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Dr. Emre EEN

Tel: (355) 69 5297395

About the course

Course notes will be published on weekly basis.

Course requirements:

Lecture attendance (min %60)

Attentance to quizzes, midterm and final exam

Midterm performance 35%
Attendance & activation 10%
Homeworks 10%
Quizzes 15%

Final 65%

Week Subject
1 Overview of soil mechanics principles
2 Site investigation
3 In situ testing
4 Introduction to foundation systems and design
5 Bearing capacity
6 Design of superficial foundations
7 Mats, rafts

Week Subject
9. Midterm
10. Dewatering works
11. Support of excavation
12. Improvement of ground
13. Review of main titles

Branches of Civil engineering

Structural engineering.
Civil engineering materials.
Construction management.
Transportation engineering.
Geotechnical engineering.
Hydraulics and water resources

Branches of Civil engineering
Structural engineering.
Civil engineering materials.
Construction management.
Transportation engineering.
Geotechnical engineering.
Hydraulics and water resources

Earth related Core courses in UMT

Applied Geology (Gjeologji e Aplikuar)

Soil Mechanics (Gjeoteknike)
Foundation Engineering (Teknike Themelesh)
Deep Foundations (Themele te thella)
Retaining Structures (Struktura mbajtese te
Tunnel Engineering (Projektimi i tuneleve)
Machine Foundations (Projektim i themeleve
nen makineri)



Colorized Images of The St.
Francis Dam Before And After

Soil description and

It is necessary to adopt a formal system.
Such a system must be comprehensive.

Description of soil is a statement describing;

the physical nature and state of the soil sample
or a soil in situ, by;
visual examination,
simple tests,
observation of site conditions,
geological history, etc.

Soil description and
Soil classification is the separation of soil into
classes or groups each having similar
characteristics and potentially similar behaviour.
A classification for engineering purposes should
be based mainly on mechanical properties, e.g.
permeability, stiffness, strength.
The class to which a soil belongs can be used in
its description.

Basic characteristics of soils

Soils consist of grains (mineral grains, rock fragments,
etc.) with water and air in the voids between grains.
Soils can be
perfectly dry (have no water content) or
fully saturated (have no air content) or
partly saturated (with both air and water present).

Soil as an engineering material - it is not a coherent solid

material like steel and concrete, but is a particular
It is important to understand the significance of particle
size, shape and composition, and of a soil's internal
structure or fabric.

Soil as an engineering material
Soil is a material that can be:
built on: foundations to buildings, bridges.
built in: tunnels, culverts, basements.
built with: roads, runways, embankments,
supported: retaining walls, quays.

Size range of grains (TS1500)


BOULDERS > 200 mm

Very coarse soils
COBBLES 60 - 200 mm
coarse 20 - 60 mm
G GRAVEL medium 6 - 20 mm
fine 2 - 6 mm
Coarse soils
coarse 0.6 - 2.0 mm
S SAND medium 0.2 - 0.6 mm
fine 0.08 - 0.2 mm
M SILT 0.08 - 0.002 mm
Fine soils
C CLAY < 0.002 mm

Aids to size identification
SAND (and coarser) particles are visible to
the naked eye.
SILT particles become dusty when dry and
are easily brushed off hands and boots.
CLAY particles are greasy and sticky
when wet and hard when dry, and have to
be scraped or washed off hands and

Origins of soils from rocks

All soils originate, directly or indirectly, from solid rocks in the Earth's
igneous rocks
crystalline bodies of cooled magma
e.g. granite, basalt, dolerite, gabbro, syenite, porphyry
sedimentary rocks
layers of consolidated and cemented sediments, mostly formed in
bodies of water (seas, lakes, etc.)
e.g. limestone, sandstones, mudstone, shale, conglomerate
metamorphic rocks
formed by the alteration of existing rocks due to heat from igneous
intrusions (e.g. marble, quartzite, hornfels) or pressure due to crustal
movement (e.g. slate, schist, gneiss).

Grading and composition
Coarse soils
Very coarse BOULDERS > 200 mm
soils COBBLES 60 - 200 mm
coarse 20 - 60 mm
medium 6 - 20 mm
Coarse fine 2 - 6 mm
soils coarse 0.6 - 2.0 mm
medium 0.2 - 0.6 mm
fine 0.06 - 0.2 mm

Particle size tests

Typical grading curves

A - a poorly-graded medium SAND

B - a well-graded GRAVEL-SAND
C - a gap-graded COBBLES-SAND
D - a sandy SILT
E - a typical silty CLAY

Grading characteristics
Effective size

Uniformity coefficient
Cu = d60 / d10

Coefficient of gradation
Cr = d30 / d60 d10

For Gravels;
Cu 4 and 3 Cr 1 indicates a well-graded Gravel
Cu < 4 and/or and 1>Cr>3 indicates a uniform Gravel

For Sands;
Cu 6 and 3 Cr 1 indicates a well-graded Sand
Cu < 6 and/or and 1>Cr>3 indicates a uniform Sand

Fine soils
Consistency (Atterberg) limits and

Fine soils
Plasticity index
The range of water content over which a soil has a
plastic consistency is termed the Plasticity Index (IP or
IP = liquid limit - plastic limit = wL - wP

Specific gravity

Specific gravity (Gs) is a property of the mineral

or rock material forming soil grains.
It is defined as

[The range of Gs for common soils is 2.64 to


Volume-weight properties
Soil comprises three constituent phases:
Solid: rock fragments, mineral grains or flakes,
organic matter.
Liquid: water, with some dissolved compounds
(e.g. salts).
Gas: air or water vapour.

