will be conducted in the region of Jundia, concerning


the product lines of compost and biogas including their succeeding products. The
product information can be safely modeled through knowledge gained by treating the
feedstock mass flows. The results will be integrated into the process engineering
responsible for creating and manufacturing products at the MBT and the downstream
infrastructure.

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To build and extent the university and non-academic training and education
capacities

The proposal supposes to create positive prerequisites in order to sustainably


implement the fermentation stage in Jundia and the rest of the region. The
establishment of an education, training, and information center is an important part,
as it provides training capacities in the university as well as in the non-academic
education sector. Hence, qualified personnel are trained in the field of biotechnology
with special focus on fermentation stage. A long-term aim is to integrate the future
MBT into the education concept. Therefore, the plant should be equipped with
teaching and demonstration facilities.

The didactic approach is based on the method of Learning on the Job. After
introductory courses, practical work for instance by effecting a potential and market
analysis can be implemented. Brazilian on-site staff will conduct laboratory work which
will be guided and controlled by the German project partners. However, not only work-
related knowledge should be acquired, but also the whole complex of fermentation
including all cross-cutting issues should be taught. At the beginning, the training and
education will be heldby employees of the TU Braunschweig and the DBFZ in
cooperation with the PUC-Rio. In the long run the Brazilian staff will be responsible for
training and education.

Experiences which have been made by evaluating R&Dproposals at ANEEL


demonstrated that the capacities at Brazilian universities in the research sector of
fermentation are barely present. The R&D approaches that had been formulated
within applications did not meet the current stateoftheart. There is a lack of practice
related R&Dapproaches. The universities miss to transmit practiceexperience and
technical knowledge; this especially concerns the fields of mechanical-engineering,
process engineering, process control etc.

At the PUC-RIO University, the capacities for teaching and education in the field of
fermentation will be extended. The aim is to provide expert staff for the education at
the university and for the training, education, and information center (Train the
Trainer).

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Extending research capacities at the PUC-Rio

Capacities for research regarding fermentation technology will be built and extended
at the PUC-Rio University. The research approach will address the current
stateoftheart in technology and economy which lies in practical research dealing with
technological adjustment and development. An interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary
approach is pursued here. In addition, crosscutting issues as law, economy, ecology,
energy, agriculture, horticulture, and social scientific topics are covered. The staff will
take part in the completion of the measures at the MBT in Jundia (Learning on the
Job). Additionally, selected staff of the PUC-RIO will be trained in Germany (please also
see the proposal of the PUC-RIO at CAPES).

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4 Realization Team

Table 1: Technical team for the i-NoPa project

Prefeitura de Jundia PUC-Rio


Tacio Mauro Pereira de Campos
Aguinaldo Leite [Coordenador]
[Coordenador]
Anderson Lus de Arajo Simone Dealtry
Ary Alexandre Ferrari Paula Enoy
Eric Arthur de Azevedo Denise Mano
Evandro Mendes Tomaz Langenbach
Gilberto Valverde Carneiro
Juliana Baldi da Silva Technische Universitt Braunschweig
Larcio Magno dos Santos Klaus Fricke [Coordenador]
Lucas Aparecido Rodrigues Christiane Pereira [Coordenadora]
Marcelo Foelkel Patro Anja Lenk
Mrcio Alexandre Bonomi Anne-Sophie Flster
Maria Aparecida Bueno Fumachi Anton Zeiner
Maria Raquel Silva Aylin Savasir
Mariana Merlo Christof Heussner
Maximiliano Alvares Corinna Hoeger
Regiane Redondo Puga Kai Mnnich
Rodrigo Batalha Lauro Raphael Accorsi Donadell
Aline Cardoso Domingos Lennart Peters
Camila Barbi
Diana Piffer Gigliotti DBFZ
Gabriel de Carvalho Gimenez Katrin Strach
Roberta da Silva Leone Walter Stinner
Vincius Macedo
GIZ
Jens Giersdorf
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

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Figure 2: Technical, operational, and administrative activities i-NoPaproject

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

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5 Waste Management Legislation

5.1 National Policy

After 20 years being evaluated in the Brazilian Congress, in the year 2010, the national
law for solid waste management was edited the Politica Nacional de Resduos Slidos
PNRS - Federal law 12305 / 10. The statutory regulation is classified as progressive and
establishes principles, strategies, tools, and targets, which create obligations and
duties for all federal entities and the private sector.

The legislation was based on principles found in European or German waste


legislations as well as the hierarchy of waste management as a sustainable solution to
the problems associated with waste management with a focus on resource and climate
protection.

In addition to organizational and technical specifications, the law also describes the
possibility of investment programs of the Brazilian Government in support of
communities and enterprises to implement the new requirements provided by the
law,its focus is to provide the massive transformation that should take place in this
sector.

The implementation of the provisions of PNRS introduces a new system for waste
management to the country, particularly in relation to the introduction of technology
for the recovery of waste, offeringa series of new activities to be implemented in the
short and medium-term as established by the law.

Although the responsibility of the public cleaning services is municipal, the national
regulation strengthens the society and the private sector in the requirement of a new
way of dealing with the question.The goals established by law are the introduction of
the selective collection, reverse logistics, recycling of household waste, composting of
organic waste, and renewable energy generation through biomass and biogas.

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The PNRS brought new perspectives that combine the performance of the device that
requires the introduction of treatment technology before the final disposal in landfills
and the generation of energy from waste. The new scenarioswill allow the restructure
of the production chain, in reason of the introduction of the concepts of eco-efficient
production, shared responsibility by secondary products life cycle and reverse logistics
of waste.

In the law (PNRS), recycling of packages, paper, cardboard, plastics, metals, etc., and
the recycling of organic waste by composting are highlighted and promoted. Moreo-
ver, it encourages the energy recovery through the combustion and fermentation as
well as reduction, reuse, and treatment of waste (Article 9).

The law defines residue as that fraction capable of recovery and rejects fromwhich the
possibilities of recovery has been exhausted. Italso defines the landfill as technique of
final disposal and no longer as treatment.

The new law defines in Article 54 a period of four years in order to meet the required
measures, meaning August 2014.

The public obligationfor waste management stays with the municipality,but the
possibilities for the integration of the private sector are significantly improved through
the obligatory implementation of selective waste collection, recycling, treatment, and
final disposal.

As consequence of the new waste management systems integration, the concession


modality as Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) wins outstanding importance. The
concession modality PPP for urban cleaning services provides not only time horizons
for contract periods up to 35 years, but also specific payment guarantees. The PPP
modality focuses on the participation of private sector as investor and public sector as
payment supplier and controller, meaning that the public sector will not be part of the
company. In other words, the Brazilian understanding of PPP is the definition of a
normal contract between a public institution and a private company in Europe.

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The national policy contains 3 main points:

Obligation of waste recovery art. 9

Reverse logistic art. 30-33 (tires, lamps, batteries, oil materials, packages,
agrotoxic packages)

Obligation of development of a waste management plan for cities with


more than 20.000 inhabitants art. 18, 19 and 20.

[http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2007-2010/2010/lei/l12305.htm]

It is worth noting that the national plan for solid waste was drawn up in 2012 but it
was not formalized and actually is still under technical review. The draft of Federal
Waste Management regulates the reduction of the amount of dry and wet waste in
landfills. According to the hierarchy of laws, state and municipal laws shall meet the
minimum of these qualifications.

5.2 Federal State of So PauloPolicy

The national policy defines that all federation institutions as Federal government,
states and municipalities, should draw up their own waste policy. In this way, the state
plan for solid waste of So Paulo (SP) was released in October 2014, based on federal
law N 12305 of 2010 and the state policy of waste N 12300 of 2006, whose main
focus is to support municipal solid waste management and the activities of recycling,
selective collection, and improved disposal of solid waste, as well as environmental
education for the management of solid waste.

The new demands and obligations brought by the national policy on solid waste and
the state policy create conditions to promote a better management of waste in the
medium-term. For this, it is essential to interrupt the current model of management. It
is necessary to adopt innovative measures to tackle the major challenges that present
themselves. Change of habits and consumption patterns need to be implemented into
daily life of society in the pursuit of reduction, as well as the study and implementation
of new waste treatment technologies and the improvement of reuse and recycling. It is
also essential to improve data collection and systematization of information on the
generation and management of waste.

24
The state waste plan includes the following targets:

Promotion of reuse and recycling projects

Promotion of waste treatment technologies with focus on mass and volume


reduction and also energetic rescue

Reduction of dry waste at the landfill: 37 % until 2019, 42 % until 2023, and
50 % until 2025 (based on national waste characterization of 2013)

Reduction of wet waste at the landfill: 35 % until 2019, 45 % until 2023, and
55 % until 2025 (based on national waste characterization of 2013).

5.3 City of Jundia Waste Framework

The development of the municipal waste management plan contains concepts that are
determined as a premise of the National Solid Waste Policy. The municipal plan has
been in preparation since 2013 and is ready for official publication in order to resolve
or mitigate the problems identified within the framework of the new solid waste plan.
The municipality has established goals (short-term, medium-term, and long-term),
programs, projects, and actions with the aim of improving the efficiency and quality of
services of urban cleaning and solid waste management.

The municipal waste plan contains fixed aims of sustainable management ranging from
short-term to 5 years, medium-term 5-10 years, and long-term 10-20 years, with the
following characteristics:

Short-Term:

Publishing the Tender for urban cleaning services

Promotion of environmental education under the premise of non-


generation, reduction, reuse, and recycling of solid waste

Implementation of dry and wet collection in 100 % of the collection system

Recycling of 50 % of the dry waste selective collected

Covering the city with 100% selective collection

Implement 100 % of containers at collection by urban area

25
Implement civil construction waste recycling plant

Implement crushing of 100 t/m of green waste

Implementation of composting or fermentation plant of the selective


organic waste from free market and green market

Implementation of sorting plant for dry waste

Implementation of 10 Eco-points

Implementation of 100 Voluntary Deliver Points.

Medium-Term

Recycling of 60 % of collected dry waste

Implementation of MBT plant with energy recovery through fermentation.

Long-Term

Recycling of 80% of collected dry waste, in 15 years

Recycling of 90% of collected dry waste, in 20 years.

26
6 Brazilian Waste Market

As a consequence of the distinctive population growth of more than 9,65 % and an


achieved increase of the PIB per Capita of 20,8 % during the period of 2003 2012, the
associated waste generation increased with a rate of 21 % to about 63 million tons per
year. Hence, the Brazilian government and the industry have to adapt to new
strategies for the existing waste management systems and face new challenges in the
area of waste treatment as well as modern recycling technologies. Currently about
42 % of the generated municipal solid waste (MSW) is deposited at wild dumps and
58 % correctly in sanitary landfills, while the recycling rate achieves a percentage of
4 %. This situation causes great stresses on the environment, like large contaminated
areas, mass movements and 8 - 12 % GHG-emissions as well as a big loss of materials
and secondary resources.

About 16 % of the municipalities already implemented a selective collection for their


MSW in order to encourage their recycling activities. The national recycling of civil
construction waste is present in 158 municipalities whereas the rate decreased by 7 %.
The index for composting achieved a rate of only 1,6 % in 222 municipalities though
the organic fraction in household waste reached 51,4 % in 2012. Recyclable materials
like paper/cartons/Tetra Pak and plastics represent 13 % respectively.

Although the political attitude towards for waste management has changed in the past
years, the Brazilian market shows a slow reaction, for example,between 2010 2012
only 10 contracts containing waste recovery were signed. Furthermore, 47 % of the
municipalities struggle with high costs for the municipal cleaning services which should
be covered by the waste tax. Mostly, this tax covers only 40 % of the total costs for the
services performed by the municipalities. Table 3 contains further detailed information
on the waste management in Brazil in 2012.

The Solid Waste National Policy (PNRS) not only contains goals for the generation of
energy from waste but also requirements for shared responsibility of secondary
products life cycle, reverse logistics of waste, and specified targets for the reduction of
recyclable materials on landfills, as can be seen below in Table 3.

27
Table 2: Waste panorama for Brazil

WASTE PANORAMA 2012


Waste generation ~ 63 million tons
Collection service 90%
Generation per inhabitant 383,2 kg/inhab/a
Final disposal in sanitary landfill 57,98%
Selective collection initiative 60%
Jobs - private operators (200 companies) 321.132
Jobs - cooperated in 366 cooperatives 128.000
Jobs - informal sector 1.000.000
Total jobs 1.500.000
Costs for the traditional management of urban cleansing ~ 40 /inhab/a
Costs for municipal cleaning services ~ 7 billion//a
Source: i-NoPa Project, 2014 and ABRELPE 2013.

Table 3: Goals of the National Solid Waste Plan

WASTE MANAGEMENT 4 YEARS 8 YEARS 12 YEARS


REDUCTION TARGET
Dry fraction 22 37 % 28 42 % 34 50 %
Wet fraction 19 35 % 28 45 % 38 55 %
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

PublicPrivatePartnerships (PPP) in Brazil are contracts between private enterprises and


public services lasting usually 20 35 years. Commonly, PPPcontracts are
implementedfor public services, especially in the field of waste management, in order
to opportune investment and share the eventual income from the commercialization
of secondary resources such as energy, sorted residues, composting, among others. All
in all, 16 tenders were published and 10 were contracted by cities with mostly fewer
than 300.000 inhabitants for the services of urban cleaning, waste treatment, new
landfills and landfill sanitation, MBT technologies as well as incineration. The total
contracting amount from these 10 tenders reached 5 billion Euros. In addition, Table 4
shows further contracts for the implementation of new waste treatment technologies
during the period of 2010 2014.

28
Table 4: Contracts for waste treatment technologies (2010 2014)

Source: i-NoPa Project, 2014.

Current prices for waste services like collection, treatment plus landfill in different
cities in the State of So Paulo are shown below in Table 5. Furthermore, there is an
example given of the actual import procedures and tax calculations in Table 6.

Table 5: Waste management prices

ITU 245,00 EURO / T


COTIA 125,00 EURO / T
EMBU 113,00 EURO / T
PIRACICABA 126,00 EURO / T
SO LUIS 129,00 EURO / T
SO BERNARDO DO CAMPO 122,00 EURO / T
CAMPO GRANDE 107,00 EURO / T
AVERAGE (MINUS ITU) 120,00 EURO / T
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

Table 6: Import procedures

FOB PRICE 10.000.000,00 69,45 %

29
INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT AND INSUR- 340.000,00 2,36 %
ANCE
IMPORT TAXES 3.646.070,00 25,32 %
II 14 %
ICMS 8,8 %
PIS 1,65 %
COFINS 8,60 %
LOGISTIC AND OPERATIONAL EXPENSES 412.404,00 2,86 %
TOTAL OF EXTRAS 14.398.474,00 100 %
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

Along with the PNRS, new opportunities for the management of waste as well as
secondary positive effects have been created for the Brazilian main market players.
Examples are: market searches for an appropriate infrastructure, technologies, and
othereffective systems, including technical-operational aspects. This especially
includes technologies for the implementation and monitoring of future waste
treatment plants. Therefore, partnerships are formed among national waste operators
and suppliers of foreign technologies as well as with new actors in the cement
industry, cellulose and energy industries.

From this perspective, the evaluation of the current market shows serious insufficiency
and thus, the weakness of the Brazilian market as following:

Inexperience to develop technological concepts for the tenders

Inexperience to decide about technical requirements for the tender


proposal

Inexperience to develop financial and economic analyses focusing on the


technological concept of implementation and operation

Inexperience to identify the performance guarantees for the chosen


technologies

Insufficient qualified people for implementation, operation, and monitoring

Nonexistence of a continuous qualification program

Inexperience to develop risk analyses concerning private and public


financing alternatives.

30
Nonetheless, the market for secondary resources in Brazil already exists, as Table 7
illustrates. Based on cooperatives and the large informal sector, the prices for
recyclables average a price of 150 - 200 /t, while the stable market for compost
shows a growing potential with an annual production of 6 Mio.t/a just as important as
the production of Biogas.

Table 7: Market situation for secondary resources

Source: i-NoPa Project, 2014.

To sum up, the tendencies show that the Brazilian market for waste management
demands new technologies for treatment plants which up to now are not available in
Brazil and, therefore, have to be foreign imports from Germany, France, Portugal, or
Spain. During the first years of the PNRS, the demand for MBT with integrated
biodigestion was higher than today, which now is rising for RDF and sorting plants.
Likewise, the cement industry pushes waste recovery in Brazil. Another proposal for
the improvement of the actual market situation is the nationalization of treatment
plants resulting in commercial flexibility and greater financing possibilities.

Furthermore, the Brazilian market is heated due to the provision of public concessions
that come to 2 billion dollars for cities with more than 800.000 inhabitants. There are
Brazilian financing lines with differentiated rates; approx. 6,5 - 12 %/a. Waste
31
management not only involves a good infrastructure but also auxiliary public policy. It
is therefore important that potential technologies be consolidated in order to obtain
environmental licenses. A foundation for further MBT technologies has been created
and, as consequence, it is necessary to develop and strengthen the secondary resource
market in Brazil.

32
7 Jundia Characterization

7.1 Geography

The region of Jundia is situated in the state of So Paulo (see Figure 3).

Figure 3: State of So Paulo and Jundia

Source: i-NoPa Project, 2014.

