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MICROFILAMENT - Lipid soluble substances

- Intermediate filaments OSMOSIS net movement of water through the semi


- Microtubules permeable membrane from regions of high concentration
-cilia and flagella to lower
-cell movement
- Water moves to higher concentration of
CILIA solute

- Short hair like projections FACILITATED DIFFUSION diffusion across the help
- Found In the lining of the trachea of a channel or carrier molecule
- Propel substances on cell surface
- Glucose
FLAGELLA (FLAGELLUM) - Amino acid

- Long tail like projection OSMOTIC PRESSURE required to prevent the


- Provides motility to sperm movement of water into a solution containing solutes
when the solution are separated by a selective permeable
INCLUSIONS membrane
- Metabolically inert accumulations of cell products FILTRATION smaller molecules forced through porous
- Dispensable contingents of the cell membrane

NUCLEUS (control center of the cell) - Hydrostatic pressure important in the


body
- Double membrane enclosed organelle - E.g. molecules leaving the blood
- Spherical/oval capillary
- Control center of the cell
- Contains chromatin, dna, proteins and some rna ACTIVE TRANSPORT carrier molecules transport
- With nuclear pores substances across a membrane from a region of lower to
higher concentration
CELL NUCLUES
e.g. sugars, amino acid, sodium ions, potassium ions
- Nuclear envelope
- Semi permeable membrane SODIUM POTASSIUM PUMP
- Separates nucteoplasm from cytoplasm
- Pumps three sodium out and two
NUCLEOLUS potassium into the cell
- Maintain low intracellular concentration
- Dense collection of rna and proteins of sodium ions
- Site of ribosome production
ENDOCYTOSIS cell engulfs a substance by forming a
CHROMATIN vesicle around the substances:
- Fibers - PINOCYTOSIS taking up fluid by
Hereditary material containing dna endocytosis; cell drinking
Nucleoprotein material of a chromosome - PHAGOCYTOSIS the engulfment of
a particle by a phagocyte or protozoan
TRANSLOCATION OF MATERIALS (movement
into and out of the cell) INVAGINATION an infolding of a layer of tissue to
form a sac-like structure; depression
PASSIVE PROCESSES (PHYSICAL)
EVAGINATION an outpocketing from a hollow
- Require no cellular energy include:
structure
- simple diffusion
- Facilitated diffusion Receptor mediated
- Osmosis
- Filtration - Protein
SIMPLE DIFFUSION movement of substances from Only those who will fit the cell active site is allowed to
regions of higher concentration to lower concentration enter the cell

- Oxygen Receptor ligand


- Carbon dioxide
EXOCYTOSIS reverse of endocytosis

- Substances in a vesicle fuse with a cell


membrane
- Contents release outside the cell
- Reverse of neurotransmitter from nerve
cell

TRANSCYTOSIS

- Endocytosis is followed by exocytosis


- Transports a substance rapidly through
a cell

Ex. HIV crossing a cell

CELL CYCLE series of change on the time it forms to


the time it divides
- Pre apoptotic cell
CYTOPLASMIC DIVISION also known as - Early apoptotic cell
cytokinesis - Late apoptotic cell

CONTROL OF CELL DIVISION Changes include:


- Cell division capacities vary greatly - Blebbing
among cell types - Cell shrinkage
- Skin and blood divide often continually - Nuclear fragmentation
- Chromatin condensation
CHROMOSOME TIPS - Chromosomal DNA fragmentation
- Shorter with each mitosis provide a mitotic clock
- Cell provides a more favorable surface area to
volume relationship

Growth factors and hormones stimulates cell division

- Hormones stimulates mitosis of smooth muscle


in the uterus

CELL DEATH

APOPTOSIS programmed cell death; acts as protective


mechanism

Stages of Apoptosis: