A
Comprehensive
Upward
TwoPhase
Mechanistic
Flow
in
Model
Wellbores
for
A.M. 
Anssri, 
Pakistan 
Petroleum 
Ltd.; 
N 
.D. 
Sylvester, 
U. 
of 
Akrow 
and 
C. 
Sarioa, 
O. 
Shoham, 
and 

J.P. 
Brill, 
U. 
of 
Tulsa 
s
%
40630
Summary.
A
comprehemive
model
is
formulated
to
predict
the 
flow behavior 
for 
upward 
twophase 
flow. 

mechanistic models 
for 
predicting 
such 
flow 

model 
is evaluated 
by 
using 
a 
well 
data 
is
also 
compared 
with six 
commonly 

good 
agreement 
with 
the 
data. 
In 

of 
about 
0.25. Using 
this 
vatuc 

transition 
in terms 
of 
superficial 

VSg=0.25V, 
+0.333USL, 
used
comparison
of
.
void
and
.
slip
.
where
v,
This
=
is
v.
is
1.53
shown
the
slip
or
gc7L(pLpG)
[1
’r
bubblerise
%
as
Transition
A
in
velocity
Fig.
2.
Dispersed
breakkwge
exceeding
Bubble
gas
0.25.
ltansition.
bubbles
This
down
yields
the
Athigh
into
small
transition
This
model
is
up
as
of
composed
holdup
1,712
of
and
well
the
the
a 
model 
for 
flowpattern 
prediction 
and 
a 
set 
of 
independent 

pressure 
dmp 
in 
bubble, 
slug, 
and 
annul= 
flow. 
‘fbe 
comprehensive 

cases 
covering 
a 
wide 
variety 
of 
field 
data. 
Model 
pei’fortnance 
characteristics
bank
empirical
made
with
correlations
other
and
methods,
HasanKabr 
mechanistic 
model. 
Overall 
model 
performance 
is 
in 

comprehensive 
model 
performed 
the 
best. 

Introduction 

Twoph.a.se 
flow 
is commonly 
encountered 
in 
the 
PeVO1eum, 
chefi 

cal, and 
nuclear 
indushies. 
This 
frequent 
occurrence 
presents 
the 

challenge 
of, 
understanding, 
analyzing, 
and 
designing 
twophase 

systems. 

Because 
of 
the 
complex 
nature 
of 
twophase 
flow, 
the 
problem 

was first 
approached 
through empirical 
methods. 
The 
trend 
has 

shifted 
recently 
to the 
modeling approach, 
Tbe 
fundamental 
postu 

late of 
the modeling 
approach 
is 
the 
existence 
of flow 
patterns 
or 

flow configurations. 
Vwious 
theories 
have 
been 
developed 
to pre 

dict flow 
patterns. 
Separate 
mcdels 
were 
developed 
for 
each 
flow 

pattern 
topredictflow 
characteristics 
like 
holdup 
and 
pressure 
drop. 

By considering 
basic 
fluid 
mechanics, 
the 
resulting 
models 
can 
be 

applied 
with 
more 
confidence 
to 
flow 
condkions 
other 
than 
those. 

used for 
their 
development. 

Only 
Ozon 
et 
al.] 
and 
Hasan 
and 
Kab@ 
published 
studies 
on 

comprehensive 
mechanistic 
modeling 
of 
twophase 
flow 
in 
vertical 
fraction,
velocities
.
given
.
we
by
liquid
ones,
to
rates,
even
dispersed
can express 
tbe 

^{(}^{2}^{)} 

. 

. 
. 
. 
(3) 
turbulent 
forces 

at 
void fractions 

bubble 
flows: 
pipes.
More
work
is
needed
to
develop
models
that
describe
the
physical 
phenomena 
more 
rigorously. 

The 
purpose 
of 
this study 
is 
to formulate 
a detailed 
comprehen 

sive mechanistic 
model 
for 
upw%d 
twophase 
flow. 
The 
compre 

hensive 
model 
fmt 
predicts 
the 
existing 
flow 
patm’n 
and 
then 
calcu 

lates 
the 
flow 
vtiables 
by 
taking 
into 
account 
the 
actu.at 

mechanisms 
of the 
predicted 
flow pattern. 
The 
model 
is 
evaluated 

against 
a 
wide 
range 
of 
experhhental 
attd 
field 
data 
available 
in 
the 

updated 
Tulsa 
U, Fluid 
Ftow 
Projects 
(TUFFP) 
weU 
data 
bank. 
The 

performance 
of the 
mcdel 
is 
also 
compared 
with 
six 
empirical 
cor 

relations 
and 
one 
mechanistic 
model 
used 
in the 
field. 