The city lies on the border between the hills of San Roque, a part of a mountain range
with higher altitudes in the Serra do Japi (=Range of Sources), 1.200 - 1.250 m asl, and
the Plateau of Jundia that has its highest parts with altitudes of 900 - 1.000 m asl. It is
mostly characterized as a region of ecotone, i.e., the meeting of two types of forests:
the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar and the Atlantic Forest in the State of So Paulo
(So Roque).

Jundia ischaracterized by faunal biodiversity of the Serra do Japi. Their surfaces are
important features for the local landscape of the municipality.

Its drainage is of dendritic type,while the mountains of Japi and Cocais form the main
dispersers areas, where watercourses are born tributaries of rivers Jundia and

33
Atibaia. It is an area with very dissected forms, carved valleys, and a high drainage
density. This area presents a level of high fragility and therefore is subject to the
occurrence of mass movements and increase of strongly linear erosive processes.

Jundiaborderson 11 municipalities: Vrzea Paulista, Campo Limpo Paulista, Franco da


Rocha, Cajamar, Pirapora do Bom Jesus, Cabreva, Itupeva, Louveira, Vinhedo, Itatiba
e Jarin and occupies an area of 431.9 km.

The rural area has been reduced severely during the past 20 years but still comprises
60 % of the total municipality area. The rural population in 2010 was only 4,3 % of the
total population and is located in 1.785 small private farms. These small producers are
responsible for 0,2 % of the PIB in Jundia in 2013.

In accordance with the Koeppen classification of climate, the city is characterized by


tropical climate of altitude, with rain in the summer and dry in the winter, with the
average temperature of the warmest month above 22 C. The average annual
temperature is around 20.9 C, whileJuly marks the coldest month (average of 16.9 C)
and from December to March, the warmer months (average of 24 C). The annual
rainfall index is around 1,350.50 mm (CEPAGRI, 2013). However, as recent data from
DAE of Jundia show, there is great variation within registered figures during the period
of 2015 2011, as demonstrated in Table 8.

Table 8: Monthly values of rainfall in Jundia

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

34
7.2 Population and Demography

Over the past four decades the resident population of Jundiaincreased from 169.076
in 1970 (according to the IBGE) to about 369.710 inhabitants in 2010 (estimate the
SEADE Foundation), growing at a geometric rate annual average of 1,975 %. IBGE
institute expected a population for 2014 of 397.965 with a growth of 6,4 % in the
period 2010 2013.

In comparison with the State of So Paulo and Brazil, the growth of the resident
population of Jundiafalls in middle position. The graph below (Figure 4) shows the
evolution of the population of the city, state, and country, standardized with base
equal to 1 for the date of September 1, 1970, the day of referenceof the demographic
census of that year.

Figure 4: Population growth during the last decades in Jundia and Brazil

Source: DELTA; IBGE, 2010.

It was observed that in 40 years the resident population of Jundia multiplied by 2.19,
the State of So Paulo by 2.32, and Brazil by 2.05.

The interpretation of this evolution of the population of Jundia takes the existence of
two components of demographics into consideration. First, the natural growth of
reproductive residents, the so-called "vegetative growth", is slightly higher than the
national average. Second, it is able to conclude from these statistics that the city has
migratory movements accentuated in comparison to national standards, and there are
more citizens who come "outside-in" than there are "inside-out" of the city; but with

35
moderate immigrations, when confronted with the ones of the Metropolitan Region of
So Paulo and, more widely, with the own contour of this geographic region, formed
by neighboring cities.

In other words, over the last four decades the population of Jundia grew significantly
less than the population of the neighboring towns and cities of the Metropolitan
Region of So Paulo due to the less pronounced immigration flows.

The forecast of waste quantities depends for the largest part on the development of
population. In the past decades, the situation in Jundia has been influenced by a
growth rate above one percent (Figure 5). This is in coincidence with the quite reason-
able activities of the construction sector in Jundia and the recent development of
people from So Paulo moving to Jundia but continuing to work in So Paulo.

Figure 5: Population forecast for Jundia until 2020

Source: DELTA, 2010.

36
7.3 Socio-Economic Situation

For decades, Jundia shows strong growth in industry, in commerce, agriculture, and
especially in the services sector. About a decade ago, 2002 2009, the municipality's
development accelerated at a rate of about 85,5% compared to the State of So Paulo
with 58,3%, and Brazil with 20,1%, in relation to the restrained growth that existed
previously, as mentioned by DELTA Anlise de Cidades with data from IBGE. In
numbers, Jundia ended the year 2011 with a gross domestic product of between 24
and 25 billion reais, i.e., slightly above 2 billion reais on monthly average.

These high rates of economic growth have not committed the statistical social
indicators. On the contrary, the various social indicators of the city exhibit good
numbers. Also, it did not lead to an environmental deterioration as often occurred in
similar situations of economic growth, not only in Brazil.

An extensive number of companies represent the industrial park in the city with broad
diversification, in such a way that there is not an industrial sector that is highlighted
with large magnitude in relation to the others. The retail trade is comprehensive,
qualified, and fragmented in many sectors and subsectors. The services sector covers
the most significant portion of production with highlighted recent growth. Agriculture
primarily produces fine fruit, such as grapes, strawberries, peaches, and tangerines,
among others. Companies registered at the Work Ministry of the City of Jundia are
listedin Table 9.

Table 9: Structures of industry and commerce in Jundia

Sector N. Institutions N. of formal jobs % of formal jobs


Services 10.898 71.943 40,4
Industry 1.742 52.761 29,6
Commerce 8.428 37.659 21,1
Civil Construction 771 7.786 4,4
Public administration 22 7.532 4,2
Farming 333 567 0,3
Total 22.194 178.248 100,0
Source: MdTE, 2012.

37
The installations in the city include, among other things, several faculties of
universities, an airport, industrial districts, some shopping centers with modern
facilities, a forum, a complex of gyms, stadiums, museums, public libraries, private
road terminals, municipal and inter-municipal cultural centers and artistic institutions,
trade unions, and employers, in addition to countless public parks, gardens, and leafy
squares.

The administrative policy location shows the city within the administrative region of
Campinas. The conjunction roads accessing the city are classified among the largest
and most modern of Brazil. Two international airports with potential for transport of
passengers and cargo are located over relatively short distances. A railroad line offers
good access through the territory of the municipality, and the largest port in the
country, in the city of Santos approximately 130 km away, is accessed by the major
highways of Brazil.

The position occupied by the economy of Jundia in the State of So Paulo is also
significant in comparison to other cities. The municipality owns the 9th GDP. The
municipality occupies the 8th place among the 645 cities in the Index of the ICMS-Tax
on the Circulation of Goods and Services, suggesting a substantial movement of goods
within the territory of the city. The last disclosed IDHM - Municipal Human
Development Index (prepared by IPEA, with methodology of the United Nations
Organization) classifies Jundia as the 4th city among the 645 in the State of So Paulo
with an index of 0.857 on a scale that ranges from 0 to 1.

In 2009, the industry competed with 36,77 %, the services sector with 62,98%, and
farming with 0,25 %. It is important to note that the percentage share of agriculture
does not represent a drop in the production of the sectorin comparisonto the heavy
successive increments in the other sectors.

Jundiaceased the opportunity afforded with the increase in the generation of wealth
and began a virtuous cycle that has resulted in good rates in education and public
safety. As a result, in addition to attracting businesses, the city has attracted migrants
from the middle class, especially from So Paulo.

38
Summary:

Water: 100% in urban zone

Wastewater: 100% in urban and rural zones; treatment of 30.123.324,00 m


per year

Waste: 100 % waste collection

Annual total budget for 2014: 550 million Euros

Annual budget of the Public Services Secretary: 56 million Euros, almost


8,2 % of the total budget. 319 employees: 251 technicallevel, 56 graduated,
and 12 post-graduated. Public services privatized: 12 companies.

39
8 Waste Management in Jundia

8.1 Actual waste management

8.1.1 GERESOL

The GERESOL area is the center of waste treatment activities in Jundia with an overall
size of 45 ha (Figure 6). The nearest housing area is about 1.000 m away. The whole
area is part of Jundias large industrial area. Its surrounding is composed of several
industries, such as chemical, plastic, food, ceramic, and computer.

The transfer and recycling stations as well as the construction waste recycling and sort-
ing lines areinstalled here. Some other parts of the area are used for more or less in-
termediate storage of some waste fractions. Recently some trial areas within the
framework of the cooperation with CREED have been prepared or are in preparation
for the pilot project implementation of 2 aerobic technologies.

All trucks delivering waste pass the weighbridge. Data collection is electronic.

Figure 6: Waste treatment area GERESOL overview

Source: Edited after Google earth, 2014.

40
Transfer Station

The existing transfer station is a rather small elevated plateau from where the deliv-
ered waste is moved into the trailers for transport. There are always some spare trail-
ers onsite. For compaction, a simple adaption of an excavator is used.

Recycling Plant

The existing recycling plant was enlarged by two new sorting linesby the end of 2014.
Nevertheless, the treated part of the separately collected quantities remains low. Then
observed on site, 8 sorting places were occupied on both sides of these lines.

There are two recycling stations still active, also developed under this title at the end
of the 90s. It is foreseen that these stations, like the one in the city district of Jardim do
Lago, will be renovated with the campaign of Eco-Points, which is to be started by
the currentcity administration this year. The city administration intends to install at
least 10 Eco-Points. Further extension to 30 Eco-Points is considered.

Based on a general standard layout of a 20 m by 25 m area, two other Eco-Points are in


preparation to be opened in 2015 in the poorer inhabitants districts of So Camilo and
Cecap. Three more such recycling stations shall be opened in 2016. These Eco-Points
willbe combined with public awareness campaigns and other possibilities to increase
understanding of environmental connections and dependencies. The investment for
each Eco-Point amounts to about R$ 55.000 or 16.000 .

41
Figure 7: Standard layout of a new Eco-Point in Jundia

Source: Prefeitura de Jundia, 2015.

Construction Waste Recycling

A relatively larger part of the GERESOL area is used for the recycling of construction
waste. As observed in April 2015, two different treatment facilities are operated: a
larger area for clean construction waste and another area for mixed construction
waste, because of the high dust emissions potential.

8.1.2 LANDFILL

Jundia sends its wastes to the private landfill of Santana de Parnaba, about 60 km
away. This landfill has an area of 30 ha with a volume capacity of 12 million m. Calcu-
lated from today, the landfill still has a residual term of about 10 years. The average
net load transported with 30 m-trailers during March 2015 was 28,5 Mg per truck,

42
which might be more than legally allowed according to traffic regulation in Brazil. For
the transport of a part of separately collected recyclables to a landfill, the executing
company charges an extra fee of 50 R$/Mg.

The Santana landfill does fulfill the basic requirements according to Brazilian legisla-
tion: impermeable basic layer, drainage for leachate, superficial rain water, landfill gas
collection, and covering with mineral layer.

Brazilian legislation does not contain any period for aftercare as responsibility of the
landfill. This means that there is no financial reserve accumulated for this activity dur-
ing the operation period. Compared to Germany with its aftercare regulationof 30
years, due to the different climate situation in Brazil with faster degradation of organ-
ics, maybe 20 years would be sufficient, but are presently not obliged. The actual costs
for transport and landfill are R$ 140,00/t.

43
9 Waste Quantities

9.1 Mixed household waste (MHW) quantities

Table 8givesan overview of theamounts of the varioustypes of wasteinJundiai.

Figure 8: Waste generation in Jundia 2014

Source: Prefeitura de Jundia, 2015.

44
Collected quantities of MHW in 2013 and 2014 are shown inFigure 9.As average, about
300 kg/(cap*a) MHW were collected in 2013 and 2014.

Figure 9: Collected quantities of MHW in Jundia in 2013 and 2014

MHW collected in Jundia


2013 2014
14.000
M
12.000
g
/ 10.000
m 8.000
o
6.000
n
t 4.000
h 2.000

-
jan fev mar abr mai jun jul ago set out nov dez

Source: Prefeitura de Jundia, 2015.

9.2 Quantities of Recycled Fractions

The separately collected quantities of recyclable fractions as mentioned above in 2013


and 2014 are shown in Figure 10.

The actual sorted and recycled quantity from the separately collected fraction is even
much lower. Only 20% to 25% of these collected quantities are really going to the sort-
ing lines of the recycling station. Recently, there were two new lines started in opera-
tion and the former one is now mostly out of use.The city administration intends to
enlarge this station, but actually, the rates are still very low.

45
Figure 10: Collected quantities of recyclables in Jundia in 2013 and 2014

Recyclables collected in Jundia


2013 2014
3.500
M
3.000
g
/ 2.500
m 2.000
o
1.500
n
t 1.000
h 500

-
jan fev mar abr mai jun jul ago set out nov dez

Source: Prefeitura de Jundia, 2015.

The sorted and sold recyclables are shown as an average from experience in Jundia in
Figure 11.An average about 20 kg/(cap*a) MHW were collected and about 4 kg/(cap*a)
recycled in 2013 and 2014.

Figure 11: Quantities and revenues of recyclables according to Jundia experience

Revenues from sorted Recyclables in Jundia


Revenues Quantity R
400.000 80%
% e
R 350.000 70% c
$ 60%
300.000 o y
/
250.000 50% f c
y
200.000 40% l
e
150.000 30% s a
a
100.000 20% o b
r
l l
50.000 10%
d e
0 0%
s

Source:Prefeitura de Jundia, 2015.

46
9.3 Future Waste Quantities

As a first step, the planning should identify the current generation and gravimetric
composition of waste and from hence provide an extrapolation of the data in such a
way as to ensure the quality of long-term treatment. The plant will meet a time gap of
20 years to allow an appropriate amortization of investment and be planned in such a
way that in the future could suit the possible new demands of waste generation.

The proposal of a modular plant will allow the facility to adapt to the variations
identified in the course of time. With this approach, we have guaranteed an
operational capability that does not compromise theeconomic performance.

According to the IBGE, there is an estimated population of 397.965 in 2014, with a


linear growth rate average of 2,133 % in the last three years. This way, in 2030, Jundia
will have an estimated population in the order of 501,962(see Table 10 and Figure 12).

Table 10: Population forecastfor 2030

2014 2030
Population in Jundia
397.965 501.962

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Figure 12: Population growth and prognosis for 2030

POPULATION GROWTH
Inhabitants Prognosis of Population
500.000
450.000
400.000
350.000
300.000
250.000
200.000
150.000
100.000
50.000
0
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

47
In 2014, approximately 120.508 tons of MHWwas destinated to landfill. Considering an
increase of 3,5% per year in the amount of waste generated, this would be due to an
increase in the order of 2% due to population growth and 1,5% due to an increase in
individual waste generation as a result of the increase in consumption and purchasing
power of the population. This results in a quantity, in 2030, of about 190,000 t/a of
MHW (Table 11).

Table 11: Waste generation forecast for 2030

Linear increase Totalper year


factor (%) (t)
2014 120.508
2030 1,56 187.992

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

The estimated quantity of MHW results in an estimate of individual generation for


2030 in the order of 374 kg/person/year respectively, or 1,03 kg/inhabitant/day due to
the increase in consumption pattern. The generation identified in 2014 was 302
kg/person/year respectively, or 0.83 kg /inhabitant/day.

48
10 Financial Aspects

In general, Jundia belongs to the quite rich cities compared to others in Brazil. With
its reasonable industry and working power located in the surrounding of So Paulo,
financial prerequisites are quite good.

The total amount of waste taxes taken in during 2013 sums up to R$ 25.000.000.The
assumption of costs of waste management in this year amounted to R$ 76.000.000, to
cover the costs inclusive collection, disposal, recycling, and other public cleaning ser-
vices. This means a cost recovery rate of 33 % would be achieved.To meet up with cost
recovery, an increase of taxes of 300 % is proposedwithin the draft waste management
plan.

The real costs of waste management etc. within 2013 have been lower than the budg-
et assumption,yet cost recovery was only about 40 % with tendency decreasing.

Average annual waste management costs in Jundia amount to R$ 144 (= 48 ) per per-
son in 2013 and R$ 162 (= 51 ) in 2014. Actual waste tax payments of only little more
than one third of these costs should be changed.

The overall budget of the City of Jundia subsidizes waste management and waste
treatment. The total budget which in Brazil by legislationis forced to be fulfilled by the
municipalities (= no debts) is shown in Table 12.

Table 12: Overall budget of the City of Jundia

Source: Prefeitura de Jundia, 2015

49
11 Household Waste Characterization

Basically, the characterization of household waste pursues the following objectives:

Providing fundamental data, which are needed for the identification of tech-
nologies
Providing the detail fundamentals needed for the design of plants for recycling
and treatment
Providing the detailed fundamentals for modeling mass balances (solid, liquid,
and gaseous), incl. product qualities and quantities of compost, need for mar-
ket analysis, and designing refining process
Transfer of knowledge, training of Brazilian staff in methodology for biological
and chemical analyzes. The staff gets a feeling for the product (feedstock).

This work package ensures a relatively high planning reliability, in particular for the
process area for generation of products. The market analysis provides information
about the existing market, particularly for compost products. The theoretical work of
calculation and modeling is also part of the training (learning on the job).