Soil mass-volume properties

V = Vs + Vw + Va
Note also that:
n = e / (1 + e)
e = n / (1 - n)
v = 1 / (1 - n)

Typical void ratios might be 0.3 (e.g. for a dense, well graded granular soil)
or 1.5 (e.g. for a soft clay).

Current state of soil

Relative density
The void ratio of coarse soils Relative State of
(sands and gravels) varies density compaction
with the state of packing 0-15% Very loose
between the loosest practical 15-35 Loose
state in which it can exist
35-65 Medium
and the densest.
65-85 Dense
Some engineering properties
are affected by this, 85-100% Very dense
e.g.shear strength,
compressibility, permeability. Dr

Current state of soil
Liquidity index

IL < 0 semi-plastic solid or solid

0 < IL < 1 plastic
1 < IL liquid

Analysis of stress and strain

normal stress
= Fn / A

shear stress
= Fs / A

normal strain
= dz / zo

shear strain
= dh / zo

Stress in the ground
Total stress in homogeneous soil
Vertical total stress at depth z,
v = .z

Unit weight ranges are:

dry soil d 14 - 20 kN/m

sat 18 - 23 kN/m
water w 9.81 kN/m

Groundwater and hydrostatic


Under hydrostatic conditions (no water

flow) the pore pressure at a given point is
given by the hydrostatic pressure:

u = w .hw
hw = depth below water table or
overlying water surface

Effective stress
Ground movements and instabilities can be caused by
changes in total stress (such as loading due to
foundations or unloading due to excavations), but they
can also be caused by changes in pore pressures
(slopes can fail after rainfall increases the pore
In fact, it is the combined effect of total stress and pore
pressure that controls soil behaviour such as shear
strength, compression and distortion.

Effective stress = total stress - pore pressure or

= - u

Strength criteria
Tresca criterion
The strength is independent of the normal stress since the
response to loading simple increases the pore water
pressure and not the effective stress.
The shear strength f is a material parameter which is
known as the undrained shear strength su.
f = (
a - r) = constant

Strength criteria
Mohr-Coulomb (c'=0) criterion
The strength increases linearly with increasing normal stress and is zero when
the normal stress is zero.
'f = 'n tan

' is the angle of friction
In the MC criterion the material parameter is the angle of friction and materials
which meet this criterion are known as frictional.

The MC criterion applies

when the normal stress is
an effective normal stress.

Strength criteria
Mohr-Coulomb (c'>0) criterion
The strength increases linearly with increasing normal stress and is positive when the
normal stress is zero.
'f = c' + 'n tan
' is the angle of friction
c' is the 'cohesion' intercept

The cohesion in the effective stress

Mohr-Coulomb criterion is not the
same as the cohesion (or undrained
strength su) in the Tresca criterion.

Typical values of shear strength
Undrained shear strength su (kPa)
Hard soil su > 150 kPa
Stiff soil su = 75 ~ 150 kPa
Firm soil su = 40 ~ 75 kPa
Soft soil su = 20 ~ 40kPa
Very soft soil su < 20 kPa
Drained shear strength c (kPa) (deg)
Compact sands 0 35 - 45
Loose sands 0 30 - 35
Unweathered overconsolidated clay
peak state 10 ~ 25 kPa 20 ~ 28
residual 0 ~ 5 kPa 8 ~ 15

Stiffness is the relationship between changes of stress and
changes of strain.

The stiffness E' is the gradient of

the stress-strain curve.
tangent modulus E'tan = d
' / d
secant modulus E'sec = '

If the material is linearly elastic the stress-strain curve is a straight line and
E'tan = E'sec

Change of size: bulk modulus
As the mean stress increases materials
compress (reduce in volume). The bulk modulus
K' relates the change in stress to the volumetric
K'= d'v

'mean = (
'x + 'y + 'z) / 3
In soils volumetric strains are due to changes of effective stress.

Change of shape: shear modulus
As the shear stress increases materials distort (change shape). The shear
modulus G' relates the change in shear stress to the shear strain.


Since water has no shear strength, the value of the shar modulus, G, remains the
same, independant of whether the loading process is drained or undrained.

Uniaxial loading: Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio

Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are measured directly in uniaxial

compression or extension tests, i.e. tests with constant (or zero) stress on
the vertical surfaces.
i.e. d'r = 0
Young's modulus

E'= d'a

Poisson's ratio ' = - dr / da

If the material is incompressible, v = 0 and Poissons ratio, = 0.5.
Uniaxial compression is the only test in which it is possible to measure
Poisson's ratio with any degree of simplicity.

Typical values of E
These are a function of the stress level, and the loading
history, however a range is given below.

Material Typical E

Unweathered overconsolidated clays 20 ~ 50 MPa

Boulder clay 10 ~ 20 MPa
Marl (unweathered) >150 MPa
Marl (moderately weathered) 30 ~ 150 MPa
Weathered overconsolidated clays 3 ~ 10 MPa
Organic alluvial clays and peats 0.1 ~ 0.6 MPa
Normally consolidated clays 0.2 ~ 4 MPa
Steel 205 GPa
Concrete 30 GPa

Relationships between stiffness moduli

In bodies of elastic material the three stiffness moduli (E',

K' and G') are related to each other and to Poissons
ratio (').
It assumed that the material is elastic and isotropic (i.e.
linear stiffness is equal in all directions).
G' = E' / 2(1 + ')
K' = E' / 3(1 - 2 ')

Das, B. M., (2015), Principles of
Foundation Engineering, CL
Engineering, ISBN-10: 1305081552
Budhu, M, (2010), Soil Mechanics and
Foundations, John Wiley, ISBN-10:
Donald P. Coduto (2011), Foundation
Design: Principles and Practices (2nd
Edition) ISBN:0-13-589706-8