FlowPattern 
Prediction 

Taitd 
et 
al? 
presented 
the 
basic 
work 
on 
mechanistic 
modeling 
of 

flowpattern 
Wmsitiom 
forupwardtwophme 
flow. 
Theyidentiled 

four distinct 
flow 
patterns 
(bubble, 
slug, 
chum, 
and 
annular 
flow) 

and formulated 
and 
evaluated 
tie 
transition 
boundaries 
among 
them 

Wig: 
1).,Bamea 
et 
al.4 
later 
modified 
the 
transitions 
to 
extend 
the 

apphcabdity 
of the 
model 
to 
inclined 
flows. 
Bamea5 
then 
combined 

flowpattern 
prediction 
models 
applicable 
to different 
inclination 

angle 
ranges 
into one unified 
model. 
Based 
on these 
different 
works, 

flow 
pattern 
can 
be predicted 
by 
detining 
transition 
boundaxks 

among 
bubble, 
slug, 
and 
annular 
flows. 

Bubble/Slug 
‘Emsition.Taitel 
et a[.3 
gave 
the 
minimum 
diameter 

at which 
bubble 
flow occurs 
as. 

dtin= 
19.01 [1  
‘. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. . . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
_{(}_{1}_{)} 

For pipes 
larger 
than 
this, 
tie 
basic transition 
mechanism 
for 
bubble 

to slug 
flow 
is coalescence 
of 
small 
gas 
bubbles 
into 
large 
Taylor 

bubbles. 
This 
was 
found 
experimentally 
to 
occur 
at 
a 
void 
fraction 

C2pyriaht 1994 SC&W 
of Petr&a.m 
Engineers 

SPE Production& 
Facilities, 
May 
1994 
0,5 

vs. 

= 0.725 
+ 
4.15 
— 
(4) 

. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 

‘.% () 
+ ‘SL 

Thii 
is 
shown 
as 
Transition 
B 
in 
Fig. 
2. 

At high 
gas 
velocities, 
this 
transition 
is 
governed 
by 
the 
maxi 

mum 
packing 
of 
bubbles 
to 
give 
mdcscence. 
Scott 
and 
Kouba7 

concluded 
that 
this 
occurs 
at a 
void 
fraction 
of 
0.76, 
giving 
the 
tram 

sition 
for 
noslip 
d%persed 
bubble 
flow 
as 

%E=3J7%L. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. . . 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
^{(}^{5}^{)} 

This 
is 
shown 
as 
Tramitio” 
C 
in 
Fig. 
2. 

Transition 
to 
Anmdar 
FIow. 
The 
transition 
criterion 
for 
a.nnukm 

flow 
is 
based 
on 
the 
gasphase 
velocity 
required 
to 
prevent 
the 
en 

trained gives !J~g shown 
tiquid 
droplets 
from. 
falling 
back 
into 
tbe 
gas 
stream. 
This 

the 
transition 
as 
% 

guL(pL–pG) 

= 
3.1 
[1 — P: 
‘ 
‘“””””’’’””””””’””’”””””’ 
(6) 

as 
Transition 
D 
in 
Fig. 
2. 

Bamea5 
modified 
the 
same 
transition 
by 
considering 
the 
effects 

of 
film 
thickness 
on 
the 
transition. 
One 
effect 
is 
that 
a 
thick 
liquid 

fdm 
bridged 
the 
gas 
core 
at high 
liquid 
rates. 
The 
other 
effect 
is 
in 

stability 
of the 
liquid 
film, 
which bridging required 
causes 
downw%d 
flow 
of 
the 
film 

at 
low 
liquid 
rates. 
The 
mechanism 
is 
governed 
by 
the 

minimum 
liquid 
holdup 
to 
forma 
liquid 
slug 

HW> 
0 
.12, 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. . 
. 
. . . 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(7) 