11.1 Sampling Routes

The first step of this analysis consisted of the selection of an adequate range of sam-
pling routes which were chosen on the basis of different typical socio-urban charac-
ters. The waste analysis was conducted in order to verify the difference in waste quan-
tity, waste composition, and the efficiency of the selective collection differentiated by
the socio-urban structures. Optionally necessary measures for optimization can be
carried out corresponding to the area-specific character.

Furthermore, this area-specific sampling facilitates an accurate extrapolation of quan-


tities and qualities of the entire metropolitan area from comparable small sample
amounts. The selection of study areas was conducted with particular attention to the
representativeness of the selected field structure for the urban area.

Criteria for the site selection, among others, were:urban development level, commer-
cial, industrial, and residential activities, and, urban and rural area classification of the
region.

50
All in all, 10 collection areas were chosen (see Table 13). The district Malota in Jundia
is characterized as wealthy region with low population density, single-family houses,
and private gardens. In contrast, the district So Camilo represents comparatively poor
population with high population density and few green areas. However, since Jundia
belongs to the rich cities in Brazil, even the poorest district has a relatively high stand-
ard in comparison to, e.g., the favelas in So Paulo or Rio de Janeiro.
Table 13: Sampling routes

Population
District Prosperity Gardens Commerce Industry
density

Jardim Pau-
high low high low not present
lista

Malota high low high not present not present

Jundia Mi-
medium low low high not present
rim

So Camilo low high low medium not present

Sta Ger-
medium low low medium not present
trudes

Fazenda
medium low low medium not present
Grande

Champirra medium low high low not present

Morada das
medium high low low not present
Vinhas

Vila Maring medium Low low medium low

Eloy Chaves medium medium high medium low

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

51
11.2 Sampling and Sample Quantity

The sampling was performed on the basis of the Brazilian norm ABNT-NBR 10007:2004
and E DIN EN 15002:2014-01 Section A 6.6 with modifications analog to the proce-
dures of the TU Braunschweig. The amount of 2 % collected at each garbage truck was
selected, representing a distinctive higher quantity than usually is used in Germany,
because of a great uncertainty about the waste analyzes. The flowchart in Figure 13
demonstrates the methodology and procedure. Based on the findings of the first cam-
paign, during the second campaign all plastic bags were opened by hand.

Figure 13: Methodology schedule

Physic-
Sample
Container Granulom Material chem-
Sampling separatio
opening etry analysis biol.
n
analysis

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

11.3 Sampling Period

The waste analysis was conducted in two seasons:

Campaign 01 in April 2014

Campaign 02 from October to December 2014.

Table 14 contains all essential sampling parameters of the conducted waste analysis.

52
Table 14: Parameters of the waste characterization in Jundia

Characterization of residues Campaign 01 Campaign 02

Period of realization 10 days 30 days


Involved persons 16 approx. 26 approx.
Sample routes 5 routes 15 routes
Routes total 25 routes

Percentage of served routes 80 %

Sampled residues total 818,3 kg 2.653,05 kg

Samples residues daily 180 kg

Percentage of samples per truck 2%

Population served 54.524 111.200


Population total in 2014 (IBGE) 397.965

Percentage of served population 42 %

Amount of sampled districts 63 141

Amount of districts total in the munici-


420
pality

Percentage of served districts 49 %

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

11.4 Sieve Analysis (Granulometric Analysis)

Sieving separates materials of different grain sizes according to the sieves platform.
This technique also enables a material sorting of mixed residues, provided that certain
types of materials stay in the defined grain size. Thus, the screening can also be used
for material flow separation.

Actually, sieving is one of the most important processing phases in waste recovery
procedure.Using the particle size analysis combined with laboratory analysis, essential
data can be discoveredto establish the appropriate technology, the plant design, and
the quality of secondary products that can be provided.

53
In this case,aspecial vibratory deck sieve was applied (see Figure 15), developed by TU
Braunschweig, for waste analysis with six different sieve trays and a vertical and hori-
zontal vibrating mechanism.

Figure 14 shows the methodology of the sieving analysis used for the classification of
MSW in Jundia.
Figure 14: Sieve cuts and methodology of the sieving analysis

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

54
Figure 15: Vibratory deck sieve

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

11.5 Material Analysis

The fractions are separated into 11 main fractions and 35 secondary fractions (see Ta-
ble 15). All residues with gran sizes > 40 mm are analyzed for these fraction categories
and grain sizes < 40 mm are analyzed for only 6 main fraction categories. The fine frac-
tions are the main focus for the laboratory analyses.

Compared to conventional methods a detailed sorting was implemented. The reason


for this was that until now there was no detailed information about the composition of
the Brazilian waste. For the design and dimensioning of the treatment plant as well as
its commercialization, the following information is significant:

Example plastic: quantity and setting for the NIR sorting equipment is designed
according to the different plastic types. The realizable revenue varies greatly
with the different types of plastics

Example biowaste: kitchen waste is fermentable with high gas rates, garden
waste has limited fermentability but is suitable for composting or fuel produc-
tion

Example paper: quantity and setting for the NIR sorting equipment is designed
according to the different paper types. The realizable revenue varies greatly

55
with paper quality. It is not possible to supply dirty paper to the classic paper
recycling, but it is suitable for fermentation or composting.
Table 15: Sorted main fractions and fractions

Main fraction category Fraction subcategories


Kitchen waste
Garden waste
Biodegradable
Fine organic aggregate
Paper (wipes, tissues, toilet paper)
Cardboard
Paper Paper
Composite carton
Aluminum/package
Bag transparent
Bag white
Plastics 2D
Bag colored
Other bags
Bag black
PP
PET
PET oil
PEAD
Plastics 3D
PVC
PS
Other plastics
Polystyrene
Wood Dry Wood
Towel and burlap
Textile
Leather and rubber
Diapers Diapers (pampers)
Colorless glass
Glass Green glass
Brown glass

56
Main fraction category Fraction subcategories
Iron
Metal Copper (cable)
Aluminum/can
Minerals
Minerals
Fine mineral aggregate
Contaminants
Electronics
Rejects
Batteries
Rejects
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

11.6 Laboratory Analysis

An analysis of physical, chemical, and biological parameters is performed (see Table


16). The fractions with grain sizes (> 80 mm) are analyzed for utilization as combus-
tible, while the smaller fractions (< 80 mm) are also analyzed for recoverability, biogas
recovery, composting, and proportion of biomass. The fine fractions are also analyzed
for the qualification for biological stabilization before landfilling.

Table 16: Analyzed physical, chemical,and biological parameter

Parameter Dimension Method


Total water (FG) Ma.-% OS1 DIN EN 15414-3
Sulfur total (FG) mg/kg OS DIN EN 15408 / DIN EN ISO 10304-1/-2
Lower heating value (Hu) [BGS] (FG) MJ/kg OS Calculation based on BGS
Higher heating value (Ho) [BGS] (FG) MJ/kg OS analog DIN EN 15400

Chlorine total (FG) Ma.-% OS DIN EN 15408 / DIN EN ISO 10304-1/-2

PB through FG (FG) without WITHOUT


Ash content 550 C (FG) Ma.-% TS2 DIN EN 15403
Ignition loss 550 C (FG) Ma.-% TS DIN EN 15169
Gas potential (GB21) Nl/kg TS AbfAblV
Heavy Metals
Cadmium (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Mercury (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2

57
Parameter Dimension Method
Thallium (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Arsenic (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Lead (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Chromium (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Copper (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Nickel (FG) mg/kg TS DIN EN ISO 17294-2
Zinc (FG) mg/kg S DIN EN ISO 17294-2

1) OS= Original Material, 2) TS = Dry Matter

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

11.7 Results

11.7.1 Waste composition

Compared with data from, e.g., Germany, the neighborhoods in Jundia show hardly
significant differences in their waste composition; merely the neighborhood Malota
shows a higher amount of organic waste in campaign 02 (see Figure 16 and 17).

Figure 16: Waste composition in the sampled neighborhoods (Campaign 1 and 2)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

58
Figure 17: Waste composition in the City of Jundia (Campaign 1 & 2 incl. average)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

The analyses show a high conformity for the fractions paper/cardboard, plastics, glass,
and metals. The high amount of organic waste in campaign 1 is not clearly explicable;
maybe it corresponds with the season.

The results are not consistent with the outcomes of earlier waste analyses from the
time before 2010, which generally showed lower values for paper/cardboard and plas-
tic but higher values of organic fractions. The values are comparable with waste com-
position in Germany prior to the introduction of selective collection. Recent analyses
from otherBrazilian cities confirm the facts that, at least in similar regions, the amount
of the organicfraction is not extremely high as ABRELPE in 2012 where the organic
fractions were estimated in 51,4 %.

The waste composition results enable the following conclusion:

The most represented group forms the organic fraction with 46,2 %, followed
by plastics with 17,7 % and paper/cardboard with 10,7 %. Metals are at 2,1 %.
Glass plays with 2,7 % only a minor role in Brazil.

59
The classic sortable automatic and manual so called dry fractions like pa-
per/cardboard, plastic, glass, and metal reach a percentage of 32,2 %. When
considering the meanwhile lucrative textiles the amount increases by 6,2 % to
37,4 %.
The fraction "Other" with 14,4 % subsumes diverse groups with low amounts
such as textiles, minerals, wood, rubber, leather, electronics, and undefinable
materials. Minerals and diapers represent the greatest share with 5,4 % respec-
tively.

11.7.2 Sieve Analysis

Figure 18 presents the Municipal Solid Waste in Jundia by grain size fractions. Approx-
imately 62,5 % of the waste is located in the class < 80 mm, 51,6 % in the class < 60
mm. The contribution of each individual material group from the MHW is important
because certain waste fractions concentrate in individual grain sizes. This may create
good conditions for waste treatment through the use of specific sieve cuts.

Figure 18 and Table 17 show the grain size distribution of each grain fraction and the
cumulative value, while waste composition is presented in Figure 19.

Wet, low calorific kitchen and garden waste is concentrated in the grain frac-
tion under < 60 80 mm. The portion of organic material concentrated in grain
size 60 to 80 mm is lower in comparison with German characteristics

Dry, high calorific material groups, such as paper/cardboard, plastics, and tex-
tiles are concentrated in the grain fraction above 60 - 80 mm.

Table 17: Grain size distribution and cumulative values

Grain size class [mm] 0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 > 120
Mass fraction per class 14% 18% 20% 11% 10% 7% 19%
Sieve passage [%] 14% 32% 52% 63% 73% 81% 100%
Average < 80 mm 62,95%

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

60
Figure 18: Grain size distribution and cumulative values

30% 100%

25%
80%
percentage of class [Ma.-%]

percentage passing *
20%
60%
15%
40%
10%

20%
5%

0% 0%
<20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100 100-120 >120
grain size [mm]

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Figure 19: Waste composition by grain size classes

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

61
11.7.3 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Analytics

11.7.3.1 Water Content and Ignition Loss

The water content is essentially relevant for:

Treatment characteristics

Biological activity (indirect)

Sewage and exhaust air emissions (indirect)

Storage stability

Lower heating value and drying potential

Installation properties on landfills

Decomposition control, i.e. ventilation.

Basically, the dry matter content increases or rather the water content decreases with
an increasing grain size (see Figure 20). Only the fine fraction < 20 mm constitutes an
exception. The laboratory results confirm the material analyses facts in the grain frac-
tions. Since the water is mainly introduced through the biodegradable organic matter,
both variables are correlated. Thus, the, in comparison low, water content in the clas-
ses above 80 mm also reflects the higher heating value.

Figure 20: Water content in the different grain sizes in % fm.

Water content
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
<20mm 20-40mm 40-60mm 60-80mm >80mm

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

62
The ignition loss increases with growing grain size class as expected.Furthermore, the
ignition loss in the grain class < 60 mm reflects the biodegradable organic fraction and
above 80 mm the fractions plastic, paper/cardboard, textiles, and diapers. The com-
paratively low ignition loss value in the grain class < 20 mm also reflects the gas poten-
tial (see Figure 21), while this class includes a major part of the mineral fraction.

Figure 21: Volatile solids in the different grain sizes in % dm.

Volatile Solids
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
<20mm 20-40mm 40-60mm 60-80mm >80mm

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

11.7.3.2 Biogas Potential GB21 (AnaerobicProcess)

The GB21 shows the gas potential over a period of 21 days.

The determination of GB21 is done by the following context:

Determination of biogas quantities through the use of fermentation

Determination of gas emission potential when landfilling of the analyzed waste

Generation of basis data for technology design and plant planning.

The lowest gas potential is found in the fraction < 20 mm, which correlates with the
comparable low ignition loss (see Figure 22).Also, the gas potential of the fraction 60 -
80 mm is very low; this situation coincides with the low proportion of biodegradable
organic matter in these grain classes.

63
Figure 22: Gas formation potential (GB21) in the different grain sizes in NI/kg fm and dm.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

11.7.3.3 Heavy Metals (Compost Production)

The analysis of heavy metals is based on the following background:

Evaluation of realizable fermentation and compost quality as well as biomass


fuels

Evaluation of heavy metal contamination in different grain classes to influence


product quality through the use of appropriate treatment techniques

Generation of basis data for technology design and plant planning, and for the
market estimation and marketing.

The analyzed heavy metal values for composting and fermentation are based on Anexo
IV Limites mximos de contaminantes admitidos em substrato para plantas e
condicionadores de solo- IN n 27, de 05 de junho de 2006.The heavy metals zinc and
copper from European frameworks have been added to this data.

So, the heavy metal contents in the fine fractions (< 80 mm) in the original substance
are presented. In addition, two concentration stages are simulating the degradation of
organic matter during the composting process. Finally, this reduction leads to a con-
centration of the heavy metal content.Two usual degradation intensities were calcu-
lated:

64
25 % oTS-degradation, corresponds to rotting degree II to III and

50 % oTS-degradation, corresponds to rotting degree IV.

Table 18 shows results of the heavy metal study in the original substance without sim-
ulated composting process. Contrary to expectations, no grain fraction stands out with
total significantly higher or lower values. Just Zn, Ni, and Cu in the grain class < 20 mm
present significantly higher values. On the other hand, this gran class shows very low
values of Cd and As, whereby Zn and Cu values are not limited in Brazil. Both elements
are classified as deficient in Brazilian soils.

A heavy metal separation cannot be realized on the basis of the available data.

Figures23-29 contain the values of heavy metals in comparison to the Brazilian limit
values. For the elements Zn and Cu, the limit values from the German Bio Waste Ordi-
nance (BioAbfV, 1998) are used. All of the Brazilian limit values for heavy metals in
fertilizers are fulfilled, whereby the values for chromium in the grain class 20 -40 mm
are close to the limit values.The other heavy metal concentrations are significantly
lower than the limit values.

When taking the stricter limits for organic fertilizer as basis (see Table 22), the limit
values are found only slightly below the limits.Regarding to Cr the grain class 20 - 40
mm exceeds the limit of 200 mg/kg/dm. However, in sum, all grain sizes and degrada-
tion rates donot exceed the limit values.

The use of compost products produced from the grain fractions < 80 mm from mixed
waste of Jundia for agriculture is possible.

65
Table 18: Heavy metal values in fine fractions in the original substance under consideration
of two concentration stages through the degradation of organic substance during compost

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Table 19:Compost with 25 % organic matter degradation

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Table 20: Compost with 50 % organic matter degradation

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Table 21: Maximum values for contaminants in substrates for plants and soil conditioning

Contaminant Maximum allowed value

Arsenic (mg/kg) 20,00


Cadmium(mg/kg) 8,00
Lead(mg/kg) 300,00
Chromium (mg/kg) 50,00

66
Contaminant Maximum allowed value

Mercury (mg/kg) 2,50


Nickel (mg/kg) 175,00
Selenium (mg/kg) 80,00
Source: IN n 27, de 05.06.2006.

Table 22: Maximum values for contaminants in substrates for organic fertilizer

Contaminant Maximum allowed value

Arsenic (mg/kg) 20,00


Cadmium (mg/kg) 3,00
Lead(mg/kg) 150,00
Chromium (mg/kg) 200,00
Mercury (mg/kg) 1,0
Nickel (mg/kg) 70,00
Selenium (mg/kg) 80,00
Source: IN n 27, de 05.06.2006.

Figure 23: Cadmium concentration in the fine grain

Cadmium
9
ma
[mg/kg DM]

maximum value
7

-1 < 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

67
Figure 24: Arsenic concentration in the fine grain

Arsenic
25
[mg/kg DM]

ma
20 maximum value

15

10

0
< 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Figure 25: Lead concentration in the fine grain

Lead
350
ma
[mg/kg DM]

300 maximum value


250
200
150
100
50
0
< 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

68
Figure 26: Chromium concentration in the fine grain

Chromium
ma
[mg/kg DM]

500 maximum value

400

300

200

100

0
< 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Figure 27: Nickel concentration in the fine grain

Nickel
200
ma
[mg/kg DM]

maximum value
150

100

50

0
< 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

69
Figure 28: Zinc concentration in the fine grainlimiting value German Bio Waste Ordinance
(BioAbfV 1998)

Zinc
4000
[mg/kg DM]

3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
ma
500
maximum value (Germany)
0
< 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Figure 29: Copper concentration in the fine grainlimiting value German Bio Waste Ordinance
(BioAbfV 1998)

Copper
2500
[mg/kg DM]

2000

1500

1000

500
ma
maximum value (Germany)
0
< 20 20 - 40 40 - 80

input compost (25% degradation) compost (50% degradation)

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

In 2014, the authors Klaus Fricke and Christiane Pereira were instructed by the GIZ-
Brazil to assist in developing a set of CONAMA rules for composting of residues and

70
waste for the Ministry of Environment.In this work, limit proposals were made.The
proposal is based on two quality classes (see Table 23 and Table 24).The higher quality
class 1 is directed to the use in agriculture. The limit values for As, Hg, Ni, Pb could be
exceeded, but the values for Cd and Cr do not.

Table 23:Heavy metal limit values for compost and fermentation product Quality Class I

Parameter Dimension Limit values


As mg / kg d.m. 20
Cd mg / kg d.m. 1.5
Cr mg / kg d.m. 100
Cu* mg / kg d.m. 200
Hg mg / kg d.m. 1.0
Ni mg / kg d.m. 70
Pb mg / kg d.m. 150
Zn* mg / kg d.m. 600
* whether relevant as the limit for Brazil will be decided on the basis of Brazilian land values
Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2015.

Table 24:Heavy metal limit values for organic soil improvement and Quality Class II (Fricke
and Pereira, 2015)

Parameter Dimension Limit value


Cd mg / kg d.m 3.0
Cr mg / kg d.m 200
Cu* mg / kg d.m 400
Hg mg / kg d.m 2.0
Ni mg / kg d.m 100
Pb mg / kg d.m 250
Zn* mg / kg d.m 1,200
* whether relevant as the limit for Brazil will be decided on the basis of Brazilian land values

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2015.

11.7.3.4 Fuel Parameters (Fuel Production)

A. Higher heating values (HHV) and lower heating values (LHV)

The higher heating values (HHV) and lower heating values (LHV) are relevant for:
Determining the energy contentof wastewith and without considerationof the
water content
Determining theincreaseof the calorific valuethroughdrying processes
Generationofbasedatafortechnologyfindings andplant designas well as
forthemarketassessmentand marketing, for example for the use in cement
plants or biomass powerplants.

71
The lower heating value was specifically analyzed for the lower grain sizes < 80 mm in
order to determine the potential for the production of biomass fuels.

It has to be taken into account that this data have some uncertainties. This is particu-
larly true for the lower heating value (LHV), since the water content exerts a massive
influence on the analyzed value. The higher heating values (HHV), without influence of
water content, therefore demonstrate a more restricted field.

Without further processing and drying steps, the fraction > 80 mm is suitable for ener-
getic recovery. Through drying processes even for grain sizes between 20 and 80 mm
comparatively high value can be obtained aslower heating value. However, we find the
majority of the biomass in the grain class 20 - 60 mm.

Figure 30: Higher heating values (HHV) and lower heating values (LHV) in different grain sizes

25,0
[MJ/kg]

22,7

20,0
19,0
18,5

15,0
16,0

14,7

HHV
12,6

10,0 LHV
8,7
6,6

5,0
6,1
4,9

0,0
<20mm 20-40mm 40-60mm 60-80mm >80mm

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

B. RDF specification cement industry

Table 25 shows the requirements of the cement industry for RDF of waste in the main
burner and calcinator.

Therefore, the lower heating value shall be used as guide value. Without further
treatment and drying steps, only the fraction > 80 mm is suitable for energy recovery
in the cement industry, but here also just for the use in calcinator.In order to use larger

72
quantities of MSW for a sufficient energy recovery for RDF, two process steps are
important by which the lower heating value can be increased:

Drying: with increasing dry substance content the lower heating value increases
theoretically to a maximum of the higher heating value, as it can be seen in
Figure 30 under the parameter HHV

Mineral separation: through the removal of non-energetic mineral, the lower


heating value increases theoretically to a maximum of the higher heating value
of the almost dry organic substance.An efficient mineral separation is only
feasible from relatively dry waste fractions.

Because of the very low lower and higher heating values of the grain class < 20 mm, it
is necessary to consider whether it is justified to transfer this fraction with a lot of
effort into a high calorific value fuel.

As a dependent variable, water content of 20 % is worth aspiring to.All grain sizes


above 20 mm are suitable for drying. This includes in particular the grain sizes above
80 mm. After drying, the separation of minerals is performed, for this suitable screens,
ballistic separator, and air classifier in combination are used.The separated mineral
may be landfilled with low emission levels and used as intermediate landfill cover or,
possibly, as construction material.

With the exception of Cl, all other requirements can be achieved without further
processing and conditioning steps.

Usually, the Cl contents rises with increasing grain sizes mainly through the increase of
PVC, but also with leather and rubber.But even at the fine fractions the Cl compounds
exists because of the existence of KCL and NaCl.

73
Table 25: RDF cement industry specification for the Brazilian market (Votorantim 2015) and
analysisvaluesfromwasteinJundia

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

By removing the PVC components by NIR-separator and the separation of the fine
fraction < 20 mm, Cl value may be reduced.

Despite these measures, the limit value of 0,5 % is probably unachievable.

In Europe and Germany, the Cl values are handled individually to the installed plant.
Values under the media of 0,8 % are almost not within reach.

11.8 Recommendations

The final part of Chapter 23 contains recommendations which are defined by the re-
sults of the performed waste analysis. These recommendations do not include detailed

74
technical and/or organizational solutions, but are characterized as a performance
standard which can pave the way for individual planning solutions.

11.9 Material Recycling

The Brazilian and European legal frameworks (PNRS 2010 and Waste Framework Di-
rective 2008) defined the waste pyramid hierarchy and therefore the priority for mate-
rial valorization. This priority is justified with a better resource efficiency for most
waste fraction of MSW (Fricke et al., 2011).

In addition to the resource efficiency, particularly the energy efficiency and climate
protection, the Brazilian market offers good economic conditions with high revenues
for secondary resources. Yet, the use of manual separation with the creation of em-
ployment and the integration of the informal sector compared with automatic sorting
technologies like NIR-equipment should be evaluated.

The potential of valorization without fermentation and composting of biodegradable


organic fractions is situated between 32 and 37 %. According to the current
stateoftheart technologies, only 50 65 % of this potential can be sorted and market-
ed profitably.

11.10 Biotechnology for Valorization

The comparable high amount of biowaste requires the use of anaerobic and aerobic
methods. The environmental advantage of these methods is only available with
cascade utilization. This means that next to biogas production throughout the
anaerobic processing steps, the remaining digestive directly or via composting can also
be agriculturally exploited.

Based on the current legal framework, agricultural recovery is principally possible, but
markets for compost from MSW are rarely available.

However, anaerobic processes are recommended especially for the fermentation of


the grain sizes from 20 to 60 (80) mm, because the most important gas potential is
found in these fractions.

75
For the application of anaerobic technologies continuous or discontinuous the fine
fractions smaller than 20 mm contain comparable low gas potential.On the other
hand, these fractions can lead to problems in the technical process, such as ,e.g.,
sedimentation, limitations in the percolation, and high abrasions. The removal of this
particle fraction before fermentation seems reasonable.

The potential for anaerobic and aerobic processes is 45 and 50 % of the MSW in
Jundia.

Further market analyses and activities are considered absolutely essential before the
decision for a technology.

11.11 Energetic Recovery / Thermal Waste Treatment

The potential for energetic recovery is classified as very high with 41 %.The amount
decreases because of upstreaming sorting actions, especially for plastics and
paper/cardboards.Even with high sorting rates a minimum 25 % of the fractions
remain.If there are no markets for compost products, the organic substances should
be supplied for energetic recovery as well.Therefore, a raise of the lower heating value
through drying processes and separation of minerals is a requirement. The cement
industry or biomass power plants are options for a valorization of these waste
products.

The total potential of the remaining high calorific waste components as well as dried
and assembled biomass enriched fine fractions comprises 40-45 % respectively of the
MSW of Jundia.

11.12 Disposal

The volume of disposal must be considered regardless of whether the material is sort-
ing rest, rest from composting, or RDF production.The amount of 20 % of total delivery
has to be landfilled. Additionally, if assumed that there is no acceptance on the market
for compost and RDF, then the organic fractions will be stabilized and disposed on a
landfill as well, which adds up to a disposal amount of 50 % of the total delivered vol-
ume.

76
12 Large Generators Characterization

With the enactment of the new law Poltica Nacional de Resduos Slidos (PNRS) in
2010, the Brazilian government set new standards for waste management for the in-
dustry as well as for the public and private sectors (see Table 26). On this basis, new
obligations, responsibilities, and objectives are defined for the reuse, recycling, com-
posting, and energetic recovery of residues, in order to generate a reevaluation of
waste reference to adequate technologies.In the future, only non-utilizable waste
should be deposited in landfills. Presently, in Brazil, waste is landfilled in nature at wild
dumps in the amount of 78.987 t/d (41,74 %), and 110.232 t/d (58,26 %) is landfilled in
sanitary landfills (Associao Brasileira de Empresas de Limpeza Pblica e Resduos
Especiais(ABRELPE) - 2013).

Table 26: Current legal framework

Law Content
Poltica Nacional de Resduos Slidos (PNRS) = National Solid
Waste Policy: shared responsibility of the public and private
No. 12.305
sectors with respect to the product lifecycle and the obliga-
tion for adequate treatment of waste
Issued:02/08/2010
Poltica Nacional de Saneamento Bsico (PNSB) = National
Policy for Sanitation: defines as municipal competences the
No. 11.445
waste management including collection, transport, transfer,
treatment, and final disposal of the MSW
Issued: 05/01/2007
Poltica Estadual de Resduos Slidos (PERS) = State Waste
Policy: regulation of municipal competences for municipal
No. 12.300
cleansing service and waste treatment, definition of taxation
statute.
Issued:06/16/2006
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

The waste policy in the Municipality of Jundia is based on the law No. 2.140/75, which
defines the responsibility of the municipal waste management and thus, the large
generators as following: the origin of restaurants, bars, hotels, barracks, markets,

77
slaughterhouses, cemeteries, trade fairs, public buildings, and commerce as well as the
industry up to an amount of 400 liters. Actually, the waste management plan in Jundiai
that is under preparation defines a large generator as one that produces more than
200 liters per day of residues class 2, meaning as domiciliary.

In accordance with the legal framework, the State of So Paulo created in 2014 a
waste plan (Plano de Resduos Slidos do Estado de So Paulo), which contains
objectives for the reduction of deposition of dry and wet residues in landfills (see Table
27).

Table 27: Objective of the waste managementplan of the State of So Paulo

Period
Objective
2019 2023 2025

Reduction of wet residues in landfills, Base: 2013 (%) 35 45 55

Reduction of dry residues in landfills, Base: 2013 (%) 37 42 50

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

Based on this plan, the Municipality of Jundia, performed by the Department for Pub-
lic Services (Secretaria Municipal de Servios Pblicos (SMSP)), developed an integrated
waste management plan (see Table 28).

Table 28: Objectives of the waste management plan in Jundia

Objectives/actions Period
Implementation of a selective collection (dry and wet fractions) in 100 %
short-term
of the system
Recycling of 50 % of the dry fractions short-term
Recycling of 60 % of the dry fractions medium-term
Implementation of a treatment plan (bio-methaneanaerobic), including
medium-term
possibility of energetic recovery
Recycling of 80 % of the dry fractions in 15 years long-term
Recycling of 90 % of the dry fractions in 20 years long-term
Source:Prefeitura de Jundia, 2014.

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In order to achieve reliable results and contribute to academic exchange and techno-
logical innovations in Brazil, the Municipality of Jundia aimed this cooperation with
qualified actors from Germany. Primarily, the basic waste management system in Jun-
dia was analyzed and optimized; see the comparison of the current and future system
in Figure 31.

Figure 31: Current and future waste management systems

Source: Prefeitura de Jundia, 2014.

12.1 Procedure

The analysis of large generators serves as an important tool for a profound prognosis
of generated waste quantities and qualities, and therefore basic knowledge about
required capacities for potential treatment plants. Because of a separation of the
public and private sectors until today, there are significant deficiencies in information
and data about waste management. This survey helps to fill in the information gap and
builds a foundation for future cooperation and dialogue between the sectors, which
may facilitate new routes in the market of secondary raw materials. Furthermore, the
municipality gains knowledge about the waste composition for potential further
treatment technologies.

79
The questionnaire Anlise Mercadolgica de Grandes Geradorescontains 58 questions
in 5 categories (see Figure 32 and attachment chapter 25.1.1). For a representative
sample, the survey must include at least 1 % of all registered companies in the city of
Jundia. This means that from the actually 22.000 companies (Base: 05/2014) a mini-
mum of 220 companies from the sectors industry, commerce, and services must re-
spond positively.

Figure 32: Categories of the questionnaire

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

In the beginning, the questionnaire was send via email and additionally presented
face-to-face because of the low response quantity via email. The oral questioning
emerged as the better way as the participant also could express difficulties or doubts.

12.2 Results

Basic data of the performed analysis during the project are set out in Table 29.

Table 29: Parameters of the survey large generators

Large generators characterization Campaign 01

Period 5 months (May to September)

Involved persons 23

Number of questioned institutions 232

Number of participants 224 1 % of population

80
Large generators characterization Campaign 01

Number of registered institutions in Jundia 22.726 Secretaria de Desenvolvimento


Econmico, Cincia e Tecnologia, Base
year: 2013
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

Figure 33: Question 3. In what industry does your business operate?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

The sectors of the economy covered werewell represented at the survey. Initially the
major industries would be the target for the application of the questionnaires, but with
the need to observe other sectors were studied also the service and commerceareas,
meaning 52 % (see Figure 33).

81
Figure 34: Question 5.Does your company offer a cafeteria?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

85 % of the questioned companies offer a staff cafeteria and 40 % prepare the meals
locally, which indicates a higher amount of waste quantity and therefore a high poten-
tial of valorization (Figure 34).

Figure 35: Question 6. Does your company have official certificates proving sustainable cor-
porate management?

Source:i-NOPA Project, 2014.

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43 % of the companies could present a quality certificate in the fields of quality, envi-
ronmental, or OSH management (see Figure 35).

Figure 36: Question 12.Do you know the current national laws on waste management?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

In view of the production, manufacturing, or product sales, it becomes clear that 22 %


of the respondents are obligated to introduce reverse logistics (logstica reversa) based
on PNRS, because their processes include the use of batteries, electrical appliances,
and fluorescent lamps. Nonetheless, only 32 % already have such a system available
and 52 % of the respondents do not have plans to fulfill this obligation. The results in
regard to the consultancy and drafting of waste plans by the municipality show that
despite knowledge of this opportunity the companies rarely take advantage of it. Fur-
ther deficiencies can be pointed out in the subject of waste taxes. A major part of the
state does not pay taxes at all and thus does not have knowledge about the amount
and calculation of these taxes.

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Figure 37: Question 21 a). Evaluate the service of traditional collection performed by the
municipality.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

The grade part of the survey shows that the respondents are satisfied with the tradi-
tional collection by the municipality.

Moreover, the respondents present almost no or little knowledge about waste treat-
ment activities performed by the municipality, which urgently needs to be expanded
and updated. Overall, the collection of waste (both public and private systems)
achieves good grades, although the respondents show little knowledge about other
subjects like recycling, reuse, transfer, and landfill (70 80 %).

As main difficulties in the waste sector, the respondents identify irregular frequencies
and a limited range of services. In accordance with the questioned companies, an im-
provement of waste management in the City of Jundia can be reached with (environ-
mental) education, higher frequencies of events (congress, workshops etc.), and a
more efficient media communication.

84
Figure 38: Question 24. How many people are employed in the department of waste man-
agement?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

The figure demonstrated that only 31 % of the respondents have already established a
department for waste management, whereby 50 % just assign the responsibilities to
janitors, inspectors, and technical staff or health and safety representatives.

Figure 39: Question 25. Does your company have a waste plan? When was this drawn up?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

85
It can be observed that 22% of companies have developed their plan of waste man-
agement, while 73% do not have their respective plans, denoting the lack of infor-
mation about the terms of PNRS.

Figure 40:Question 29. Have you established waste separation in the company? If so, how?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

All in all, 91 % of the respondents already established a waste separation on the basis
of minimum two fractions. 60 % of the companies separate their waste by the fractions
organic, paper, plastic, metal, glass, and rejects.

Figure 41: Question 31. How high is the recycling rate?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

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Hence, in 42 % of the cases a recycling rate of over 50 % is achieved.

Figure 42: Which are your proposals to increase the waste management at the city?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

There is a stratification in understanding about the measures that can be implemented


for the improvement of waste management;in 52 %, the opinion on educational inter-
ventions prevails and 24% understand that improving the treatment facilities is an im-
portant tool, 20 % opine that legal instruments and tax aspects are important.

Figure 43: Question 37. Is there an interest in a partnership with the City of Jundia to pro-
mote continuing education on the subject of eco-efficient waste management?

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

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Finally, 81 % of the respondents express interest in a future partnership with the Mu-
nicipality in order to improve entrepreneurial waste management.

12.3 Conclusion

With regard to large generators, this survey not only identified important information
and data as well as objectives and requests of private companies, but also defined
common aims for a sustainable waste management and the valorization of the sec-
ondary raw material waste. On the one hand, it became clear that the industries in
Jundia have ambitions to improve the internal waste system and fulfill the national
requirements. On the other hand, the commerce and service sectors often showed
missing or insufficient actions in their waste managements. Principally, the Municipali-
ty of Jundia could identify scenarios and possibilities to engage the collaboration with
the private sector to improve the common waste management.