where 
HLF is 
the 
fraction 
of 
pipe 
cress 
section 
occupied 
by 
the 
liq 

uid 
film, 
assuming 
no 
entrainment 
in 
the 
core. 
The 
mechanism 
of 

film 
instability 
can 
be 
expressed 
in 
terms 
of 
the 
modified 
Lockhart 

and 
Martinelii 
parameters, 
Q 
and 
YM, 

143 
t
I
Eq.
To
7
account
is
modified
for
the
here
effect
as
of
the
liquid
enmainment
in
the
gas
core,
tt
B:::&E
Fig.
_sLUG
l—Flow
0.01
FLOW
patterns
0.1
in
t
CHURN
FLOW
upward
fwophase
1
_{1}_{0}
en
() ,zfw+aLc*
Annular
by
Eq.
6
flow
and
exists
the
if
>0.12
if
two
.
vsg
is
Bamea
.
.
.
.
.
.
greater
criteria
.
.
than
.
.
am
.
.
that
.
.
.
at
.
.
tbe
satisfied.
.
.
.
.
.
.
tmnsitio”
To
satisfy
(12)
giv
the
.
.
.
Bamea
is
then
criteria,
calculated
Eq.
8
from
must
Eq.
D usually
“.
.
.
.
.
.
, .
,.
.
.
.
.
exists.
Eq.
NewtonRapbso”
and
F&)
IV&”)
8
=
=
cm
YM
be
approach.
21”5H~
WJI–1.5HH)
1 .5HLWM
wJ11.5ffu)
+
(21.5HM)VwH~(~5.5HW)
first
be
11;
ifEq.
solved
Tbus,
solved
for
12
is
afin
EqT8
FM
.
.
implicitly
for
~ti”.
not
by
can
satisfied,
using
a
be
expressed
annular
se.mndordm
as
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Hm
flow
(13)
1
ANNULAR
FLow
flow.
_{1}_{0}_{0}
The
eratively
minimum
from
A
!lfij+,
good
‘
initial
Wm(l1.5HW)2
dimensionless
dtijm
guess
F(laimj
is
C&
J
film
)
^{.}
=0.25.
.
thickness
^{.}
^{.}
is
.
then
^{.}
.
.
.
.
.
determined
^{.}
(14)
it
(15)
FIowSehavior
Prediction
After
physical
resulted
Chum
is treated
patterns
tbe
flow
models
in
flow
as
patterns
the
yet
slug
me
flow
models
been
flow.
predicted,
behavior
for
modeled
The
each
bemuse
next
flow
slug,
of
step
developed
model
flow
is
had
and
in
developing
in
the
is
to
develop
This
step
flow.
other
and
flow
Caetano’s8
bubble
model
for
for
separate
not
part
discussed
of
bas
pattern.
and
its
annular
complexity
for
on
dispersed
the
bubble,
models
flow
bubble
ze
an
below.
bubble
anmdus.
The
considered
FlowModef.The
for
flow
regimes
in
are
bubble
flow
pattern.
Bubble
work
flow
the
separately
Because
of
and
be approximated
the
no
slippage
twophase
the
uniform
distribution
between
a
as
pammetm
the
two
pseudmingle
can
be
phases,
phase.
expressed
of
gas
bubbles
dispersed
WLtb
this
as
in
bubble
the
flow
simptificmim,
liquid
can
SUPERFICIAL
GAS
VELOC3TY
(M/S)
.
(8)
(9)
(10)
can
be
~ti,
(11)
PI’P=PLh
/%=#LaL+##&).
+P&aiL
andvrP=v~v~L+v~g,
where
).L=vJvm.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(l6)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
For
the
ing
concentrated
press
bubble
bubblerise
a
turbulent
the
flow,
the
the
velocity
slippage
relative
profile
center
as
velocity
velocity
at
more
slippage
is
to
considered
the
mixture
fortbe
than
mixture
along
the
by
with
taking
velocity.
the
pipe
waif,
into
By
rising
we
To
tied
%=vgL2vm
Hannathy6
account
&is
gave
tie
for
expression
.
.
an
effect
~~
=
153
WAPL%)
—
[1
P;
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
expression
of
bubble
%
f
H;,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
for
swarm,
bubblerise
Zuber
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
velocity
and
Hench9
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(17)
(18)
(19)
account
assum
bubble
can
@q.
ex
(20)
3).
mod~.
.
.
(21)
(a) 
DEVELOPED 
SLUG 
UNIT 
(b) 
DEVELOPING 
SLUG 
UNIT 