On the basis of this survey, a characterization and analysis of large generators was
conducted for the first time in Jundia and therefore an important foundation for fu-
ture studies and innovations in the system of waste management was built.

Moreover, this study showed the significant potential for the implementation of a Me-
chanical-Biological Treatment Plant (MBT) in the region of Jundia because the distinc-
tive amount of recyclable materials and organic fractions was identified throughout
the production or preparation of meals, which guarantees a non-contaminated mass
for the use as compost or energetic recovery.

The cooperation between the TUB and PUC-Rio intensified technical knowledge of the
Department for Public Services in Jundia and all other concerned parties significantly.
This project brought important and positive aspects, such as the use of secondary raw
materials, reduced environmental impacts, reduced costs through landfilling of less
waste quantities, and above all a sustainable waste management.

The complete evaluation is attached in Portuguese at this report (Chapter 25.1).

88
13 Capacity Building

The provisions laid down in the Waste National Public Policy (PNRS) discuss modernity,
preserving resources, and protecting the climate, but also explain the challenge of
providing sustainable systems for waste management that is hindered by the lack of
expertise in the market, both for the development of technological concepts and for
the evaluation and operation of technologies, resulting not only in technical barriers in
the search for better solutions, but also in insecurity in the decision-making on the part
of public and private actors.

Corroborating the understanding that only through knowledge we can move forward
in the recovery of waste in Brazil, during the project the participants entered into dis-
cussions covering various thematic areas such as the evaluation of the panorama of
waste management in Brazil and Germany, environmental technologies, financing
lines, special notes about licensing, markets of secondary resources, management
challenges, and, in particular, building of public policies.

To reach the desired impacts, a large range of products was developed and corrobo-
rated on to generate an intelligent information network, facilitating access to the da-
tabase for all involved, even identifying the demands of training, and producing results
that bolstered the city's decision-making in regard to the development of the envi-
ronmental education program and the definition of the technological route.

The actions and decisions taken during the project went beyond the municipalitys
borders and also served as a reference for other segments, even public or private,
from the economy of solid waste.

Various sectors of the society participated in the promoted events, such as research-
ers, entrepreneurs, or public managers, allowing to transfer knowledge in focus to es-
tablish sustainable waste management systems,integrating not only fermentation
model but also other waste recovery models. The technical events also served to build
bilateral cooperation of knowledge for the successful implementation of projects. This
also includes the development and adaptation of technologies for Brazilian conditions.

89
Aware of the weaknesses inherent in the formation of a new market, the efforts were
not only concentrated on the training of the project team, but mainly focused on gen-
erating an intelligent network from the promotion of a series of events which led to
democratize the knowledge acquired.Table 30 contains all events and professional
qualifications which were conducted during the i-NoPa Project in 2014.

Table 30: Events and professional qualifications

PARTICI-
EVENTS AND PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS LOCAL DATE
PANTS
1 1st Technical Congress Brazil Germany Parque da uva - PMJ Dec/13 780
2 Workshop PUC - RJ PUC- RJ Mar/14 18
3 Capacity Planning Meeting Room - PMJ Mar/14 30
4 Workshop CIESP CIESP - Jundia Apr/14 145
5 2st Technical Meeting Brazil Germany Florianpolis Mai/14 330
6 7th Technical Meeting High Level Composting Cetesb- SP Ago/14 85
Training for the characterization of large genera- Meeting Room SMSP - 30
7 tors PMJ Jun/14
8 Fair RWM So Paulo Set/14 30
9 1st Connective Dialogue Latin American Cities Cuenca - Ecuador Nov/14 40
April 30
an-
10 Gravity Study of Urban Solid Waste Geresol - PMJ dOct/14
11 Visit Cooperlnea Environmental Brazil Paulnea Nov/14 10
1 Technical Seminar in Sustainable Manage- 230
12 ment of MSW DAE - Jundia Nov/14
13 Technical Visit LOGA So Paulo Nov/14 15
Specialized training in analytical interventions 30
14 for the characterization of MSW Hotel Serra de Jundia Jan/15
Capacity Building on Composting and drying of
Solid Waste and Organic Waste Separated with Auditorium 8th floor -
15 Mar/15 30
the system ON FLOOR AERATION WITH GORE PMJ
COVER.
16 Closing workshop for the i-NoPa Project Hotel Serra de Jundia Mar/15 60
total 1893
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

90
14 Technical Cooperation

The binomial signed by technical failure and business demands of the Brazilian market
of MSW, corroborated for an interlaced intervention of various institutions that domi-
nate remarkable knowledge in Germany such as TUBS, DBFZ, DAAD, GIZ, and BMBF.

The concept of technical cooperation adopted during the project consolidated thepro-
posal of sharing efforts and benefits, enhancing mechanisms of negotiation, evalua-
tion, and management of projects. Ensuring necessarily climate protection and preser-
vation of natural resources and also strengthening institutions in order to trespass
governments.

As was expected, the project has reverberated beyond the borders of Jundia, arousing
interest to sensitive topics from entities such as the Municipalities of Florianopolis,
Votuporanga, Paulista, Petrolina, Cuenca, and Lueneburg but also renowned institu-
tions as CIESP, KFW, FINEP, and SENAC.

These institutions, each one according to their skill, acted in the form of technical co-
operation constituting an important instrument of development, helping Brazil to
promote structural changes in their production systems toward a sustainable man-
agement of solid waste, as a way of overcoming restrictions that are hampering the
natural growth of this new market.

The technical cooperation programs implemented allowed transfer of knowledge, ex-


periences of success, and sophisticated equipment and management programs, thus
contributing to empower human resources and strengthening institutions, enabling a
qualitative upgrade of the waste market.

91
15 CREED of Brazil

Creed is an NGO that emerged in 2009 and has more than 70 members, with an inter-
national center for research & development and both basic and advanced training on
waste and natural resource management with an international focus. At the same
time, the center functions as a demonstration site for environmental technology of the
management of waste and resources sector of Germany. The main areas of activity
are:

Research and development, mainly through the use of technological resources


present in Pohlsche Heide and nearby waste management infrastructure
Basic, continued, and advanced training in the waste management area and re-
sources and adjacent disciplines such as urban water management and energy
management as well as agriculture, establishing a close relationship between
theory and practice
Presentation and demonstration of technologies in scale of waste management
and resources for those interested in Germany and abroad with emphasis on
waste management and natural resources.

The Creed of Brazil, founded in 2015, has the purpose to cross boundaries and intro-
duce a holistic perspective of sustainable management of MSW in Latin America, en-
suring a multidisciplinary and transterritorial intervention, joining what is most devel-
oped in Europe with the new demands of Latin America.

Thus, the Creed of Brazil will be a physical space (see Figure 44) dedicated to the de-
velopment of alternative energy sources and waste recovery technologies through
implementation of a technology park in pilot scale, specialized laboratory, auditorium
for events and capacity building, and also a green library for specialized publications,
with focus on improvement of social reality and also to provide theopportunity to
showcase exhibitions and dialogues between consumers, researchers, entrepreneurs,
opinion leaders, and the general public. Our goal is to contribute to the formation of
sustainable tools for the benefit of the whole society.

92
Figure 44: Area of GERESOL including the area destined to CREED

Source: Edited after Google earth, 2014.

15.1 Specialized Solid Waste Laboratory

During the project, a 210 m excellence laboratory was implemented that will perform
physical-chemical and biological analysis in order to evaluate the potential of waste to
recycling, composting, digestion, and RDF. This laboratory was provided with the latest
equipment becoming a reference for the Brazilian market in the search for qualified
analytical interventions (see Table 32).

Table 31: Equipment for the CREED Excellence Laboratory of Brazil

Eudiometer (GB21) Muffle Scales


Centrifugal Water Pump Screens
Spectrophotometer Heater Shaker with heating
PH Meter Gas Chromatograph Conductivity meter
Filters Refrigerator Greenhouse
Freezer Containers Reagents
Filters PPE Other materials
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

93
Figure 45: Specialized laboratory for MSW

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

15.2 Pilot Projects Aerobic Treatment

Considering the need to promote training focused on practical application technology,


during the project,two aerobic technologies were introduced, focus composting and
drying. Both technologies will be researched under basic and applied conditions, with-
various substrates, with the aim of adapting technologies to Brazilian conditions. The
technologies are modular in view, therefore fulfilling the needs of small and medium-
sized towns as well as the private segment.

Figure 46: Aerobic technologies

Source: UTV AG e GFA, 2014.

94
Figure 47: Technologies Implementation in Jundia

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

95
16 Market Situation for Secondary Resources in Brazil

The sustainable market of which the management of waste is a part has a positive out-
look in the coming years in Brazil, mainly because of the potential scale of recovery of
waste promoted by the National Policy for Solid Waste. It established the understand-
ing that the proper disposal of waste is not confined to landfilling waste in nature, de-
fining practices ranging from the implementation of systems of waste recovery to the
landfilling of so-called rejects.

Furthermore, the PNRS defines that only rejects may be sent to landfills, meaning,
parts that cannot be recovered. The majority is organic that should be composted and
the recyclable parts should be captured through selective collection or MBT plants. The
legal framework, under federal, state, and municipal competence, will fix the percent-
age of residues that should not be sent to the landfill.

Advancing on the current waste management practices, there are less than 7 % of the
municipalities that apply the recycling of waste from civil construction, less than 16 %
of the municipalities offer broadly the selective collection of dry recyclables, less than
5 % of organic fractions are composted, less than 0,05 % of the landfills generate ener-
gy and less than 30 % of municipalities have developed the waste management plan
until 2014.

These figures demonstrate that actions of waste recovery are quite simple on the pub-
lic policies of municipalities and private policies of large generators, but with a vast
potential for the future. From this information, it is possible to conclude that the recy-
cling market is still consolidating and expanding in Brazil, as it can be seen in Table 32.

96
Table 32: Market risk analyses

Recovery
Market risk
activities
Technical quali-
Environmen- Product ac-
fication re- Product price
tal license ceptance
quirement
Sorting of recycla-
Low High Low High
ble materials
Compost Low if mixed

Low Low High


Medium if se-
lective
SRF Medium High High Medium
Biogas Medium High High Medium
Stabilized fraction
Medium Low Medium Low
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

This new tendency can also be observed by the market movement during the last 4
years, as for example:

15 signed contracts and private plants covering the valorization of


residues(2010 - 2014)

This movement can be noticed in a series of edicts that have been released and
contractors in the last four years, namely: Osasco-SP, Embu-SP, Cotia-SP, It-
SP, Piracicaba-SP, Jacare-SP, Salto-SP, So Bernardo do Campo-SP, Barueri-SP,
So Luis-MA, Paulista-PE, Campo Grande-MS, Regio Metropolitana de Belo
Horizonte-MG and Paulnia-SP e Coroados-SP (private plant)

Currently in planning: So Paulo-SP, Guarulhos-SP, Ribeiro Preto-SP,


Carapicuiba-SP, Votuporanga-SP, Rio Branco-AC, Blumenau-SC, Chapec-SC,
Maring-PR, Londrina-PR, Curitiba-PR, Cuiab -MT, Mossor-RN, Consrcio
CISBRA-SP (12 cities), Consrcio AMMVI-SC (14 cities) e Consrcio AMAVI - SC
(28 cities), and others

Selected Technologies: sorting of recyclables, compost, biodigestion, RDF, and


incineration.

97
16.1 Market for Dry Fractions

The growth of the packaging industry, which represents 1,53 % of the GDP, contributes
to a significant change in the composition of solid waste generated in the country. This
way, a greater presence of recyclable materials combined with the greater awareness
of society favored the evolution of the recyclables market.

There are 2.361 companied operating in this sector, where most act on informality and
include the recycling industry, deposits, and the organization of scavengers. Regarding
the organization of scavengers, they are actively engaged in the formal sector through
more than 800 cooperatives and in the informal sector, representing in the formal
sector 128.000 persons and more than 1 million people being active informally through
the collection and sorting of waste. According to the Movimento Nacional de
Catadores de Materiais Reciclveis, 90 % of the captured recyclable material comes
from the cooperatives and scavengers.

The market for recyclable household is quite mature in Brazil because it was promoted
in federal public policies through the enhancement of the scavengers, financing lines,
and other subsidies offered at all levels of administrative Brazilian authority. But,
despite this, the volume of recyclables reinserted into the economic chain is still low,
under 3 % according to ABRELPE 2012, although this segment of the market represents
a huge opportunity for business when managed on a large scale. Even with all our
difficulties in capturing these residues through the selective collection, currently the
prices on the domestic market are higher than the prices in Europe or even on the
Asian market.

16.2 Market for Compost and Other Organic Fractions

The market of so-called composting in Brazil had its climax at the end of the decade
of the 80s, through the implementation of more than 80 plants for composting, where
the most important technology was the Swiss system, identified as DANO, which
ended up being implemented in the majority of the Brazilian capitals on the basis of a
semi-enclosed composting process, through plants with a capacity of reception of
500 t per day of MSW. These systems have worked for a period not exceeding 5 years
and represented an investment of around 25 million dollars per plant.The low quality

98
of the then achieved product has introduced further skeptical opinion about the
success of a plant for composting.

Brazilian legislation concerning compost etc. is on the way to change to more strict
values of content for compost, to fulfill as precondition for reuse in agriculture or
gardening.

Regarding the potential of the compost market in Jundia, in 2010, the planted area
was 0,49 % of the total municipal area or 212 ha (0,49 % x 431,9 km). The potential
per ha to use compost is 15 20 t , it means 3.180 t to 4.240 t of compost per year, or
265 353 t per month.

16.3 Market for Secondary Refuse-Derived Fuels (RDF)

Renewable sources account for 88,8 % of the energy matrix of Brazil and 81,7 % from
hydroelectric plants (EPE 2012). On the basis of the recent low water reservoirs, the
thermal plants were operating under lower profit margins because of their reasonably
high production costs. According to ANEEL, the energy price will increase 40 % in 2015.
This fact has ratified the need for flexibility of our energy matrix and, with this, the
Federal Government has pointed towards the formation of a public policy for the in-
troduction of processes, such as waste to energy, into our market.

The point is, hydroelectric power plants need WATER and Brazilians from the south-
east region, exactly that region that concentrates over 42 % of the population,are ex-
periencinga lack of water in their homes and also blackouts happening more often
than usual. Now, it is a common understanding among politicians, journalists, and sci-
entists that these are consequences of climate change and also the latent needs of
other alternative energy sources.

Under this critical outline the RDF improves its importance, because RDF can be used
in ovens of the cement industry and mills of biomass, where in addition to generating
calorific value for efficient operation, preserving natural resources, such as the coke
coal, can be processed by various other branches of industry (steel, petrochemical,
pulp and paper, and methanol from sugarcane, among others), where its quality can

99
be adapted according to the specific characteristics and requirements of each
customer.

However, of all these market possibilities we can affirm that the interest insubstituting
traditional energy sourcesfor the RDF application of other industrial branches isnot so
developed as within the cement industry.

It is understood that the generation of RDF is already part of the strategy of the
cement market in Brazil that seeks to modify 30 % of its matrix to RDF as an energy
source within the next five years. The cement market is basically established in mineral
coal, which represents 1,4 % of all energy produced in the country. Mineral coal has a
value of 90 Euro per ton in Brazil and is consumed in significant quantity by the cement
industry. In addition to the traditional fuels used by the cement industry, such as
petroleum coke, fuel oil, and coal, it is increasingly turning to the use of alternative
fuels in Brazil, through the co-processing of waste and the use of biomass.

Brazil already made its first experience in the production and application of RDF.The
company called ESTRE, in the city of Paulinea-SP, has implemented a plant for
generation of RDF with a capacity for 800 t/d in a built-up area of 7.000 m for
purposes of service for public and private clientsin 2013. Input is composed of waste
from collection at households (MHW) and commercial (C&I). The product resulting
from the processing of MHW has faced difficulties for service quality requirements due
to the high rate of moisture but the C&I waste reached good results, having been
tested in furnace clinker of VOTORANTIM.

There are two VOTORANTIM plants located close to Jundia (=120 km south) with
potential to use 20.000 Mg/d of RDF.

16.4 Market for Biogas

The generation of biogas from the landfills and plants of fermentation has been pro-
moted extensively by the federal government since 2012, including the opening of re-
search channels that have already landed EUR 100 million in research at 19 projects,
generating 26 MW.

100
Investments in renewable energy present, in its majority, higher costs compared with
traditional sources. Additionally, investments in the generation of electrical energy
using biogas as its fuel source are at present considered economically viable.

In the last 3 years were contracted 5 plants of mechanical and biological treatment of
municipal solid waste, with integrated fermentation with capacities ranging from
60.000 to 140.000 t/ain the State of So Paulo, having 2 of them financed from CAIXA
ECONOMICA FEDERAL. Aside from that, there are several municipalities where the
theme of fermentation is under discussion. But operation performance of these first
projects is showing quite reasonable difficulties to overcome before successful
operation.

16.5 Market for Stabilized Fractions in Landfill Operations

Observing some uncertainty over the quality of compost produced from mixed waste,
it will be necessary to evaluate the possible allocation of organic fraction stabilized at
landfill focusing to reduce environmental emissions.

101
17 Technological Panorama

17.1 General Aspects

A successful implementation of sustainable waste management in the Municipal Urban


Cleansing System not only depends upon activities like promotion of non-waste
generation for the society, but also includes factors such as recycling at the source,
innovations in the collection and transportation, valorization, and treatment before
final disposal of the residues. In this context, the transformation and recovery of
residues and rejects into energy gained significant importance on the market. Also
within the scope of renewable energy, the organic fraction less favorable for
incineration generates interest for the scientific community, public managers, and
the private sector through the possible use of traditional technologies for the
transformation of biomass into energy, such as fermentation and the production of
substrates for soil improvement through composting.

Thus, the extensive deposition of organic mass in sanitary landfills implies various
environmental risks when it is managed in a non-adequate form, such as
contamination of water sources, soil, and underground by leachate, mass movements,
spontaneous combustion, and the emission of greenhouse gases. An adequate
management of organic fractions not only controls and minimizes the mentioned risks,
but also guarantees a transformation of organics into conditioning soil material and
energy.

Currently, Germany is regarded as a storehouse of technologies for waste treatment,


expanding the performances throughout the European, Asian, and African
markets,providing besides machinery a range of technologies for the development and
implementation of monitoring systems, handling definitions of legal sources for the
regulation of waste markets. For example, the Art. 9 of the Brazilian PNRS is a replica
of the German regulations for waste management. Figure 48shows the current global
view on management and valorization of MSW.

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Figure 48: Pyramid hierarchy for sustainable waste management

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

In consideration of Figure 48, the implementation of waste managements should prior-


itize the dimension of preventative actions like reduce and reuse, while waste treat-
ment and disposal can be seen as corrective actions. These actions can be defined as
following:

Reduce: preventative approach, oriented to decrease the volume and the im-
pact caused by waste

Reuse: corrective approach, directed to bring back the productive cycle of raw
materials, substances, and products extracted from waste. Reuse and recycle
are the main actions

Treatment: technical approach, change of the characteristic of the residues can


be achieved through valorization due to extraction of value materials or energy,
decreases the treatment costs

Disposal: passive approach, oriented to counter the effects of residues, remain-


ing under control and sites to be monitored.

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17.2 Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT)

This pre-treatment of waste pursues the following goals:

Reduction of mass and volume of waste for disposal

Decomposition of organic pollutants and concentration of inorganic pollutant


material

Reduction of potential emissions on landfills, principally leachate and gases

Reduction of plunging

Exploitation of energetic material from recoverable waste components.

The principal objective of various MBT concepts contains phases of mechanical,


physical, and biological treatment, separation, and pre-treatment of different waste
components for a posterior energetic recovery, treatment and disposal. In this context,
the following sub-goals are identified:

Separation of recyclable materials, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Separation and preparation for energetic recovery and raw materials, which for
example are minerals for constructions use and components with high calorific
value as secondary fuels

Separation and conditioning for biological and thermal treatment

Biological treatment with pre-treatment for posterior recovery, treatment, or


disposal.

17.3 Mechanical Treatment

The mechanical treatment has the following objectives:

Separation of unwanted materials for the consecutive treatment steps

Separation of materials with different characteristics for special treatment

Preparation of materials for biological treatment with the objective of capacity


improvement for decomposition.

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17.4 BiodigestionTechnology Anaerobic Biological Treatment

Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which a consortium of different morph


types of microorganisms in the absence of molecular oxygen, transforms complex
organic compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) into simpler products like
methane and carbon dioxide. These systems of anaerobic waste treatment accelerate
the digestion processes creating favorable conditions for the microorganisms,
regarding both the design and operational stages.

Considering the operational procedures, respectively single or double stage, for the
fermentation of residues, there is a tendency to use the dry method in detriment for
wet processes. Hence, double staged processes will became less important.

In all types of fermenters, the sedimentation of heavy materials is identified as one of


the most common disorders, so that the research for processes, which minimizes the
presence of these materials in the fermenter,has been intensified in the past years. In
this context, there is need for available spare parts for a quick adjustment of the
equipment when a change in viscosity is caused due to the presence of abrasive
materials that may jeopardize the operation of the mixing shaft of the fermenter.

17.5 Classification of the BiodigestionProcess

Basically, the technical criteria for the selection of the proper biodigestion process
depend on the supply and quality of initial substrates. The fermentation processes may
vary by:

Content of dry mass ratio in the fermenter

Charging form of the substrate to be fermented

Fermentation temperature

Homogenization form

Processing form of active biomass, especially in the fermentation of substrates


with low solid mass value, for example sewage

Separation form and interconnection of the partial processes.

105
A clear line of distinction between wet and dry fermentation is not well defined yet,
although in practice this difference is as following: for the processing of substrates
from power plants, a dry matter content up to 20 % is used as wet fermentation, while
the substrate still contains features which allow its pumping. When the dry matter
content exceeds 20 %, it generally is a substrate, which is not pumpable and therefore
dried fermentation processes are indicated.

In reference to the production of biogas, wet fermentation is more efficient, followed


by continuous dry fermentation. However, the disadvantage identified in biogas
generation potential is compensated when evaluating that methods of wet and
continuous dry fermentation require a very clean input and material smaller than 50
mm also have higher maintenance costs and produce liquid effluents that may require
further treatment.Figure 49 presents the different variations and levels of biogas
production for the three fermentation types presented in this report.

Figure 49: Level of produced biogas by different types of fermentation

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

17.5.1.1 Dry Fermentation

The process of Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR is mostly used for the
biodigestion of agricultural and livestock residues with homogeneous structures,
representing approximately 90 % of the installed biogas systems. The digester has a
concrete base and walls of steel or reinforced concrete, so that they can be partially
buried or fully buried. The coverage of the digester is sealed and impermeable to gas,

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which may be a geotextile membrane or concrete slab and the complete mixture is
carried out by a variety of mixer systems.

17.5.1.2 Continuous and Discontinuous Dry Fermentation

According to Fricke, Pereira 2013, the fermenter in the continuous dry system is
constantly stocked with fresh organic material and fermented waste, so that the
production of biogas preserves the quality with respect to the methane content. These
systems operate with an index of solid fractions between 20 and 40 %, with mixed
organic fractions, where the processed liquid fractions formed a homogenous semi
solid mass.

The current methods available on the market principally vary in the concentration of
leachate (periodically, intermittently, or continuously) and heating processes
(biological pre-heating for ventilation, fermenter heating, heating percolated liquids).

A. Generation of Biogas

The performance of biogas generation does not differ significantly between the wet
and dry technologies. The discontinuous dry fermentation has a lower generation
ranging from 80 to 117 Nm CH4/t and continues from 100 to 130 Nm CH4/t.

For the operation of the plant, heat and electrical energy is necessary, which can be
obtained with the processing of biogas. The dry discontinuous fermentation demands
less energy, consuming 3 10 % of the electric energy and approximately 10 20 % of
the heat energy. The power consumption is significantly higher for the wet and
continuous dry fermentation.

B. Water Balance

The water balance and the consequences are important parameters for the choice of
technology. According to previous research, it is estimated that in Brazil, because of
the characteristic of the mixed collection, liquid wastes will not be used as liquid
fertilizer and classified as sewage. Anyway, it is essential to carry out physical-chemical
analysis of these wastes.

In discontinuous dry fermentation, there is also dried fermentation liquid in the order
of 2 8 % of the processed mass. This ratio arises from the successive recirculation

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system. Table 33 presents the principal characteristics and differences between the
processes of dry and wet fermentation.

Table 33: Comparison of principal characteristics of wet and dry fermentation techniques

Dry Fermentation Wet Fermentation

The supply of organic fractions remains The system requires mechanical parts to
stationary in the process, eliminating moving ensure the circulation of the liquid biomass
parts, resulting in a system with low in the tank, increasing the costs of
maintenance and repairs. maintenance and repairs.
Batch processes and stationary systems Liquid mixture causes premature removal
allow precise controls of energy recovery of energy without the fully digesting of
ensuring maximum utilization. organic fractions, resulting in power loss.
Even fluid balance - no need for extra System requires the addition of extra liquid
addition of liquids to start the process, in to ensure fermentation, significantly
some cases treatment is needed for spare increasing the emission of wastewater and
liquid emissions generated. their treatment costs.
Even though the exclusively organic
Since mechanical treatment is not fractions need mechanical treatment
necessary for only organic fractions preliminary to biological, in order to not
preliminarily to the biological treatment, damage the machinery through mass
reducing investment and operating costs. agitation, increasing investment and
operating costs.
Extensive restrictions for residues for
Limited restrictions for the residues for
fermentation; should only be routed as
fermentation.
damp masses.
Typical systems consume 10 30 % of the
Low energy consumes, small fractions of
energy generated at the plant, for the
the generated energy can be used,
treatment of liquid emissions extra energy
maximum 10 % of proper consume.
is necessary.
High volume of fermenter
Low volume of fermenter
(from factor 3)
High liquid emissions can reach up to 70 %
Input of organic fractions reduced
of the processed mass, requiring high
significantly and generation of liquid
amounts of energy for the treatment and
emissions is limited, reducing the risk of
increasing the risk of groundwater
groundwater contamination.
contamination.
Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

17.6 Technology of Composting Aerobic Biological Treatment

All biological components formed by microorganisms under aerobic conditions are


biodegradable. A successful degradation can be achieved with favorable environmen-
tal conditions for the microorganisms, a sufficient supply of oxygen as well as an ade-
quate temperature, supply of water, and nutrients. According to Fricke et al. (2007),
the aerobic decomposition of 1 kg of organic substance generates 20.000 kJ and the

108
metabolic process reaches approximately 12.000 kJ of eco-thermic energy in form of
heat released in addition to the energy required by the consumer. The microbial heat
is prevented from leaving the windrows surface due to the low conductivity (0,25 -0,4
W/mK depending on the water balance), this way the windrows are self-heated. The
temperatures vary between mesophilic (10 45 C) and thermophilic (25 80 C). The
quantity of oxygen for a complete oxidation of organic material is defined as 2g O 2/g of
organic biodegradable substance.

According to Schmidt (2005), the spectrum of composting techniques ranges from


simple techniques (extensive process) in open windrows composting patios to highly
sophisticated and controlled processes, the encapsulated system (intensive), such as
the composting in a tunnel. The intensive composting technologies have an economic
viability from 15.000 t/a of waste.

Table 34: Aerobic technologies in comparison

Extensive Composting Intensive Composting


Degree of automation Low High
Beneath covered patio or Completely or partially in
Odor emission protection
semipermeable covers closed areas
Available area High Low
Emission control Low High
Low investment and High investment and
Costs
operational costs operational costs
Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

17.6.1.1 Extensive Composting Systems

In accordance with Fricke et al. (2007), the oldest composting technology is the de-
nominated windrow triangle, which is the most used technology in Europe (see Figure
50). The windrows take place in different dimensions and profiles and reach heights of
between 1,50 and 3,50 m. The most common profiles are triangular, trapezoidal, and
plane. The base is composed of straw, bark, or wood pallet layers in order to mitigate
leachate emissions.

109
Figure 50:Composting windrow, mounted and crimped by loader

Source: FRICKE et al., 2007.

A. Composting in Triangle Windrows without Forced Aeration

Small triangular shaped ridges have a high surface volume and short paths to the re-
stricted diffusion of oxygen, so that forced aeration is not required. The supply of oxy-
gen occurs by convection, diffusion, and disturbance of the windrow.

B. Composting in Triangle Windrows with Forced Aeration

The ventilation systems were developed to mitigate odors and accelerate the decom-
position of the materials. The composting in windrows is typically used for larger quan-
tities, requiring large areas. Additionally, odor problems and excessive percolation dur-
ing decomposition can be identified. To remedy these problems in areas with intense
rainfall conditions or even where the affected population is located close to the com-
posting plant, simple coverage systems such as covered patios or semipermeable
membranes had to be developed.

110
Figure 51: Model of composting systems with forced aeration

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

C. Composting in Trapezoid Windrows with Passive Aeration

It is shown that the trapezoidal compost windrows occur statically, without disturb-
ance of the windrow, and the aeration system results from air convection driven by the
temperature difference between the windrow and the environment, causing passive
entry of air through perforated pipes at constant spacing, allowing the entire mass to
be aerated. Its base can be prepared with wood chips or even pallets, acting not only
as a second aeration tool but also as a draining surface which prevents leachate re-
maining under the windrow. The surface of the windrow is covered with 20-30 cm
thick wood chips which serve as a bio filter to minimize possible odors of decomposi-
tion. This technology is executed in areas with a high rainfall index because the surface
can be covered with a semipermeable membrane to inhibit the penetration of heavy
rain and control the moisture content of the material.

17.6.1.2 Intensive Composting Systems

Intensive composting systems are marked of composting in encapsulated systems in a


closed environment with minimized heat exchange, various methods of aeration, and
mechanical tumbling for process control. Also, these systems are designed to minimize
odor and decomposition time due to control of airflow, temperature, and oxygen con-
centration. The active aeration, the moistening and homogenization allow the control

111
and optimization of the biological stabilization phase, thus considerably accelerating
the phase of the principal biodegradation.

A. System of Composting in Tunnel

This system occurs in fully closed plane concrete areas, which are fed and drained by a
loader. The waste is aerated intensively through parallel positioned aeration tubes
underneath the area, so that the exhaust air can be collected and treated efficiently.
Furthermore, small holes are drilled to receive connections and small tapered nozzles
are used to distribute the air and to prevent blockages. During the composting, a fan
blows air directly into the compost chamber and into the aeration pipes.

Figure 52: Composting tunnels


Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

B. Composting in Plane Windrows

This system arrangement combines the advantages of a closed system with the ones
from windrow composting methods. In fully automated compartments, the organic
fractions are stacked on flat windrows, aerated forcibly, and automatically plowed by a
rotating shaft so that the material stays moist, or if necessary, moistened by sprays
located above the systems or windrow during the tumbling process. A perforated floor
enables the release of air in the windrow, while the exhaust air is captured and di-
rected to a biofilterin order to avoid disturbance by odors. During decomposition, the
waste is revolved in its entirety. After this period, the mass is directed to an area of
post-ripening. Figure 53 shows a model of the profile of such composting windrow.

112
Figure 53: Model of the profile of such composting windrow


Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2013.

Figure 54: Composting in a plane resolvable windrow


Source: FRICKE et al., 2007.

C. Composting in Trapezoidal Windrows

This system is similar to the composting in plane windrows but presents differences in
the windrow profile and the degree of automation. The aeration happens also through
an aerated floor and the exhaust air is captured and treated in biofilters in order to
mitigate the emission of odor. Equipment such as shovel loaders and revolving semiau-
tomatic systems are employed for their movement. The trapezoidal profile has a base
of 10 m and a height of 3 m, requiring approximately an area of 0.45 m/m of waste.

113
18 Technological Route for Jundia

The choice of the mechanical and biological treatment was based on the ability to full
valorizationof waste, thus fulfilling the ranking of use provided for theArt. 9 of the
PNRS, which guarantees not only the reintegration of recyclable waste to the econom-
ic chain but fundamentally fall in addition to new secondary raw materials in the form
of renewable energy through the generation and processing of biogas and RDF (resi-
dues-derived fuel) as also generates recyclables, organic compounds, and biomasses.

Figure 55: Waste recovery technologies for Jundia

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

18.1 Justification

The search for alternatives to minimize the impact generated by traditional waste
management can be globally recognized. Several countries, from industrialized to un-
derdeveloped, have already implemented some new steps, whether on a small scale,
involving few resources, or in large scale automatized plants.

Evaluating the global scenario, it is possible to conclude that there is a demand for
simple technologies, for example, simple windrows turner systems with demand for
large occupation area, with higher odor emission but low investment and operational
complexity, classified as extensive systems.

For medium tech technologies as presented in this report with intensive aeration sys-
tem and covered windrow that reduce the odor and allow stabilization to occur in a

114
shorter period from a fully controlled decomposition and back low operational com-
plexity, to high technical complexity and operational technologies, such as tunnels and
aerated turning systems in sheds that although lower area demand and guarantee the
control of emissions, resulting in higher costs of construction and equipment.The deci-
sion maker must evaluate the system operation, the amount of investment and opera-
tion and also the environmental criteria such as odor, vectors, and emissions, among
others.

Also, during the decision there should be links between market demands, such as en-
ergy or primary resources. In the case of energy, due to the severe energy crisis that
we are experiencing, originated from the oil value in the international market com-
bined with the extremely low reservoir levels in Brazil, where there is no short-term
recovery expectations, puts the focus on the search for alternative energy sources.

Regardless of the speculative aspects of oil prices, climate change turned the oil villain
alternative into this energy source, leading to focus the search for intelligent solutions
to reduce and recover waste, employing better secondary resources in order to pre-
serve natural resources and offer alternatives to replace the traditional energy
sources.

Our proposal is to offer a flexible technological route that fits to any substrate and to
the market demand for secondary resources and which can be deployed quickly, meet-
ing the legal premises and common sense that the landfill is not a treatment and the
fraction landfilled in nature decomposes uncontrollably, resulting in the contamination
of soil and water, greenhouse gas emissions, settlements, and fundamentally wasting
resources.