Fig. 
SSchematic 
of 
slug 
flow. 
where 
the value 
of 
n’ 
varies 

study, 
?/=0.5 
was 
used 
to 

g%(!%k) 
@5 

1.53 
[1 — 

_{P}_{;} 

This 
gives 
an 
implicit 

flow. 
The twophase 
flow 

P=P=P.H. 
+P,(lHJ 

md#=p=pLH’+j@ffJ. 
%
_{L}
The
TbUs,
twophase
pressure
(a ‘($).
() ^{d}^{p}
z,
() p
&f
where~p
defined
_{N}_{&}_{r}_{*}_{.}
=ppgsiutl.
=fTPPrP%
by
is
—,
2d
obtained
.
.
.
from
one
study
to
another.
b
the
present
give
the 
best 
results. 
Thus, 
Eq. 
20 
yields 

= 
k_l,2yM, 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(22 
IHL
.
.
for
.
.
.
.
is
.
.
the
can
.
.
.
.
.
.
made
actual
holdup
for
bubble
.
.
be 
cafctdated 
tlom 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(23) 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(24) 
of 
three 
components. 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(25) 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(26) 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(27) 
now
.
.
up
.
.
.
for
a Reynolds
number
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(28)
equation
Patzmeters
gm.dient
+ 
(J ~ 
+ 
(d. ~ 
. 
. 
. 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

from 
a Moody 
diagram 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
Because
liquid
ing
es2entiaJly
acceleration
other
phase,
fluids.
bubble
there
This
no
keeps
pressure
pressure
drop
ModeI.
model
for
pressure
Flow
flow
is
no
the
is
significant
fluid
drop
dominated
drop
is
components.
Fermndes
slug
flow.
by
change
a
relatively
in
tbe
neady
incompressible
of
density
the
flow
velocity
owing
safely
et
al.lo
Sylvesterl
constant,
resulting
Therefore,
compared
with
in
the
the
the
a
fmt
tbomugh
simplified
ver
to
acceleration.
neglected,
developed
1 presented
Slug
physical
SPE
Prodnctio”
&
Facilides,
May
1994
sion 
of 
this 
model. 
Tbe 
basic 
simplification 
was 
the 
use 
of 
a correla 

tion 
for 
slug 
void 
fraction. 
These 
models 
used 
an 
impo~t 
8ssump 

tion 
of 
fully developed 
slug 
flow. 
McQui13an 
and 
Whalley12 
introduced 
the concept 
of 
developing 
flow 

flowpattern 
transitions. 
Because 
of 
the 
basic 

ometty, 
the 
model keats 
fully 
developed 
and 

rately. 

For 
a fuly 
developed 
slug 
unit 
(Fig. 
3a), the 

mass 
balances 
give 

‘S$ ‘&%rB(lHLr’?) 
+ k%s(%ts) 

and 
v~L 
= 
(l/Y)vmHW 
~VL#LrB, 
respectively,
B=.%JLsw
Mass
give
balances
(v,8ccv~)Hm
and
(vwv8J(lffm)
where
.
.
.
.
forliquid
.
.
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
gas
.
.
.
.
from
.
=[vw(VL,J]HL,J
=
(VTBV8T.J(lHLT,J.
.
.
.
liquid
during
difference
their
in
study
flow
of
ge
developing 
flow 
sepa 

overall 
gas 
andfiqtdd 

. 
. 
. 
. (29) 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(30) 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(?1) 

slug 
to 
Taylor 
bubble 

. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
(32) 

. 
. 
(33) 
plus
The
the
Taylor
Taylor
bubblerise
bubblerise
velocity
velocily
Um=1.2vm
+
0.35
[1
=
pL
Similarly, 
the 
veloci~ 

^{“}^{g}^{u}^{=} 
^{1}^{.}^{2}^{,}^{”}^{,}^{+} 
^{1}^{.}^{5}^{3} 

where 
the 
s=ond 
term 

velocity 
defined 
in 
Eq.21. 
[1
on
of
^{}^{.}
the
tfte
P?
gas
right
‘fhevelocityofthe
thickness
with
the
falliigfimcanb+
Brotz13
expression,
is
equal
a
to
in
stagnaut
,A
.
.
.
.
the
.
.
.
centerline
liquid
.
.
.
.
.
hubbies
side
1/.
PA,
in
the
.
.
represents
liquid
.
.
.
the
correlatedwitbthe
velocity
colutmu
i.e.,
.
.
.
.
.
slug
(34)
is
.
.
.
.
(35)
bubblerise
film
VLm==, 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

where 
fiL, 
the constant 
film 
thickness 
for 
developed 
flow, 

pressed 
in 
terms 
of 
Taylor 
bubble 
void 
fraction 
to 
give 

vm=9.916[gd(l&) 
]W. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 

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