In the case of Jundia, we can help to improve our planet through the application of
mechanical and biological technologies to ensure proper management of mixed and
organic fractions, transforming biomass into energy as RDF or biogas or produce com-
post; whereas the organic material is selectively collected and also produces RDF of
high calorific fractions, or recycling of the cleaning dry fractions.

The strategic approach of the Brazilian legislation and the sustainable use of natural
resources should lead to better resource efficiency and the reduction of environmental

115
impacts generated by the use of natural resources. In order to provide efficient use of
resources it is inevitable to recycle materials and provide energy recovery. This techno-
logical route developed for the city of Jundia combines material and energy recycling
methods so there will be higher preservation indexes of natural resources and re-
source efficiency as result from immediate use, what also generates extra revenues.
Moreover, the potential of energy savings from the RDF chain should also be consid-
ered.

On the basis of the proposed technological route, we will reach a 60 - 70 % reduction


of waste at the landfill and a productive use of about 40 50 % of the mass in the form
of RDF.

18.2 Technology EstimatedImpact

A. High Functionality, Availability and Operational Adequacy

Waste recovery in Jundia focuses primarily on the generation of RDF through


mechanical and biological treatment plants, where the biological activity will focus on
the drying of the fractions in order to improve the RDF conditioning and produce
biomass. This innovative intervention on the one hand positively impacts the market
by introducing new processing techniques, but on the other hand is faced with
insufficient expertise of labor team.

Compliance with high functionality requirements, availability, and adequacy of


operation will mitigate the uncertainties linked to the new waste recovery processes.
Below we specify some issues directly related to the conditioning of waste to generate
RDF:

The developed technological concept has attested its efficiency in several


countries
The automation processes defined to minimize weaknesses operation
The plant operation is controlled via remote monitoring systems
During the contraction phase the conditions of training and commissioning as
well as guarantees of performance and maintenance work must be defined
A strategic spare parts board should be set.

116
B. High Flexibility, Adaptability, and Functionality
The plant under study will have a long-term operation of 20 - 30 years and needs to
respond quickly to possible demands as a result of changes of qualitative and quantita-
tive waste characteristics as well as the market demands for secondary resources,
where this flexibility can be achieved through the following design measures:

Develop modular design of the system components

Reserve space for expansion or modification of treatment technologies

Use easily modifiable technologies

Wedge highly flexible treatment goals to ensure fast reactions with changing
demands in the markets

Implement gradual process.

18.3 Mass Balance

18.3.1 Production of RDF

Table 35: Mass balance considering RDF recovery

Quantity
Type of residues (t/a) Compound at the treated mass (%)
2030

Input
MSW 190.000
C&I 25.000
Input total 215.000 100

Mass loss at biological treatment 39.775 18,5

Recovery
RDF-cement industry class 1 light
fractions 71.595
RDF cement industry class 2 heavy
fractions 33.970
Metals 1.935
Total recovery 107.500 50,0

Landfilling / Alternative destination

117
Quantity
Type of residues (t/a) Compound at the treated mass (%)
2030
These fractions could be alternative
recovered as compost or cover for
landfills, it has to be decided taking
into consideration the available
Biofraction< 30mm 41.925 legislation, if not then landfilled
These fractions could be alternative
recovered as civil construction basis
or cover for landfills, it has to be
decided taking into consideration
the available legislation, if not then
Mineral fractions 11.309 landfilled
Fine fraction after drying 5.031 Landfill
PVC 3.762 Landfill
Contaminated fractions from bunker 5.375 Landfill
- Alternative destination/ landfilling 67.402 31,5
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Table 36: Quality of RDF fractions

Quantity Humidity Calorific power Grain size


RDF quality
(t/a) (%) kJ/kg (mm)
RDF class 1
71.595 20 20.000- 24.000 < 25
light fractions
RDF class 2 < 25
33.970 20 13.000 - 16.000
heavy fractions or<80
Source:i-NOPA Project, 2015.

18.3.2 Production of Recyclables

Table 37: Recyclable products generation

Waste Total amount of


Potential groups in
characterization Recyclable rate recyclables
2030 (t/a)
2014 (%) fractions
base 190.000 t/a
(%) (t/a)
Paper/cardboard 10,7 20.330 30 6.099
Plastic 3D 6,2 11.780 30 3.534
Plastic 2D 11,5 21.850 30 6.555

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Waste Total amount of
Potential groups in
characterization Recyclable rate recyclables
2030 (t/a)
2014 (%) fractions
base 190.000 t/a
(%) (t/a)
Glass 2,7 5.130 25 1.026
Metal 2,1 3.990 70 2.793
Wood 0,5 950 20 190
Total 10,63 % 20.197

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

For the specific revenue of current prices of the Brazilian market, we have an average
value of R$ 600.00/t which represents an estimate annual revenue in the order of R$
12.000.000,00. In relation to the possible mentionedincome, the significant influence
of the product quality will affect the revenue settled.

18.3.3 Production of Compost

Brazilian legislation concerning compost etc. is on the way to change to more strict
values of content for compost to fulfill as precondition for reuse in agriculture or gar-
dening.

Regarding the potential of compost market in Jundiai, in 2010, the planted area was
0,49 % of the total municipal area, it means 212 ha (0,49 % x 431,9 km). The potential
per ha to use compost is 15 20 t, which translates to 3.180 t to 4.240 t of compost
per year, or 265 353 t per month.

Observing these figures, it is clear that Jundia has low demand for compost and it will
be necessary to evaluate the regional potential for compost application.

18.4 Technological Impact Matrix

In order to form a technological impact matrix, it was necessary to approach economic,


environmental, and operational aspects, which allow a comparison of the technolo-
gies, their advantages and their deficiencies. These aspects were analyzed within the i-
NoPa Project and a matrix was formulated (see Figure 56-59)which contains the envi-
ronmental andeconomicaspects, their importance, and the principal mitigation
measures for the municipality of Jundia, So Paulo.

119
Figure 56: Technological Matrix Summary

Source: Elaborated by PEREIRA, adapted by PEREIRA, 2014.

120
Figure 57: Technological matrix Economic aspects

Source: Elaborated by PEREIRA, adapted by PEREIRA, 2014.

121
Figure 58: Technological matrix Environmental aspects

Source: Elaborated by PEREIRA, adapted by PEREIRA, 2014.

122
Figure 59: Technological matrix Operational aspects

Source: Elaborated by PEREIRA, adapted by PEREIRA, 2014.

123
18.5 Operational Description

18.5.1 DeliveryArea

The collected household waste will be discharged in a closed shed plan floor and
waterproofed with necessary size to ensure the storage of at least 2 days after
collection, provided with air recirculation system and leachate drainage to capture
emissions and direct them to the subsequent treatment.

After discharging, loading equipment as wheel loader will sort the material for
purposes of identification and segregation of contaminants and disturbing materials
(bulky), such as tires, batteries, and mattresses, among others. The commented sorting
process will take place through manual and mechanical means. These rejects, which
can represent up to 3 % of the total weight, shall be deposited in a container and then
transported for proper disposal. The sorted waste will be directed to the crusher
through a wheel loader (see Figure 60).

Figure 60: Operational discharge area

Source: FRICKE;PEREIRA, 2014.

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18.5.2 Mechanical Treatment 01 Conditioning for Biological Treatment

Mechanical Treatment 01 will be implemented in a closed shed provided with a water-


proofedflat floor and also with an air recirculation system. In this area both will take
place, the preparation of the fractions for the biological treatment phase and the sort-
ing of possible recyclable fractions as well as selection of non-adequate fractions for
RDF production.

After passing through the crusher, the waste will be sent to a drum sieve with holes of
150 (up to 200) mm.

The fractions with dimensions >150 mm are directly transported by conveyors to the
crusher and then to the biological treatment area. Optionally, the fractions > 150 mm
can be transported by conveyors to the manual screening station, which selects the
recyclables and directs them to the baler press, storing them for later commercializa-
tion. Fractions not classified as recyclables are forwarded to be crunched on the me-
chanical treatment line.

Fractions < 150 mm will be driven via conveyors to a plan screen with holes of 30 mm
where sieved fractions with dimensions between 30 - 150 mm will be routed via con-
veyor belts directly to the biological treatment shed, and fractions < 30 mm, in this
state "in nature", shall be deposited in containers and transferred for the future dis-
posal in the landfill. It is also planned that part of the fractions between 30 - 80 mm
will be sent to the biodigestor, with a capacity of approx. 10.000 t/a for the production
of alternative energy for own consumption. After that, the digestate fractions will be
sent directly to the landfill.

125
Figure 61: Operational Mechanical Treatment 01

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2014.

18.5.3 Anaerobic Treatment Focus Energy Recovery

The system essentially consists of a module with four identical dry fermenters in
reinforced concrete design that can be accessed with wheel loaders. It also features a
percolate fermenter with upstream grit chamber beneath the dry fermenters.

It is possible to construct a system with several modules in case of higher input. With
the fermentation method, the substrates are filled in directly into the fermenter tunnel
with the available mobile technology and treated in batches there.

A double-membrane store aligned on the fermenter roof is available for gas storage.
During the process, the substrates are irrigated with conditioned process water (perco-
late). This percolate is circulated between the dry fermenters and the percolate fer-
menter in a controlled circuit adapted to the different process phases. As an alterna-
tive to mesophilic operation, the system can also be operated thermophilic with an
additional module. It is also necessary to install a biogas treatment phase and CHP for
energy recovery.

Dry fermentation results in a digestate which will be sent directly to the landfill. The
advantages:

Optimum thermal use

126
Accelerated fermentation process

Reduced start-up phases

Short circuits

Low space requirement

Highest effectiveness.

18.5.4 Aerobic Treatment Focus Drying

A. Tunnel System

Aerobic treatment with drying purpose happens in tunnels executed in the form of
garages in reinforced concrete. The tunnels can be regulated according to process
parameters such as the presence of oxygen, moisture, and temperature. Advantages of
treatment in a closed system are quicker processing and low emissions.

A wheel loader feeds the tunnel. The aerobic treatment of the material in the tunnel
takes around 15 days. At the end of this period the tunnel is mechanically discharged
by wheel loader and stabilized material with humidity <20% is gradually mixed with
commercial and industrial waste, these also with low moisture content, in an
equipment that aims to homogenize the mass for subsequent RDF conditioning.

The exhaust air from drying the tunnels is treated with a biological filter which will be
constructed on a concrete basis in two boxes.

127
Figure 62: Operational flow after biodrying

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2014.

B. Covered Windrow System

The area used for drying in covered windrows must be built on concrete or asphalt and
waterproofed, thus preventing any possible infiltration of liquid emissions. A decline of
2 % is sufficient to conduct rainwater to a drainage system designed for this purpose.

The homogenate material is arranged in windrows by wheel loader. After the installa-
tion of the windrows, they are covered with a membrane. Thus, the closed system
meets the legal standards providing a controlled treatment of biological decomposi-
tion.

In this system, the windrows need to be revolved when the focus is on a drying system
and biological characteristics, as limits of oxygen and temperature have to be moni-
tored. After approximately two weeks, the windrows are disassembled.

There are several suppliers of these membranes, some offer two years warranty and
others four years, this divergence directly influences the reinvestment. These amounts
of investment are significant to the amount of around 70.00 euros/m. It is thus im-
portant to fix the exact investment value on membranes and equalize the reinvest-
ment over a project time.

128
C. Technical Comparison: Tunnels v. Covered Windrows

Table 38: Technical comparison

Evaluated Aspect Tunnels Covered windrows


Type of residues or grain
No restriction No restriction
sizes
Feeding of material Mechanical Mechanical
Basis Waterproof Waterproof
Closing In concrete In membrane
Aeration system Forced Forced
Energy consumption Superior (10 x air change) Inferior ( 3 x air change)
Revolving Not necessary Necessary
Drying period 15 days Probably 15 days
Liquid emission Non-occurrence Minimal occurrence
Medium especially at
Odor emission Minimum
revolving activity
Biofilter Necessary Not necessary
Technical complexity Superior Inferior
Investment in technique Superior 15% inferior
Investment in civil
Superior 60% inferior
construction
Operational costs Superior < 10% inferior
Operation scale No limit No limit
Area demand <20% Inferior Superior
Restrictions regarding to the
Applicability No limit
neighborhood
Monitoring Automatic Semiautomatic
Drying Potential For sure < 20% Doubt < 20%
Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2014.

Regardless of the chosen biological drying technology, the following in- and output
data should be taken as a minimum requirement for the treatment: INPUT moisture
content in the order of 55 % for full flow treatment and 45 % for partial flow
treatment and performance assurance purposes; OUTPUT moisture content in the
order of 20 %.

129
18.5.5 Mechanical Treatment 02 Conditioning of RDF

Mechanical Treatment 02 will be in a closed shed, with flat and waterproofed floor,
equipped with air recirculation system and preventive measures against combustion.
In this space, the preparation of material from biological treatment for the purpose of
RDF generation and sorting of unwanted fractions to co-processing will be performed.

Figure 63: Operational flow for Mechanical Treatment 02

Source: FRICKE; PEREIRA, 2014.

130
19 Contribution for the Protection of the Environment and Natural Re-
sources

19.1 Contribution for Climate Protection

Considering the emission of greenhouse gases, waste management represents an


economic sector with significant amounts of 8 12 % of anthropogenic emissions per
year. This potential could be mitigated through a transition to sustainable waste
management which includes treatment processes before final disposal. In this way,
emission reductions can be achieved through the following steps:

Economize energy through the use of secondary raw materials (Recycling of


materials)

Production of renewable energy, like biogas and biomass fuel

Energy recovery through RDF

CO2-storage through utilization of compost

Biological stabilization of residues prior to the disposal on landfills

If necessary, prevention of methane production by microbial oxidation of me-


thane by layers of suitable filters on old landfills

Because of this relevant influence on global greenhouse emissions, the technological


routes purpose to enable the minimization of emissions is as follows:

Prevention of methane emissions on sanitary landfills through the reduction of


organic material and biological stabilization

Energy recovery by RDF with a high degree of energy efficiency due to the use
of renewable components such as organic fractions, paper, cardboard, and
plastic

Energy economization due to the use of secondary raw materials.

With the objective of evaluation of the CO2-equivalent emissions generated on land-


fills, methane emissions on landfills were estimated during a period of 10 years. A
comparison of the emission generation of traditional landfills and landfills for rejects,

131
or in other words, disposals of those fractions without potential of valorization and
those already biologically stabilized are shown in Table 39. Evaluating the scenarios of
grounded residues in nature versus stabilized rejects there is a significant reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions over a span of 10 years ranging from 370.732 to 41.438 t
CO2-equivalent, representing a reduction of 329.294 t CO2-eq.

Table 39: Baseline for traditional landfills and refuse landfills with the CO2-eq. emissions

Baseline Traditional Landfill Baseline Refuse Landfill


Basis: emissions (t CO2-eq) Basis: emissions (t CO2-eq)
1 12.188 1 844
2 21.325 2 1.655
3 28.336 3 2.435
4 33.847 4 3.184
5 38.287 5 3.905
6 41.950 6 4.599
7 45.037 7 5.266
8 47.691 8 5.907
9 50.009 9 6.525
10 52.062 10 7.118
Total 370.732 Total 41.438
Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

In view of the emission balance, a positive influence on greenhouse gas generation can
be reached with the use of recycling material, energy recovery, and a reduction of de-
posited mass. Thus, in this period a total reduction of 672.454 t CO 2-eq. can be
achieved, as can be seen in Table 40.

Table 40: Balance of total reduction in t CO2-eq. Due to deposition of less mass, energetic
recovery, and recycling

Emission
Electricity RDF Recycling various* Recycling of FE Total
reduction
Year t CO2-eq t CO2-eq t CO2-eq t CO2-eq t CO2-eq
1 11.344 25.543 7.415 1.358 41.260
2 19.670 25.543 7.415 1.358 49.586
3 25.901 25.543 7.415 1.358 55.817
4 30.663 25.543 7.415 1.358 60.579
5 34.382 25.543 7.415 1.358 64.298
6 37.351 25.543 7.415 1.358 67.267
7 39.772 25.543 7.415 1.358 69.688

132
Emission
Electricity RDF Recycling various* Recycling of FE Total
reduction
Year t CO2-eq t CO2-eq t CO2-eq t CO2-eq t CO2-eq
8 41.783 25.543 7.415 1.358 71.699
9 43.484 25.543 7.415 1.358 73.400
10 44.944 25.543 7.415 1.358 74.860
Total 329.294 255.430 74.150 13.580 672.454
* paper, large cardboards, selected plastics, glass

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

Confirming the reported results, the Institute IFEU elaborated a calculation tool, which
enabled to evaluate the actual scenario as a minimalist valuation practice, and virtually
routed to deposit the vast majority of generated waste (99 %), versus a future scenario
with a Mechanical-Biological Treatment plant and recycling of materials as well as
energetic recovery in form of RDF, where effectively an amount of 30 40 % of
stabilized mass is going to landfill. The results are shown in Figure 64. Hence, both
calculations reinforce the undeniable condition of the reduction of gas emissions due
to the valorization and exploitation of waste.

Figure 64: GHG emissions for different scenarios

Source:i-NOPA Project, 2015.

133
19.2 Contribution for Groundwater

Through sustainable management, a great part of the organic fractions, as a result of


the biological drying and the use as fuel derived from biomass, enables a reduction of
the potentially generated leachate of 70 80 % of the grounded mass.

19.3 Contribution for the Protection of Natural Resources

A strategic perspective contemplates the sustainable use of natural resources by im-


proved efficiency of the resources combining the reduction of environmental impacts
and the utilization of secondary resources.

For an efficient use of natural resources, not only should the direct consumption of
resources and revenues resulting from the recovery processes as well as the necessary
measures for its realization be considered, but the evaluation should also consider the
prospective economy of resources through the use of secondary materials and ener-
getic recycling. In this context, the accumulated energetic demand for the generated
products from waste, differentiated according to the production of primary and sec-
ondary raw materials, is an important parameter.

134
20 CER Campus of Eco-Efficiencyin Residues

Due to legal requirements for waste recovery as well as the concern for the protection
of natural resources and climate, we propose the deployment of a technological park
called CER - Campus of Eco-Efficiency in Residuesin order to ensure the educational
components, enabling the multiplication of instruments geared to attain citizenship
and sustainable development.

This multi-purpose concept incorporates at CER spaces such as the auditorium, offices,
educational workshops, laboratory, center for training and research, and technological
activities, incorporatingsub products in an economic chain, by means of the following
technologies: sorting of recyclables, fermentation, composting, drying of waste for the
generation of biomass, and secondary aggregates of civil construction. The renewable
energy produced by the plant of treatment through the biogas will be used in the pro-
ject.

The CER - Campus of Eco-Efficiency in Residues will be a physical environment with


visibility for the development of alternative energy sources and improving the social
reality. It will be a showcase of exposure and dialog between consumers, researchers,
entrepreneurs, opinion formers, and the general public. Our goal is to contribute to
building sustainable tools for the benefit of society.

135
21 Reached Impacts

Public policy development


Accessibility to the legal prerogatives
Consistent database development
Customization of solutions
Sensitization of the community and the private sector
Interaction between actors
Promotion of international cooperation
Democratization of the training programs
Development of critical mass.

22 Externalities

The project also includes a number of externalities that impact not only the teams in-
volved but society as a whole, namely:

Multiplication of the results through the implementation of the first training


and research center in the management of municipal solid waste
Market development for secondary resources
Consolidation of foreign partnerships
Promotion of environmental education
Protection of primary resources and climate
Brazilian Industrial Park Development to supply technologies for recovery of
waste
Training of technical professionals, graduates, and post- graduates
Democratization of access to the plant and its information
Database consolidation.

136
23 Technical and Institutional Recommendations

We are experiencing a transition moment in waste management as well as market


recognition throughthe awareness of politicians and society, consolidation of foreign
technologies, demand for waste recovery technologies, protection policies and
environmental preserve, and social inclusion, all positive factors for the motivation of
introduction of sustainable waste management.

Thus, by promoting sustainable management of municipal solid waste we will highlight


the extent of our problem and our responsibility towards environmental protection. At
this point, we must move away from the consciousness of any facility illusion, any
desire for magical solutions, any temptation to make spectacular actions.

Issues like the inclusion of scavengers, promotion of selective collection and reuse
systems, the enhancement of education and environmental communication have
become necessary during the development of public policies for the cities. In this
sense, the demonstration of the feasibility of solutions aimed at protecting the natural
resources contributes not only to the adequacy and modernization of the local
sanitation system, but above all, technically assists in the search for a sustainable
model of management of municipal solid waste.

The development and application of technologies for the waste treatment in Jundiai
considers international technical cooperation as an important instrument of
development helping to promote structural changes in the public sanitation system as
a way to overcome constraints that prevent compliance with the goals of the National
Policy on Solid Waste. A continuous cooperation program will enable the transfer of
knowledge, successful experiences, and sophisticated equipment, thus helping the
capacity building and strengthening public and private institutions to enable a
qualitative leap of a lasting nature.

137
In general terms, we can still list the following recommendations:

To give project data withaccess to thecommunity via themunicipalitys web


page
Completion of public consultation for the results presentation
Detail of technological alternatives and economic analysis of the chosen pro-
cesses
Implementation oftechnical agreement between other municipalities for the
multiplication of results and promotion of technical training
Implementation of technical cooperation agreements with research and aca-
demic institutions for promotion of basic and advanced research
Promotion of arrangements with the private sector to share information
Training courses and promotion of events with wide participation
Promotion of skills of the CREED of Brazil to promote sustainable waste man-
agement
Promotion of partnerships with the private sector for sharing of information
Regional approach
Implementation of mechanical and biological waste treatment for public and
private residues.

138
24 Conclusion

Currently in Brazil, there is little technological presence for promoting waste recovery
and the existing practice is applied on a small scale, so we are still susceptible to
imported technologies. However, it must be considered that these technologies cannot
be transferred in full; they need to be adapted and absorbed, based on our waste and
climatic characteristics, and yet in our economic capacity. So its simple acquisition and
application to household waste - a movement that has already been observed in the
past 4 years - presents significant risks, as it can cause inefficient projects, inadequate
environmental requirements, or with economic viability com-promised and may even
cause discontinuity of the implemented project.

In addition to the strong environmental and social appeal, the setting of such initia-
tives to the Brazilian market allows training on different levels, knowledge generation
in areas that are not mastered yet, besides providing the development of a chain of
local suppliers facing this segment in the medium-term.

Based on these challenges, the R&D-project was pursued asan interdisciplinary and
transdisciplinary approach.Crosscutting issues as law, economy, ecology, energy, agri-
culture, horticulture, and social scientific topics are covered. The levels of action are
aligned transdisciplinarily. Within the levels of action, a special focus will be put on the
creation of positive prerequisites for the implementation of fermentation stages.

The Brazilian market showslack oftheoretical and practical information on differentiat-


ed waste management. This fact is not due to lower market interest in the subject, but
due to our pioneering condition with no large scaleexamples that give opportunity to
the sharing of experiences. Based on this need, the proposed project aroused a lot of
attention on the market, resulting in the formation of strategic partnerships for the
purpose, not only of democratization of data, but mainly for the development of joint
projects that minimize errors, optimizing the arrangements in favor of consistent pro-
jects. The partners found during the course of the project were: Municipality of Floria-
npolis, Votuporanga, Paulista, Petrolina, Municipality of Cuenca in Ecuador, and Lu-

139
eneburg in Germany, also the associations of industry and commerce as CIESP and
SENAC, and development banks as FINEP and KFW.

The project allowed accumulating differentiated and pioneering knowledge, given that
the National Solid Waste Policy is recent and the first actions in Jundia began to be
taken less than two years ago. Through this experience it was possible for the involved
actors to understand the problem of solid waste generation in the city, the instru-
ments of the National Solid Waste Policy, to learn the ways of generation, treatment,
and disposal of adequate residues according to their natures, to meet treatment and
minimization of environmental impact technologies, thus broadening the discussion
with society on sustainable management of solid waste.

The completion of the project also provided comprehensive global knowledge of this
new market and also the construction of an interrelationship with the waste sector in
the Brazil-Germany framework, establishing an exchange with German institution icons
in practice, ensuring climate protection and the preservation of natural resources, al-
lowing in this way a permanent exchange of experiences, through vocational and tech-
nological education.

The support and the dissemination of practical knowledge of German management


brought to Jundia an innovative vision and inspiration to transform the current system
into an efficient and continuous reality that meets the premises of the National Solid
Waste Policy and of the global trends.

With regard to large generators, we think the questionnaires allowed us to conclude


that despite all the challenges to be faced, the minds of those involved are congruent
with respect to the prioritization of recovery of waste. Thus, federal law presents itself
as a strong tool of support and promotion of new practices.

Industries are committed to meet the demand regulated in order to improve the inter-
nal management system and ensure reverse logistics. The trade and services sector has
not shown to have much knowledge of the subject, since their waste management is

140
simple and requires no more than an overview of the actions which are often ineffi-
cient.

The city has a very homogeneous generation of waste materials with no significant
variationsaccording to the social status of the population. The result is directly related
to the social status of the population, predominantly of the middle class, the low rate
of unemployment, and the increase in the consumption pattern coming from the eco-
nomic development in recent years.

As for waste characterization, we conclude that there is a high potential for use due to
a significant portion of recoverable fractions, both organic and recyclable.

The conditions identified in the region regarding the flow of secondary resources point
to the establishment of a mechanical-biological plant as focus on energy recovery with
the use of recyclable and RDF production of both Class 1 and 2. Composting is indicat-
ed for those organic fractions collected selectively, mainly through agreements with
the food industry. Thechosen technological route still allowed rescuing a rate of 60
70 % of the mass that normally should be landfilled and the use of about 40 50 % of
the mass in the form of RDF.

Still, the experience lived by both internal and external audiences makes them able to
establish relationships with other areas of knowledge, present a systemic view regard-
ing the organization of work capacity and alignment with the trends related to the ar-
ea.

Thus, the experience of sharing is not limited to the executing team, it spreads through
society which has had its horizons expanded when it had access to information which
outlines new practices of waste management and mainly enters into a common com-
mitment for environmental preservation and climate protection for the benefit of fu-
ture generations.

141
25 Attachment

25.1 Large Generators Characterization Complete Report in Portuguese

INSERT Report in Portuguese

142
25.1.1 Participating Companies in Jundia

143
144
25.2 Capacity Building Events

1st Event

Table 41:1st Technical Congress Brazil &Germany

1st Technical Congress Brazil& Germany


Date Dec/13
Location Parque da Uva - PMJ
Number of partici-
pants 780
Politicians and public officials; Environmental agencies; Financial ser-
vices; Waste management companies, such as manufacturers and op-
Target audience erators; Companies working with waste water, energy and agriculture;
Research and development centers; Educational institutions and con-
tinuing education; Institutions and associations of secondary products;
and NGOs.
Perform the 1st Technical Meeting of participatory and representative
manner involving the largest number of entities that directly or indi-
rectly work in the promotion of urban solid waste management in or-
der to seek a better quality in treatment of waste, encourage segrega-
Goals tion and the proper disposal, prioritize recycling containers, and create
favorable conditions for a safe final disposal, directly influencing the
development of new opportunities for the deployment of energy re-
covery projects of the organic fractions of municipal solid waste, with
the consequent generation of energy and reduction of greenhouse gas
emissions.

Source:Prefeitura de Jundia,2013.

145
2nd Event

Table 42:Workshop PUC-RJ

Workshop PUC-RJ
Date Mar/14
Location PUC-RJ
Number of participants 18

Target audience Private and academic sector.

Develop expertise in waste treatment area focusing on


mechanical biological treatment with integrated fermen-
Goals
tation and understand the ways of analysis for feasibility
of such treatment.

Source:i-NOPA Project, 2014.

146
3rd Event

Table 43: Capacity planning

Capacity Planning
Date Mar/14
Location Master Meeting Room - PMJ
Number of participants 30
Technical staff, management, and those operating the i-NoPa
Target audience
Project - SMSP.
Technical staff training and presentation of the planning
Goals schedule for components of the i-NoPa Project whose goal was
the leveling of information.

Source:i-NOPA Project, 2014.

147
4th Event

Table 44: Workshop CIESP Eco-efficient management of MSW

Workshop CIESP - Eco-efficient Management of MSW


Date Apr/14
Location CIESP - Jundia
Number of participants 145

Target audience Private Sector and i-NoPa Project team.

Displaying the Basic Sanitation Sector Plan for Urban Sani-


tation and Solid Waste Management, as well as talk about
Goal
the partnership Brazil / Germany and explain the i-NoPa
Project.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

148
5th Event

Table 45: 2nd Technical Congress Brazil&Germany

2 Technical Congress Brazil &Germany


Date May/14
Location Florianpolis
Number of participants 330

Politicians and public officials; Environmental agencies;


Financial services; Waste management companies, such as
manufacturers and operators; Companies working with
Target audience waste water, energy, and agriculture; Research and devel-
opment centers; Educational institutions and continuing
education; Institutions and associations of secondary prod-
ucts; NGOs.

Perform 2nd Technical Meeting of participatory and repre-


sentative manner, involving the greatest number of entities
that directly or indirectly work in the promotion of urban
solid waste management. Seek better quality in treatment
of waste. Encourage segregation and the proper disposal,
Goal prioritize recycling containers, and generate favorable con-
ditions for a final safe disposal. Directly influence the devel-
opment of new opportunities for the deployment of energy
recovery projects of the organic fraction of municipal solid
waste with the consequent generation of energy and reduc-
ing emissions of greenhouse gases.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

149
6th Event

Table 46:Meeting technical high level: Composting

7thMeeting Technical High Level: Composting (Encontro Tcnico Alto Nvel Compostagem)
Date Aug/14
Location CETESB- SP
Number of participants 85

Target audience Team i-NOPA Project.

Discussion with composting chain representatives how


Goals this practice can be an option for treating urban organic
wastes, aiming the National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS).

Source:i-NOPA Project, 2014.

150
7th Event

Table 47: Training for the characterization of large generators

Training for the characterization of large generators


Date Jun, Jul, Aug/14
Location Meeting room SMSP - PMJ
Number of participants 30

Target audience Team i-NOPA Project.

Guide the project team on the characterization of large


Goals generators and the importance of this step for the conti-
nuity of the process.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

151
8th Event

Table 48:RWM event

RWM Event(Feira)
Date Sept/14
Location Transamrica Expo Center - So Paulo
Number of participants 30
Target audience Public and private sector.
Share experiences, seek opportunities, and discuss
trends for waste management that fully addresses
Goals
the provisions of Law 12.305 which established the
National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS).

Source:i-NOPA Project, 2014.

152
9th Event

Table 49: 1st connective dialogue on Latin American cities

1st connective dialogue on Latin American cities


Date Nov/14
Location Cuenca - Ecuador
Number of participants 40
Public administrators and academic institutions in Latin
Target audience
America and Europe.
Connecting cities in Latin America: the average citys
Goal function;strengthening the sub-national context by pro-
moting best practices.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

153
10th Event

Table 50: Gravity study of urban solid waste

Gravity Study of Urban Solid Waste


Date April and Oct/14
Location Geresol - PMJ
Number of participants 30

Target audience Operational team of i-NoPa Project.

Perform gravimetric analysis of MSW in the city of


Jundia, in order to study the implementation
Goals
feasibility of a mechanical-biological treatment
plant.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

154
11th Event

Table 51: Visit to Cooperlinia Environmental Brazil

Visit to Cooperlinia Environmental Brazil


Date Nov/14
Location Cooperlinia Ambiental do Brasil Paulnia
Number of participants 10

Target audience Operational team of i-NoPa Project.

Training related to segregation of recyclable for


Goals the acquisition of knowledge and subsequent
implementation activities in Jundia.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

155
12th Event

Table 52: 1st Technical Seminar on Sustainable Management of MSW

1st Technical Seminar on Sustainable Management of MSW


Date Nov/14
Location DAE Jundia
Number of participants 230
Public and private managers, research and aca-
Target audience demic institutes, students, financial institutions,
environmental agencies, and third sector.
Hold training event attended by national and
international experts in order to discuss rigging
Goals
and management practices that promote sus-
tainability in waste management.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

156
13th Event

Table 53: Technical visit to LOGA

Technical visit to LOGA


Date Nov/14
Location LOGA - So Paulo
Number of participants 15
Target audience Technical team of i-NoPa Project.
Visit mechanical waste treatment plant from the
Goals selective collection of dry with operational ca-
pacity of 250 t/d.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2014.

157
14th Event

Table 54: Specialized training in analytical interventions for the characterization of MSW

Specialized training in analytical interventions for the characterization of MSW


Date Jan/15
Location Hotel Serra de Jundia - Jundia
Number of participants 30
Target audience Technical team of i-NoPa Project

Capacity building of the technical staff of the pro-


Goals
ject in relation to laboratory analyses of MSW.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

158
15th Event

Table 55: Capacity building on composting and drying of solid waste and organic waste sepa-
rated with the system ON FLOOR AERATION WITH GORE COVER.

Capacity building on composting and drying of solid waste and organic waste sepa-
rated with the system ON FLOOR AERATION WITH GORE COVER.
Date Mar/15
Location Auditorium PMJ 8th floor
Number of participants 30
Target audience Technical team of i-NoPa Project.
Improve the knowledge of the staff of the Mu-
nicipal Utilities (SMSP) participants i-NoPa Pro-
Goal
ject (New Integrated Partnerships) for the topic
Composting of Municipal Solid Waste.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

159
16th Event

Table 56: Closing workshopfor the i-NOPA project

Closing workshop for the i-NoPaproject


Date Mar/15
Location Hotel Serra de Jundia - Jundia
Number of participants 60
Technical team of i-NoPa Project, TUBS, DAAD, GIZ,
PUC-Rio, DBFZ, and CAPES, and even external
Target audience
agents such as companies, public managers, and
academia.
Presentation of results. Closing of the i-NoPa Pro-
Goal
ject.

Source: i-NOPA Project, 2015.

160
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Estadual de Resduos Slidos e define princpios e diretrizes. Disponvel em:
<http://www.al.sp.gov.br/repositorio/legislacao/lei/2006/lei-12300-16.03.2006.html>.
Acesso em: 31 maio 2015.

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